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Root growth, crop productivity, nutrient uptake and economics of dwarf pea (Pisum sativum) as influenced by integrated nutrient management

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A field experiment was conducted during the two consecutive rabi seasons of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at Varanasi on sandy loam soil to study the effect of organic, inorganic and biofertilizers on dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L.). The experiment was conducted in a split-plot design and replicated thrice. All the fertility levels, viz. chemical fertilizers, vermicompost and control were allotted to main plot and combinations of biofertilizers (Rizobium+Bacillus polymixa +Pseudomonas fluorescence) and Zn along with control were subjected to sub-plot. Results showed superimposition of 50% Norganic (recommended dose of N through vermicompost) to 100% NPK (recommended dose of NPK through chemical fertilizers) resulted in significant improvement of dry matter/plant, yield (grain and straw, harvest index), root growth (root dry weight, root N content and cation exchange capacity of root) and nutrient uptake (NPKS and Zn). However nodulation (root nodules/plant, dry weight of nodules/plant and nitrogenase activity at 30 and 60 DAS) was lesser with this fertility level but significantly higher than 100% NPK and control (no application).Gross and net returns (` 45 358 and 31 223/ha) were noted higher with 100% NPK + 50% Norganic fertility level. Benefit: cost ratio (2.21) was also recorded higher with 100% NPK + 50% Norganic level. The integrated application of biofertilizers and Zn was recorded significantly better than control as this treatment lucidly improved dry matter, yield, harvest index, root growth, nodulation and nutrient uptake. Benefit: cost ratio was also higher with combined application of PSB and Zn. Furthermore, integration of 100% NPK + 50% Norganic and biofertilizers + Zn was conducive for getting significantly optimum yield (1873 kg/ha).
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India is the largest producer and importer of the
leguminous crop (Shakya et al. 2008). Pea is the major
importer pulse, followed by pigeonpea, urdbean, chickpea
and mungbean and is the premier pulses grown in the
world. Advent of dwarf pea cultivars like HUDP 15 had
marked its dent as high input pea crop responding to higher
fertility and plant population for yield maximization.Since,
fertilizer nutrients constitute a major costly production input,
exploitation of yield potentiality of this crop depends on
how efficiently and effectively this input is managed.
Inorganic fertilizer alone can not sustain the soil productivity
Based on complete information of Ph D (Agronomy) thesis
of the first author submitted to the BHU, Varanasi in 2010
(unpublished)
1Subject matter Specialist (e mail: anupamakumari.bhu@
gmail.com), KVK Hazipur, RAU Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar 842 105;
2(e mail: singhon@gmail.com) Ex-Head, Department of
Agronomy; 3(e mail: rakeshbhu08@gmail.com) Scientist
(Agronomy), ICAR RC NEHR, Nagaland Centre, Jharnapani,
Medziphema 797 106
as well as the large scale use of only chemical fertilizers as
a source of nutrients has less efficient (Kumar et al. 2003).
In recent years biofertilizers, viz. Rhizobium, PSB and
PGPR that are ecofriendly and low cost inputs, have emerged
as an important and integral component of integrated plant
nutrients supply system for pulse crop production. Hence,
to combat this problem and to sustain food production the
present investigation was carried out to find out appropriate
integrated nutrient management including inorganic
fertilizers, vermicompost and biofertilizers for field pea.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experiment was carried out during the rabi seasons
of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at Pulse Block of Banaras Hindu
University, Varanasi. Soil of experimental plot was sandy
loam and neutral in reaction (pH 7.5) and low in organic
carbon (0.44%), available nitrogen (197.02 kg/ha), sulphur
(17.5 kg/ha), zinc (0.52 ppm) and moderate in phosphorus
(19.07 kg/ha) and potassium (210.2 kg/ha). The experiment
was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 84 (11): 1347–51, November 2014/Article
Root growth, crop productivity, nutrient uptake and economics of dwarf pea
(Pisum sativum) as influenced by integrated nutrient management
ANUPMA KUMARI1, O N SINGH2 and RAKESH KUMAR3
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221 005
Recieved: 4 February 2013; Revised accepted: 12 June 2014
ABSTRACT
A field experiment was conducted during the two consecutive rabi seasons of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at
Varanasi on sandy loam soil to study the effect of organic, inorganic and biofertilizers on dwarf pea
(Pisum sativum L.). The experiment was conducted in a split-plot design and replicated thrice. All the
fertility levels, viz. chemical fertilizers, vermicompost and control were allotted to main plot and
combinations of biofertilizers (Rizobium+Bacillus polymixa +Pseudomonas fluorescence) and Zn along
with control were subjected to sub-plot. Results showed superimposition of 50% Norganic (recommended
dose of N through vermicompost) to 100% NPK (recommended dose of NPK through chemical fertilizers)
resulted in significant improvement of dry matter/plant, yield (grain and straw, harvest index), root growth
(root dry weight, root N content and cation exchange capacity of root) and nutrient uptake (NPKS and
Zn). However nodulation (root nodules/plant, dry weight of nodules/plant and nitrogenase activity at 30
and 60 DAS) was lesser with this fertility level but significantly higher than 100% NPK and control (no
application).Gross and net returns (` 45 358 and 31 223/ha) were noted higher with 100% NPK + 50%
Norganic fertility level. Benefit: cost ratio (2.21) was also recorded higher with 100% NPK + 50% Norganic
level. The integrated application of biofertilizers and Zn was recorded significantly better than control as
this treatment lucidly improved dry matter, yield, harvest index, root growth, nodulation and nutrient
uptake. Benefit: cost ratio was also higher with combined application of PSB and Zn. Furthermore,
integration of 100% NPK + 50% Norganic and biofertilizers + Zn was conducive for getting significantly
optimum yield (1873 kg/ha).
Key words: Biofertilizer, Dwarf pea, Micronutrient, NPK, Vermicompost
1348 [Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 84 (11)
56
Fertility levels, viz. control, 100% NPK, 100% Norganic,
100% NPK + 50% Norganic, and 100% Norganic + 50% NPK
were allotted to main plot where NPK represents
recommended dose of N, P, K, S (40-17-16-20 kg/ha) through
inorganic fertilizers and Norganic represents recommended
dose of N (40 kg/ha) through vermicompost. The different
treatments, viz. biofertilizers (Rhizobium+ Bacillus+
Pseudomonas), zinc, biofertilizers + zinc in addition to one
control were allocated to sub plots. Thus total 20 (5 main plot
× 4 sub plot) treatment combinations were replicated thrice.
