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Teacher Competencies for the Use of Information Communication Technology

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Abstract

The Present study aimed to identify the competencies needed by teachers for development and implementation of Information Communication Technology (ICT)- based education. Survey method of research was employed for the study. A rating scale was used to know the ICT related competencies that teachers need for instructional purpose. The rating scale consisted of 47 items based on four types of teacher competencies namely-Technological ICT Competencies, Pedagogical ICT Competencies, Didactical ICT Competencies and Social ICT Competencies. The sample consisted of 73 teacher educators among which 44 were males and 29 were females. Data was collected through the use of e-mail and by personally contacted the respondents and analysed using frequencies and percentage. Findings of the study reveal that all the teacher educators were agree that the following ICT competencies that teachers need to develop are: (i) Use ICT skills in developing and presenting information; (ii) Prepare ICT-based learning environment, designing effective learning experiences and creating rich learning environments with the support of ICT and Understanding of computer technology can enhance student learning; (iii) Using ICT as a didactical tool in the class as well as implement cooperative learning strategies using ICT. Using ICT as a didactical tool implies using it to establish dynamic and powerful instructional strategies and environment and (iv) Demonstrating knowledge and skills for using technology in ethical, legal and safe ways and to use humour and good manners during the teaching and learning process.
Teacher Competencies for the Use of
Information Communication Technology
Noushad Husain
Associate Professor IN eDUCATION
Maulana Azad National Urdu University
College of Teacher Education, aSANSOL
E-mail: noushad_husain@rediffmail.com
Blog: drnoushadhusain.blogspot.com
The Present study aimed to identify the competencies needed by teachers for development and
implementation of ICT-based education. Survey method of research was employed for the study.
A rating scale was used to know the ICT related competencies that teachers need for
instructional purpose. The rating scale consisted of 47 items based on four types of teacher
competencies namely-Technological ICT Competencies, Pedagogical ICT Competencies,
Didactical ICT Competencies and Social ICT Competencies. The sample consisted of 73 teacher
educators among which 44 were males and 29 were females. Data was collected through the use
of e-mail and by personally contacted the respondents and analyzed using frequencies and
percentage. Findings of the study reveal that all the teacher educators were agree that the
following ICT competencies that teachers need to develop are: (i) Use ICT skills in developing
and presenting information; (ii) Prepare ICT-based learning environment, designing effective
learning experiences and creating rich learning environments with the support of ICT and
Understanding of computer technology can enhance student learning; (iii) Using ICT as a
didactical tool in the class as well as implement cooperative learning strategies using ICT.
Using ICT as a didactical tool implies using it to establish dynamic and powerful instructional
strategies and environment and (iv) Demonstrating knowledge and skills for using technology in
ethical, legal and safe ways and to use humour and good manners during the teaching and
learning process.
1
Abstract
Introduction
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are obviously of great significance for
education. The integration of ICTs in general and teacher education in particular is the need of
the hour. The enormous benefits of ICT have been well documented by various authorities and
researchers such as BECTA (2004), Akudolu (2002), Sharp and Potter (2002) and Olibie (2003).
Teaching is becoming one of the most challenging professions in our society where knowledge is
expanding rapidly and much of it is available to students as well as teachers at the same time. As
new concepts of learning have evolved, teachers are expected to facilitate learning and make it
meaningful to individual learners rather than just to provide knowledge and skills. Modern
developments of innovative technologies have provided new possibilities to teaching professions
but at the same time have placed more demands on teachers to learn how to use these new
technologies in their teaching.
