Article

Parental Support in Adolescents' Career Development: Parents' and Children's Perceptions

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Abstract

Using social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 2000), this study examined the role of parents' and children's perceptions of parental support in adolescents' career choices. A total of 94 Italian adolescents (30 boys, 64 girls) and both of their parents (N = 188) participated in the study. The authors tested a fully mediated model between mothers' and fathers' perceptions of support and career choice through the indirect effect of adolescents' perceptions of parental support and career self-efficacy. Results provided support for the model. Specifically, both mothers' and fathers' perceptions of support predicted their adolescents' career choice through the mediating effect of the youths' perceptions of parental support and career self-efficacy. These results have important implications for practice and underscore that parents need to be involved very early on in their children's vocational development.

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... Career-related support from parents has been conceived to be of great importance for individuals' selfefficacy, career decision-making, and career development (Zhang et al., 2015). When having parental career-related support (e.g., parents provide necessary resources and stimulate their children to pursue their goals), adolescents tend to be more motivated, engage more in the process of career exploration, and set clearer career goals (Dietrich & Kracke, 2009;Ginevra et al., 2015). Previous studies showed that career-related support from parents would promote career maturity, career exploration, and career expectation of vocational students (Alfianto et al., 2019;Dietrich & Kracke, 2009;Zhang et al., 2015). ...
... Besides, hope is a positive motivational state based on a cognitive set consisting of thoughts and pathways to pursue success and reach goals (Snyder, 2000). Parental involvement and support positively relate to adolescents' goal setting and future plans (Ginevra et al., 2015). When encountering troublesome events, hopeful individuals will take difficulties as challenges (Paul, 2000). ...
... Based on social cognitive career theory, social contexts play an essential role in individuals' cognitive factors, which in turn exert influence on career development (Gushue & Whitson, 2006). Parental involvement and support are vital to promoting adolescents' resilience and hope (Tubman & Lerne, 1994;Ginevra et al., 2015). Resilience and hope are two interactive and synergistic positive psychological capacities, which both have positive cognitive components and are vital to better career performance (Luthans et al., 2004;Zubair & Kamal, 2015). ...
Article
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Career-related parental support plays an important role in career adaptability. However, the condition and mechanism of parental career-related support on four dimensions of career adaptability are little known. Guided by the social cognitive career theory, positive psychological capital theory, and career construction theory, the current study investigates resilience and hope as two potential mediators between career-related parental support and different aspects of career adaptability. A sample of 636 vocational high school students responded to this study. The results indicated that: (a) students who often discussed future career plans with their parents had a higher level of career concern, career control, career curiosity, and career confidence than those who occasionally or never discussed future career plans; (b) career-related parental support positively related to the four dimensions of career adaptability; (c) parental career-related support was associated with more resilience, which related to a higher level of hope; ultimately, more hope related to higher career adaptabilities (i.e., career concern, career control, career curiosity, and career confidence); (d) parental career-related support related to different aspects of career adaptability through indirect pathways by more resilience or more hope. These findings advise educators to give various career-related support and pertinent career training to vocational high school students.
... Moreover, parents play a significant role in shaping certain psychological factors, such as personality (Schofield et al., 2012), values (Palos¸& Drobot, 2010), interests (Ferry, 2006), and talents (Olszewski-Kubilius, 2010), and these factors affect the career development of children (Caspi & Roberts, 2001;Isaacson & Brown, 2000). In addition to the broad consensus on the significant role of parents, post-modern theories and new career development models, such as life design counselling (Savickas et al., 2009), relational theory of working (Blustein, 2011), and happenstance learning theory (Krumboltz, 2009) also emphasise the influence of families on the career construction of their children (Ginevra et al., 2015;Korkut-Owen & Niles, 2016). ...
... A limited number of studies has examined the role of parents' perceptions of their support in the children and adolescents' career development (e.g. Ginevra et al., 2015;Nota et al., 2012;Porfeli et al., 2013;Restubog et al., 2010). Restubog et al. (2010) reported that both the adolescents' and parents' perceptions of parental support affected the adolescents' career choice via career self-efficacy. ...
... Restubog et al. (2010) reported that both the adolescents' and parents' perceptions of parental support affected the adolescents' career choice via career self-efficacy. Similarly, Ginevra et al. (2015) found that parents' perceptions of support predicted their adolescents' career choice through the mediating effect of the adolescents' perceptions of parental support and career self-efficacy. ...
Article
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The My Children’s Future Scale (MCFS) measures the support provided by parents for their children’s careers. The aim of this study was to adapt the MCFS to Turkish and examine its psychometric characteristics in a study conducted in the Turkish context. Participants consisted of 280 parents (190 mothers and 90 fathers). The factor structure of the MCFS and measurement invariance across parent gender were examined. The unidimensional factor structure was confirmed and the scale was invariant across parent gender. In addition, the reliability of the MCFS was assessed for internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Cronbach’s alpha and McDonald’s omega coefficients were calculated as .87, and test-retest reliability coefficient as .83. Our findings suggested that the Turkish form of the MCFS can be considered a valid and reliable data collection tool for use in Turkey to measure the support provided by parents for their children’s careers.
... Often children perceive lower levels of parents' involvement than their parents do (Liu et al., 2021). Although previous research on parental support in general indicates that parents' and children's report of parental support predicts academic achievement, especially children's report of parental support better predicts their self-efficacy and self-regulated learning (Bazán & Castellanos, 2015;Choe, 2020;Ginevra, Nota, & Ferrari, 2015). Children who perceive parental support in using the internet or developing skills consider themselves better solving several internet tasks (Vekiri, 2010;Aesaert & van Braak, 2014); they also rated their computer and internet self-efficacy, the importance of the internet, and the impact of the internet on their learning performance as higher when they feel supported by their parents (Lei & Zhou, 2012). ...
... Children who perceive parental support in using the internet or developing skills consider themselves better solving several internet tasks (Vekiri, 2010;Aesaert & van Braak, 2014); they also rated their computer and internet self-efficacy, the importance of the internet, and the impact of the internet on their learning performance as higher when they feel supported by their parents (Lei & Zhou, 2012). Further, children's perception of parents' involvement often mediates the influence of events in their environment on their behavior and learning (Festl & Langmeyer, 2018;Ginevra et al., 2015;. Going beyond the Parental Involvement Model by Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (2005) we wished to evaluate the mediating power of parents' perceived parental instruction (Eccles & Harold, 1996). ...
... Previous research on parental support in general reveals, that children's and parents' perceptions of support predict different outcome variables (Bazán & Castellanos, 2015;Choe, 2020;Ginevra et al., 2015). Further, children's perceived parental support mediates the influence of the predictors within the family on a child's outcome variables (Festl & Langmeyer, 2018;Ginevra et al., 2015;. ...
Article
Internet use is significant in the everyday lives of children and can be distinguished into different uses (e.g., entertainment-related, informative or school-related). When considering the literature on internet inquiries, the family as an informal place of learning is of particular importance. Although some predictors within the family (e.g., structural factors) are widely researched, comprehensive results on the influence of parental involvement, especially parental instruction as a form of parental support during information-related internet activities, on different internet uses are still lacking. Therefore, the study investigates (1) the relationship of parental role construction, self-efficacy, internet skills, and parental instruction in information-related internet use perceived by parents and children and (2) the relationship of parental role construction, self-efficacy, internet skills, parental instruction, and children's internet uses at home (entertainment-related, practical and school-or-learning-related). The mediation effects of parental instruction were also tested. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was answered by 361 German children and their parents. Structural equation modeling was applied to answer the research questions. We observed that children's perceived parental instruction was positively associated with children's practical and school-or-learning-related internet use. Parents' motivational factors were the strongest predictors for parents' perceived parental instruction The findings have significant implications for research and practice on how parents can be more active in fulfilling their role as supporters for children's internet use.
... According to our research findings, majority of high achievers and low achievers adopted their career by choice, but their performance was not promising. Evidence from a literature supported that career adoption of students by their choice increased their motivation to pass exams 10 , while another study concluded that parents helping their children choose a career, proved to be a better choice 11 . Passion for career should be the goal, rather than forced decision 11 . ...
... Evidence from a literature supported that career adoption of students by their choice increased their motivation to pass exams 10 , while another study concluded that parents helping their children choose a career, proved to be a better choice 11 . Passion for career should be the goal, rather than forced decision 11 . The results of our study indicated that students did not prefer to consult parents when facing difficulties, instead chose friends. ...
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Objective: To determine the attitudes and practices of high and low achievers in their academic years Methodology: A cross sectional study was done in six months after IRB approval. A total of 372 students who appeared in 1st, 2nd , 3 rd and 4th professional examinations, from FMHC were enrolled through proportionate sampling. Participants were randomly interviewed about their attitudes and practices, and then stratified into high and low achievers. Data was compiled and analysed by SPSS software version 21. Results: Out of 372 students, 237(64%) were High Achievers and 135(36%) were Low Achievers. Of all students,203(85.7%) High Achievers and 100(74.1%) Low Achievers(p=0.008) adopted their career by their own choice. More than half of the high and low achievers(p=0.032) (p=0.001) learnt by visual learning and reading textbooks. Consultation with friends and teachers and attending lectures while being attentive played a significant role in their academic performance. High achievers 122(51.5%) studied 1 to 4 hours a day (p=0.049). Majority of high and low achievers, 228(96.2%) and 119(88.1%) (p=0.004) preferred to take study breaks. Almost 209(88.2%) high and 106(78.5%)low achievers(p=0.016) preferred to organize their syllabus. Conclusion: The academic performance of high achievers was due to studying 1-4 hours per day, consulting teachers for their problems, using visual aid and reading to learn, attentiveness in lectures, study breaks, and organising their syllabus.
... Adolescents with ADHD who have positive relationships with their mothers exhibit less external conflict about their career choices. This result is consistent with research findings from Dipeolu et al. (2014) and Ginevra et al. (2015) indicating that mothers tend to be more involved in the lives of their children with disabilities compared with fathers. A perceived positive relationship with one's mother suggests a higher level of social-emotional adjustment and, when applied to the career-planning process for students with ADHD, may lead to lower scores on the EC subscale. ...
... Richardson (2017) emphasized that, when one is implementing a relational model of intervention, the focus should be on facilitating agentic action. Research has suggested that adolescents may benefit more from career counseling when family members are included in counseling sessions (Ginevra et al., 2015;Lustig & Xu, 2018). Our results suggest that career development professionals should disseminate relevant information to inform mothers about their sons' career development and postschool transition planning. ...