As per treatment, HUDP 15 dwarf pea was sown after proper
seed inoculation with rhizobium (Rhizobium
leguminosarum), PSB (Bacillus polymixa) and PGPR
(Pseudomonas fluorescence) @ 200 g culture 10/kg seeds.
The crop was sown @ 100 kg seed/ha in 30 cm rows to
maintain the plants at 10 cm on November 7 and 16 during
2007 and 2008 respectively.The other crop management
practices were performed as per standard recommendation
of the region. Harvesting was done on 20 March in 2007 and
21 March in 2009.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The beneficial effect of combined application of
chemical fertilizers and vermicompost on root growth and
development was manifested in this investigation. Root
characters, viz. root dry weight (g)/plan, root N content (%)
and CEC (meq 100/g dry root) at maturity increased
significantly up to 100% NPK + 50% Norganic level (Table
1). In superimposition of 50% Norganic (vermicompost) to
100% NPK plot, extent of increase was by 0.337 g, 0.097%
and 11.74 meq 100/g dry root as compared to control were
recorded. The dry matter accumulation leading to more of
photosynthate translocation towards root and also enhanced
the nodulation of pea roots due to the favorable rhizosphere
environment created by addition of vermicompost in addition
to adequate supply of essential plant nutrients might be the
factors responsible for higher root dry weight in 100%
NPK + 50% Norganic fertility level. The cation exchange
capacity of the root has been taken as an indicator of the
activity of root in term of response. The increase in cation
exchange capacity of the roots in 100% NPK + 50% Norganic
fertility level might be due to favorable effect of
vermicompost on root proliferation.Vermicompost along
with fertilizer increased soil infiltration rate and density of
root channels (Shukla et al. 2003).
Contrary to all the growth characters nodule number,
nodule dry weight and acetylene reductase activity (ARA)
decreased with increasing inorganic fertilizer levels (Table
1).The maximum numbers of nodule (18.8 and 20.3)
associated with 100% Norganic at 30 and 60 DAS but at 60
DAS, it was at par to 100% NPK + 50% Norganic and 100%
Norganic + 50% NPK and at 30 DAS significantly superior to
other treatments. However number of nodules increased
significantly in 100% NPK + 50% Norganic (60% and 49% at
30 and 60 DAS respectively) as compared to 100% NPK
level. This may be due to direct addition from inorganic
fertilizers and slow release of nutrient from vermicompost.
Application of 100% Norganic increased nodule dry weight
and acetylene reductase activity over superimposition of
50% Norganic to 100% NPK. This might be attributed to the
beneficial effect of vermicompost in root proliferations
with higher carbon content. Besides, vermicompost helped
in increasing the bacterial populations by providing adequate
food. The reduction in nodulation and their weight was also
observed in the present study at 100% inorganic fertilizers
(NPK). This could be attributed to decreased activity of
ANUPMA KUMARI ET AL.
Table 1 Effect of fertility levels, biofertilizers and micronutrient on root growth and nodulation of dwarf pea (Mean of two years)
Treatment Root dry Root N CEC at Nodules/plant Nodule dry NA (µ moles C2H2)
weight/plant content at maturity (No.) weight/plant produced/hr/g
at maturity maturity (meq 100/g 30 DAS 60 DAS (mg) nodule weight
(g) (%) dry root) 30 DAS 60DAS 30 DAS 60 DAS
Fertility level
Control 1.575 0.752 90.96 9.79 11.74 35.82 38.90 8.45 10.50
100% NPK 1.805 0.828 100.19 10.81 12.77 41.96 45.74 11.54 13.79
100% Norganic 1.708 0.811 98.11 18.87 20.34 75.80 79.65 18.04 21.44
100% NPK + 1.912 0.849 102.70 17.30 19.07 71.89 76.94 15.58 18.05
50% Norganic
100% Norganic + 1.828 0.831 100.57 17.27 19.42 72.56 78.35 17.33 20.07
50% NPK
LSD (P=0.05) 0.029 0.007 1.17 1.08 2.06 2.23 2.16 0.52 0.41
Biofertilizers + Micronutrient
Control 1.713 0.798 96.73 11.81 13.60 47.23 51.88 11.82 14.22
Biofertilizers 1.771 0.818 98.89 15.02 16.98 60.32 64.73 14.31 16.84
Zn @ 5 kg/ha 1.747 0.809 97.92 14.39 16.34 58.31 62.89 13.93 16.43
Biofertilizers + Zn 1.831 0.830 100.50 18.01 19.74 72.57 76.17 16.69 19.57
LSD (P=0.05) 0.012 0.007 0.66 0.88 1.26 1.49 1.26 0.44 0.33
NPK, Recommended dose of NPK through inorganic fertilizers; Norganic, recommended dose of N through Vermicompost; Biofertilizers,
seed inoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum + Bacillus polymixa + Pseudomonas fluorescence.
1349November 2014] INFLUENCE OF INM ON DWARF PEA
57
nitrogen fixing bacteria Rhizobium at higher mineral
nitrogen. More ever its deleterious effect was inactivated in
combination with vermicompost (Negi et al. 2007).
Root character, viz. root dry weight, N content, cation
exchange capacity, no. of nodules/plant dry weight of
nodules/plant and nitrogenase activity increased significantly
at combined application of biofertilizer and zinc. The
synergy between biofertilizer and micronutrients resulted
in significantly maximum root dry weight, N content and
CEC of the root. However, more number of nodules, nodule
dry weight and nitrogenase activity were mainly due to
contribution of Rhizobium and PSB (Singh et al. 2008).
Combined application of biofertilizers and zinc was
conducive for increasing the number, dry weight and
nitrogenase activity of pea root nodules (Kasturikrishna
and Ahlawat 2000).
Dry matter and yield
Beneficial effect of balanced fertilization on dry matter/
plant, yield (grain and straw) and harvest index has been
clearly brought. Dry matter/plant increased significantly up
to 100% NPK + 50% Norganic (Table 2). Significant variations
created by addition of organic manure (vermicompost) with
mineral fertilizers are attributed to higher availability and
absorption of nutrients (Kachot et al. 2001). The grain and
straw yield kept on significantly increasing up to 100%
NPK + 50% Norganic fertility level. In this treatment the
extent of increase in yield was 13.7% in grain yield and
8.9% in straw yield as compared to 100% NPK level.
