Article

FIT4Green : energy aware ICT optimization policies

Authors:
  • Green IT Amsterdam
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

1st International Conference on Energy-Efficient Computing and Networking, e-energy 2010, Passau, 13 - 15 Apr. 2010

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... FIT4Green project [21] has proposed an energy-aware computing framework. It has comprised of energy saving strategies and planning. ...
... Global Optimization event executes itself regularly and produces data center reconfiguration plan (switching on or off a server, migrating a VM etc.) as an output. The projects of authors [21][22][23] have been designed and implemented with the context of data center control framework. However, the proposed work handles users' requests tactically and inclined them toward sustainable computing. ...
Article
Full-text available
As the organizations are shifting their workload on cloud computing, the demand of cloud services has increased tremendously. With the increased usage of cloud data centers, there is huge consumption of energy (power and heat), contributing to high operational costs and carbon footprints to the environment. So far, research has been carried out to optimize energy usage for cloud resources. However, most of the work on energy optimization is centered on the operational phase of a data center. This paper focuses on energy reduction at Service Level Agreement (SLA) level. Cloud resources are provisioned with Green SLA aware cloud resource reservation (GSLACRR) algorithm. This work proposes Green Service Level Agreement (GSLA) template and negotiation strategies for cloud services. It offers cloud resource services in an energy efficient manner to the users.
... In this context, several funding programs were created in order to improve the overall energy efficiency of European Community countries with one on the focus of large scale datacenters : Datacenters in Smart Cities funded in 2013. This funding schema came after the success of several independent EU-funded projects for energy-efficient datacenters such as Fit4Green [254], Games [255], All4Greens [256], CoolEmAll [257] and Eco2Clouds [258]. ...
... In this context, several funding programs were created in order to improve the overall energy efficiency of European Community countries with one on the focus of large scale datacenters : Datacenters in Smart Cities funded in 2013. This funding schema came after the success of several independent EU-funded projects for energy-efficient datacenters such as Fit4Green [254], Games [255], All4Greens [256], CoolEmAll [257] and Eco2Clouds [258]. ...
... For instance, Intel has recently pushed server hardware with increased computing efficiency targeted for data center providing a virtual infrastructure [8], while [17,11,7] focused on the consolidation of virtualized infrastructure in data centers to improve energy efficiency. The FP7 research projects FIT4Green [2] and GAMES [4] are further advancing on consolidation techniques in virtualized environment, while [12] also proposes an approach to creating environmental awareness in service oriented software engineering. ...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decades, the energy and ecological footprint of ICT systems, in particular those hosted at data centers, has grown signif-icantly and continues to increase at an exponential rate. In parallel, re-search in self-adaptation has yielded initial results where reconfiguration of ICT systems at runtime enables dynamic improved quality of service. However, little has been done with regards to requirement engineering for self-adaptive system for a lower energy and ecological footprint. This paper sketches a framework on how to best reconcile these aspects in a conscious way covering requirements, design and run-time, by capturing, reasoning, monitoring and acting upon a set of interlinked system goals. We highlight a number of important problems to overcome for the ap-proach to be feasible, present our current view on it and state interesting research questions open for discussions.
Chapter
Green specifications provide a foundation for reducing the environmental impact of computing applications and improving the consumption behavior of users by providing a clear and precise specification of the environmental impact of specific services. They can either be used to specify the actual behavior and environmental impact of existing services or to define the requirements that a to-be-built service must fulfill. Green specifications describe the properties of a service from distinct viewpoints such as a structural viewpoint which describes the data types and external components that the service uses, a functional viewpoint which describes the effects of the service's operations using pre- and post- conditions and a behavioral viewpoint which describes the externally visible states and transitions exhibited by the service. These are augmented with non-functional information describing the environmental properties of, or constraints on, the service. In this chapter we provide an introduction to green specifications and give a concrete example of their use to specify a Video on Demand (VoD) service.
Chapter
Green specifications provide a foundation for reducing the environmental impact of computing applications and improving the consumption behavior of users by providing a clear and precise specification of the environmental impact of specific services. They can either be used to specify the actual behavior and environmental impact of existing services or to define the requirements that a to-be-built service must fulfill. Green specifications describe the properties of a service from distinct viewpoints such as a structural viewpoint which describes the data types and external components that the service uses, a functional viewpoint which describes the effects of the service's operations using pre- and post- conditions and a behavioral viewpoint which describes the externally visible states and transitions exhibited by the service. These are augmented with non-functional information describing the environmental properties of, or constraints on, the service. In this chapter we provide an introduction to green specifications and give a concrete example of their use to specify a Video on Demand (VoD) service.