Article
Attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to cause significant difficulties in interpersonal relationships. Empirical research in career development has demonstrated that close, supportive relationships are associated with positive vocational behaviors (Kenny et al., 2018). We examined dysfunctional career thoughts and perceived quality of parental relationships in high school students with ADHD. One hundred two adolescents (76 boys, 26 girls) with ADHD responded to measures of career thoughts and interpersonal relationship quality. Preliminary exploratory analysis, using multiple linear regression, showed that male participants' dysfunctional career thoughts were statistically significantly related to their relationships with their mothers. For female participants, relationships with fathers represented an area for further exploration. Results suggest that career professionals can enhance positive outcomes of decision‐making and problem‐solving issues in adolescence with additional focus on relational interventions. Future research should incorporate the influence of gender and race/ethnicity on crucial relationships and focus on paternal relationships using cognitive information processing–based interventions with this population.
... Flouriová a Buchananová (2002) u britských adolescentů zjistily, že jedinci, jejichž rodiče pro ně představují pozitivní vzory, vykazují vyšší úroveň kariérové zralosti. V období počátku kariérového rozvoje se rodiče u svých dětí podílejí také na formování profesních zájmů (Turner et al., 2004) a profesních aspirací (Cheng & Yuen, 2011), pomáhají jim při stanovování si kariérových cílů (Dietrich & Salmela-Aro, 2013), motivují je, aby těchto cílů dosahovaly, a pomáhají jim, když musí čelit náročným vzdělávacím a profesním rozhodnutím (Garcia et al., 2012;Ginevra et al., 2015). Rodičovská podpora navíc dokáže snížit stres, který děti zažívají při náročných situacích spojených s profesní cestou (Ong et al., 2006;Restubog et al., 2010). ...
... Na základě předchozích výzkumných poznatků lze předpokládat, že absence podpory z uvedených sociálních zdrojů či její nedostatečná úroveň se negativně promítají do kariérové sebedůvěry a do motivace k dosahování kariérových cílů (srov. Garcia et al., 2012;Ginevra et al., 2015). Získaná data naznačují, že žáci se snaží nedostatek rodičovské podpory a podpory učitelů saturovat hledáním pomoci u svých přátel, ale zdá se, že tato strategie uplatňovaná před ukončením středoškolského vzdělávání není příliš účinná z hlediska začlenění se na trh práce. ...
Book
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ENGLISH: Living in today’s rushed time full of various changes increases the demands on the individual’s ability to adapt to these changes. Career adaptability plays an important role in coping with changing demands in the field of work. What is career adaptability? Why is it important, and what does it affect? The answers to these questions and many others are provided in the monograph, entitled “Career adaptability: Its Forms, Changes, Contexts, and Roles in the Lives of Young Adults Undergoing Upper-Secondary Vocational Education,” which is the first publication written on this topic in the Czech language. In the book, a team of authors presents the construct of career adaptability and the results of unique research carried out in the Czech Republic. In the first part, the reader may find an analytical overview of various concepts of career adaptability and related concepts. The central part of the publication is devoted to the results of quantitatively conducted longitudinal research, which aimed to identify career adaptability and its relationships to several demographic, school, relational, and personality variables in the case of students and later graduates of upper-secondary vocational education—those who are in the crucial stages of their career construction. Many empirical findings concentrated in this book are beneficial not only for the career counseling theories and research on career adaptability but also for vocational education or career counseling practitioners. ČEŠTINA: Život v dnešní uspěchané době plné nejrůznějších změn zvyšuje nároky na schopnosti jedince přizpůsobovat se těmto změnám. Významnou roli při zvládání měnících se nároků v pracovní oblasti hraje kariérová adaptabilita. Co to je kariérová adaptabilita? Proč je důležitá a co ovlivňuje? Odpovědi na tyto otázky i řadu dalších přináší monografie s názvem „Kariérová adaptabilita: její podoby, proměny, souvislosti a role v životě mladých dospělých procházejících středním odborným vzděláváním“. Autorský tým v knize, která je první česky psanou publikací na toto téma, představuje konstrukt kariérové adaptability a výsledky ojedinělého výzkumu realizovaného v České republice. V první části čtenář najde analytický přehled různých pojetí kariérové adaptability a příbuzných konceptů. Hlavní část publikace je věnována výsledkům kvantitativně vedeného longitudinálního výzkumu, jehož cílem bylo poznat kariérovou adaptabilitu a její vztahy k řadě vybraných demografických, školních, sociálních a osobnostních proměnných u žáků a později absolventů středního odborného vzdělávání – tedy těch, kteří se nacházejí v klíčové fázi konstruování své kariéry. Mnohá empirická zjištění koncentrovaná právě v této knize jsou přínosná nejen pro rozvoj teorií kariérového poradenství a výzkum kariérové adaptability, ale i pro odborné vzdělávání či praxi kariérového poradenství.
... It will help children imagine their career path and achieve their goals so that they can have the confidence to overcome these when faced with difficulties. Therefore, in the career counseling process, parental involvement is the main contributor to career success (Ginevra et al., 2015). ...
... This can be achieved by providing a learning environment that supports and involves students in various school activities (Tang et al., 2019). Besides, parents and children also need to establish communication to understand appropriate techniques and strategies to encourage children's exploration and increase children's confidence that their parents support their career ambition (Ginevra et al., 2015). In the career counseling process, it is important to involve parents to create interactive dialogue and understand what both the parents and the children want. ...
Article
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The transition period from school to the world of work is a critical time that affects determining one's career. This study aims to examine the role of grit and parent-child communication in students’ career adaptability. Using a purposive sampling technique, the study involved 218 High School (SMA) students and 124 Vocational High School (SMK) students in Salatiga, Indonesia. The measurement instruments used in the research were the career adaptability scale, grit scale, and parent-child communication scale. The results show that the R-value was 0.595 and the adjusted R squared (R2) value was 0.354. The significance value generated from the regression test was 0.000 (p<0.05). Based on the calculation results, it can be concluded that grit and communication between parents and children together play a significant role in career adaptability. The research implication is that students’ grit and effective parent-child communication should be developed to improve career adaptability.
... Consistent with this theoretical framework, many studies have begun to integrate the influence of individuals and the environment on career maturity, such as family socioeconomic status and time insight (Kim & Oh, 2013), social support, and self-directed learning ability (Ju & Lee, 2019). Parental support affects adolescents' career development (Flouri & Buchanan, 2002;Ginevra et al., 2015;Restubog et al., 2010), and although some studies have shown that career-related parental support is associated with adolescent career maturity (Lim & You, 2019), few studies have examined how career-related parental support affects adolescents' career maturity. There may be mediators and moderators in the relationship between career-related parental support and adolescent career maturity. ...
... Second, this study used a self-report method to measure the variables, and the career-related parental support scale did not differentiate between support from fathers and that from mothers. Previous research has revealed gender differences in terms of parental support, with mothers being more supportive of their children's career development than fathers (Ginevra et al., 2015). In the traditional Chinese family, responsibility for child rearing is still assigned to the mother, so future research could collect data more comprehensively and use objective behavioral indicators of parental support to measure support from fathers and that from mothers separately to more comprehensively explore the impact of family factors, as a social resource, on career maturity. ...
Article
Based on the career resources model (Hirschi, 2012), the current study examined the mechanism underlying the relationship between career-related parental support and adolescents’ career maturity by investigating the mediating role of future time perspective. In addition, the moderating role of core self-evaluation in the relationship between career-related parental support and future time perspective was explored. A two-wave survey was conducted with 225 Chinese middle school students. The results showed that career-related parental support positively affected future time perspective and career maturity. Moreover, future time perspective was found to play a completely mediating role in the relationship between career-related parental support and career maturity. Furthermore, the mediating effect of future time perspective was moderated by core self-evaluation; for higher levels of core self-evaluation, the mediating effect was more substantial. The results indicated that social and psychological resources could promote adolescents’ career development.
... Komitmen untuk perencanaan dan implementasi karir terkait dengan keyakinan siswa dalam membuat keputusan karir (Chung, 2002).Gejala rendahnya komitmen karir oleh peserta didik yang belum memiliki kesiapan dalam memilih dan mengambil keputusan karir apabila dibiarkan berlanjut akan menyebabkan kebingungan terkait dengan perencanaan dan dapat menyebabkan kesalahan dalam pengambilan keputusan karir. Orang tua merupakan sumber utama dukungan sosial bagi anak (Ginevra, Nota, & Ferrari, 2015). Dukungan sosial orang tua merupakan peran orang tua dalam mengasuh anak yang melibatkan kedekatan emosional layaknya seperti teman, kerabat, tetangga dan teman sebaya tanpa mengharapkan bayaran (Armstrong et al., 2005).Farmer dan Chung (1995) menyatakan bahwa komitmen karir diprediksi oleh jenis kelamin, konsep diri, kesetaraan keluarga, gaya prestasi kompetitif, kesuksesan dengan upaya, nilai prestasi, dukungan orang tua, dukungan guru dan dukungan untuk wanita bekerja. ...
... Salah satu faktor dari Farmer dan Chung (1995) yang mempengaruhi komitmen karir adalah dukungan sosial orang tua. Orang tua sebagai sumber utama dukungan sosial mempengaruhi keyakinan diri remaja dalam pengembangan minat, niat dan tujuan karir (Ginevra et al., 2015). Berdasarkan fenomena tersebut peneliti tertarik ingin meneliti hubungan antara dukungan sosial orang tua dengan komitmen karir pada siswa SMA dan SMK, hipotesis yang diajukan peneliti yaitu ada hubungan positif antara dukungan sosial orang tua dengan komitmen karir pada siswa SMA dan SMK dan ada perbedaan komitmen karir pada siswa SMA dan SMK. ...
Conference Paper
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This research aimed to determine the correlation between social support of parents and career commitment in senior high school and vocational high school, and determine the differences between student's career commitment in senior high school and vocational high school. The dependent variable was career commitment, and the independent variable was the social support of parents. This research used a quantitative method. The samples analyzed were of 736 students of senior high school students and vocational high school in Demak Regency. The data collection of this study used to methods Career Maturity Inventory Form-C (CMI Form-C) and scale of social support. CMI Form-C amounted 6 items with item total correlation 0,335-0,428 and internal consistency equal to 0,731. The scale of social support amounted 40 items with item-total correlation 0,317-0,721 and internal consistency alpha= 0,941. In this research the data analysis used Product Moment correlation technique of Pearson and One Way-Anova. Based on the results of Product Moment analysis obtained amount -0,066 with significance level p=0,036 ( p<0,05). The result showed that there was no significant correlation between social support of parents and student's career commitment in senior high school and vocational high school. The result of statistics of One Way-Anova was F=9,119 with significance 0,003 (<0,01) and the average value of senior high school students 19,344 higher than the average value of vocational high school 17,672. The result showed that there was a different in career commitment between senior high school and vocational high school. Future researchers who wish to examine career commitment was expected to be able to use the rating model response option.