Further, fertility level of 100% NPK + 50% Norganic has
facilitated greater economic sink capacity as yield has highly
significant correlation with growth and yield attributes (Sen
et al. 2005). Even though the total nitrogen was same in
100% NPK and 100% Norganic applied plots, lower yield
were recorded in100% Norganic applied plots. Probably
vermicompost alone does not provide all the necessary
nutrient elements in adequate quantities for proper growth
and yield in pea. Harvest index was found significant to
control and 100% Norganic and numerically increased for
other fertility levels with maximum value of 41.3% at
100% NPK + 50% Norganic fertility level.
Seed inoculation resulted in greater dry matter/plant,
grain and straw yield. This may be attributed to increased
nodulation and nitrogen fixation, more solubilization of
native P and production of secondary metabolites by bacteria
(Rajput and Kushwah 2005). Combined application of
biofertilizers along with micronutrients resulted in
significant improvement in dry matter/plant, yield and
harvest index of the test crop (Table 2). Application of this
micronutrient (Zn) along with inoculations might have a
synergistic effect, which enhanced activity of nitrogenase,
in turn supplied more nitrogen by fixation for better growth
and finally increased yield and harvest index of the crop.
These findings are in close conformity with the findings of
Krouma and Abdelly (2005).
The interaction effect between treatments was found
significant for dry matter production at maturity and grain
yield of the test crop (Table 4). The dry matter/plant increased
significantly up to 100% NPK + 50% Norganic combined
with biofertilizer + Zn. Increase uptake of nutrient may be
the possible cause behind increased dry weight of plant.
Application of 50% nitrogen through vermicompost
integrated with recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer
along with biofertilizers and zinc (100% NPK + 50% Norganic
x biofertilizers +Zn) increased the grain yield by 38.7%
over the application of 100% NPK only (Table 3). The
higher microbial population under vermicompost, in addition
to role of rhizobium, phosphobacteria and pseudomonas
could be reason for the favorable effect of integrated
application of vermicompost, mineral fertilizers,
Table 2 Effect of fertility levels, biofertilizers and micronutrient on dry matter, yield and economics of dwarf pea (Pooled data of 2
years).
Treatment Dry matter/plant Grain yield Straw yield Harvest Cost of Gross Net returns B:C
at maturity (kg/ha) (kg/ha) index cultivation returns (`/ha) ratio
(g) 2007-08 2008-09 Pooled (%) (`/ha) (`/ha)
Fertility level
Control 25.11 919 859 889 1514 37.01 10593 23742.00 13149.00 1.25
100% NPK 30.61 1559 1461 1510 2231 40.36 12805 39977.50 27172.50 2.12
100% Norganic 27.14 1383 1297 1340 1999 40.13 13253 35505.63 22252.63 1.68
100% NPK + 34.87 1773 1661 1717 2430 41.37 14135 45358.25 31223.25 2.21
50% Norganic
100% Norganic + 31.68 1590 1490 1541 2263 40.49 14359 40769.63 26410.63 1.84
50% NPK
LSD (P=0.05) 0.98 67 72 43 46 0.66
Biofertilizers + Micronutrient
Control 28.24 1346 1261 1304 1978 39.53 12529 34575.90 22046.90 1.73
Biofertilizers 30.22 1432 1342 1387 2081 39.75 12729 36756.10 24027.10 1.86
Zn @ 5 kg/ha 29.10 1454 1362 1408 2107 39.81 13329 37309.40 23980.40 1.78
Biofertilizers + Zn 32.00 1547 1450 1498 2184 40.38 13529 39641.00 26112.00 1.91
LSD (P=0.05) 0.32 28 27 18 26 0.40
1350 [Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 84 (11)
biofertilizers and zinc in grain yield of the pea crop.
Nutrient uptake
Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur and zinc
uptake by grain and straw was also relatively higher with
100% NPK + 50% Norganic (Table 3). This was mainly due
to higher biological production under these fertility levels
(Prasad 1999). Moreover, soil organic matter is store house
of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur and there by contributed
significantly to supply of these nutrients to the crop plants.
Apart from nutrient supply soil organic matter also helps in
release of nutrients from soil. All these are conducive for
availability of nutrients and there by more uptake by crop.
Nutrient uptake increased significantly with biofertilizer
+Zn treatment (Table 3). The increased uptake with
application of biofertilizers and zinc might be due to
enhanced effect of rhizobium in nitrogen supply, Bacillus
58
ANUPMA KUMARI ET AL.
Table 3 Effect of fertility levels, biofertilizers and micronutrient on nutrient uptake (kg/ha) of dwarf pea (pooled data of 2 years)
Treatment Nitrogen Phosphorus Potash Sulphur Zinc*
Grain Straw Grain Straw Grain Straw Grain Straw Grain Straw
Fertility level
Control 29.00 16.79 7.86 6.01 5.06 14.61 3.67 1.91 25.02 23.61
100% NPK 60.09 27.67 19.24 12.58 11.16 27.94 6.76 3.24 44.58 37.73
100% Norganic 47.48 23.38 14.55 9.57 8.30 22.41 5.52 2.73 38.28 33.66
100% NPK + 72.53 31.85 22.83 14.16 13.38 31.72 7.87 3.73 51.11 42.00
50% Norganic
100% Norganic + 58.33 27.91 19.81 12.68 11.35 28.29 6.71 3.28 45.86 38.80
50% NPK
LSD (P=0.05) 1.69 0.96 0.501 0.229 0.42 0.93 0.186 0.078 1.28 0.79
Biofertilizers + Micronutrient
Control 46.43 23.45 14.63 9.90 8.73 22.74 5.54 2.78 37.16 32.66
Biofertilizers 53.16 25.41 17.02 11.06 9.67 24.91 6.03 2.95 39.14 34.74
Zn @ 5 kg/ha 53.62 25.66 16.49 10.90 9.99 25.36 6.13 2.99 41.30 35.57
Biofertilizers + Zn 60.74 27.55 19.28 12.13 11.01 26.96 6.71 3.19 45.28 37.67
LSD (P=0.05) 1.06 0.42 0.335 0.152 0.16 0.64 0.083 0.051 0.59 0.453
* Uptake in g/ha.
