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Paternalism in the Japanese Economy: Anthropological Studies of Oyabun-Kobu Patterns.

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... With Hiroshi Wagatsuma, I am completing a monograph on the residents of a lower-class city ward peopled by petty merchants and artisans, groups that have been significant in the modernizing of Japan's economy, More effort should be placed by both Japanese and American social scientists on studies of the famiIy at all social and economic levels in the modern city. Premodern patterns of parentalism still exist in economically marginal industries (Bennett and Ishino 1963). Some material on the "lower depths" of economic life in Japan have been recently presented in a study of Japanese flop houses (Caldarola 1 9 6 0 and a ragpicking community in Tokyo (Taira 1969). ...
... Mizushima and DeVos (1967~) have reported on the Japanese underworld organization and its functions in Japanese society. Social forms of the Japanese underworld are derivatives of organizational structures that characterize other parts of the Japanese society (Bennett and Ishino 1963). For example, oyabun-kobun (fictive parent-child relationship) has been a strong organizational force in the underworld until very recently. ...
... 10. See, for example, A History of the Public Opinion and Social Research Division, SCAP, part of a web site completed by Bennett and others in 2003 and maintained at The Ohio State University, along with Bennett 1951and 1952and Bennett and Ishino 1963:324. Ryang (2004) offers a different perspective on anthropology in the Japanese occupation. ...
... 13. The topic remained a major focus of PO&SR anthropologists in later years (see Ishino 1953;Bennett and Ishino 1963;Ryang 2004: 87-91). ...
... Considering Turkish cultural structure, we prefer Hofstede's conceptualizations and add paternalism to determine Turkish cultural variables. As a dimension of socio-cultural environment, paternalism suggests a relationship between the agents in any economic organization in which the employers treat their employees in a manner similar to the way parents treat their children (Dore, 1958; Bennet and Iwao, 1963). So paternalism is explained by ''fatherly'' behavior toward employees. ...
... So paternalism is explained by ''fatherly'' behavior toward employees. Bennet and Iwao (1963), in their analysis of paternalism from an international perspective, suggest two features of paternalism . One is a degree of hierarchy that is greater than the minimal amount of any employer–employee relationship should display in an organizational setting. ...
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The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether cultural orientations which were pervasive and salient in the society of SMEs’ entrepreneurs predict employees’ job satisfaction. Paternalism, collectivism, individualism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance were assessed as pervasive and salient attributes for Turkish society. Data were gathered from 217 male SMEs entrepreneurs and 1140 employees. The cultural orientations scales together with some questions related to the firms and demographics, and job diagnostic index (JDI) with demographical questions were applied to entrepreneurs and employees, respectively. The findings of this study revealed that paternalism, collectivism and power distance predicted employee job satisfaction significantly. It was argued that the congruency between entrepreneurs’ cultural orientations and employees’ cultural background and expectations, which was shaped by the organizational socialization process, might lead these results.
... Paternalism has been explored, in the literature, as a form of governance, management, and control associated with early forms of capitalism (Newby 1977) in Europe (Coffey 2003), the United States (Tone 1997), or Asia (Bennett and Ishino 1972). It evokes, historically, a patriarchal ideology, where the leader provides father-like protection and control but expects in return discipline, gratitude and loyalty from his children-like subordinates (Fleming 2005;Reid 1985). ...
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This article proposes a theoretical re-conceptualization of power dynamics and their legitimation in contemporary business–society relations using the prism and metaphor of parentalism. The paper develops a typology of forms of parentalism along two structuring dimensions: care and control. Specifically, four ideal-types of parentalism are introduced with their associated practices and power-legitimation mechanisms. As we consider current private governance and authority through this analytical framework, we are able to provide a new perspective on the nature of the moral legitimation of power dynamics in contemporary business–society relations. And we weave the threads between this conceptual frame and historical antecedents, suggesting that business ethicists need to revive old debates on paternalism in light of the current pervasive trend of modernized and subtler forms of parentalism. Implications for business ethics and political CSR are discussed.
... Especially important here is the influence of management outside the immediate work setting, shaping the local community, family dynamics and moral values (Anthony, 1986; Fox, 1985; Martin and Fryer, 1975; Varano, 1999). Paternalism has also been widely examined in non-Western organizations, particularly in Japan, China and South East Asia, where lifetime employment and factory regimes involving dorms for young female employees, etc are typical features of organizational life (see Bennett and Ishino, 1972; Chou, 2002; Hunter, 1995; Johnson and Gill, 1993). As Ackers (1998) points out, comparisons made between non-Western paternalism and contemporary Human Resource Management in the UK and the USA invariably construe paternalism as a kind of throwback from an earlier period of industrialism. ...
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This article investigates how organizational paternalism, often considered a traditional and rather archaic management style, is evoked by a culture management programme in order to increase control. Most research assumes that paternalism does successfully capture the subjective commitments of employees because they appreciate the 'caring' and 'nurturing' environment it engenders. Lacking in this literature is a consideration of "how" and "why" employees might resist organizational paternalism. An empirical study is presented that suggests some workers resist paternalism because it casts them as irrational children and undermines their dignity. The structure of this resistance is explored in detail and the relationships between paternalism, culture management and HRM examined. Copyright Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2005.
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