The pace of technological revolution and emergence of a knowledge society changed the
traditional role of the teacher. Traditionally, the teacher is the only source of knowledge for the
students. The impact of the internet in education in the recent years fosters the vision of an open,
global and flexible learning. In the framework of this educational landscape the role of the
teacher is that of acting as guide and instrument to assure a comprehensive learning process via
the modern age technologies and managing the student’s learning process by the new
instructional models set in newly created virtual environments. The teacher will have to develop
competencies related to the learning contexts that changes in teaching and learning paradigms
require. Authors such as Potter and Darbyshire (2005) and UNESCO (2004) are of the view that
ICT competencies are concerned with the ability to:
Know when to apply or develop a particular skill in using an ICT resource
Be aware of the reasons for using ICT and its effect on both users and context, and
Have a critical and confident attitude to learning with the technology
A New Competency Framework for Teachers
According to Mishra and Koehler (2006) technological, pedagogical and content knowledge are
essential for teachers for successful integration of ICT in education. The researcher thoroughly
studied the literature and frame out an ICT competency model for teachers. For successful
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instructional use of ICT, four types of competencies are required. These four competencies are-
Technological Competencies (TC), Pedagogical Competencies (PC), Didactical Competencies
(DC) and Social Competencies (SC). Figure-1 shows the ICT competency model for teachers.
Figure-1: A New Competency Framework for Teachers
(1) Technological ICT Competencies: These competencies are related with teachers’
knowledge and technical training that how to use and maintain ICT equipments and software.
These competencies involve the skills to operate modern technologies such as- computer,
Internet etc.
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Pedagogical
ICT
Competencie
Social
ICT
Competencie
Technologica
l ICT
Competencie
Didactical
ICT
Competencie
Integration of Technological Pedagogical
Didactical Social ICT Competencies
P
T
C
S
(2) Pedagogical ICT Competencies: Pedagogical competencies are related with teachers’
instructional practices and knowledge of the curriculum and requires that they develop
applications within their disciplines that make effective use of ICT to support and extend
teaching and learning. This is a generic form of knowledge that is involved in all issues of
student learning, classroom management, lesson-plan development and implementation and
student evaluation. It includes knowledge about techniques or methods to be used in the
classroom; the nature of the target audience; and strategies for evaluating student understanding.
(3) Didactical ICT Competencies: These competencies are related with subject knowledge of
the teacher that is to be learned or taught. Teachers must know and understand the subjects that
they teach, including knowledge of central facts, concepts, theories and procedures within a
given field, knowledge of explanatory frameworks that organize and connect ideas and
knowledge of the rules of evidence and proof. Teachers must also understand the nature of
knowledge and inquiry in different fields.
(4) Social ICT Competencies: Social competencies are related to the understanding of teachers
with social and ethical issues surrounding ICT and apply that understanding in their practice
Need for the Study
To create ICT-enabled teaching and learning environments, it is also necessary to provide ICT
training for teachers. Teachers need to know about ICT and about what ICT can provide. They
also need to be able to critically evaluate and discriminate what (technological) resource to use
and whether one should be used at all. They need to be able to understand conceptually and in
pedagogically-appropriate ways, how, where and why to use computer related technologies.
Thus, it is clear that teachers need competencies for successful instructional use of ICT. Apart
from the strategy of introduction of ICT, some confusion is found about ICT competencies to be
acquired by teachers. It is very said to say that that in India Teacher Education Programs does
not includes the ICT competencies to prepare the future teachers. Through the program, the
pupil-teachers only know how to use computers but not in the classroom with their pupils. To
keep in mind the above problems, the researcher decided to know the opinion of the teacher
educators on this aspect. The two main questions that are related with the present study were- (1)
Bearing in mind the existing ICT poor school environments in India and the vastness of ICT
4
capabilities, what competencies are teachers expected to possess for them to implement an ICT
based curriculum? and (2) What ICT-pedagogical competencies should teacher preparation
institutions aim to develop in teachers to ensure that these teachers can help the country cross to
the positive side of the digital divide and keep pace on the information superhighway?
The study is limited to the development of ICT competencies of teachers. This is based on the
fact that ICT competencies involve knowledge of skills, knowledge of how and when to apply
the skills as well as knowledge of reasons for using the particular ICT or the contributions of that
ICT to the solution of problems.
Objectives
The main objectives of the study were:
1. To know the Technological ICT Competencies that teacher need for instructional
purpose.