Table 4 Interaction effect of treatments on dry matter/plant at maturity and yield of dwarf pea (Pooled data of 2 years)
Treatment Control 100% NPK 100% Norganic 100% NPK + 50% Norganic 100% Norganic + 50% NPK
Dry matter/plant (g)
Control 23.75 29.02 24.95 33.56 29.92
Biofertilizers 25.10 31.32 28.46 34.80 31.42
Zn @ 5 kg/ha 24.97 29.82 26.37 33.76 30.57
Biofertilizers + Zn 26.81 32.29 28.78 37.36 34.79
LSD
(P= 0.05)
Two sub plot means at the same main plot treatment 0.98
Two main plot means at same or different sub plot treatments 0.32
Grain yield (kg/ha)
Control 858 1350 1243 1596 1473
Biofertilizers 878 1484 1326 1705 1544
Zn @ 5 kg/ha 882 1584 1362 1694 1519
Biofertilizers + Zn 939 1622 1431 1873 1627
LSD (P=0.05)
Two sub plot means at the same main plot treatment 39
Two main plot means at same or different sub plot treatments 46
help in phosphorus solubilization and pseudomonas in
facilitating the availability of nutrients for quite longer
period (Srivastava and Ahlawat 1995).
An increased uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus,
potassium, sulphur and zinc was observed in integrated
application of nutrients (100% NPK + 50% Norganic+
combined with biofertilizers + Zn) as consequence of better
nutritional environment offered through cumulative effect
of organic, inorganic sources of nutrients and biofertilizers
(Jat and Ahlawat 2004). The greater mineralization of N
increased its availability by vermicompost with the presence
of rhizobium and pseudomonas, which increases root
enzymatic activities and produces greater root vigour and
density due to nitrogen fixation might have enhanced N
uptake. The increased uptake of P by phosphobacteria
(Bacillus) could be attributed to its greater P- solubilization
potentiality in the presence of organic matter.
1351November 2014]
1.27 1.275 1.165 1.26
1.905
2.145 2.195 2.225
1.58
1.715 1.665 1.755
2.095
2.26
2.105
2.37
1.815 1.9 05
1.74
1.895
MeanB :C
Control
C
ontrol + Biofertilizer
Control + Zn
Control + Biofertilizer + Zn
100% NPK + Control
100% NPK + Biofertilizers
100% NPK + Zn
100% NPK + Biofertilizer + Zn
100% N + Control
100% N + Biofertilizers
100% N + Zn
100% N + Biofertilizers + Zn
100% NPK + 50% N + Control
100% NPK + 50% N + Biofertilizers
100% NPK + 50% + Zn
100% NPK + 50% N + Biofertilizers..
100% N + 50% NPK + Control
100% N + 50% NPK + Biofertilizers
100% N + 50% NPK + Zn
100% N + 50% NPK + Biofertilizers..
Treatment combination
59
INFLUENCE OF INM ON DWARF PEA
Economics
The economics of fertility levels revealed that 100%
NPK + 50% Norganic level gave higher gross return, net
return and B: C ratio than other fertility levels, during both
the years (Table 2). Similarly, biofertilizers + micronutrient
(Zinc) resulted in higher gross return and net return, and B:
C ratio. The treatment of 100% NPK + 50% Norganic combined
with biofertilizers + Zn was economic optimum for the test
crop (Fig 1).
On the basis of result drawn under the agro-climatic
conditions of Varanasi, Eastern Uttar Pradesh it may be
recommended that vermicompost @ 1.33 tonnes/ha should
be superimposed to the recommended dose of fertilizer
(40-17-16-20 kg NPKS/ha) along with 5 kg Zn/ha applied
to the seeds inoculated with a biofertilizer consortia
comprising of Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR for realizing
economically optimum yield of field pea.
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Fig 1 B: C ratio under different treatment combinations (Pooled data of two years)
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The field trial was conducted to find out the effect of integrated nutrient management on cluster bean at Navsari Agricultural University during year 2021 and 2022. The experiment comprised of 12 treatment combinations having three level of chemical source of nutrient (C1: 100% RDF, C2: 75% RDF and C3: 50% RDF) and four levels of organic source of nutrient (O1: control (No organics), O2: PSB, O3: Rhizobium, and O4: NOVEL prime organic liquid nutrient) in randomized block design (factorial concept) with three replications. Among three levels of chemical source of nutrient application of 100% RDF (C1) helped in obtaining maximum values for growth parameters viz., plant height, number of leaves at 60 and 90 DAS, fresh biomass of plant at harvest and stem diameter, yield parameters i.e., pod length, pod width, number of clusters plant-1 , number of pods cluster-1 , number of pods plant-1 , dry matter yield, fresh pod yield and harvest index. Whereas, maximum values for growth parameters and yield attributes were noted when plants were treated with NOVEL prime organic liquid nutrient (O4). Interaction of 100% RDF and NOVEL prime organic liquid nutrient found superior over all the treatment combination for yield parameters i.e., number of pods plant-1 , dry matter yield and fresh pod yield. Keywords: Cluster bean, integrated nutrient management, chemical source of nutrient, organic source of nutrient, growth parameters and yield attributes Introduction Cluster bean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.] popularly known as "Guar" is an important vegetable crop mainly grown as a summer crop in South Gujarat region. In Gujarat, horticultural crops occupy 19,77,405 ha area with production of 2,50,51,540 MT. Among that, vegetable crops occupy 7,99,532 ha with production of 15,41,157 MT. While, cluster bean occupies area of 44,022 ha with production of 4, 31, 045 MT. In South Gujarat, cluster bean is mainly cultivated in Surat, Narmada, Bharuch, The Dangs, Navsari, Valsad and Tapi districts. Cluster bean occupies 5544 ha area under south Gujarat region with production of 47,645 MT (Anon., 2020) [1]. Pods of cluster bean are rich in food value and each 100 g contains 10.8 g carbohydrate, 3.2 g protein, 1.4 g minerals, 316 IU vitamin-A, 47 mg Vitamin-C and Vitamin K. It contains approximately 75 per cent dietary fiber; allows fiber to be added to a food with a minimal effect on taste and texture. Among vegetable crops, guar occupies an important place in the national economy because of its industrial importance mainly due to the presence of gum in its endosperm (35 to 40%). Cluster bean is grown for different purposes viz., vegetable, green fodder, manure and feed from very ancient times. In the modern cultivation of horticultural crops, heavy amount of fertilizer is consumed. The fertilizers are not only short in supply but, costly also and produced at the cost of irreparable loss of non-renewable energy. In view of escalating cost, it will be major limiting factor for increasing agricultural production in days to come. Therefore, it has been essential to evolve and adopt a suitable strategy for integrated nutrient supply by using a judicious combination of chemical fertilizers, organic manures and biofertilizers and other organic inputs etc. It will be useful in curtailing over dependence on fertilizer for nutrient supply to plant (Singh, 2018) [23]. Nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing bacteria and potassium solubilizing bacteria are main biofertilizers for horticultural crops. These microorganisms are either free living or symbiotic with plant and contribute directly or indirectly towards major nutrients required by the plant. They also produce hormones, vitamins and other growth factors required for the growth and development of plant (Singh, 2018) [23]. NOVEL Prime organic liquid nutrient is a new generation crop protector which is used as organic fungicide.