... Parents have the potential to influence adolescent work choices through how parents present information about work, values, and experiences provided to adolescents (Santrock, 2007). Parental support is a contextual variable that greatly affects the career development process of young children because of its role in facilitating access to various types of school and career opportunities (Ginevra, Nota, & Ferrari, 2015). This opinion is also supported by Turner & Lapan (Simões, 2014) which states that parental support is an effort to provide assistance to individuals from primary caregivers in forms such as instrumental assistance, emotional support, verbal encouragement, and career-related modeling. ...
... It can be seen that students who often ask parents about career planning are able to prepare themselves for entering a career (Barbour, 2016;Zhang, Yuen, & Chen, 2015). Through parent support also students will be able to make career planning and career decisions (Ginevra, et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Career planning is the first step of students in achieving success. One factor that plays a role in career planning is parental support. The purpose of this study is to measure the support of parents in vocational student career planning. The aspects of parental support in this study are, 1) emotional support, 2) esteem support, 3) instrumental support, and 4) information support. This study involved 112 students drawn from classes X, XI and XII. The sampling technique uses stratified random sampling. The results showed that parental support played an important role in student career planning.
... Adolescents with ADHD who have positive relationships with their mothers exhibit less external conflict about their career choices. This result is consistent with research findings from Dipeolu et al. (2014) and Ginevra et al. (2015) indicating that mothers tend to be more involved in the lives of their children with disabilities compared with fathers. A perceived positive relationship with one's mother suggests a higher level of social-emotional adjustment and, when applied to the career-planning process for students with ADHD, may lead to lower scores on the EC subscale. ...
... Richardson (2017) emphasized that, when one is implementing a relational model of intervention, the focus should be on facilitating agentic action. Research has suggested that adolescents may benefit more from career counseling when family members are included in counseling sessions (Ginevra et al., 2015;Lustig & Xu, 2018). Our results suggest that career development professionals should disseminate relevant information to inform mothers about their sons' career development and postschool transition planning. ...
Article
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to cause significant difficulties in interpersonal relationships. Empirical research in career development has demonstrated that close, supportive relationships are associated with positive vocational behaviors. We examined dysfunctional career thoughts and perceived quality of parental relationships in high school students with ADHD. A total of 102 adolescents (26 girls, 76 boys) with ADHD responded to measures of career thoughts and interpersonal relationship quality. Preliminary exploratory analysis, using multiple linear regression, showed that males’ dysfunctional career thoughts were statistically significantly related to their relationships with their mothers. For females, relationships with fathers represented an area for further exploration. Results suggest career professionals can enhance positive outcomes of decision-making and problem-solving issues in adolescence with additional focus on relational interventions. Future research should incorporate the influence of gender and ethnicity on crucial relationships, and focus on paternal relationships using CIP-based interventions with this population.
... Furthermore, education (Zacher, 2014), training (Hlad o, Lazarová, & Hloušková, 2019;Koen et al., 2012), academic achievement (Negru-Subtirica & Pop, 2016), work volition (Autin, Douglass, Duffy, England, & Allan, 2017), and career calling (Praskova, Hood, & Creed, 2014) have been identified as significant predictors of career adaptability. Career adaptability is not only influenced by factors within the individual, but it is also positively associated with factors connected with social background, more specifically, career adaptability has been found to be positively associated with perceived social support, particularly with parental support, perceived teacher or school support, and peer support (Ebenehi, Rashid, & Bakar, 2016;Ginevra, Nota, & Ferrari, 2015;Y. Guan et al., 2013;Y. ...
... Moreover, especially during initial phases of career development, parents shape career interests (Turner, Steward, & Lapan, 2004), career aspirations (Cheng & Yuen, 2011), and take part in their children's career planning and career decision-making. Specifically, they assist them with formulating academic and career goals (Dietrich & Salmela-Aro, 2013), motivate them to pursue these goals, and help them when facing difficult career decisions (Garcia, Restubog, Toledano, Tolentino, & Rafferty, 2011;Ginevra, Nota, & Ferrari, 2015). Moreover, parents can diminish the effect of stressful career-related challenges (Ong, Phinney, & Dennis, 2006;Restubog, Florentino, & Garcia, 2010). ...
Article
This study used a sample of 3,028 vocational upper secondary Czech students to validate the measurement model of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale—Czech Form, assessing concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as the psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. We moreover examined the associations of parental psychosocial support, parental instrumental support (action), teacher support, and peer support with the four components of career adaptability. As expected, social support provided by significant others was positively associated with career adaptability. Diverse sources of social support related differently to various career adaptability components. Career concern and confidence were associated simultaneously with parental psychosocial support, teacher support, and peer support while control was associated only with the parental and friend support and curiosity was associated with the social support from teachers and friends. Moreover, parental instrumental support did not show any significant link to career adaptability components.
... Regarding the affection of competence in relating to parents, this result confirms the role of the perception of a relational support environment in experiencing a satisfactory training context (Cantor and Sanderson 1999;Suldo et al. 2008). Moreover, in the literature on professional and educational guidance, many studies have underlined the role of parents in students' career choices and development (Blustein 2011;Ginevra et al. 2015;Kenny and Medvide 2013;Schultheiss 2003). Parents can affect university choice, academic achievements (Wintre and Yaffe 2000), college adjustment, and success (Boyd et al. 1997). ...
Article
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Retention and persistence in college are related to academic adjustment and success. Academic adjustment is the ability of students to deal with educational demands and feel satisfied with the academic environment. Academic adjustment is affected by both cognitive dimensions and non-intellective factors, and it is related to academic satisfaction. The aim of the study presented was to understand whether and how non-intellective factors related to academic performance affect college satisfaction both directly and with the mediation of academic performance. The participants included 661 Italian university students, and the survey was composed of the college competence scale, the college satisfaction scale, the average grade, and an efficiency index. The results revealed that each area of an individual’s non-intellective competence affects at least one specific domain satisfaction area, without the mediation of the performance’s indicators.
... Parents play a critical role in their children's educational and career paths and socialization (Ginevra et al., 2015;Heddy and Sinatra, 2017;Niles and Harris-Bowlsbey, 2017). According to Sharf (2006), children's relationship with their parents will influence what educational and career paths the children will take. ...
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In this study, we highlight the importance of high school students having a college-attending and career-ready mindset in STEM fields. With this purpose, we adopted a stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine which variables are significant predictors of students' STEM college learning and career orientation. The participants were 1,105 high school students from nine randomly selected high schools across greater Houston Texas. Forty-two percent of the variance on STEM college learning and career orientation as an outcome variable can be explained by six predictor variables: (a) parental involvement; (b) STEM related activities engagement; (c) academic experience; (d) teacher effective pedagogy; (e) technology/facilities; and (f) self-esteem. The results indicate that when students received support from teachers and parents, they could develop more positive attitudes toward future post-secondary education and career pathways in STEM fields.
... Nevertheless, the importance of parental involvement for students' outcomes (e.g. competence, school and learning outcomes) has been established in research (van Aken and Riksen-Walraven 1992;Froiland and Davison 2014;Luo et al. 2013), together with its influence on other domains like the career development of adolescents (Ginevra, Nota and Ferrari 2015). Hence, parental involvement in students' schooling should be considered, particularly for students with SEN in vocational education, since they are close to the start of their working life. ...
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There has been an increased focus on listening to students’ voices in inclusive education in the last decade. To ensure the right of students to be heard and educational needs can be met in the Dutch education system, we set up a qualitative study to gain more insight into: 1) the problems that students experience at school, 2) how and from whom they can receive support for their problems, 3) how students evaluate the received extra educational support and 4) how they evaluate its impact. We interviewed 72 students who were assessed for learning problems or social-emotional and/or behavioural problems in secondary education (n = 33) or vocational education (n = 39). The interviews focused on both learning problems and social participation problems. The results show that students do not only experience learning problems or social-emotional and/or behavioural problems, but other problems too, such as concentration and motivation problems. A considerable number of students also experience social participation problems. Students mainly receive individual or group support, which is given outside the classroom. In general, students are positive about the received support, due to the extra time, attention and opportunity to discuss problems that this gives them.
... Young and Friesen 1992) or of both the child and parent (e.g. Garcia et al. 2012;Ginevra et al. 2015;Keller and Whiston 2008). Because many areas of youth career development can involve or affect parents as well, it is important to examine the perspectives of both children and parents in order to understand how families can better navigate children's developmental milestones together and to support parents in taking steps that can positively influence their children's development. ...
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Background: Understanding the parental influences on the career development of non-engaged youth (NEY) has been an underdeveloped research area. Furthermore, psychometrically valid and reliable tools for assessing how parents of NEY support their children in dealing with career issues remain largely unavailable in academia. Objective: This research aimed to validate a quantitative measure for such assessments. Specifically, the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Parent Career Behavior Checklist (C-PCBC) in a sample of NEY and their parents were examined. Method: Through a community-based project providing career counseling and development services for NEY in different districts of Hong Kong, 142 parent–child dyads completed parallel versions of C-PCBC and other related questionnaires. A multi-group confirmatory factor analyses examining NEY and their parents was conducted. Results: The results demonstrated an acceptable model fit and confirmed a 22-item twofold factor structure, namely parental psychosocial support and parental career-related actions. Moreover, the construct validity of the C-PCBC was supported by significant correlations with parenting and youth development measures. Substantial perceptual differences between NEY and their parents on the degree of parental psychosocial support and parental career-related actions were also found. Conclusions: The present research indicates that the C-PCBC possesses acceptable psychometric properties. However, the results indicate that NEY and their parents have different perceptions of parental involvement, suggesting a lack of parent–child communication and mismatches in expectations. The findings here have implications for how parental support and parent–child relationships should be addressed when providing career counseling and development programs for NEY.
... Penelitian Putra, (2018) menunjukkan bentuk dukungan yang dilakukan orangtua di Indonesia adalah memberikan saran dan nasihat, menyekolahkan anak ke jenjang pendidikan selanjutnya, memberi kesempatan anak untuk beraktivitas dan mengembangkan diri, memberi informasi terkait pilihan sekolah, berdiskusi dan memberi pemahaman tentang karier serta mengarahkan anak mencapai cita-citanya. Studi lain menunjukkan bahwa semakin tinggi dukungan orangtua maka semakin mampu remaja menghadapi tugas dalam merencanakan karier, mencari informasi dan menentukan pilihan (Ginevra et al., 2015). ...
... These career problems must be solved. If left unchecked it can result in psychological developments that appear in behavior, such as lack of enthusiasm in learning, not confident, feeling confused, incompatible career planning with self-potential that will make students unhappy [12,13]. ...
... A atuação da mãe ainda continua a ter destaque sobre a carreira de sua prole, tal como já havia sido observado por Whiston e Keller (2004). Estudos sobre autoeficácia para decisões de carreira (Ginevra et al., 2015;Lee & Kim, 2015), estilos parentais (Koumoundourou et al., 2011) e apego (Emanuelle, 2009) identificaram uma atuação mais acentuada da mãe. ...