2. To know the Pedagogical ICT Competencies that teacher need for instructional purpose.
3. To know the Didactical ICT Competencies that teacher need for instructional purpose.
4. To know the Social ICT Competencies that teacher need for instructional purpose.
Methodology
(a) Research Method
Survey method of research was employed for the present study.
(b) Sample of the Study
The sample consists of 73 teacher educators from various faculties of education at the colleges
and universities. The participants in the study were 44 males (60.27 %) and 29 females
(39.73%).
(c) Variables in the Study
The four types of ICT competencies such as technological competencies, pedagogical
competencies, didactical competencies and social competencies were selected as variables in the
study.
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(d)Tool Used
A four-point rating scale was developed by the researcher to know the ICT related competencies
that teachers need for instructional purpose. The rating scale comprised four sections related with
instructional use of ICT namely- technological competencies, pedagogical competencies,
didactical competencies and social competencies. There were 47 items structured on a four-point
rating scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The description of the rating scale
with their four types of competencies is given in table-1.
Table 1: Description of the Rating Scale
Section Teacher Competency Group for Instructional Use of ICT Total Items
A Technological ICT Competencies 15
B Pedagogical ICT Competencies 12
C Didactical ICT Competencies 10
D Social ICT Competencies 10
Total 47
(e) Data Collection Method
Data collection was done by personally contacted the respondent as well as copies of the rating
scale were emailed to the respondent. Some of the respondent were contacted again physically or
through phone and argued to complete the rating scale. A total number of 83 copies of the
instrument were completed and returned (20 by personally and 80 by e-mail).
(f) Analysis of Data
Obtained data were analyzed with the help of simple percentage.
Analysis and Interpretation
To know the ICT competencies that teachers need to develop, the responses of the teacher
educators that were given on the rating scale were analyzed. It was tried to observed that what
percentage of teacher educators is strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree with each
competency of technological, pedagogical, didactical and social competency group. The result
that was found is given below in tables 2, 3, 4 and 5.
(A) Technological ICT Competencies of Teachers for Instructional Use of ICT
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The results related with Technological ICT competencies that teacher needs to develop in view
of teacher educators are given below in table-2.
Table 2: Teacher Educators Views on the Technological ICT Competencies that Teachers
Need for Instructional Purpose
Item
No.
Items Strongly
Agree
Agree Disagree Strongly
Disagree
f % f % f % f %
TC1 Use of different operating system 5 7 13 18 36 26 19 49
TC2 Use of e-mail 16 22 35 48 16 22 6 8
TC3 Working with Multimedia 13 18 24 33 23 31 13 18
TC4 Using available computer hardware 20 27 36 49 10 14 7 10
TC5 Participating in online discussion 13 18 24 33 25 34 11 15
TC6 Hardware repairs 2 3 5 7 47 64 19 26
TC7 Writing general computer programs 1 1 3 4 48 66 21 29
TC8 Use of variety of software like- word
processing, database, spreadsheet and
statistical software.
32 44 24 33 13 18 4 5
TC9 Using ICT skills in developing and
presenting information
41 56 32 44 - - - -
TC10 Familiarization with computer terminology 32 44 23 32 11 15 7 9
TC11 Setting up websites 6 8 15 21 38 52 14 19
TC12 Ability in and understanding of
fundamental computer operations and
concepts
32 44 18 25 19 26 4 5
TC13 Use of different instructional packages. 6 8 27 37 28 39 12 16
TC14 Clear understanding about computer
hardware and software
12 16 49 67 9 12 3 5
TC15 Accessing the Internet 17 23 39 53 11 15 6 9
The data presented in table-2 shows that among the technical ICT competencies, a maximum of
41 (56 %) teacher educators are strongly agree with the Item TC9 (Using ICT skills in
developing and presenting information). Item TC9 (Using ICT skills in developing and
presenting information) had the highest score of 100 % (for Strongly Agree and Agree). This
implies that the respondents think that using ICT skills in developing and presenting information
is very essential technical competency that teachers need to require. The respondents think that
the technical competencies TC2 (Use of e-mail), Item TC3 (Working with multimedia), Item
TC4 (Using available computer hardware), Item TC5 (participation in on line discussion), Item
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TC8 (Use of variety of software like- word processing, database, spreadsheet and statistical
software), TC10 (Familiarization with computer terminology), TC12 (Ability in and
understanding of fundamental computer operations and concepts), TC13 (Use of different
instructional packages), TC14 (Clear understanding about computer hardware and software) and
TC15 (Accessing the internet) are very important technical competencies that modern teachers
need to mastery on them. These items scored more than 50 %.