... hortense), one of the important rabi crops, is cultivated throughout the world for vegetable, pulse and processed and dehydrated forms . India is the largest pea producing country in world with an area of 0.55 lakh ha and with an annual production of 5.45 lakh mt and commercially grown in Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, parts of Rajasthan and hilly parts of South India (Kumari et al. 2014, Anonymous 2017. Jhum cultivation is the most common form of agriculture in region (Kumar et al. 2019a) and several vegetables including beans and peas are grown in Jhum fields (Thirugnanavel et al. 2019). ...
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Field experiment was conducted during rabi 2013-14 and 2014-15 to study the effect of paper mill waste integrated nutrition on yield, economics and soil health of garden pea varieties at ICAR-Research Complex for NEH Region, Nagaland Centre, Jharnapani, Nagaland. The experiment was laid out in split plot design and replicated thrice. Maximum seed yields (905 kg/ha), green pod yields (3454 kg/ha), gross return (₹ 108372/ha), net return (₹ 60260/ha) and B: C ratio (2.25) had recorded with Azad pea. Application of paper mill waste @ 1.0 t/ha gave higher yield attributes of garden pea than to its lowers levels. Highest gross return (₹ 109189/ha) and net return (₹ 57977/ha) was obtained with paper mill waste @ 1.0 t/ha, however the maximum B: C ratio (2.20) was noted in 0.5 t/ha. Significantly higher seed yield (926 kg/ha) and green pod yield (3449 kg/ha) were recorded with application of 100% RDF+25% RDF (ON), which was 53, 13, and 45% higher, respectively over control. Among integrated nutrition, maximum seed yield (977 kg/ha), green pod yield (3646), gross return (₹ 115328/ha), net return (₹ 64616/ha) and B:C ratio (2.28) was noted with 100% RDF + 25% RDF (ON). Soil health attributes, i.e. pH, EC, soil organic carbon; available NPK had improved significantly due to integrated nutrition. Thus, Azad pea could be grown with application of paper mill waste @ 1.0 t/ha along with 100% RDF+25% RDF(ON) for better productivity, profitability and soil health in Eastern Himalayas.
... The higher values of these plant growth parameters may be due to increase in availability of NPK with the application of chemical fertilizers along with biofertilizers like Rhizobium, PSB and KSB. It has been reported that inoculation of chickpea with Rhizobium, PSB and KSB enhances stem height, root length and number of roots/plant (Gupta and Sahu, 2012;Gangwar and Dubey, 2012;Kumari et al., 2014). ...
Article
Background: The negative effects of continuous use of chemical fertilizers on soil microbiology and agricultural sustainability are well established. The chemical fertilizers load in environment can be minimized by combined application of fertilizers and biofertilizers in crops like pulses which require less fertilizer-N and respond well to the use of biofertilizers. The objectives of the study were to see the effect of different biofertilizers in reduction of total fertilizer use and the response of field pea to combined application of chemical- and bio-fertilizers in terms of growth, yield and NUE.Methods: A field experiment was conducted during 2 consecutive rabi season of 2017-18 and 2018-19 at KVK, Chhatarpur, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh), India to evaluate the application of fertilizers and biofertilizers on growth parameter, nodulation, nutrient content and uptake, nutrient use efficiency, yield and economics of field pea. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with five treatments in four replications. Treatments comprised of Control, Recommended dose (RD) of NPK (20: 60: 20 kg N, P2O5 and K2O/ha, respectively) (RDNPK), RDNPK + seed inoculation with Rhizobium @ 20 g/kg seed (RDNPK +R), RDNPK+R+phosphate solubilizing bacteria @ 20 g each/kg seed (RDNPK + R+PSB) and 75% of RDNPK + R+ PSB + potash solubilizing bacteria @ 5 kg/ha (75% RDNPK+ R+PSB+KSB). All other practices followed as per recommendation for the region and different observations and indices were recorded by following standard procedures.Conclusion: The application of 75% RDNPK+R+PSB+KSB was found best treatment among all others which resulted in highest grain yield (1682 kg/ha), protein content (23.1%), protein yield (388.5 kg/ha), net return (Rs. 46 623/ha) and B:C ratio (2.94). The nutrient use efficiency such as Partial Factor Productivity (PFP), Agronomic efficiency (AE), Physiological Efficiency (PE) and Economic Efficiency (EE) were also higher under combined application of fertilizers and biofertilizers. Thus, 75% RDNPK along with combined application of biofertilizers (R+PSB+KSB) may be applied for higher yield and return from field pea.
... A doubling in global food demand projected for the next 50 years poses huge challenges for agricultural sustainability. Nowadays, plant growth is enhanced by increasing input of agrochemical, which acts as plant growth regulators (PGRs) and as nutrients (Kumar et al. 2008(Kumar et al. , 2013aKumari et al. 2014;Kumar 2015a, b). Excessive or injudicious use of chemicals increases the chances of deteriorating soil and environmental quality. ...
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In intensive agriculture, integrated plant nutrient management takes care of both crop nutritional needs as well as soil fertility considerations leading to increased crop yields through judicious consumption of inorganic nutrients in cropping systems. There is an urgent need to reduce the usage of chemical fertilizers and in turn increase application of microbes along with organic manures, which are known to improve the physicochemical properties of the soil and supply of nutrients in an available form to plants. Therefore, integrated use of microbes for nutrient and disease management, along with organic manures and inorganic fertilizers simultaneously has been suggested as the most effective method to maintain a healthy and sustainable soil, while increasing crop productivity. Inoculation with these methods was found to increase crop yields by ~10–15% under farm conditions. In many situations, this association also leaves substantial amounts of residual nitrogen fixation for subsequent cropping systems. Use of biofertilizers requires special skills and therefore farmers need to be equipped with the knowledge and skills of using various biofertilizers in order to promote sustainability. Hence, this chapter enlightens the reader on the effect of different microbes [Rhizobium, phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB), and plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)] alone as well as in combinations with organic and inorganic additives on crop productivity and soil health.
... The FYM along with chemical fertilizer increased soil infiltration rate and density of root channels. Anupama Kumari et al. (2014) reported that CEC of the root has been taken as an indicator of the activity of root in term of response. Similarly, the increasing root CEC with increasing levels of N has also been reported by Singh and Ram (1973). ...