Thesis
Die Veränderung des weltweiten Klimas macht deutlich, dass die Entwicklungen der globalen Märkte neben ökonomischen Aspekten zunehmend auch die Erhaltung und Verbesserung der Umweltzustände anstreben müssen. Für die Definition von Umweltzielen und -regularien wurden durch verschiedene nationale und internationale Gremien Kriterien und Ansätze beschrieben, welche häufig als Vorgaben an Unternehmen auf nationaler Ebene weitergegeben werden. Ein Beispiel hierfür ist der Handel mit CO2-Zertifikaten, bei dem Unternehmen den von ihnen ausgestoßenen Anteil von CO2 durch Zertifikate abdecken müssen. Damit Unternehmen diese gesetzlichen Auflagen einhalten und die damit verbundenen monetären Belastungen reduzieren können, müssen geeignete Maßnahmen zur Reduktion des negativen Umwelteinflusses aller unternehmerischen Aktivitäten entwickelt werden. Für die Ermittlung des Umwelteinflusses eines Unternehmens wurden bereits verschiedene Methoden entwickelt, wie beispielsweise der ISO Standard 14000 und das Life Cycle Assessment. Diese Methoden zielen jedoch häufig nur auf die Erfassung des Umwelteinflusses von Produkten ab und reichen nicht aus, eine ganzheitliche Optimierung des Umwelteinflusses eines Unternehmens und seiner Abläufe zu erreichen. Umweltaspekte müssen direkt in das Management und die strategische Entwicklung von Unternehmen integriert werden. Sie müssen in der Lage sein, den Umwelteinfluss des unternehmerischen Handelns abzubilden, zu analysieren und hinsichtlich der konventionellen Optimierungskriterien Kosten, Qualität, Zeit und Flexibilität abzuwägen, ohne dabei auf eine schnelle und flexible Anpassung an sich verändernde Marktsituationen zu verzichten. In dieser Dissertation wird eine Erweiterung des existierenden Geschäftsprozessmanagements unter Einbeziehung zugehöriger Methoden und Werkzeuge eingeführt, welche es Entscheidungsträgern ermöglicht, die strategische Entwicklung eines Unternehmens durch ökologische Aspekte zu ergänzen. Die entwickelten Konzepte zeigen, wie Key Performance Indicators, unterstützende IT-Infrastrukturen und die strategische Unternehmensgestaltung für die Integration dieser Aspekte erweitert werden müssen. Zur Unterstützung der vorgestellten Erweiterungen des Geschäfts¬prozess-managements wurde ein allgemeines Vorgehens¬modell definiert, welches aus ökologischer Sicht die Definition von Key Ecological Indicators, die Abbildung von Ressourcen auf Prozessmodelle und -aktivitäten, die Definition spezifischer Monitoringmodelle und die ökologische Analyse von Geschäftsprozessen abdeckt. Die Umsetzung dieser Aspekte wird jeweils exemplarisch durch spezifisch entwickelte Methoden aufgezeigt. Für das Management von Geschäftsprozessen auf Basis der analysierten Informationen definiert die vorliegende Arbeit einen auf Patterns basierenden Ansatz. Hierzu wurde eine Menge von Green Business Process Patterns identifiziert und dokumentiert. Die Entwicklung eines Pattern Support Frameworks hilft Entscheidungsträgern anschließend, diese Patterns für eine zielorientierte Optimierung von Geschäftsprozessen einzusetzen. Ausgehend von konkreten Problemstellungen begleitet das Pattern Support Framework damit die Identifikation geeigneter Patterns, welche im Anschluss auf konkrete Lösungsimplementierungen übertragen werden können. Die in der vorliegenden Arbeit eingeführten Konzepte erlauben es Entscheidungsträgern, neben ökonomischen auch ökologische Entscheidungsaspekte in der Entwicklung von Geschäftsprozessen zu berücksichtigen. Die Verbesserung des Umwelteinflusses zielt damit nicht nur direkt auf den ökologischen Fußabdruck eines Produktes oder Services ab, sondern ermöglicht eine durchgängige Restrukturierung aller an der Erzeugung oder Bereitstellung beteiligten Abläufe. Die entwickelten Prototypen zeigen exemplarisch die Implementierung der verschiedenen Konzepte und unterstützen sowohl Entscheidungsträger als auch Optimierungsteams bei der Verbesserung des Umwelteinflusses. Die Anwendbarkeit der Konzepte und Werkzeuge wird zudem in einer Fallstudie validiert.
Conference Paper
Outsourcing services from local or personal devices to data centers or the cloud is an ongoing trend in information technology. This trend has led to the expansion of the IT service business and, to a dramatic increase of energy consumption in data centers. One of the objectives of GreenIT is to stop or even reverse this development. Many technical approaches to save energy during the operational phase of a data center are currently being proposed. Unfortunately, a reduction of energy consumption may have a negative impact onto a customer's perceived quality-of-service as denoted in service level agreements (SLAs). Energy aware "GreenSLAs" can help counteracting this dilemma by extending a data center's scope to pursue energy saving measures at runtime. This paper discusses the idea and first empirical results regarding the use of GreenSLAs to balance performance, time, cost, and energy by including semantic information into executable SLAs.