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Resumo A família tem sido foco de diversos estudos sobre sua influência no processo de tomada de decisão de carreira. Contudo, foram identificadas poucas revisões sobre o assunto. Nesse sentido, o presente artigo fornece uma revi-são dos estudos publicados sobre o tema entre 2002 e 2016. A seleção de trabalhos utilizou métodos de revisão sistemática e a análise manteve o caráter narrativo. Os resultados confirmam a divisão entre fatores de processo e estruturais da influência familiar, os quais diferem em relação ao aspecto de carreira que abordam. Concluiu-se que existe a necessidade de aprofundar o conhecimento sobre a influência familiar em etapas específicas do pro-cesso de tomada de decisão de carreira, como a implementação e a investigação em contextos culturais diversos. Palavras-chave: família; tomada de decisão; escolha profissional Abstract: Family Influence on Career Decision Making: A Literature Review Several studies have focused on family influence on the career decision making process. However, a few reviews on the subject have been identified. In this sense, the present article provides a review of the studies on the subject published between 2002 and 2016. The selection of works was thought systematic review technics, and the analysis kept the narrative character. The results confirm the division between structural and process factors of family influence, which differ between them concerning the career aspect they address. It was concluded that there is a need to deepen the knowledge about family influence in specific stages of the career decision-making process, such as implementation and research in different cultural contexts. Resumen: Influencia Familiar en las Elecciones de Carrera: Una Revisión de Literatura La familia ha sido objeto de varios estudios sobre su influencia en el proceso de elección de carrera. Sin embargo, se han identificado pocas revisiones sobre el asunto. En ese sentido, el presente artículo proporciona una revisión de los estudios publicados entre 2002 y 2016 sobre el tema. Para la selección de los trabajos se utilizó el método de la revisión sistemática, y el análisis mantuvo un carácter narrativo. Los resultados confirman la división entre factores estructurales y de proceso de la influencia familiar que difieren en relación al aspecto de carrera que abordan. Se concluyó que existe la necesidad de profundizar el conocimiento sobre la influencia de la familia en etapas específicas del proceso en la elección de carrera, como la implementación y la investigación en diversos contextos culturales. Palabras clave: familia; toma de decisiones; elección de carrera 1 Endereço para correspondência: Pró
... Having parental support groups and teaching parents about time efficiency in career guidance programs would be well received by parents (Y. Choi et al., 2015;Ginevra et al., 2015). Parents and schools could foster cooperative relationships beyond the oversight of student learning to assist in students' career decision-making skills. ...
Article
Career decision‐making is a critical task for high school students, yet little is known about how career interventions affect their decision‐making skills and self‐efficacy. We investigated the outcome of a career intervention in a Chinese high school setting to determine whether it would reduce the difficulties students faced in making a career decision and elevate their self‐efficacy in career exploration. A career intervention course was delivered to 413 high school students (228 female, 185 male) who completed a demographic questionnaire, the Major Decision‐Making Self‐Efficacy Scale (Peng & Long, 2003), and the Career Decision‐Making Difficulties Questionnaire–Chinese Version (Shen, 2005) before and after the intervention. Results indicated that the intervention had a positive impact on reducing students' difficulties making career decisions but had mixed results on career self‐efficacy. Proactive, systematic, multilevel, and structured interventions over longer periods of time would likely help youth develop their career decision‐making skills.
... In recent years, there has been a growing research interest in understanding how family context shapes young people's career development (Ginevra et al., 2015). Parents have been identified as a more important source of influence on children's career development than school and peers (Hartung et al., 2005;Paa & McWhirter, 2000) and highlighted as a crucial social factor during students' educational and career transitions (Mortimer et al., 2002). ...
Article
Parents are a major influence on adolescents' career development. However, past studies have mostly explored general rather than career-specific parenting aspects. According to Dietrich and Kracke (2009) parental support, parental interference, and lack of parental career engagement are basic dimensions of career-specific parental behaviours. This study examined the relationship between these parental behaviours and career adaptability in a sample of high school students (N = 197; Mage = 16.79). The data were collected in a group online testing. Student career adaptability was measured with the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (Savickas & Porfeli, 2012) and parental career-specific behaviours were measured by the scale developed by Dietrich and Kracke (2009). Parental support emerged as the most important positive predictor of career adaptability since it predicted both global career adaptability and separate dimensions. Parental interference negatively predicted career control, career confidence, and overall career adaptability but only when parents' career engagement was higher. The results point out that in understanding parental influences in students' career development it is important to consider different parenting practices and also examine separate students' career adaptability resources. Parents should be helped to recognise their career-related parenting practices and to understand the potential of these behaviours in facilitating their children's career adaptability. Special counselling interventions should be provided for students who perceive that their parents are not providing enough career-related support.
... Perkembangan manusia mengacu pada tugas perkembangan manusia sepanjang hidupnya (Savickas, 1997), yang mana dalam penelitian ini mengacu pada perkembangan karir menurut Super (1980) yang memasuki tahap eksplorasi. Dilihat dari konteks sosial, sudah banyak penelitian yang melihat hubungan antara dukungan orang tua dengan adaptabilitas karir (Ebenehi et al., 2016;Ginevra et al., 2015;M. Guan et al., 2016;Han & Rojewski, 2014;Wang & Fu, 2015). ...
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Berbagai tantangan yang perlu dihadapi dengan adanya perubahan revolusi industri 4.0 yang membuat 75-375 juta pekerja mengalami pergeseran profesi. Bahkan, banyak profesi manapun terkena imbasnya karena digantikan dengan mesin-mesin. Selaras dengan perkembangan karier pada mahasiswa yang perlu untuk mengeksplor mengenai karier mereka. Hal tersebut menjadi tantangan terendiri bagi mahasiswa untuk beradaptasi dalam menghadapi perubahan revolusi ini. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menguji peran perilaku eksplorasi karier terhadap pengaruh dukungan teman pada adaptabilitas karier mahasiswa tingkat akhir. Partisipan penelitian berjumlah 538 mahasiswa di Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tanggerang, dan Bekasi (JABODETABEK). Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan metode convenience sampling. Penelitian ini menggunaan tiga alat ukur yaitu Career Related Peer Support (Zhang & Huang, 2018), Career Exploration Survey (Salim & Preston, 2019) dan Career Adapt-Ability Scale (Sulistiani, Suminar, dan Hendriani, 2018). Pengolahan data menggunakan simple mediation model 4 PROCESS for SPPS by Hayes. Hasil analisis mediasi menjelaskan bahwa dukungan teman mempengaruhi adaptabilitas karier pada mahasiswa tingkat akhir melalui perilaku eksplorasi karier secara penuh, dengan nilai indirect effect sebesar 0,1347. Mahasiswa yang mempersepsikan dukungan teman terkait karier cenderung memunculkan perilaku mencari informasi, mengikuti kegiatan terkait karier (magang, seminar, dll), dan meninjau kembali informasi yang mereka dapat yang berdampak pada peningkatkan kemampuan adaptabilitas karier dalam menghadapi berbagai tantangan untuk menghadapi transisi kuliah-ke-kerja.
... According to previous research on the social cognitive career theory, CDSE plays a key role in career planning and development (Chui et al., 2020;Gushue and Whitson 2006;Lent et al. 2001Lent et al. , 2003Lent et al. , 2005. In both Western and Eastern cultures, CDSE is also strongly influenced by parenting styles (Ginevra et al., 2015;Guan et al., 2016;Kiadarbandsari et al., 2016;Liu et al., 2015;Lustig et al., 2017;Roman et al., 2015;Wright et al., 2017). Fouad et al. (2010, in Sovet andMetz 2014) affirmed the family affects an individual's career-related decisions, through the provision of information and emotional and financial support. ...
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Career decision self-efficacy (CDSE), i.e., the ability to successfully make important career-related decisions, is influenced by perceived parenting styles, thinking styles, and gender. Thus, this non-experimental study examined the effects of these factors on the CDSE of 617 high school students in Jakarta, Indonesia. According to the measuring instruments (CDSE Scale-Short Form, Parental Authority Questionnaire, and Thinking and Styles Inventory-Revised II), the adolescents' CDSE was influenced by the authoritative and permissive parenting styles, and three types of thinking styles. Moreover, the thinking styles mediated the relationship between the perceived parenting styles and CDSE, while gender acted as a homologizer.
... The findings of this study, although not widely generalizable, do encourage career and professional school counselors to employ culturally specific classroom guidance programs focused on STEM career aspiration, such as parent training activities that foster parental awareness about the importance of supporting their high schoolers' career development (Ginevra et al., 2015) and enhancing the students' career and college readiness self-efficacy (Martinez et al., 2017). Such guidance programs might provide a unique platform for those students from either a collectivist or individualist cultural background to address career concerns in their immediate social context. ...
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Gender equity in STEM demands that girls and women are provided with learning experiences, opportunities, and resources that meet their educational and vocational goals. This study examined gender difference in STEM learning experience, parental involvement, and self-efficacy to predict STEM career aspiration of different sociocultural groups. Two independent samples of high school students, one recruited from a collectivist culture (Taiwanese sample, N = 590) and the other recruited randomly from an individualist culture (American sample, N = 590), were used to examine the differences. Findings suggested a greater gender difference in STEM learning experience, parental involvement, and STEM self-efficacy of students from the collectivist culture than students from the individualist culture. Results of logistic analyses showed differential prediction of STEM career aspiration in two different cultural contexts. Findings were discussed in light of socio-cultural contexts. Keywords: gender difference, stem career aspiration, social-cognitive career theory, individualism and collectivism, high school student ender equity in education and career development has been a social and political issue for policymakers, educators, and researchers around the world. Concerns about the gender gap in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) participation and inadequate preparation of female high school students are pervasive and drawing considerable research attention
... Not listening to the needs of the child was pointed as leading to academic failure. According to research, parental behaviors such as warmth, acceptance, support, and involvement and parent-child relationships where the parents portrays openness, closeness, and warmth have been pointed as powerful tools to promote a positive socioemotional, behavioral, and academic development (Garthe et al. 2015;Ginevra et al. 2015;Shumow and Lomax 2002;Surjadi et al. 2011;Wang and Sheikh-Khalil 2014;Wilder 2014). ...
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Introduction Studies have shown that a child’s learning in school is affected by several factors, some related to the school environment, others to the home and community while others are as a result of the individual characteristics of the child. This study sought to explore parents’ and teachers’ perceptions of factors that affect learning of children in primary schools in a rural County in Kenya. Methods This was a qualitative study that adopted the phenomenological approach. It was conducted with parents and teachers of 7 primary schools in rural and semi-rural areas of Kiambu County in Kenya. Using a researcher developed guide, data was collected using focus group discussion with parents and teachers. The discussions were conducted as follows: four were conducted in English language, two in Kiswahili language, and three were conducted in the local language and all were audio taped. Research assistants also took notes during the discussions. Results were transcribed verbatim and those that needed to be translated into English were translated. In analysis, MA, MM, and MT read the transcripts and coded the major themes. Results Four themes perceived by both parents and teachers to affect a child’s learning emerged. These were school environment, home, community, and factors within the child. Conclusion There is need for both teachers and parents to come together and discuss perceived factors that interfere with learning of the children. Those that form a consensus for both groups, means to address them be found for better academic success of the child.