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A permanent long-term fertilizer experiment (AICRP-LTFE) has been continuing since 1988-89 at Research Farm, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Akola, Maharashtra. Field and pot experiments were conducted during rabi season of 2016-17 (29 th cycle) at Akola in this LTFE. The experimental design of the field experiment was randomized block design and in the case of the pot experiment it was completely randomized design. Pot culture experiment was conducted to assess the root length and root volume by using automated root analyzed systems, whereas, field experiment were conducted to study the root chemical properties. There were 12 treatments replicated three times in the field and pot experiments. The treatments comprised of different levels of recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) viz., 50, 75, 100 and 150% and RDF in combination with farmyard manure (FYM), FYM alone (5 t ha-1), RDF devoid of S, RDF along with S @ 37.5 kg ha-1 and Zn @ 2.5 kg ha-1 , NP, N alone and control. The results indicated that application of 100% NPK + FYM significantly improved the root length of wheat at 30, 60 and 90 days after sowing (DAS). The root volume increased to the tune of 0.098, 0.107 and 0.119 cm 3 , respectively at 30, 60 and 90 DAS in the treatment of 100% NPK + FYM. The application of 100% NPK along with S registered higher activity of root acid phosphatase at 30 DAS (235 µm PNP g-1 fresh weight h-1) and 60 DAS (275 µm PNP g-1 fresh weight h-1). The higher root CEC i.e. 19.1 cmol(p +)kg-1 was registered with the application of 100% NPK + FYM at 30 DAS and 23.8 cmol(p +)kg-1 at 60 DAS. The application of 100% NPK + FYM @ 5 t ha-1 recorded significantly higher value of root oxidase activity viz. 755 and 845 mg α-NA g-1 fresh weight h-1 at 30 and 60 DAS, respectively. The grain yield of wheat was influenced significantly with the application of 100% NPK + FYM @ 5 t ha-1 (34.0 q ha-1). The higher P use efficiency (28.9%) was registered under integrated use of chemical fertilizer and organic manures. The P use efficiency was significantly correlated with root acid phosphatase activity at 30 DAS (r 2 = 0.417 **) and 60 DAS (r 2 = 0.595 **).
... Significantly highest protein content (22.1%) was associated with PGPR + 5.0 kg Zn + 1.5 kg Mo/ha. Increase in protein content might be attributed to enzyme substrate involved in amino acid biosynthesis and thereby increased protein content in grain (Kumari et al. 2014, Bhamare et al. 2018. Effect on economics: Application of 100% RDF + 25% RDN gave the maximum gross returns (₹ 52286/ha), net returns (₹ 21399/ha), B: C ratio (1.31), production efficiency (15.8 kg/ha/day) and economic efficiency (₹ 305/ha/day) ( Table 1). ...
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A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of integrated nutrition along with application of micronutrient and biofertilizers on productivity and profitability of french bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) at the ICAR-RC for NEH Region, Nagaland Centre, Jharnapani, during rabi 2013-15. Treatment consisted of four nutrition levels, viz. control, 100% RDF (80-60-30-20 kg NPKS/ha), 100% RDN (RDN:80 kg/ha through 16 t/ha of FYM), 75% RDF + 25% RDN and 100% RDF + 25% RDN in main-plot and five levels of biofertilizers + micronutrient, viz. control, PGPR (Rhizobimum + Bacillus + Pseudomonas), PGPR + 5 kg Zn/ha, PGPR + 1.5 kg Mo/ha and PGPR + 5 kg Zn + 1.5 kg Mo/ha in sub-plot. Experiment was laid out in split-plot design and replicated thrice. Significantly higher seed yield (1630 kg/ha) was recorded with application of 100% RDF + 25% RDN, which was 30% higher over 100% RDN. Maximum net returns (₹ 21399/ha), B:C ratio (1.31), production efficiency (15.8 kg/ha/day) and economic efficiency (₹ 305/ha/day) were noted with 100% RDF + 25% RDN. Maximum grain yield (1551 kg/ha) had recorded with PGPR +5 kg Zn ha+1.5 kg Mo/ha. Maximum net returns (₹ 29941/ha), B:C ratio (1.30), production efficiency (15.1 kg/ ha/day) and economic efficiency (₹ 210/ha/day) were also noted with PGPR+5 kg Zn ha + 1.5 kg Mo/ha. Thus, to achieve the higher productivity and profitability, french bean could be grown with 100% RDF+25% RDN through organic manures (FYM) and seed inoculation with PGPRs + micronutrient in foot hill condition of Eastern Himalayas.
... It is not obvious whether this benefit alone will go ahead to the wider adoption of CA. Thus, to address these issues of resource exhaustion and bridging the gap management in yields, CA-based management solution is keystone (Kumar et al. 2013a, b;Kumari et al. 2014;Kumawat et al. 2015;Sofi et al. 2018). ...
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Bread and rice basket of South Asia is feeding ~20% of the global population. The agricultural production system in South Asia is predominated by exhaustive cereal production system including rice, wheat, and maize. Thus, it greatly affects the livelihood and nutritional security of the rural and urban poor. Recently, cereal productivity had slowed down or stagnated. Present expansion rate in terms of yield of rice and wheat is ~2–3 times higher than in 1966–1994. During 1980s, the peak of “Green Revolution” in the agricultural production system helps in the reduction of rural and urban poverty by making food more affordable. During the 1990s, growth in yields slows down because of technological stagnation resulting in high food prices. Slow growth in yields mainly inflated on wheat and rice by ~1%. Therefore, agriculture in South Asia is presently in front of a major challenge of resource fatigue and declining crop productivity. In addition to that, a huge gap exists in yields mainly due to yield gap management, ranging from 14–47, 18–70, and 36–77% in wheat, rice, and maize, respectively. Crop residues are considered a vital natural resource for protecting and sustaining soil and crop productivity. Application of crop residues is useful for maintaining or enhancing soil organic matter (SOM). This chapter presents the perspectives on soil and environment through principles of conservation agriculture (CA) for sustainable cereal production system in Indo-Gangetic belts of South Asia.
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Field experiment was conducted at the Instructional Farm of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Chhatarpur during two consecutive kharif of 2017-18 and 2018-19 to evaluate the effect of different biofertilizers along with 75 % recommended dose of fertilizers on growth, yield, nutrient uptake, nutrient use efficiency and B:C ratio of greengram (Vigna radiata L.). Results revealed that application of 75 % recommended dose of NPK along with seed treatment with Rhizobium @ 10 g/kg seed and soil application of PSB and KSB @ 5 kg/ha (T4) was found statistically at par with those obtained in T3 (recommended dose of NPK along with seed inoculation by Rhizobium and PSB separately @ 10 g/kg seed) and significantly superior over other treatments in terms of above parameters. Study also indicated that application of biofertilizers have potential to improve the productivity, with curtail the cost of production in terms of inorganic fertilizers and greater net returns and nutrient use efficiency.