Article
Current approaches for reducing IT's environmental impact typically are generic and rarely take into account services' actual functionality. To develop more powerful, service-specific strategies for reducing IT's carbon footprint, we need more complete and widely understandable specifications that describe exactly a service's functionality, the level of quality it achieves, and its environmental consequences. Such green specifications will allow more stakeholders involved in the delivery and consumption of IT services to understand their detailed functionality and the tradeoffs between quality of service and environmental impact entailed in their use. This will not only increase the opportunities for optimizing the delivery of services but also provide the foundation for new business models that encourage users to make greener consumption choices.
Conference Paper
As the trend towards clouds and the delivery of software applications “as a service” continues, the importance of controlling, and if possible reducing, the environmental impact of the supporting data centers assumes ever more importance. However, increasing efficiency alone will not necessarily have the desired impact if computing service consumption levels grow out of control. Increased efficiency needs to be accompanied by responsible usage, which in turns requires users to be aware of the impact of their computing consumption choices. This paper makes a first step in this direction by proposing some techniques for making statements about the environmental impact of specific applications based on formal, but human readable, specifications of their functionality. It then shows how these techniques can be extended to support the definition of application specific, GreenSLAs (Service Level Agreements) which allow the contract between computing service suppliers and consumers to include constraints on the acceptable environmental impact (e.g. energy usage or CO2 emissions).
Conference Paper
In the current decade of rapid expansion of ubiquitous data storage and cloud computing services, the demand for data centre services has seen an enormous increase which is resulting in a continuously rising pressure on the environment in terms of energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The recently started project, All4Green, explores potential ICT solutions for collaboration amongst data centers, energy providers, and end-users in order to enable energy providers to save CO2 emissions at the very source of energy conversion. This paper presents an overview of objectives and concepts of the research, discussing the so-called data centers’ eco-system, the technical approach to collaboration and GreenSLAs as economic incentives.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Government, business, and the general public increasingly agree that the polluter should pay. Carbon dioxide and environmental damage are consid-ered viable chargeable commodities. The net effect of this for data center and cloud computing operators is that they should look to "chargeback" the envi-ronmental impacts of their services to the consuming end-users. An environ-mental chargeback model can have a positive effect on environmental impacts by linking consumers to the indirect impacts of their usage, facilitating clearer understanding of the impact of their actions. In this paper we motivate the need for environmental chargeback mechanisms. The environmental chargeback model is described including requirements, methodology for definition, and en-vironmental impact allocation strategies. The paper details a proof-of-concept within an operational data center together with discussion on experiences gained and future research directions.
Chapter
Der Energiebedarf von Hard- und Software-Systemen unterliegt einem stetigen Wachstum. Vorarbeiten haben gezeigt, dass der Einsatz von Ressourcensubstitutionsstrategien diesem Trend entgegenwirken kann. Diese Optimierungsverfahren müssen aber neben dem Energiebedarf weitere Schlüsselfaktoren berücksichtigen. Im Rahmen einer Fallstudie wurde der Zusammenhang zwischen Energiebedarf, Dienstgüte und Performanz untersucht. Die Ergebnisse bestätigen die Vermutung, dass aufgrund der engen Verflechtung dieser drei Aspekte keine isolierte Betrachtung bzw. Optimierung möglich ist. Insbesondere ist bei gleicher Dienstgüte und Performanz des Gesamtsystems keine signifikante Reduktion des Energiebedarfs zu beobachten; es kommt zu einer Verlagerung des Energiebedarfs zwischen den Teilkomponenten des Systems.
Article
Full-text available
Eds. Pierson, JM.; Hlavacs, H. Proceedings of the COST Action IC804 on Energy Efficiency in Large Scale Distributed Systems, 1st Year, 88 - 92 Protecting the environment by saving energy and thus reducing carbon dioxide emissions is one of today’s hottest and most challenging topics and is of a rapidly growing importance in the computing domain. The motivation and reasons for optimizing energy consumption from ecological and business perspectives are clear. However, the technical realization still is way behind expectations. One reason might be that technical problems range from pure hardware issues (e.g., low-power devices, energy harvesting, etc.) to software to cooling issues. This paper discusses recent findings and first ideas regarding policies and strategies for energy optimization and the development of a generic plug-in for managing data centers, accompanied by the introduction of the concept of “Green Service Level Agreements (GSLA)”. We discuss the general structure (generic architecture) of the plug-in and sketch some of the embedded policies. It is also to be noted that all results are part of the recently started FIT4Green project, funded by the European Union.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.