... Other research has found that parental support (measured in terms of showing interest in child's aspirations and offering career advice) positively predicted career certainty (Fernandes & Bance, 2015;Marcionetti & Rossier, 2017), while the lack of engagement in career matters from parents increased career indecision among children (Dietrich & Kracke, 2009). Ginevra et al. (2015) found that perceived parental support increases a student's self-confidence which in turn increases clarity in career-and future-related thoughts. Similarly, research shows that teacher support also enhances students' confidence levels and hence increases positivity in career thoughts (Garcia et al., 2015). ...
... For example, parents' intrinsically-oriented motivational practices are positively related to high school students' math performance and STEM persistence ) and their collegegoing self-efficacy beliefs (Gibbons & Borders, 2010). Considering contexts other than the U.S., an analysis of Italian adolescents found parental support was indirectly related to the adolescents' career choice by way of the adolescents' perceptions of parental support and career self-efficacy (Ginevra et al., 2015). ...
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Using social cognitive career theory (SCCT), we examined the career development of students in sex-typed postsecondary Vocational Technical Education (VTE) programs in the Chilean context. We assessed the moderating effects of students’ socioeconomic background, sex, membership to the sex-atypical group, and the intersection of these attributes across SCCT measures and the model’s predicted relationships. The results showed that students in sex-atypical careers, particularly low-income students, perceived supports and barriers differently, and that supports and barriers have different effects on self-efficacy and outcome beliefs. We also found differences between female and male students in these careers path, which suggests that the former face more challenges. However, we also found that their career development process unfolds similarly, suggesting that strategies designed to support these groups may be equally helpful for female and male students. We discuss the findings in light of prior literature and offer practical implications for VTE institutions.
... According to Winemiller, there are five forms of social support, namely emotional support or self-esteem, instrumental support, and information support, appreciation support, and friendship support [15]. The results of the research conducted by Givenra, Nota, and Ferrari [16] have shown that parentsand#39; perceptions of support will predict the parental support that adolescents feel. In addition, adolescent perceptions of parental support will indirectly predict career choice through the mediating effect of career decision confidence. ...
... A similar finding is expressed by Xing and Rojewski [16] who have found that parental support is statistically significant factor in predicting a career decision-making process. Ginevra, Nota, and Ferrari [17] in their research claim that parents must be involved early in vocational or career development. [5] Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 530 state that the role of parents toward youth selfpromotion in making career decisions can be seen from parental efforts to encourage youth to follow a parent's career or pursue a career recommended by parents. ...
... Support of PCRB and APCC at time 1 were positively associated with CDMSE at time 2, indicating that a higher level of support of PCRB and APCC would increase the level of CDMSE. The support part being associated with CDMSE positively is consistent with previous research that showed adolescents who have supportive parents tend to have a higher level of CDMSE (Ginevra et al., 2015;Guan et al., 2015). It is also consistent with the finding that parental support is positively related to adolescents' career adaptability, which is a more general career competency among a group of Chinese adolescents (Liang, 2016). ...
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Our current research aimed to investigate the mediating relationship between Parental Career-Related Factors, adolescents’ Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy, and Ambivalence in Career Decision-Making with a total of 605 students from China. We collected data at three different time points, with a 6-month interval between each time point. Then we applied a Cross-Lagged Panel Model using data from all three waves, and the results showed that a higher level of support in Parental Career-Related Behaviors and Adolescent Parent Career Congruence measured at time 1 positively predicted Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy at time 2; Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy at time 2 negatively predicted Ambivalence in Career Decision-Making at time 3; and the indirect effect of support in Parental Career-Related Behaviors and Adolescent Parent Career Congruence on Ambivalence in Career Decision-Making was significant. Therefore, Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy mediated the relationship between support in Parental Career-Related Behaviors and Ambivalence in Career Decision-Making and between Adolescent Parent Career Congruence and Ambivalence in Career Decision-Making. The implications, limitations, and future direction are discussed.
... Most of these studies were cross-sectional (e.g. Cutrona et al., 1994;Ferry et al., 2000;Ginevra et al., 2015;Guan et al., 2016;Keller & Whiston, 2008;Navarro et al., 2007;Shen et al., 2014;Stringer et al., 2010;Turner & Lapan, 2002) or qualitative (Fouad et al., 2008;Schultheiss et al., 2001). The strongest evidence for the endowment account comes from time-lagged studies (e.g. ...
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Conventional wisdom views the parent-child relationship as unilateral: Parents' actions upstream flow downstream to shape their children's development. However, scholars have proposed that this view of parenting is lopsided; children may influence their parents no less than parents influence children. We apply this bilateral perspective in a reexamination of the robust finding that confident people report having had more supportive parents. The social-cognitive explanation for this finding is that parents endow their children with support that builds confidence. However, evolutionary accounts suggest that confident children-displaying more promise and potential-ought to attract their parents' investments of support. We examined these predictions in a four-wave longitudinal study drawing on both archival and field survey data from 350 STEM students (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) in the Philippines. Results were consistent with the bilateral perspective, in which parental support endowed children with confidence, but also children's confidence attracted parental support in equal measure. These reciprocal relations also had implications for whether or not students persisted in their computer science degrees. The results indicate that parental endowments of confidence and parental investments of support form a virtuous cycle, consistent with the perspective that self-efficacy operates not only as an intrapsychic resource allocator but also as an interpersonal resource attractor. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... In line with this, a study by Bosley et al. (2009) created a typology of career shapers highlighting the role played by 'informal others' including the family, supporting previous research identifying family as an important source of advice and guidance (e.g. Dietrich et al., 2011;Ginevra et al., 2015). ...
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If HR managers wish to influence the careers of professional staff, it is important to understand their career aspirations and what determines them. This paper reports a study of the experiences of black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) women professionals that shape their careers and working lives. Qualitative data from 39 interviews identifies a distinct set of influences on their career decisions linked to the intersection of their gender and ethnic identities. In particular, it reveals how the mechanisms of fit and accommodation play a role in shaping career adjustment. The paper contributes to career theory by demonstrating the role of mesostructures in the form of career scripts in exploring the interplay between individual agency and structure. It also contributes by incorporating reference group theory and highlighting the role of reference groups in shaping and transmitting career scripts. In so doing it reveals the potential longer-term implications for careers of relational influences on career choice. The analysis highlights the need for HR managers and HR researchers to be aware of the hidden influences on the career decisions of BAME women.
... The parents' influence on the careers of their children is quite significant. Supportive parents provide their children with the resources needed and know how to participate in career exploration and import- ant decisions [82][83][84][85]. All the participants reported that their parents, most of the times, actively refrained from openly influencing their choices. ...
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Using the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as the theoretical background and Thematic Analysis as the methodology, this qualitative study explores factors that intrinsically or extrinsically motivated or demotivated students through their course to higher education. Six Greek senior high school graduates discussed their school experiences in semi-structured interviews. Using a top-down, deductive, descriptive / non-interpretative analytic strategy the content of the interviews was analysed. six subthemes were identified, divided in two main group themes: The roles of tutors, grades, and module experientiality were explored as parts of the educational environment; also, the role of choice, the need for sense, meaning, and utility value, and finally the roles of their parents, as parts of the family and student environment. The analysis of the narrative content of the interviews revealed ways in which schools and families interact with students, satisfying or thwarting their needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, and thus promoting or hindering their intrinsic motivation. Using the explanatory, and in many cases predictive capacity of SDT, the results outline some focus points for future research and possibly future interventions to promote intrinsic motivation of Greek students.
Article
Introduction: The current study investigated the developmental trajectory of adolescents' career decision-making self-efficacy (self-efficacy) and ambivalence in career decision-making (ambivalence) as well as the longitudinal impact of career-related parental behaviors (parental behaviors) on self-efficacy and self-efficacy on ambivalence. Methods: We recruited 588 students from two elementary schools and three middle schools from city of Guangzhou, Province Guangdong in China. Participants were from Grade 4 to Grade 9 with an average age of 11.88 (SD = 1.63), 321 (54.6%) were male, and 9 (1.53%) were missing for gender. We applied a latent growth model using data from all three waves. Results and conclusion: After applying a latent growth model using data from all three waves, the results have indicated that self-efficacy decreased as these participants transitioned from childhood to early adolescence, and that their ambivalence fell on an increasing trajectory. Cross-sectionally, it indicated that "support" of parental behaviors was positively associated with self-efficacy, and "interference" of parental behaviors was positively associated with ambivalence. Longitudinally, "interference" of parental behaviors was negatively predicting the change rate of self-efficacy. A predictive relation did not exist between self-efficacy and ambivalence, such that a negative correlation was observed on a cross-sectional level. Implications and limitations are discussed as well.
Chapter
The low standing of vocational education and training (VET) generates reluctance amongst young people and their parents to consider VET as a viable post-school option. A survey was developed and administered to verify and elaborate the findings from an earlier round of interviews. In all, 168 school-aged students, 148 schoolteachers, 296 vocational educators and 230 parents completed the online survey. They ranked (i) important factors in decision-making about post-school pathways; (ii) the influence of familiars on school students’ decision-making about study pathways and preferred occupations; (iii) important messages to promote the standing of vocational education; and (iv) effective presentations of informed and positive messages. The findings indicate differences in perspectives between the school-aged students and their adult counterparts (i.e., parents, teachers or other familiars). These findings highlighted information about utility, authenticity and status of VET as being effective when communicating about VET to make informed decisions. They also draw attention to the importance of providing accurate details and model examples about VET and the occupations it serves. More tailored strategies to reach individual goals were sought by students and parents (see Billett et al., Chap. 18).
Chapter
The decisions that young people make about post-school pathways are becoming increasingly important because of implications for: (i) personal educational and employment trajectories and goals, (ii) allocation of educational resources, and (iii) meeting a range of community needs associated with the development of occupational capacities. Indeed, there is a growing and global concern that young people are disproportionately participating in higher education which comes at a cost to the level of participation in vocational education and the occupations it serves. This trend indicates a shift in young people’s aspirations and their preference for post-school pathways. However, there are implications and outcomes arising from this decision-making, leading to calls in many countries to redress this shift in post-school preferences. There are distinct implications both for young people who have identified a preferred occupation and those who remain undecided about them and the consequences for post-school pathways. Yet, without an elaboration of the societal factors and personal practices shaping and influencing that decision-making, it is difficult to know how to redress that situation. This review examines recent literature addressing the factors and practices shaping young people’s decision-making about those pathways. It identifies a complex intertwining of societal (i.e., institutional) and personal factors shaping this decision-making. Although societal factors (e.g., SES, location, gender) play important roles in this decision-making, it appears that the practices of parents, teachers and familiars are salient in this decision-making and, therefore, efforts to redress this issue. These findings suggest such practices need to be mediated by enhancing what is suggested by societal institutions (e.g., schools, government), familiars (teachers, parents) and more fully informing young people’s decision-making.