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A field experiment was conducted during the winter season of 2013-14 at Varanasi to evaluate the effect of various row arrangements on growth and yield attributes of linseed and dwarf field pea intercropping system. Among the row arrangements, row ratio of 4:1-1-with 80% linseed + 20% dwarf field pea recorded maximum plant height, number of branches plant , dry matter accumulation, seed bolls plant 1-1 , seeds boll , grain and straw yield of linseed as compared to other treatments. However, maximum test weight and harvest index of linseed was in row ratio of 1:4 with 20% linseed + 80% dwarf field pea and row ratio of 1:3 with 25% linseed + 75% dwarf field pea. In case of dwarf-1-1 field pea, row ratio of 1:4 with 20% linseed + 80% dwarf field pea ,the plant height, number of branches plant , dry matter accumulation plant ,-1-1 pods plant , seeds pod , grain and straw yield was significantly higher as compared to rest of the treatments. The highest seed index and harvest index of dwarf field pea was recorded in row ratio of 4:2 with 66.67% linseed + 33.34% dwarf field pea followed by the row ratio of 3:1 with 75% linseed + 25% dwarf pea and row ratio of 4:2 with 66.67% linseed + 33.34% dwarf field pea , respectively. None of the row arrangements were superior over sole crop of either linseed or dwarf field pea .
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Results revealed that use of imazethapyr @ 0.15 kg ha-1 followed by (fb) paraquat @ 0.4 kg ha-1 40 days after sowing (DAS) significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the weed density, total weed density and total weed dry weight being statistically at par with two hand weeding (HWs) at 25 and 50 days after sowing (DAS). Weed control index, weed persistence index and weed index were the highest in weed-free, 2-HWs and imazethapyr applied @ 0.15 kg ha-1 fb paraquat 0.4 kg ha-1. However, weed-free treatment resulted in per cent higher yield attributes like pods plant-1 (32.0 and 29.5%), grains pod-1 (34 and 32.6%), 1000-grain weight (25.8 and 21.5%), grain yield (48.7 and 47.5%), gross returns (46.0 and 45.0%), net returns (54.6 and 53.0%) and benefit-cost ratio (40.7 and 38.5%), being significantly higher than weedy check but remained at par with 2-HWs, imazethapyr @ 0.15 kg ha-1 fb paraquat @ 0.4 kg ha-1. The highest nutrient depletion by weeds was recorded in weedy check, whereas, the lowest was in imazethapyr @ 0.15 kg ha-1 fb paraquat 0.4 kg ha-1. K e y w o r d s Hand weeding, Herbicides, Pigeonpea, Seed yield, Weed control index, Weed flora
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Response of pea (Pisum sativum L.) cv. 'Swastik' ('DMR 11') to moisture stress and application of phosphorus, sulphur and zinc fertilizers was studied during the winter season of 1992-93 and 1993-94 at the Indian Agricultural Research institute, New Delhi. Higher values of root dry weight, number and dry weight of root nodules/plant, nitrogenase activity, and growth parameters (leaf-area index, net assimilation rate, crop-growth rate, nitrate reductase activity) were observed with no moisture stress treatment, i.e. irrigation at all the 3 stages, viz. vegetative, flowering and pod filling. Application of 26.2 kg P/ha recorded higher values for root and growth parameters when compared to 13.1 kg P/ha and no P. Application of 40 kg S+5 kg Zn/ha also improved root and growth parameters, and yield of pea.
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A field experiment was conducted at Junagadh during the rainy season of 1996 and 1997 to study the effect of organic, inorganic and biological sources of nutrients on yield, quality, nutrient content and uptake of semi-spreading groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as well as nutrient status of soil. Combine application of FYM @ 20 tonnes/ha + 100% recommended dose of fertilizer + Azotobacter spp. + Pseudomonas striata recorded significantly higher shelling (%), protein content and yield, oil yield, mean yield of pod and haulm as well as gross returns than the control, at application of only FYM @ 10 tonnes/ha, Azotobacter spp. + Pseudomonas striata, 50% N of recommended dose of fertilizer + Pseudomonas striata, 50% P2O5 of recommended dose of fertilizer + Azotobacter spp. and 50% recommended dose of fertilizer, while net returns were obtained maximum when crop was fertilized with only 100% recommended dose of fertilizer. Similar trend was also observed for N, P, K content and uptake. Available nitrogen and phosphorus in soil was also improved with combined application of organic, inorganic and biofertilizers.
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An investigation was carried out during the winter and summer seasons of 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 at New Delhi, to evaluate the effect of vermicompost, biofertilizers (Rhizobium and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria), and phosphorus on 'Pusa 256' gram or chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and their residual effect on succeeding fodder maize (Zea mays L.). Application of vermicompost at 3 tonnes/ha resulted in higher dry matter (19.78 g/plant), leaf-area index (1.57), pods/ plant (27.38), seed (2.35 tones/ha) and straw yields (3.81 tonnes/ha) of chickpea. Dry fodder yield (7.51 tones/ha) of maize and total N (171.67 kg/ha) and P (28.61 kg/ha) uptake by the chickpea-maize cropping system also increased significantly with the application of vermicompost to chickpea only. Seed inoculation with Rhizobium and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria markedly enhanced growth and yield attributes, seed (2.40 tonnes/ha) and straw (3.80 tonnes/ha) yield of chickpea, fodder yield (7.61 tonnes/ha) of succeeding maize and total N (179.48 kg/ha) and P (29.06 kg/ha) uptake by the chickpea-maize cropping system over the uninoculated control. Phosphorus fertilization up to 26.4 kg P/ha to chickpea also improved growth; seed (2.46 tonnes/ha) and straw (3.92 tonnes/ha) yields of chickpea, and increased the fodder yield (7.91 tonnes/ha) of succeeding maize. The magnitude of increase in chickpea yield with vermicompost was greater when no biofertilizer was applied. Vermicompost along with 13.2 kg P/ha recorded similar yield as obtained with 26.4 kg P/ha, indicating an economy of 13.2 kg P/ha.