The respondent did not consider TC1 (Use of different operating system), TC6 (Hardware
repairs), TC7 (Writing general computer programs) and TC11 (Setting up websites) as teacher
required technical competencies. Figure-1 shows the percentage of frequencies marked by
teacher educators as strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly agree on teacher required
technical competencies for instructional use of ICT.
Figure-1: Distribution of Frequency Percentage of Teacher Educators on Required
Technological ICT Competencies for Teachers (N=73)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
TC1 TC2 TC3 TC4 TC5 TC6 TC7 TC8 TC9 TC10 TC11 TC12 TC13 TC14 TC15
Teachers Frequency Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree
(B) Pedagogical ICT Competencies of Teachers for Instructional Use of ICT
The results related with pedagogical ICT competencies that teacher needs to develop in view of
teacher educators are given below in table-3.
8
Table 3: Teacher Educators Views on the Pedagogical ICT Competencies that Teachers
Need for Instructional Purpose
Item
No.
Items Strongly
Agree
Agree Disagree Strongly
Disagree
f % f % f % f %
PC1 Select and evaluate subject-specific
educational software
14 19 31 43 16 22 12 16
PC2 Develop and maintain educational website 9 12 17 23 29 40 18 25
PC3 Prepare ICT-based learning environment 44 60 29 40 - - - -
PC4 Develop educational programs with the
help of programming languages
4 5 13 18 32 44 24 33
PC5 Monitor and evaluate ICT-based teaching-
learning process
43 59 28 38 2 3 - -
PC6 Applying ICT supported strategies to
manage students’ learning
17 23 51 70 3 4 2 3
PC7 Designing effective learning experiences
and creating rich learning environments
with the support of ICT
36 49 37 51 - - - -
PC8 Surfing the internet and locating useful
information from the internet for the
development of lesson plans
24 33 45 62 4 5 - -
PC9 Integrate ICT in other subjects across the
curriculum
43 59 21 29 7 9 2 3
PC10 Prepare schemes of work and lesson notes
using ICT
27 37 32 44 8 11 6 8
PC11 Ability to explore and apply to suitability of
ICT for cooperative learning and for peer
interaction
38 52 25 34 6 8 4 6
PC12 Understanding of how computer technology
can enhance student learning
34 47 39 53 - - - -
The data presented in table-3 shows that among all 12 pedagogical competencies, a maximum of
44 (60 %) teacher educators are strongly agree with the Item PC3 (Prepare ICT based learning
environment). Item PC3 had the highest score of 100 % [for Strongly Agree (60 %) and Agree
(40 %)]. This implies that the respondents think that using ICT skills in developing and
presenting information is very essential pedagogical competency that teachers need to require.
Similarly PC7 (Designing effective learning experiences and creating rich learning environments
with the support of ICT) and PC12 (Understanding of how computer technology can enhance
student learning) had the highest score of 100 % (for Strongly Agree and Agree). The
respondents think that the pedagogical competencies PC1 (Select and evaluate subject-specific
9
educational software), Item PC5 (Monitor and evaluate ICT-based teaching-learning process),
Item PC6 (Applying ICT supported strategies to manage students’ learning), Item PC8 (Surfing
the internet and locating useful information from the internet for the development of lesson
plans), Item PC9 (Integrate ICT in other subjects across the curriculum), PC10 (Prepare schemes
of work and lesson notes using ICT) and PC11 (Ability to explore and apply to suitability of ICT
for cooperative learning and for peer interaction) are very important pedagogical competencies
that modern teachers need to mastery on them and that are essential for successful instructional
use of ICT in education. These items scored more than 50 %.