Article
This study examined hope as a mediator between school connectedness and childhood career development. Participants included 456 elementary school students in Grades 4 through 6. The results of structural equation modeling supported the hypothesized mediation model, indicating that school connectedness leads to childhood career development both directly and indirectly via hope. The findings suggest that when children feel connected to school, they are likely to demonstrate a greater level of hope, which in turn leads to enhanced career development. The results of this study highlight the importance of developmental assets in promoting childhood career development and has important implications for counseling practice in school settings.
Article
Purpose Drawing on the social influence literature and proposing parental intervention as a social influence process, this study seeks to theorize why parental intervention occurs and how it affects young adults' career development. Design/methodology/approach This paper adopts a conceptual design, offering a conceptual model based on social influence research and career development research. Findings It is proposed that parental intervention is a result of incongruence between parental expectations and young adults' interested occupations and between parents' assessments of young adults' qualities and job demands. Parents' traditionality moderates these relationships, while the success of parental intervention depends on young adults' traditionality and career maturity. Parents' position, referent and expert powers affect young adults' compliance, identification and internalization, respectively, which impact their occupational commitment and career satisfaction. Research limitations/implications Looking at parental intervention over time would help researchers understand this phenomenon more comprehensively than focusing only on its short-term effects as identified in the literature. The motivational processes of parental intervention triggered by power bases play a key role in determining young adults' long-term career consequences. Practical implications Career advisors should consider parents as a source of potential intervention in young adults' career choice. They may also provide parent-oriented services in addition to young adult-oriented services. Originality/value This framework contributes to the career development literature by adopting social influence approach to explain parental intervention in young adults' career choice and also providing implications for career counselors.
Article
This study examines the role of school and family education in supporting individuals’ career path, specifically in the wine and wine tourism environments. To gain a more in-depth understanding of this dimension, key underpinnings of social learning and family social capital theory are considered. Owners and managers of 32 wineries from two emerging economies participated through face-to-face interviews. While there was general agreement regarding the significance of school education, the relevance of family education was perceived more strongly, including in instilling effort, values and codes of conduct, thus, influencing participants’ journey towards a managerial or ownership role in the wine industry. Assimilating earlier stages of one’s life, vicarious learning, self-efficacy, and family social capital were manifested through intrinsic principles, and were further enhanced through learning gained via work experience and continuous knowledge gathering. A model highlighting links between the empirical findings and the above theoretical underpinnings is proposed.
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Purpose This study aims to explore how career self-efficacy shapes an individual’s career decisions and how learning and development interventions, including participation in education abroad, might play a role in career choice. Design/methodology/approach The authors used the following databases to review the literature on career self-efficacy: Academic Search Premier, Education Resources Information Center and ProQuest. The following key search terms were used in the search: career self-efficacy, career choice and education abroad. The titles of the identified articles were first reviewed for relevance, followed by the abstract, before further review for inclusion suitability. Findings Findings suggest career self-efficacy plays a vital role in career decision-making, generating interests and deciding career goals. By improving career self-efficacy among college students, career interests can be reshaped. Findings evidence a relationship between education abroad and career competencies and career development. Research limitations/implications The review offers an invaluable pathway to breed ideas and thoughts about research in the career self-efficacy domain. While education abroad itself may be a useful intervention in the development of a student’s career self-efficacy, among other characteristics and skills, a further empirical study is necessary to determine the extent to which this is true. Using or creating an accurate scale for the measurement of career self-efficacy among undergraduate students is critical to determine a reliable and valid measure, as is controlling for potential differences in self-efficacy between students who self-select for high impact endeavors such as education abroad and those who do not. Practical implications Noting that practices in international education support collaboration between career services offices and study abroad offices, the authors point to the importance of interventions that intentionally and explicitly incorporate the career self-efficacy construct. Originality/value Findings evidence a relationship between education abroad and career competencies and career development, through research examining connections to career self-efficacy and education abroad is noticeably scarce. The paper explores the above relationship.
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This study aimed to examine the protective factors which moderate the relationship between acculturative stress and career barriers among adolescents from multicultural families. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed with 1,207 adolescents from the 6th wave of Multicultural Adolescent Panel Study. The results indicated that acculturative stress was associated with career barriers. In addition, peer relations had a negative relationship with career barriers. Self-esteem was associated with low career barriers. Moreover, the moderating effect of self-esteem on the relationship between acculturative stress and career barriers was statistically significant. The results of this study provide implications for reducing and intervening career barriers among multicultural adolescents.
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Despite extensive research on career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE) in relation to youth’s career development and outcomes, the relative influence of different parental variables on youth’s CDMSE remains relatively unclear. Thus, this meta-analysis sought to compare correlational findings concerning the influence of three types of parental variables—parental cognitions, parenting behaviors, and parent–child relationships—on youth’s CDMSE. This meta-analysis also aimed to examine differences in how maternal influences only, paternal influences only, and the influence of both parents are associated with youth’s CDMSE. A systematic search for relevant literature was conducted in six scientific databases (i.e., ERIC, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index, Social Services Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, and Social Work Abstracts) and other sources (i.e., Google Scholar and reference searching), which yielded 27 quantitative studies from 3529 records on parental factors of youth’s CDMSE published between 1983 and 2020. The results showed that all three types of parental variables demonstrated a low to medium association with youth’s CDMSE, although parental cognitions had the largest effect size (r = 0.312; 95% CI [0.217, 0.407]), followed by parenting behaviors (r = 0.303; 95% CI [0.248, 0.359]) and parent–child relationships (r = 0.255; 95% CI [0.226, 0.284]). The effect size for the influences of both parents (r = 0.312; 95% CI [0.264, 0.359]) was found to be larger than that of maternal (r = 0.256; 95% CI [0.216, 0.296]) or paternal influences (r = 0.230; 95% CI [0.186, 0.275]) alone. Those results pose important implications and indicate promising directions for research and practice to improve parenting about young people’s career development.
Book
Building Better Schools with Evidence-based Policy: Adaptable Policy for Teachers and School Leaders provides an extensive set of free-to-use policies for building better schools. The policies included in this book cover a broad range of popular topics for schools that are not readily accessible, and each policy is built on theory, driven by research, and created by and experts. Each policy is based on substantial evidence and this is ensured through the inclusion of contributors who are active and highly reputable in their respective field. Most schools are obliged to write and maintain policy and not all school leaders have the required skills, time or expertise to do this effectively. Building Better Schools with Evidence-based Policy: Adaptable Policy for Teachers and School Leaders is a time-saving resource for schools. It aims to address the reported research to practice gap in education by delivering accessible evidence-based practice in a ready-to-use adaptable format. All policies within this book are designed to be adapted and tailored to the unique diversity and needs of each school as reflected by the context and the people that make up the school community. This book is relevant to every person who works in a school - worldwide. Users of this book can rest assured that each policy has been carefully formulated from the current understandings of best practice. This is a practical innovation and an example of how schools can use research-evidence in their day-to-day practices. Download here: https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/oa-edit/10.4324/9781003025955/building-better-schools-evidence-based-policy-kelly-ann-allen-andrea-reupert-lindsay-oades?refId=632274ab-eee7-4293-bb4a-6c1366715472
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Background The construction industry remains male dominated, despite the efforts of business and educational institutions to attract women into construction careers. Previous research has examined why female university students study construction management or engineering. To complement this knowledge, there is an opportunity to understand why so many Australian female high school students do not choose to pursue construction-related careers. Purpose Framed in motivational theory, the purpose of the study was to understand why Australian female high school students do not choose a construction-related career by answering the question: How do the value beliefs of female high school students contribute to a rejection of the construction sector as a career choice? Design/method Applying a qualitative methodology, we report on semistructured interviews with a sample of 15 Australian female high school students. Interview transcripts were inductively analyzed to reveal themes that were overlaid onto Eccles' expectancy–value theory to deepen our understanding of the values expressed by students when discussing their reasons for not wanting a career in construction. Results Results revealed five themes: lack of awareness; lack of self-alignment; effect of male domination; sector esteem; and parental, teacher, and curriculum influence. Responses revealed the range of values contributing to the decision not to consider the construction industry. Conclusion The paper concludes by suggesting that to increase the participation of young women in the Australian construction industry, the sector should respond to the value beliefs held by female high school students. It should transform the perception of construction into one of a profession that is relevant, valuable, and enjoyable for young women.
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The influence of the family on its members is significant. Parents impart professional values and priorities that shape the perspective and often career choice of their children. Drawing on Family Systems Theory, this case study focuses on how the teaching profession connects and impacts one geographically dispersed, multigenerational family. Findings suggest that teaching connects family members through service to others, shared family values, early influences, identity construction, tradition, and even rebellion. Family members are proud of their fellow teachers, and of the younger generations for continuing the family ‘business’.
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According to the Career Construction Model of Adaptation, career decision-making difficulties (CDD) and life satisfaction are important adaptation results, and career adaptability is a crucial resource to attain positive adaptation results. This study focused on the influence of parental career-related behaviors on career adaptability, CDD and life satisfaction, and the mediating role of career adaptability between parental career-related behaviors and CDD and life satisfaction. Five hundred thirteen Italian students (182 of middle school, 141 of high school, and 190 of university) were involved. The results showed that parental support influences CDD and life satisfaction both directly and indirectly through the mediation of career adaptability. Parental interference and lack of engagement have a positive direct effect on CDD. Finally, CDD and life satisfaction are significantly and negatively associated. The data support the key role of parental support and career adaptability in CDD and life satisfaction. Practical implications are discussed.
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Mit Blick auf die berufliche Orientierung Jugendlicher bietet dieses Open-Access-Buch eine systematische, theoriegeleitete und empirische Analyse heterogener Unterstützungsbedarfe und ihrer vielfältigen Ursachen. Die Bedeutung regelmäßiger Bedarfs- und Entwicklungsdiagnostik sowie einer systematischen Verzahnung einzelner Elemente beruflicher Orientierung im schulischen Kontext wird eindrucksvoll anhand heterogener und gleichzeitig diskontinuierlicher Entwicklungsverläufe verdeutlicht. Die Autorin weist zudem auf Konsequenzen für rahmengebende Berufsorientierungsprogramme, die Konzeption berufsorientierender Maßnahmen sowie für die Planung und Umsetzung schulinterner Konzepte hin. Die Autorin Svenja Ohlemann ist wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin am Fachgebiet Pädagogische Psychologie am Institut für Erziehungswissenschaft der Technischen Universität Berlin.