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Chickpea, as an important pulse crop, is an integral part of subsistence and sustainable production systems of Madhya Pradesh. Therefore, a study was undertaken to assess the knowledge level of chickpea growers regarding chickpea production technology in Indore district of Madhya Pradesh. A total of 120 chickpea growers were selected as respondents for this study. A 'knowledge index' consisting of 10 dimensions was prepared to measure the knowledge level of chickpea growers. The study revealed that the chickpea growers had poor knowledge about soil treatment, high yielding varieties and bio-fertilizer, while majority of them had knowledge about critical stage of irrigation. The majority of the respondents had awareness regarding recommended doses of manures and fertilizer, bio-fertilizer, seed rate, improved varieties, spacing and method of sowing. The socio-economic, communication and psychological factors had significant positive relationship with knowledge level of chickpea growers except age, land holding, and farm mechanization. Cosmopoliteness, attitude towards chickpea production technology, scientific orientation, extension participation, economic motivation, mass media exposure and information source utilization were the important factors which had direct and indirect effect on knowledge of chickpea growers. India is the largest producer, importer and consumer of pulses in the world, accounting for 25 % of global production, 15 % trade and 27 % consumption. In India more than a dozen of pulse crops including chickpea (40%) pigeonpea (18%), urdbean (11%), mungbean (9%), lentil (8%), field pea (5%) and others are grown on 22 - 24 million hectares producing 13 - 15 million tones of grain with an average productivity of 600 - 650 kg/ha. As compared to cereals, most of the pulses still wait for significant breakthrough in terms of production and productivity. This group of crops is capable of restoring soil fertility and therefore, remains an integral part of subsistence and sustainable production systems. Among pulses, chickpea is the most important pulse crop in the country grown in more than 6.93 million hectares area which contributes 62 per cent of the global production (5.6 million tonnes) and about 37 per cent of total pulse production in the country. Chickpea is an important pulse crop of Madhya Pradesh grown in 2.86 million hectares of land annually producing 2.66 million tones. It is also one of the important pulse crop of Indore district of Madhya Pradesh grown in 0.41 lakh hectares of land annually producing 0.27 lakh tones with the average productivity of 6.56 q/ha. Knowledge has been found to be an
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Soil structural and water transmission properties, as influenced by land use and soil management, affect the coefficients of infiltration predictive models. Ten infiltration models were analyzed to assess these coefficients. The models tested include Green and Ampt (1911), Kostiakov (1932), Horton (1940), Mezencev (1948), Philip (1957), Holtan (1961) -two and three-parameters, Stroosnijder (1976), Swartzendruber (1987), and Kutilek and Krejca (1987). Parameters were evaluated for time-dependence and precision and with regard to the effects of land use/soil management and landscape positions. The field water infiltration data used in these models were based on double ring infiltrometer tests conducted for 3 h at six different land use/soil management treatments at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds (NAEW) near Coshocton, Ohio. The treatments were no-till without manure (NTWM), no-till with manure (NTM), no-till corn-soybean rotation (NTCSR), conventional tillage (CT), meadow (M) and forest. Measurements were made at three landscape positions (e.g., shoulder or upper slope (US); back or middle slope, (MS); and foot slope (FS)). The algebraic parameters of the infiltration models and nonlinear least squares regression were fitted using measured infiltration time [I (t)] data. Among process-based infiltration models, the Swartzendruber model performed best and matched the measured I (t) data with lower sum of squares (SS) and higher model efficiency (EF) and Wilmot's index of agreement (W). Overall the three-parameter Horton model gave the best representation of the I (t) relationship with the lowest SS and the highest EF and W for most of the land use treatments, including forest. The treatments had significant influence on the parameters related to initial infiltration rate or sorptivity and final steady state infiltration rate or hydraulic conductivity near saturation, whereas landscape positions had significant influence on the sorptivity parameter only. The fitted parameters (i.e., sorptivity and hydraulic conductivity near saturation) were time dependent and were higher for NTM than for other treatments.
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Several studies suggest that the Fabaceae-Rhizobium symbiosis is particularly sensitive to iron (Fe) deficiency with respect to NO3–-dependent plants. The aim of this study, which is part of a screening program for common bean tolerance to Fe deficiency, was to study genotypical differences in Fe requirement and Fe use-efficiency of common bean cultivars depending on symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF). Results show that ARA14 produces more whole plant dry matter and particularly more nodule biomass than Coco blanc. ARA14 is characterized by a high capacity of nitrogen fixation and a better Fe use-efficiency for the growth and the function of the nodules.Die Bedeutung der Eisennutzungseffizienz der Knöllchen von Phaseolus vulgaris für die Resistenz gegen EisenmangelchloroseEs gibt eine Reihe von Untersuchungen, die zeigen, dass die Symbiose Fabaceae-Rhizobium sehr empfindlich auf Eisenmangel bei NO3–-ernährten Pflanzen reagiert. Das Ziel dieser Studie, die Teil eines Screeningprogramms auf Eisenmangeltoleranz bei Bohnen ist, war die Untersuchung von genotypischen Unterschieden im Eisenbedarfs und in der Eisennutzungseffizienz bei ausschließlicher Stickstoffernährung durch symbiotische Stickstofffixierung (SNF). Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass ARA14 mehr Gesamtpflanzenbiomasse und mehr Knöllchenbiomasse bildet als Coco blanc. ARA14 ist charakterisiert durch eine hohe Stickstofffixierungskapazität und eine bessere Eisennutzungseffizienz für das Wachstum und die Funktion der Knöllchen.
Performance of mungbean as influenced by seed inoculation with Rhizobium & levels of organic and inorganic sources of nutrient
  • S Kumar
  • R Singh
  • V S Kadian
Kumar S, Singh R C and Kadian V S.2003. Performance of mungbean as influenced by seed inoculation with Rhizobium & levels of organic and inorganic sources of nutrient. Indian Journal of pulses Research 16 (1): 67-6
Intergrated nutrient management through biofertilizers, fertilizers, organic manures and lime for vegetable pea in an acid inseptisol of cool temperate region of Uttaranchal
  • S Negi
  • G Dwivedi
  • R V Singh
Negi S, Dwivedi G K and Singh R V.2007. Intergrated nutrient management through biofertilizers, fertilizers, organic manures and lime for vegetable pea in an acid inseptisol of cool temperate region of Uttaranchal. Legume Research 30 (1): 37-40.
Conjuntive use of fertilizers with organics, crop residue and green manuring for their efficient use in sustainable crop production
  • B Prasad
Prasad B 1999. Conjuntive use of fertilizers with organics, crop residue and green manuring for their efficient use in sustainable crop production. Fertilizer News 44 (5): 67-73.