The respondents did not consider PC2 (Develop and maintain educational websites) and PC4
(Develop educational programs with the help of programming languages) as teacher required
pedagogical competencies. Figure-1 shows the percentage of frequencies marked by teacher
educators as strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly agree on teacher required pedagogical
competencies for instructional use of ICT.
Figure-2 shows the percentage of frequencies marked by teacher educators as strongly agree,
agree, disagree and strongly agree on teacher required pedagogical competencies for
instructional use of ICT.
Figure-2: Distribution of Frequency Percentage of Teacher Educator on Required
Pedagogical ICT Competencies for Teachers (N=73)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4 PC5 PC6 PC7 PC8 PC9 PC10 PC11 PC12
Pedagogical ICT Com petencies
Teachers Frequency Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree
10
(C) Didactical ICT Competencies of Teachers for Instructional Use of ICT
The results related with Didactical ICT competencies that teacher needs to develop in view of
teacher educators are given below in table-4.
Table 4: Teacher Educators Views on the Didactical ICT Competencies that Teachers Need
for Instructional Purpose
Item
No.
Items Strongly
Agree
Agree Disagree Strongly
Disagree
f % f % f % f %
DC1 Make decisions about how to present the
content.
15 21 36 49 14 19 8 11
DC2 Create materials and tools that adapt the use
of ICT to students.
5 7 8 11 39 53 21 29
DC3 Make decisions about how students are to
interact and which tools are appropriate for
a given type of interaction (e.g. wikis for
collaborative construction, blogging for
conversation-type activities, etc.).
14 19 38 52 13 18 8 11
DC4 Plan student support during the teaching
and learning process.
21 29 36 49 10 14 6 8
DC 5 Use ICT as a didactical tool in the class. 45 62 28 38 - - - -
DC6 Make decisions about methodologies
appropriate to previous knowledge and
experience of students
29 40 30 41 8 11 6 8
DC7 Design the feedback and evaluation
moments adjusted to the learning and
teaching process.
7 10 12 16 31 42 23 32
DC8 Create activities related to specific aims.
These activities have a close relationship
with the knowledge to be acquired.
21 29 49 67 2 3 1 1
DC9 Know how to use ICT tools to create and
facilitate a community of learning.
18 25 44 60 11 15 - -
DC10 Implement cooperative learning strategies
using ICT.
51 70 22 30 - - - -
The data presented in table-4 shows that among the didactical ICT competencies, a maximum of
51 (70 %) teacher educators are strongly agree with the Item DC10 (Implement cooperative
learning strategies using ICT). Item DC10 had the highest score of 100 % [for Strongly Agree
11
(70 %) and Agree (30 %)]. This implies that the respondents think that Implement cooperative
learning strategies using ICT is very essential didactical competency that teachers need to
require. Similarly DC5 (Use ICT as a didactical tool in the class) had the highest score of 100 %
(for Strongly Agree and Agree). The respondents think that the didactical competencies DC1
(Make decisions about how to present the content), Item DC3 (Make decisions about how
students are to interact and which tools are appropriate for a given type of interaction (e.g. wikis
for collaborative construction, blogging for conversation-type activities, etc.), Item DC4 (Plan
student support during the teaching and learning process), Item DC6 (Make decisions about
methodologies appropriate to previous knowledge and experience of students), Item DC8 (Create
activities related to specific aims. These activities have a close relationship with the knowledge
to be acquired) and DC9 (Know how to use ICT tools to create and facilitate a community of
learning) are very important didactical competencies that modern teachers need to mastery on
them and that are essential for successful instructional use of ICT in education. These items
scored more than 50 %.
The respondents did not consider DC2 (Create materials and tools that adapt the use of ICT to
students) and DC7 (Design the feedback and evaluation moments adjusted to the learning and
teaching process) as teacher required didactical competencies.
Figure-3 shows the percentage of frequencies marked by teacher educators as strongly agree,
agree, disagree and strongly agree on teacher required didactical competencies required for
instructional use of ICT.
12
Figure-3: Distribution of Frequency Percentage of Teacher Educator on Required
Didactical ICT Competencies for Teachers (N=73)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 DC5 DC6 DC7 DC8 DC9 DC10
Didactical ICT Compet encies
Teachers Frequency Percentage
Strongly Agree A gree Disagree Strongly Disagree
(D) Social ICT Competencies of Teachers for Instructional Use of ICT
The results related with Social ICT competencies that teacher needs to develop in view of
teacher educators are given below in table-5.
Table 5: Teacher Educators Views on the Social ICT Competencies that Teachers Need for
Instructional Purpose
Item
No.
Items Strongly
Agree
Agree Do not
Know
Strongly
Disagree
f % f % f % f %
SC1 Understanding the concepts of ICT and its
impact upon current society and the whole
world.
26 36 34 46 8 11 5 7
SC2 Demonstrating knowledge and skills for
using technology in ethical, legal and safe
ways.
51 70 22 30 - - - -
SC3 Maintain continuous, positive and
constructive feedback to encourage student
participation and high levels of motivation.
18 25 43 59 9 12 3 4
SC4 Set a trustful atmosphere for
communication.
32 44 31 42 6 8 4 6
SC5 Be able to give to students equal 17 23 49 67 7 10 - -
13
opportunities to participate in collaboration.
SC6 Be able to use humour and good manners
during the teaching and learning process.
50 68 23 32 - - - -
SC7 Promote communication between students. 34 46 29 40 5 7 5 7
SC8 Demonstrating knowledge and skills for
acquiring and processing learning resources
with technology tools and using the
resources foe educational purposes in fair
ways.
25 34 41 56 4 6 3 4
SC9 Promote collaboration among students and
assist them in the acquisition of
collaboration skills.
29 40 40 55 4 5 - -
SC10 Build a feeling of belonging to an online
learning community.
12 16 26 36 24 33 11 15
The data presented in table-5 shows that among all 10 social competencies, a maximum of 51
(70 %) teacher educators are strongly agree with the Item SC2 (Demonstrating knowledge and
skills for using technology in ethical, legal and safe ways). Item SC2 had the highest score of
100 % [for Strongly Agree (70 %) and Agree (30 %)]. This implies that the respondents think
that Demonstrating knowledge and skills for using technology in ethical, legal and safe ways is
very essential social competency that teachers need to require. Similarly SC6 (Be able to use
humour and good manners during the teaching and learning process) had the highest score of 100
% (for Strongly Agree and Agree). The respondents think that the social competencies SC1
(Understanding the concepts of ICT and its impact upon current society and the whole world),
Item SC3 (Maintain continuous, positive and constructive feedback to encourage student
participation and high levels of motivation), Item SC4 (Set a trustful atmosphere for
communication), Item SC5 (Be able to give to students equal opportunities to participate in
collaboration), Item SC7 (Promote communication between students), SC8 (Demonstrating
knowledge and skills for acquiring and processing learning resources with technology tools and
using the resources foe educational purposes in fair ways), SC9 (Promote collaboration among
students and assist them in the acquisition of collaboration skills) and SC10(Build a feeling of
belonging to an online learning community) are very important social competencies that modern
teachers need to mastery on them and that are essential for successful instructional use of ICT in
education. These items scored more than 50 %.
14
Figure-4 shows the percentage of frequencies marked by teacher educators as strongly agree,
agree, disagree and strongly agree on teacher required social competencies required for
instructional use of ICT.
Figure-4: Distribution of Frequency Percentage of Teacher Educator on Required Social
ICT Competencies for Teachers (N=73)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
SC1 SC2 SC3 SC4 SC5 SC6 SC7 SC8 SC9 SC10
Social ICT Comp etencie s
teachers Frequency Percentage
Strongly Agree A gree Disagree Strongly Disagree
Discussion
It has been revealed in present study that among the technological ICT competencies that
teachers need to develop, the highest scoring item is the development of the competency to use
ICT skills in developing and presenting information. Freedman (1999) presents technological
key ICT skills in four main areas of knowledge namely: hardware, software, curriculum and
general knowledge. These key ICT skills are not limited to knowledge of technical skills such as
key boarding and technical use of some software packages. They include the ability to recognize
when and how to apply ICT to the solution of problems.
Another finding of this study is that teachers need to develop three main pedagogical ICT
competencies in priority basis and these competencies are: prepare ICT-based learning
environment, designing effective learning experiences and creating rich learning environments
with the support of ICT and Understanding of computer technology can enhance student
learning. This type of ICT-based education offers opportunities for spiritual, moral, social and
cultural development of pupils (DfEE and QCA, 1999).
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It is interesting that all the respondents agree that teachers need to develop competencies in using
ICT as a didactical tool in the class as well as implement cooperative learning strategies using
ICT. Using ICT as a didactical tool implies using it to establish dynamic and powerful
instructional strategies and environment. An interesting finding of this study is that teachers
need to develop two main social ICT competencies in priority basis and these competencies are:
(1) Demonstrating knowledge and skills for using technology in ethical, legal and safe ways and
(2) Able to use humour and good manners during the teaching and learning process. Others
social ICT competencies are comes after the above two competencies
Conclusion and Recommendations
We live in a technologically fast changing world. We are already witnessing some of the
significant social and economic consequences of ICT and its impact on education. A new era of
education has been started which necessarily demands a new role of teacher, pupils and
education system. In the era of ICT, it will be very difficult for India to cross the digital divide, if
concerted efforts are not made to promote ICT education. One of the strategies to be adopted in
this regard is the production of teachers who have developed competencies for the successful
instructional use of ICT in education. Those teachers are called 21st century teachers who will
possess the technological, pedagogical, didactical and social competencies in them and they will
shape the personality of their pupils on constructivist level. To ensure the development of
teachers’ ICT competencies, the following recommendations are made:
1. ICT should be a compulsory course in all teacher preparation institutions. Teacher
preparation should not be based on training for “Computer Literacy” but should prepare
teachers for using technologies to construct, represent and share knowledge in real life
authentic contexts. Research shows that teachers tend to teach the way that they werte
taught (Ball, 1990, Lortie, 1975).
2. On the basis of research, an innovative model of pre-service teacher education should be
developed that fulfill our present requirement. It should be remember that the model has
the potential to equip that knowledge and skills and train our future teachers that
confidently provide knowledge and instructions in the classroom with the help of modern
technologies keeping in view the national and international standards.
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3. Sufficient facilities and resources should be provided to in-service and pre-service
teachers to practices the ICTs in teaching-learning process. They should be given
environment in which they develop their ICT-based competencies.
4. An integrated approach should be implemented in teacher preparation institutions. The
goal of this approach should be to create and develop teaching-learning environment in
which practitioners should be able to understand the nature of above four types of
competencies and use the suitable competencies which is required and expected to them.
5. Both theory and practice related to the technological, pedagogical, didactical and social
competencies should be the compulsory course of the teacher preparation programs.
6. Computers and internet should be provided in the schools so as to provide access to ICT
to both teachers and learners.
7. Professional development programs (PDP) should be organized for the teachers in which
emphasis should be laid down on the development of ICT-pedagogical competencies.
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... An attempt was made by the investigators to study the previous research studies in the area and could identify that a study was carried out over several issues pertaining to the interrelation between the competency of the teachers in their subject (Hussain, 2010) and teachers' awareness on modern techniques of teaching technology (Joshi, 2014). Studies were focused on the competency of the teachers at high school level and its impact on the students. ...
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