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At the beginning of the 21st century, a new social arrangement of work poses a series of questions and challenges to scholars who aim to help people develop their working lives. Given the globalization of career counseling, we decided to address these issues and then to formulate potentially innovative responses in an international forum. We used this approach to avoid the difficulties of creating models and methods in one country and then trying to export them to other countries where they would be adapted for use. This article presents the initial outcome of this collaboration, a counseling model and methods. The life-designing model for career intervention endorses five presuppositions about people and their work lives: contextual possibilities, dynamic processes, non-linear progression, multiple perspectives, and personal patterns. Thinking from these five presuppositions, we have crafted a contextualized model based on the epistemology of social constructionism, particularly recognizing that an individual's knowledge and identity are the product of social interaction and that meaning is coconstructed through discourse. The life-design framework for counseling implements the theories of self-constructing (Guichard, 2005) and career construction (Savickas, 2005) that describe vocational behavior and its development. Thus, the framework is structured to be life-long, holistic, contextual, and preventive.
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Bumper stickers reading "Friends can be good medicine!" were distributed by the California Department of Mental Health in 1981 as part of a statewide health promotion initiative (California Department of Mental Health, 1981). The objectives of the initiative were to increase awareness of the health-promoting influence of supportive relationships and to encourage personal involvement providing support to others. Although the ultimate success of this project is unknown, its implementation reflects the degree to which a link between social support and health has become part of our belief system. Correlations between social support and health outcomes have been found in a range of contexts and using a variety of methods (for recent reviews, see Broadhead et al. Although links between social support and health are consistently found, our understanding of the nature of this relation remains limited. A problem in past research was that social support was conceptualized unidimensionally, although it was operationalized in many different ways (e.g., marital status, community involvement, availability of confidants). More recent efforts have analyzed social support into component functions. Theorists differ somewhat with respect to the specific functions served by social support, but most conceptualizations include emotional sustenance, self-esteem building, provision of information and feedback, and tangible assistance (e.g.. Once support is defined in terms of its functions, it is possible to generate hypotheses concerning the psychological processes through which social support has its effects. Although clear theoretical formulations of the helping functions served by relationships arc crucial in the generation of hypotheses, these predictions cannot be empirically tested without appropriate assessment instruments. As described in House and Kahn's (1985) recent review, a number of social support measures have been developed. The measures differ widely in their implicit models of social support, some assessing number of supporters, others tapping frequency of supportive acts, and still others measuring degree of satisfaction with support. A number of problems have plagued these measurement efforts. At the theoretical level, the authors of social support measures have rarely articulated the assumptions underlying their instruments. For example, if a measure assesses the number of supportive individuals, the assumption is that better outcomes are associated with the quantity of support sources. If a measure taps satisfaction with support, the assumption is that better outcomes are associated with the perception that support is adequate for one's needs, regardless of tile number of supporters. Although these differences are rarely articulated, different research questions are posed and answered as a function of the manner in which social support is assessed. Inconsistencies in the literature nay be related to differences in the aspects of social support that are assessed in different studies (see Cohen & Wills, 1985).
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Guided by the social cognitive career and cognitive evaluation theories, we theorize and test differential predictions regarding the moderating role of student and parent-rated support when considering the influence of students’ learning goal orientation on career decision-making self-efficacy. Data were collected from 141 undergraduate students and their parents over a six month period. Time 1 learning goal orientation was positively related to career decision-making self-efficacy at Time 2. Results also revealed a differential pattern of moderating effects for student ratings of parental support and parent ratings of support. High student ratings of parental support strengthened the association between learning goal orientation and career decision-making self-efficacy. In contrast, low levels of parent-rated support strengthened the relationship between learning goal orientation and career decision-making self-efficacy. The discussion highlights the importance of considering how perceptions of parental support differ between parents and their children.
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Family support has been found to influence both career self-efficacy beliefs and career decision making. The purpose of this study was to verify whether career search self-efficacy could mediate the relationship between family support and career indecision.Using a sample of 253 Italian youth, the study found that, for male adolescents attending a university-preparation high school, career search self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between family support and career indecision. Contrary to expectations, for female adolescents there was no direct relationship between family support and career indecision; however, family support was directly associated with career search self-efficacy and career search self-efficacy was associated with career indecision.
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Two alternative methods for parceling questionnaire items for use in confirmatory analyses are presented. The first method requires that parcels must (a) pass a minimum standard of reliability and (b) provide indications of unidimensionality to be retained for analysis. The second method requires that parcels be equally representative of the multiple aspects of a domain. The parcels may then serve as adequate indicators for the general construct. The latter method is consistent with the rationale underlying aggregation of measures, a procedure currently recommended for improving the psychometric properties of behavioral measures of personality. The two methods for parceling and a comparison are illustrated with an empirical example.
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urpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of difficult and specific career visions on job satisfaction and turnover intentions seven years after students reported their visions. Design/methodology/approach – Data for this study were collected in two waves, seven years apart, from the same cohort. At time 1 the career visions of MBA students were measured in terms of difficulty and specificity. At time 2 MBA students reported their job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Findings – Results showed that MBA students with a specific and challenging career vision were less likely to report intentions to leave their work seven years after reporting their visions. Further, job satisfaction mediated this relationship. Research limitations/implications – The study was limited due to the small sample size used (n=74). Future studies should also test whether goal progress and job performance could be mediators between the quality of career vision and job satisfaction. Practical implications – Results of this study indicate that individuals who formulated more specific career visions were more satisfied with their jobs seven years after reporting their visions. This finding has implications for career counsellors, coaches and managers who care for the development of their subordinates. Originality/value – This is the first study that examined the impact of the quality of career visions (i.e. specificity and difficulty) on future job satisfaction and turnover intentions.
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Social cognitive career theory (SCCT; R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) emphasizes cognitive-person variables that enable people to influence their own career development, as well as extra-person (e.g., contextual) variables that enhance or constrain personal agency. Although the theory has yielded a steady stream of inquiry and practical applications, relatively little of this work has examined SCCT's contextual variables or hypotheses. In this article, several avenues for stimulating study of the contextual aspects of career behavior are considered. In particular, the authors (a) examine "career barriers," a conceptually relevant construct, from the perspective of SCCT; (b) advocate study of contextual supports as well as barriers; and (c) propose additional context-focused research and practice directions derived from SCCT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examined whether sociocontextual and sociocognitive variables explained the math/science goals of 409 Mexican American youth using a modified version of R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, and G. Hackett's (1994) social cognitive career theory. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that the hypothesized model explained a significant amount of variance in math/science goals for both Mexican American girls and boys. Findings suggested that gender did not moderate relations among the variables in the hypothesized model. Results also suggested that most of the social cognitive career theory propositions tested were supported. Specifically, social class predicted math/science past performance accomplishments. Math/science past performance accomplishments and perceived parent support predicted math/science self-efficacy. Furthermore, math/science self-efficacy predicted math/science outcome expectations, and together with math/science interests, these sociocognitive variables predicted math/science interests and goals. Contrary to expectations, generation status, Anglo orientation, and Mexican orientation did not predict math/science past performance accomplishments, and past performance accomplishments did not predict math/science outcome expectations. Furthermore, Anglo orientation and perceived social support from parents, teachers, classmates, and a close friend did not predict math/science goals. Suggestions for future research and implications of the results are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of career indecision based on self-determination theory (E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan, 1985). This model posits that peer and parental styles predicted career indecision through perceived self-efficacy and autonomy. Participants were 834 college students (236 men, 581 women, 17 without gender identification). Results from structural equation modeling provided support for the proposed model and showed that the model was invariant across gender. Discussion centers on the theoretical and practical implications of the results.
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Women's representation in the information technology (IT) workforce has declined to an all time low of 18.5% in the last 8 years. In order to support women to become interested in, enter and remain in the IT field, this study uses the theory of self-authorship and path analysis to investigate the role of parental support in influencing IT career choice and interest for a sample of 954 US high school and college women. A 167-item, paper and pencil Career Decision-Making Survey was developed, containing 11 four-point Likert type scales (Cronbach's alpha = 0.58–0.80) designed to measure levels of parental support and a number of factors related to how students consider information in the process of making a career choice. Results document that when all other things are considered, interactions with others, such as counsellors and teachers, about career options did not have a significant effect on career interest that overrode the direction provided by parents. Women were significantly more likely than men to seek input about careers, but encountered developmental dissonance when that advice conflicted with advice provided by trusted others. Implications from this study reveal the need for more parental education in understanding the role of self-authorship in providing career decision-making support to young women.
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We examine the controversial practice of using parcels of items as manifest variables in structural equation modeling (SEM) procedures. After detailing arguments pro and con, we conclude that the unconsidered use of parcels is never warranted, while, at the same time, the considered use of parcels cannot be dismissed out of hand. In large part, the decision to parcel or not depends on one's philosophical stance regard- ing scientific inquiry (e.g., empiricist vs. pragmatist) and the substantive goal of a study (e.g., to understand the structure of a set of items or to examine the nature of a set of constructs). Prior to creating parcels, however, we recommend strongly that in- vestigators acquire a thorough understanding of the nature and dimensionality of the items to be parceled. With this knowledge in hand, various techniques for creating parcels can be utilized to minimize potential pitfalls and to optimize the measure- ment structure of constructs in SEM procedures. A number of parceling techniques are described, noting their strengths and weaknesses.
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Full-text available
At the beginning of the 21st century, a new social arrangement of work poses a series of questions and challenges to scholars who aim to help people develop their working lives. Given the globalization of career counseling, we decided to address these issues and then to formulate potentially innovative responses in an international forum. We used this approach to avoid the difficulties of creating models and methods in one country and then trying to export them to other countries where they would be adapted for use. This article presents the initial outcome of this collaboration, a counseling model and methods. The life-designing model for career intervention endorses five presuppositions about people and their work lives: contextual possibilities, dynamic processes, non-linear progression, multiple perspectives, and personal patterns. Thinking from these five presuppositions, we have crafted a contextualized model based on the epistemology of social constructionism, particularly recognizing that an individual’s knowledge and identity are the product of social interaction and that meaning is co-constructed through discourse. The life-design framework for counseling implements the theories of self-constructing [Guichard, J. (2005). Life-long self-construction. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 5, 111–124] and career construction [Savickas, M. L. (2005). The theory and practice of career construction. In S. D. Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Career development and counselling: putting theory and research to work (pp. 42–70). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley] that describe vocational behavior and its development. Thus, the framework is structured to be life-long, holistic, contextual, and preventive.
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Social support is broad term encompassing a variety of constructs, including support perceptions (perceived support) and receipt of supportive behaviors (received support). Of these constructs, only perceived support has been regarded as consistently linked to health, and researchers have offered differing assessments of the strength of the received-perceived support relationship. An overall estimate of the received-perceived support relationship would clearly further the dialogue on the relationship between received and perceived support and thus assist in the theoretical development of the field. This study evaluated all available studies using the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors (ISSB; Barrera, Sandler, & Ramsey, 1981, American Journal of Community Psychology, 9, 435-447) and any measure of perceived social support. Using effect sizes from 23 studies, we found an average correlation of r = .35, p < .001. Implications of this estimate for further development of models of social support as well as interventions to enhance social support are discussed.
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This article describes a program, PRODCLIN (distribution of the PRODuct Confidence Limits for INdirect effects), written for SAS, SPSS, and R, that computes confidence limits for the product of two normal random variables. The program is important because it can be used to obtain more accurate confidence limits for the indirect effect, as demonstrated in several recent articles (MacKinnon, Lockwood, & Williams, 2004; Pituch, Whittaker, & Stapleton, 2005). Tests of the significance of and confidence limits for indirect effects based on the distribution of the product method have more accurate Type I error rates and more power than other, more commonly used tests. Values for the two paths involved in the indirect effect and their standard errors are entered in the PRODCLIN program, and distribution of the product confidence limits are computed. Several examples are used to illustrate the PRODCLIN program. The PRODCLIN programs in rich text format may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive.
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The authors describe the construction of the Career-Related Parent Support Scale and examine the validity of the scale scores within a sample of at-risk middle school adolescents. Four empirically distinct parent support factors were confirmed along A. Bandura's (1977, 1997) sources of self-efficacy information. Gender and ethnic differences in perceived access to parental support were found.
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The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
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The authors describe the construction of the Career-Related Parent Support Scale and examine the validity of the scale scores within a sample of at-risk middle school adolescents. Four empirically distinct parent support factors were confirmed along A. Bandura's (1977, 1997) sources of self-efficacy information. Gender and ethnic differences in perceived access to parental support were found.
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In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. We discuss the comparative advantages of this approach over a one-step approach. Considerations in specification, assessment of fit, and respecification of measurement models using confirmatory factor analysis are reviewed. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed.
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This study tested for the measurement equivalence of a four-factor measure of career indecision (Career Indecision Profile-65 [CIP-65]) between a U.S. sample and two international samples; one composed of French-speaking young adults from France and Switzerland and the other of Italian adolescents. Previous research had supported the four-factor structure of the CIP-65 in both the United States and Iceland but also showed that items on two of the four scales may be interpreted differently by young adults growing up in these two countries. This study extends previous research by testing whether the four CIP-65 factors are measured equivalently in two additional international samples. Results largely supported the configural and metric invariance of the CIP-65 in the United States and international samples, but several scales showed a lack of scalar invariance. Some explanations are offered for these findings along with suggestions for future research and implications for practice.
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Applying a multiple-mediator model, we examine the mediating effect of three types of career-specific parenting behaviors: lack of engagement, support, and interference, on the re-lationship between paternal job insecurity and youths' career self-efficacy. Data were collected from a sample of undergraduate students and their fathers. Results of the full sample analysis showed that paternal job insecurity was positively related to lack of engagement and negative-ly related to support. The relationship between paternal job insecurity and interference was not significant. Sub sample analysis showed that the relationship between paternal job insecu-rity and career self-efficacy was mediated by lack of engagement for sons and mediated by support for daughters.
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The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of career indecision based on selfdetermination theory (E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan, 1985). This model posits that peer and parental styles predicted career indecision through perceived self-efficacy and autonomy. Participants were 834 college students (236 men, 581 women, 17 without gender identification). Results from structural equation modeling provided support for the proposed model and showed that the model was invariant across gender. Discussion centers on the theoretical and practical implications of the results.
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Researchers from 13 countries collaborated in constructing a psychometric scale to measure career adaptability. Based on four pilot tests, a research version of the proposed scale consisting of 55 items was field tested in 13 countries. The resulting Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) consists of four scales, each with six items. The four scales measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. The CAAS demonstrated metric invariance across all the countries, but did not exhibit residual/strict invariance or scalar invariance. The reliabilities of the CAAS subscales and the combined adaptability scale range from acceptable to excellent when computed with the combined data. As expected, the reliability estimates varied across countries. Nevertheless, the internal consistency estimates for the four subscales of concern, control, curiosity, and confidence were generally acceptable to excellent. The internal consistency estimates for the CAAS total score were excellent across all countries. Separate articles in this special issue report the psychometric characteristics of the CAAS, including initial validity evidence, for each of the 13 countries that collaborated in constructing the Scale.
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This study asserts a theoretical model of academic and work socialization within the family setting. The presumed associations between parents’ work valences, children’s work valences and valence perceptions, and children’s academic interest and achievement are tested. The results suggest that children’s perceptions of parents mediate the relationship between parents’ and children’s self-reported work valences and children’s work valences are, in turn, associated with academic interest and achievement. The results also demonstrate the moderating role of gender, with an indication of parental socialization to work occurring within same-sex parent–child dyads that is not reflected in cross-sex dyads. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed with a special emphasis on the relatively weak association between parents’ self-reported work valence and their children’s perception of them.
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This study examined the relations between familial and environmental factors and five dimensions of future orientation in a sample of urban, African American early adolescents from low-income families. A new multidimensional interview measure, the Future Orientation Interview, was designed for this study to expand on available measures. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the unique contribution of each familial and environmental factor to each dimension of future orientation. The independent variables significantly predicted three of the five dimensions of future orientation: salience, detail, and control beliefs. The pattern of significance varied for each dimension of future orientation, with mother involvement, kinship social support, and socialization of future orientation emerging as important predictors of various dimensions of future orientation. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical issues related to future orientation and implications for intervention.
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In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. We discuss the comparative advantages of this approach over a one-step approach. Considerations in specification, assessment of fit, and respecification of measurement models using confirmatory factor analysis are reviewed. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed.
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Vocational psychologists and career theorists have articulated the importance of social support in the development of career plans for high school youth. More recently, Lent, Brown, and Hackett carefully articulated the location of contextual supports in the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) framework. However, there is a paucity of research examining contextual supports in relation to career outcomes due to a lack of adequate measures. The current article describes the initial development of the Contextual Support for Post-Secondary Planning Scales. These six scales were designed to assess support for postsecondary career planning for high school students from six sources (i.e., mother, father, sibling, peers, school personnel, and community). A study was conducted to determine the underlying factor structure of measure (n = 316 high school students), and exploratory factor analyses revealed a one-factor solution of general support across the six scales. The implications for the use of these measures in research and practice are discussed.
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Building on diverse influences from critical perspectives in vocational psychology and the relational movement in contemporary psychological discourse, this article introduces the relational theory of working. Attending to the full array of people who work and who want to work, the relational theory conceptualizes working as an inherently relational act. A relational theory provides a framework for understanding ways in which working is embedded in external and internal relational contexts. To establish the conceptual infrastructure for the relational theory, several propositions are advanced, which summarize observations and inferences about the intersection of working and relationships and highlight the inherent relational context of working. The article concludes with implications for practice, policy, and research.
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The relationship between specific parental behaviors and the career development of young adolescents was assessed. Regression analyses revealed that parental behaviors did relate to the career development of middle school students, after controlling for student grade level and gender. Parental behaviors tended to relate more to career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE) than to career maturity, and general psychosocial parenting behaviors appeared to be more salient than career-focused parent behaviors. Five specific behaviors were found to be predictive of participants' career development. The discrepancy between adolescents' and parents' views of family relationships was also shown to relate to the adolescents' career decision-making self-efficacy. The results from the current study further expand on the results from other studies in this area by providing insight into the effects of specific parental behaviors. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
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This study examined the extent to which perceived occupational barriers and perceived parental support predicted career certainty and career indecision in a sample of African American adolescents. Perceived occupational barriers were positively predictive of career indecision, and perceived parental support was positively associated with career certainty. The results provided support for the importance of considering contextual variables, such as perceived occupational barriers and perceived parental support, in the career decision-making processes of African American adolescents. The results also highlighted the salience of social cognitive career theory in conceptualizing career-related issues in African American high school students. Future research directions are discussed.
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This study describes the development and evaluation of a short form of the widely used Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale (CDMSE; Taylor & Betz, 1983). The psychometric characteristics and relationship to the Career Decision Scale (CDS; Osipow, 1987) and the Vocational Identity Scale (Holland, Johnston, & Asama, 1993) were examined in a sample of 180 college students. The potential utility of a more efficient short form of the scale for use in career counseling interventions will be discussed.
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What-you-should-be-when-you-grow-up need not and should not be planned in advance. Instead career counselors should teach their clients the importance of engaging in a variety of interesting and beneficial activities, ascertaining their reactions, remaining alert to alternative opportunities, and learning skills for succeeding in each new activity. Four propositions: (1) The goal of career counseling is to help clients learn to take actions to achieve more satisfying career and personal lives—not to make a single career decision. (2) Assessments are used to stimulate learning, not to match personal characteristics with occupational characteristics. (3) Clients learn to engage in exploratory actions as a way of generating beneficial unplanned events. (4) The success of counseling is assessed by what the client accomplishes in the real world outside the counseling session.
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Understanding communication processes is the goal of most communication researchers. Rarely are we satisfied merely ascertaining whether messages have an effect on some outcome of focus in a specific context. Instead, we seek to understand how such effects come to be. What kinds of causal sequences does exposure to a message initiate? What are the causal pathways through which a message exerts its effect? And what role does communication play in the transmission of the effects of other variables over time and space? Numerous communication models attempt to describe the mechanism through which messages or other communication-related variables transmit their effects or intervene between two other variables in a causal model. The communication literature is replete with tests of such models. Over the years, methods used to test such process models have grown in sophistication. An example includes the rise of structural equation modeling (SEM), which allows investigators to examine how well a process model that links some focal variable X to some outcome Y through one or more intervening pathways fits the observed data. Yet frequently, the analytical choices communication researchers make when testing intervening variables models are out of step with advances made in the statistical methods literature. My goal here is to update the field on some of these new advances. While at it, I challenge some conventional wisdom and nudge the field toward a more modern way of thinking about the analysis of intervening variable effects.
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The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
Book
(Publisher-supplied data) The classic text is Psychometric Theory. Like the previous edition, this text is designed as a comprehensive text in measurement for researchers and for use in graduate courses in psychology, education and areas of business such as management and marketing. It is intended to consider the broad measurement problems that arise in these areas and is written for a reader who needs only a basic background in statistics to comprehend the material. It also combines classical procedures that explain variance with modern inferential procedures.
Article
This study examines the influence of two potential sources of strength (i.e., ethnic identity and parent/teacher support) on the cognitive variables of career decision self-efficacy and outcome expectations in a sample of 104 African American ninth-grade students. The results indicate that parental support is positively related to career decision self-efficacy and teacher support is positively related to career decision self-efficacy and career outcome expectations. No relationship is found between ethnic identity and either self-efficacy or outcome expectations. The findings confirm the importance of considering contextual supports in career counseling and education. Limitations, implications for counseling, and suggestions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract).