ArticlePDF Available

Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activity of Strychnos nux vomica Linn.

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. (Loganiaceae) is an evergreen tree native to Southeast Asia. In traditional medicinal sys t em seeds , bark and leaves have been used in a variety of diseas es . Seeds are widely us ed in treatment of Eczema, rheumatism, paralys is, a s t hma , diabetes and piles etc. In the pres ent study Antiinflammatory and Antioxidant activities of th e a lcohol extract of the Strychnos nux vomica was assayed in Charles Fos ter albino rats. Acute and chronic inflammation models were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity (in vivo). In acute model carrageenan was used to induce inflamma t io n in rat hind paw and cotton p e lle t -in d u ced granuloma method was used for chronic inflammation model. The antioxidant property was as ses sed o n e nzymatic and non-enzymatic models of lipid peroxidation induced by Fe3+-ADP (1.6 mM-62 μM) and FeSO4(0.5mM) respectively (in vitro). Degree of lipid peroxidation was measured TBARS estimation. Leve l of reduced glutathione (GSH) was estimated by the method of Ellman (1959). In order to evaluate antihepatotoxic activity of S. nux vomica extract level of serum transaminases (SGOT an d SGPT) was measured by the method of Reitman and Franke l (1957). The extract (50–200 mgkg-1 b.w., p.o.) exhibited dose and time dependent significant inhibition on both the models of inflammation. At a dose of 200 mgkg-1 b.w. for 7,15 and 30 days 40%,72% and 95% inhibition in oedema formation (acute model) wa s fo u n d respectively. In the c h ro n ic mo del at a dose of 200 mgkg-1 b.w. for 7 and 21 days there was 24.75% and 58% inhibition in cotton pellet granuloma respectively. The extract also inhibited both the models of lipid peroxidation in a dose dependent manner. ED50 was found to be 149μg /ml and 85μg/ml on FeSO4 and Fe -ADP models of lipid 3+ peroxidation respectively. It significantly inhibited aerobic as well as FeSO4 induced depletion of GSH in t ime and dose dependent manner. Oral treatment of drug up t o 200 mg kg -1 b.w. for 30 days did not show any rise in serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT). The results obtained in this study indicated that the ethanol extract of Strychnos nux vomica pos ses s potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property with no detectable adverse effect. These results confirm the use of S. nux vomica tradit io n a lly for the treatment of rheumatism and other inflammatory conditions .
Content may be subject to copyright.
American-Eu ras ian Jo u rnal of Sus t ain ab le A g ricu ltu re, 3(2): 244-252, 2009
ISSN 1995-0748
© 2009, A merican Eu ra s ia n Net wo rk fo r Scien t ific In fo rma t ion
T his is a refereed jou rnal an d all articles are professionall y screen ed and rev iewed
ORIGIN AL AR TICLES
244
Corre spondin g Author: Dr. Savita Chaurasia, A s sistant Professor, Department of Biot echnology, CET,IILM Academy
of Higher Learning, 18, K nowledge Park II, Greater Noida-201306, G.B. Nagar, U.P. India.
Ph: +911202320056 Fax: +911202320058
E-mail: drsav16@rediffmail.com
Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activity of Strychnos nux vomica Linn.
Savita Chaurasia
Department of Biotechnology, College of Engineering and Technology, IILM Academy of Higher Learning,
17,18 Knowledge Park II, Greater Noida-201306, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Sav ita Ch a u r a s ia, A n ti-inflammato ry & A ntioxidan t A ctivity o f Strychnos Nux Vomica Linn , Am.-
Eu ra sian J. Su stai n. Agric ., 3(2 ): 24 4 -252 , 200 9
ABS TRACT
Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. (Loganiaceae) is an evergreen tree native to Southeas t Asia. In traditional
med ic in al s y s tem see d s , ba rk an d le aves ha v e be e n u s ed in a v a rie ty of dis eas es . See d s a re wide ly u s e d in
trea t ment o f Ecze ma, rh eumat is m, p a ra ly s is , a s t hma , dia b e tes and piles e t c. In the p res ent s tu d y A n ti-
inflammatory and Antioxidant activities of the a lcohol extract of the Strychnos nux vomica was assayed in
Cha rles Fost er albino rat s. Ac ute a nd chro nic inflammation mod els were u sed to ev aluate th e anti-inflammato ry
activity (in vivo). In acute model carrageenan was used to induce inflammat io n in rat hind paw and cotton
pelle t-induced granuloma method was used for chronic inflammation model. The antioxidant property was
as s ess e d o n e n zymat ic an d no n-enzymatic models of lipid p ero xidation ind uced b y Fe -ADP (1.6 mM-62 µM )
3+
4
an d F eSO (0.5mM ) re s p e ctiv e ly (in vitro). Degree of lipid peroxidation was measured TBARS estimation. Level
of reduced glutathione (GSH) was estimated by the method of Ellman (1959). In order to evaluate
an tihepatotoxic act ivity of S. nux vomica extract level of serum transaminases (SGOT and S GPT) was
measured by the method of Reitman and Frankel (1957). The extract (50200 mgkg b.w., p.o.) exhibited dose
-1
and time depend ent significant inhibition on both the models of inflammation. At a dos e of 200 mgkg b.w.
-1
fo r 7,15 a nd 30 d a y s 40% ,72% a nd 95% in h ib ition in o e d ema format io n (a c ute mo d e l) wa s f o u n d re s p e ctiv e ly .
In the c h r o n ic mo d e l at a d o s e o f 200 mgkg b .w . fo r 7 an d 21 day s there w as 24.75% and 58% in h ibitio n
-1
in co t t on pelle t granuloma re s p e c tively . T h e extract als o inhibite d b o th th e mo d els o f lipid p e ro xidat io n in a
50 4
dos e dep e n d ent ma n n er. ED was fo u n d to b e 1 4 9 µ g / ml a n d 85µg / ml o n Fe SO and Fe -A DP models o f lip id
3+
4
peroxidation respectively. It significantly inhibited aerobic as well as FeSO induced depletion of GSH in time
an d d o s e de p e n d ent ma n n er. Oral t re a tmen t o f d ru g u p t o 200 m g k g b .w . fo r 30 d ays d id not s how a n y ris e
-1
in serum transaminas es (SGOT and SGPT). The results obtained in this study indicated that the ethanol extract
of Strychnos nux vomica p osses s potent anti-inflammatory an d a ntioxidan t p roperty with n o d et ectable ad v ers e
effect. The se resu lts con firm the us e of S. nux vomica tradit ionally for the treatment of rheumatism and other
inflammatory conditions.
Key Wor ds: Strychnos nux vomica, A n ti-inflammat o ry , A n tioxid ant, Lip id p e ro xida t io n , Gluta t h ione
Introduction
It is now well established that free radicals have been implicated in a vast number of diseases , rangin g
fro m c ance r, th ro u g h a u toimmun e c o nditio n s , to ac u t e an d c h ro n ic inflamma t o ry d is e as e inc lu d in g rh e u ma t o id
a rt hritis (Halliwell, 1987, Halliwell and Gutteridge 1999; W in row, et al ., 1993; M ah ajan and Tand on, 2004).
This has led to increased interest amongst the researchers globally to evaluate role of antioxidan t t h erap y in
inflammato ry dis ea s es . In s pite of the discov ery of several newer ag en ts , the search for better anti-inflammatory
drugs continues becaus e they have many known side effects and n o n e of them is suitable for prolonged use.
The side effects of the anti-inflammatory drugs are one of t h e majo r p roblems in developing medicine today.
Therefore, development of new and more powerful drugs with fewer side effects is needed.
245
Am.-Eurasian J. Sustain. Agric., 3(2): 244-252, 2009
Natural products have long been recognized as an important source of therapeutically effective medicines.
Large numbers of h erb al drug s a re in us e for the treatmen t of arthritis b y A y urvedic and Siddh a p rac titione rs.
Ayu rveda recommen ds the use of Stychnos nux vomica Linn . in p u rified fo r m s i n c e t i me immemorial in
treatment of various diseases. Seeds are bitter, insecticidal, aphrodisiac, appetizer, tonic, antihelmintic,
feb rifuge, emmen ag ogu e, p urgative , stimulan t and s to mach ic (W arrier et al., 1996). They are useful in anaemia,
asthma, bronchitis, constipation, diabetes , ins omnia, cardiopalmus, skin diseases, paralysis and weakness of
limb s . Seeds a re a lso u s ed fo r nerv ou s d isord ers (Jain & De Filipps, 1991). It is very e ffec tiv e in ch icke n p o x
fever. It is a tribal remed y fo r snake bite (Murthy et al, 1986). It is wid e ly u s ed in trea t men t o f e c zema
(M a s lma n i et al., 1979 and 1981) and rheumatis m (Choudhury, 1977; Sen et al, 1983; Shukla et al ., 1985).
Different formulations of this plant product are o n the market, for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other
metabolic ailments (Thakur et a l., 1989; Chaurasia e t al., 1995).
Ant ilipid p e ro xid a tive prope rty of Strychnos nux vomica alcohol extract has been reported on cumene
hydro p eroxide (T rip ath i a n d Ch a u ras ia, 1996a) and ferro us s u lp h ate (T rip a t hi an d Cha u ra s ia , 1996b ) in d u c e d
models of lip id peroxidatio n . It a ls o p o s s es s e s s ig n ific a n t met al ch e latio n p rop e rt y a n d ch e la ted b o t h fo rms of
iro n (Fe2+ and F e 3 + ) . D u e t o lack of re d o x be h avoiur it d o e s n o t act as pro o xida n t wit h tran s ition me t al ion s
(Tripathi and Chau ras ia, 2000).
The present study was undertaken to screen the relationship between anti-inflammatory and antioxidant
activity o f S. nux vomica seed extract . Th e ant i-inflammatory act iv ity of Strychnos nux vomica Linn. extract
was studied on acute and chronic phases of inflammation using carrageenan induced paw edema (Winter
et al ., 1962) and the cotton pellet granuloma test (Bailey, 1988), respectively. The efforts has been made to
exp lain th e mech a n is m o f ac tion b y s tud y in g a n tioxidant p ro p e rt y o n enzymat ic an d n o n e n zy mat ic mo dels of
4
lipid peroxidation induced by Fe -ADP (1.6 mM-62 µM) and FeSO (0.5mM ) respectively accompanied by
3+
mea s u ring red u c e d gluta t h ione le v e l under n o r m a l a n d t o xic conditio n . In order to e v a luat e antih e p ato t o xic
activity o f S. nux vomica extract, level of serum trans aminases (SGOT and SGPT) was measured.
Mat e r i al s an d meth ods
Chemicals
Th io b a rb it u ric acid (T BA ), t ric h lo ro a cet ic ac id ( T C A ) , f e r r ic chlorid e, ferro u s s ulphat e and a c etic a cid
we re p u rc hased fro m Central D ru g Ho u s e Pv t. Ltd. 1,1,3,3-t e tra et h o xy p ropan e ( T E P), re d u ced g lu t ath io n e
(GSH), Adenosine di phosphate (ADP), 5,5-dithio-bis(2-nitro benzoic acid)(DTNB) and carrageen an w ere of
Sigma Chemical Co., Louis, Mo. USA. All other chemicals were of analytical grade.
Plant Material
S. nux vomica seeds were purchased from the A yurvedic Pharmacy, Institute of M edical Sciences, Banaras
Hindu Univers ity. Their authenticity was verified on pharmacognostic parameters and with the direct
compariso n with the sample preserved in the department of Dravy aguna, IMS, BHU (Vouch er No. 180). For
its purification, an indigenous method, as described in Ayurvedic text (Bhanu and Vasudevan, 1986) was used
as des cribed ea rlier (Tripathi and Cha uras ia, 1996a).
Preparation of alcohol extract
Dried purified s eeds were powdered and exhaustively extracted with ethanol using soxhlet extracto r for
48 ho urs. T he res u lting extract was dis tilled u nder reduced pre s sure in a Buchi ty pe rotary ev apo rator.
Co n c e n trate d extra ct (res idue) wa s t ra ns fe rre d t o a va c u u m des icca t o r and dried u n t il cons tan t weig h t w a s
at t ained . Th e y ield o f s o lven t free e xtra ct w as 32.9% (w/ v ). Th e extra ct w a s c h ara cte rize d b y HP LC-fin g e rp rint
(Tripa t h i a n d Cha uras ia., 1996b). Th is extract was su s pende d in a d rug veh icle (Tween 80: water; 1:9) for a
known concentration (w/v) and was stored at 4 C until further use.
0
Animals
Inbred A lb ino rat s o f Charles Foster strain (100 –150 g) of either sex were used for the pharmacological
ac t iv ities . They were kep t in p o ly pro p y lene c ages at 25 ± 2° C, with re la tive h u mid i t y 4 5 -55% un d e r 12h light
and dark cycles. All the animals were acclimatized to the laboratory conditions for a week before use. They
were fed with stan dard animal feed (Hindu s ta n Lever, Mu mbai, India.) and wa ter ad li bitum. The animals were
not fed for 12 hours before experiment.
246
Am.-Eurasian J. Sustain. Agric., 3(2): 244-252, 2009
Carrageenan induced paw oed ema
Th e ra ts were divided in to 5 grou p s (n = 6). Group I s erve d as co ntro l, which re ce ive d dru g ve hicle 10
mlkg b.w, p.o. (tween 80:water; 1:9), group II-V were pre treate d wit h S. n u x vomica extra ct (50, 100,150
-1
and 200 mg kg b.w, p.o.) as per protocol. Paw oedema was induced by injecting 0.1ml of (1%, w/v)
-1
carrageenan in ph ysiological s aline into th e sub plantar tis s ues of the left hind paw o f e a c h ra t (W inter et al.,
1962). Animals were pretreated with different doses of drug for 7,15 and 30 days prior to Carrageenan
ad minist ration. The paw v o lu me wa s mea s ure d every ho ur till 3 h after c arrageen an injection b y t he mercu ry
dis placement meth od u s ing a p leth y smograp h . The percen tage inh ibition o f paw v olume in d rug treat ed grou p
was compared with the control group. The anti-inflammatory a ctiv it y is expressed as the average percent
inhibitio n o f o e d ema in e ach g rou p , wh ich is calc u late d acc o rd in g t o the g e n eral formu la:
% in h ib ition = (Vc - Vt ) ´ 100/Vc, wh ere Vt and Vc represent the average oede ma volume of r a t s t rea t e d
wit h d ru g and co n t ro l, res pec t iv ely.
Cotton pellet granuloma
Th e ra t s were d iv id e d into 5 groups (n = 18). Gro u p I s e rv e d as control, wh ic h r e c e iv e d dru g veh ic le
10mlkg b.w, p.o. (tween 80:water; 1:9), group II-V w ere pre treated with S. nux vomica extract (50, 100,150
-1
an d 200 mgkg b.w, p .o.) as pe r pro to col. All fiv e g roup s were sub divided into 3 sub grou ps (SG) (n=6).
-1
Subg rou p 1 (SG1) was not p retreat ed with an y dru g. SG2 an d SG3 were pretreated with different do s es o f drug
for 7 and 21 days respectively. After completion of drug schedule, dry sterilized cotton pellets (10 ± 0.5 mg )
were implanted subcutaneously into both sides of the groin region of each rat. Different drugs were continued
fo r n e xt 7 d a y s . T h e pelle t s w e r e t a ken o u t o n 8 day , was h ed an d d rie d at 60 C for 24 h r. Th e g ra n u lo ma
th o
weig ht o btained fro m co ntrol and t rea te d gro u p s w ere used to ca lcu late p erc en tage inhib ition (Bailey, 1988,
Mukh opadh yay an d Lahiri, 1992).
Activity of serum transaminases
Different dos e s (50–200 mgkg b.w, p . o .) o f S. nux vomica extract were given orally for 30 days. After
-1
completion of drug schedule, blood was collected from brachial artery . S erum was separated and stored
immediately at -20 C. Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminas e (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic
o
transaminase (SGPT) were determined using commercial kit (J. Mitra & Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi) based on
t h e meth od o f Reitman an d Fran kel (1957). Dinitro ph en yl hydrazine us e d as s ub s tra te an d a b s o rb a n c e w a s
record ed at 520 nm ag ai ns t dis tilled wate r. Units of SGOT and SGPT were determined from the stand ard
curve.
Preparation of rat liver homogenate
Rats were fixed on the operation table by ventral side up and dissected. Liver was pe rfus ed with normal
saline throu gh h ep at ic po rta l vein. Liver was harv e s t e d a n d it s lobe s were briefly d ried be tween filter pap ers
an d w ere th in c u t with a h e a vy-d u ty bla d e . T hese s mall pie c es we re then t ra n s fe rred t o t he g la s s Teflon
homogen izin g tube t o p re p are homog e n a te (10% , w/v ) in P h o s p hat e b u ffe r s aline (P BS) (p H 7.4) in c o ld
condition. It was centrifu g ed at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes. The supernatant was finally sus pended in PBS to
contain approximately 0.8-1.5 mg protein in 0.1 ml o f s u s p ens ion, which was used to perform the in vitro
experiment.
Lipid peroxidation assay (TBARS)
The degree of lipid peroxidation was as s ayed by estimating the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances
(TBARS) by using standard met hod (Ohkawa et al., 1979) with slight modifications (Pandey et al., 1994). 3
ml rat liver homogenate (5%) was taken in different 35 mm glass Petridishes. Different concentrations of p lant
extrac t a nd s t an d ard an tioxidan ts (as per p roto co l) we r e p r e in c u b at ed with h omog en ate for 10 min a t 37 C.
o
After incub ation lipid pe roxidation was ind u ce d enzymat ically a n d n o nen zymatically by a dding Fe3 -A DP (1.6
+
4
mM -62 µM ) a n d Fe SO (0.5mM ) res p ect iv ely. Pe trid is h e s w e r e further inc u b a ted for 30 min . 100 µl o f
incub ation mixture (5% homogena te in PBS, pH 7.4) was tra nsfe rred to a tub e c onta in in g 1 .5 ml 10% trichloro
acetic acid. After 10 minutes, tubes were centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 10 minutes. Supern a ta n t was mixed with
1.5 ml TBA (0.67% aqu eo u s TBA in 5 0% a ce tic a cid, 1:1). The mixture was kept in a b oilin g water bath fo r
30 min u tes. Tubes we re cooled a n d abs o rb a n ce was taken a t 535n m . T h e v a lu e s we re e v aluat ed on th e b as is
of a stand ard cu rve by u s ing 1, 1, 3, 3-tetra etho xy p r o p a n e (T EP). Pro te in was es timated by th e st an dard
method (Lowry et al, 1951).
247
Am.-Eurasian J. Sustain. Agric., 3(2): 244-252, 2009
Reduced glutath ione a ssay (GSH)
Reduced glutathione was determined by the method of Ellman (1959), 3 ml of 10% rat liver homogenate
was taken in 35 mm Petridis hes. In control only buffer was added, whereas in e xpe rime ntal groups all the
4
ag e n t s s u c h as extra ct, FeSO , v itamin E a n d parabe n zo q u in o ne (PBQ ) were a d d ed in d iffe r e n t combinat io n s
as p er p ro toco l. 250ml in c ubat io n mixtu re was mixed wit h 0.5 ml p rec ip itat in g b u ffe r (5% T r ic h l o r o ac etic a cid
in 1mM et h y len e d iamin e tetra acetic acid (EDTA). The sample was centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 10 min., and
th e s u p e rn a tan t mixed wit h 2.5 m l o f 0 . 1 M phos p hate b u ffe r (p H 8.0). The c o lo u r was d evelo p e d by ad d in g
100 ìl 5,5-dithio bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) (0.01%). Absorbance was determined at 412 nm. The
co ncen tra tion o f red uced gluta th ion e was ev aluated by using the s ta nd ard curve of reduced gluta th ion e (GSH).
Statistical evaluation
Results giv e n here are mean ± SD of six separate experiments. Level of significance has been calculated
by using Students t test
Res ults and dis cussion
Effect on carrageenan in duced rat p aw oedema
Int erp lantar injection of carrag eenan in rat s led t o a time-depen dent inc rease in p aw thickness (Fig u r e 1);
this inc rease was observed at 1 h and was maximal at 3 h after administration. However, carrageenan-induced
paw edema was significantly reduce d in all phases of inflammation in a dose and duration dependent manner
by treatment with S. nux vomica e xtra ct. Pretreatment with drug for 7 days, a maximum 40% inhibition in paw
oe dema fo rmat ion was ob s erve d at a dos e of 200 mgkg b .w, followed b y 3 5% , 21 % a n d 11 % with 150, 100,
-1
50 mg kg b .w res p ect iv ely. On in c re asing th e d u ra tion o f drug trea t ment, t h e e xte n t of oede ma fo rma tion
-1
dec re a s e d s ig n ific antly . A t a d o s e o f 200 mg kg b .w. fo r 7,15 a n d 30 da y s 40% ,72% a n d 95 % in h i b i t io n in
-1
oedema formation was found respectively. It shows that S. nux vomica is effect iv e to c h e c k t h e i n fla mmatio n
on long term use.
Fig. 1: Effect of S. nux vomica on ca rrag eena n in d u c e d ra t p aw edema (d os e an d du ration resp o ns e ).
Measurements are made at 3 hours . Each v alue rep rese nt mean ± SD (n=6).
Effect on cotton pellet granuloma
Th e effects of S. nux vomica extract on the proliferative phase of inflammation are shown in Table 1. A
significant red uc tion in the weight of cotton pellets was o b s erv ed with an imals p ret reated with ext ract for 7
and 21 days (SG2 and SG3) in comparison with control rats . Res p onse was in a dose and time dependent
manne r. In Sub g roup 1 (SG1) on ly 7% inhib ition in granu loma formation was o bserved with a do s e o f 50
mgkg which increased to 30% by increasing t h e do s e o f drug up to 200 mgkg . Antiinflammatory respons e
-1 -1
als o in creas e d with in c re as in g th e d u ra tion of dru g tre a t m e n t . A t a d o s e of 200 mgkg b.w in h ib itio n in
-1
gra nulo ma weigh t incre as e d fro m 30% to 87%.
248
Am.-Eurasian J. Sustain. Agric., 3(2): 244-252, 2009
Table 1: Effect of Strychnos nux vomica on co tto n pel let g ranulo ma.
Group Dose Sub group 1 Sub group 2 Sub group 3
(kg bw ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-1
Cotton weight % Inhibiti-on Cotton weight % Inhibiti-on Cotton weight % Inhibiti-on
(mg) (mg) (mg)
Control 10 ml 30.07 ± 1.07 - 30.07 ± 1.07 - 30.07 ± 1.07 -
Strychnos 50 mg 28.66 ± 0.86 7.02 26.67 ± 0.71 16.94 23.74 ± 1.13 31.53
baa
nux vo mica 100 mg 27.03 ± 1.02 15.14 23.18 ± 0.84 34.32 19. 43 ± 0.91 53.01
aaa
150 mg 25.65 ± 0.69 22.02 20.04 ± 0.43 49.97 15. 97 ± 0.82 70.25
aaa
200 mg 24.02 ± 0.90 30.14 17.79 ± 1.08 61.18 12. 60 ± 0.72 87.04
aaa
Each v alue repres ent m ean ± S D (n= 6).
St atis tical com paris on wi th co ntro l group, whi ch received onl y drug vehi cle (tween 80: water, 1:9 ).
P value : a < 0.001; b < 0.05
SG1: Animals were not pretreated with any drug. After implantation of cotton pellets, drug was given orally for seven days.
SG2 and SG3: Animals were pret re at ed wi t h dr u g for 7 and 21 days respectively and then cotton pellets were im planted and drug
administration was continued for next seven days.
Effect on serum transaminases
Res u lts (T able 2) cle a rly in d icat e th a t the re was n o s ig n ifican t c h a n g e in SGOT an d SGPT ac t iv itie s in
comparison to control. Thus it could be inferred that S. nux vomica up t o a d ose o f 200 mgkg body weight
-1
is totally safe when given to normal rats for a long duration of 30 days.
Table 2: Effect of Strychnos nux vomica on serum transam inases.
Group Dose SGPT (IU/ml) S GOT (IU/ml)
------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------
(kg bw) 15 days 30 days 15 days 30 days
-1
Control 10 ml 33.22 ± 6.57 32.27 ± 5.69 76.39 ± 5.01 76.91 ± 5.82
Drug vehicle 10 ml 32.11 ± 4.67 27.99 ± 4.88 74.97 ± 4.01 74.54 ± 3.88
bbbb
Strychnos 50 mg 30.91 ± 3.03 30.37 ± 6.24 73.37 ± 4.92 73.13 ± 5.16
bbbb
nux vo mica 100 m g 32. 63 ± 3.98 29.30 ± 3.92 75.61 ± 3.67 75.41 ± 4.90
bbbb
150 mg 32.29 ± 4.77 28.67 ± 4.86 75.92 ± 4.03 74.69 ± 3.82
bbbb
200 mg 33.97 ± 5.31 28.43 ± 5.01 75.21 ± 3.92 74.08 ± 4.98
bbbb
Each v alue repres ent m ean ± S D (n= 6).
St atis tical com paris on w ith cont rol group, which receiv ed on ly, disti lled water.
P v alue: b = NS (not s ign ificant)
Protective effect of S. nux vomica on lipid peroxidation
4
Strychnos nux vomica extract showed s ig n ificant reduction in lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO and
Fe3 -ADP complex in a dose dep e nden t manner (Table 3). Under similar experimental conditions result was
+
co mpared with well known antioxidants Vitamin E and Parabenzoquinone (PBQ). Vitamin E and PBQ in
50
increas ing con ce ntrat ion inhibited b oth t h e mo d e ls of lipid pe roxidation. ED for all th e t ree agen ts are
de termined by usin g d ose res p ons e cu rve (Table 4).
Table 3: Effect of Strychnos nux vomica on lipid peroxidation.
S. nux vomica (µg/ml) TB ARS (nmoles/100mg protein)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4
FeSO Fe -ADP
3+
00 446.54 ± 6.41 477.82 ± 7.98
25 352.16 ± 7.52 328.33 ± 9.42
aa
50 315.33 ± 6.68 302.37 ± 8.65
aa
100 272.50 ± 6.59 266.56 ± 7.96
aa
200 235.16 ± 3.97 223.67 ± 8.31
aa
400 164.21 ± 3.94 149.24 ± 7.32
aa
800 073.94 ± 4.94 069.84 ± 5.67
aa
Each v alue repres ent m ean ± S D (n= 6).
Statistical comparison with control value, which was arrived by
4
adding 0.5mM FeSO and (1.6 mM-62 µM) Fe -ADP for 30 minutes.
3+
P value: a < 0.001
Table 4: Comparative study of S. nux vo mica with Vitamin E and parabenzoquinone
50
Antioxidant ED (µg/ml)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4
FeSO Fe -ADP
3+
S. nux vom ica 149 85
Vitamin E 58 12
Parabenzoquinone 35 10
T hese d ata are best represen tati ve of six s eparate experim ents .
249
Am.-Eurasian J. Sustain. Agric., 3(2): 244-252, 2009
Effect of S. nux vomica on reduced glutathione
Glutatathione in reduced form (GSH) is an important endogenous antioxidan t. The result in Figure 2
indicated th at in rat liver homogenate GSH undergo aerial oxidation an d t here is a g radu al decrease in GSH
4
content which reached the basal level in 50 minutes (control group). In presence of FeSO (3.0 mM) there was
a sha rp de pletion in GSH co ntent . S. nux vomica extract s ignifican tly reduced the rate o f oxid ation o f GS H
4
even in presence of FeSO . Under similar conditions, vitamin E and parabenzoquinone failed to maintain the
GSH content. Interestingly PBQ e n h ance d the rate of oxidation of GSH, whereas vitamin E neither prevented
no r en han ced GSH oxidation (Figu re 3).
Fig. 2: Effec t o f S. nux vomica o n reduced glutathione level in normal and FeSO4 induced rat liver
ho moge nate (Time kinetics ). Each v alu e re pres ent mean ± SD (n=6), p < 0.001.
Fig. 3: Co mpa rative s tud y of S . nux vo mica , vitamin E and parabenzoquinone on reduced glutathio n e lev el.
Each value rep res ent mean ± SD (n =6).
Discussion
Strychnos nux vomica wa s e v aluat e d fo r it s a n ti-inflammat o ry a ctiv i t y i n a c u t e and ch ro n ic mo d els .
Significant anti-inflammatory activity was observed in both carrageenan induced paw oedema and cotton pellet
granuloma models. The extract showed maximum inhibition of 95% in carrageenan induced p aw oed e ma a t
th e d o s e o f 200 mg kg b .w. when animals we re p re treat ed wit h dru g fo r 30 day s . Ca rra g e enan in d u c ed oe d e ma
-1
is commonly used as an experimental animal model for acute inflammation (Winter, 1962). The development
250
Am.-Eurasian J. Sustain. Agric., 3(2): 244-252, 2009
of o ed ema in th e p aw of t h e ra t a fter inject ion of c arrageenan was d es c ribed by Vinegar et al . (1969) as a
biphasic event. The initial phase observed during the first hour is attributed to the release of his tamine and
serotonin, the second phase is due to the release of pros t ag land in-like substances The result of the present
study indicates that S. nux vomica extra ct s ho wed s ign ific ant s up p re s siv e ac t iv ity in b ot h phas es . Bas ed o n this,
it could be argued that the suppression of the first phase may be due to inhibition of th e release of early
med ia t o rs , s u ch as his tamin e and seroto n in , a n d t he a c tion in t h e s eco n d p h a s e may be e xpla in ed by blo ckin g
an y step fro m arach ido n ic acid release to p ro s ta gland in format ion b y catalys is of c yclo-o xyg en ase.
Ch ro n ic inflammat io n in clud e s a proliferat io n of fib ro b las ts an d the in filtrat io n of n eutroph ils and e xudat io n
(Sp e c tor, 1969; Swingle a n d Sh id e man, 1972). Thes e ce lls c an b e e i t h e r s p re ad o r in gran u lo ma fo rm.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) decrease the size of granuloma which results from cellular
reaction by inhibiting granulocyte infiltration/inflammation, preventing gene ra tion of collagen fibers and
suppressing mu copolysaccharides (Suleyman, 1999). The S. nux vomica extrac t s h o we d s ig n ific a n t an t i-
inflammat o ry a ctiv it y in cot t o n -p e llet in d uce d g ra n u lo ma an d t h u s fo u n d t o be e ffec t iv e in c h ro n ic
inflammatory conditions, which reflected its efficacy in inhibiting fibroblasts proliferation, synthesis of collagen
an d mu c o p o ly s a cch a rid e s d u rin g g ra n u lo m a tis s u e fo rmation . Th e re wa s n o ris e in serum tran s amina s e s in a ll
tested dos e of S. nux vomica up to 30 days (Table 2). This finding s u pports its non-toxic effect at the
therapeutic doses in rats.
Recent studies suggest that the inflammatory tis sue damages are due to the liberation of re act ive oxygen
spe cies fro m p h a g o c y t e s inv ading t he inflammation s ites (Conn er a nd Grisha m, 1996; W inrow, 1993; Parke
an d S a p o t a , 1 996). To inves tigate if the anti-inflammatory effect o f S. nux vomica could be also related to
an t io xida n t act iv it y , the e xtrac t wa s e v alua t ed on no n e n zy matic and en zy ma tic mo d e ls o f lip id p ero xida t ion
4
induc ed by Fe SO and Fe3 -A DP complex res pective ly in t he rat liver h o mo g e n a t e (B uch er et al., 1983;
+
Svingen et al., 1979; Hog eberg et al, 1975). The res ults (Table 3) clearly in d icate the dose dependent
pro te ctive res po n se o f S. nux vomica extract on b o th the mod e ls o f li p i d p e r oxiatio n (Table 3). Re sults were
co mpa rab le t o well kno wn an tioxidan ts (Table 4).
Glutathione is an important endogenous antioxidant, which plays an important role in protecting cells
ag ainst oxidat ive stress via g lutathione redox sy s te m. Tiss u e g lutathione de pletion s eems to b e res po nsible for
ind uction of lipid pero xida tio n (Meis te r an d And erson , 1983). S. nux vomica extract significantly suppressed
4
the depletion of GSH by aero b ic oxidation as well as in pres ence FeSO (Figure 2). This indicated that S. nux
vomica p ro v id e s a type o f n o n -e n zy ma tic re d u c ing ag e n t in th e s y s t e m w h ic h s p a re s t h e reduce d g lu tat h io n e
from undergoing oxidation.
Th e b ig g es t doubt, w h ich a n t ioxida n ts ra is e, is that o f s u ic id al oxidativ e s t re s s , in d u ced b y c ertain
antioxidants (Koshy et al., 2003; Cao et al., 1997; Offer et al., 2000). These antioxidants can act as pro-
oxid ants in certain conditions like pres ence of trans ition metals (Kosh y e t a l., 2003; Cao et a l., 1997) o r at
high c on cent ra tions (Offer et a l., 2000) an d c a n ca u s e t he ce ll to un d e rg o s e v e re o xida tive s tres s u ltimat ely
resulting in suicidal cell death . As S. nux vomica possess potent metal chelation property and lack the redox
property, it can not act as a prooxidant an d ca n be considered as a safe antioxidant (Tripathi and Chaurasia,
2000).
Alkaloid s are the main bioactive ingredients in S. nux vomica, 80% of which are strychnine and brucine,
as we ll a s their deriva t iv es s u ch as b ru cine N -o xide o r is o s try chnin e (Cai et al., 1990). The antioxidant and
metal che lation p ropert y o f strych nine and brucine h ave been report ed by Tripathi an d Cha ura s ia (2000). In
view of the recent animal s tudies strongly sugges ting anti-inflammatory role of alkaloids (Barbosa-Filh o et al.,
2006), the an ti-inflammatory activity o f S. nux vomica may be explained due to presence of alkaoids.
Conclusion
The results of this study show that Stychnos nux vomica Linn. ext ract has anti-inflammatory activity
against early phase (acute paw edema), late phase (cotto n pellet granuloma) of inflammation without any
deleterio u s side effects. The anti-inflammatory activity could be attributed to the presence of alkaloids, and
ot her relate d syn ergis tic co mpo nen ts with antioxidant an d meta l ch elation p rope rty .
Acknowledgement
A u thor is than kfu l to D epart me n t of M edicin a l Ch e mis try , In s tit u t e o f Med ic a l Sc ience s , Bana ra s H in du
University, Varanasi, India for extending research facilities.
251
Am.-Eurasian J. Sustain. Agric., 3(2): 244-252, 2009
References
Bailey , P.J., 1988. Sp ong e implants as mod els . M ethod s Enzymol, 162: 327-334.
Barb o s a -Filho J .M ., M .R. Piu v ezam, M .D. M o u ra , M .S . Silva , K .V.B. Lima , E.V.L . d a -Cunha , I.M . Fec h in e
and O.S. Takemura, 2006. Anti-inflammatory activity of alkaloids. a twenty-century review. Rev. Bras.
Farmaco gn., 16(1): 109-139.
Bha nu, M .N. and T .N. Vas ude van , 1988. Stu d ies o n s o d han a o f nux vo mica. In d ian Drugs , 26: 150-152.
Bucher, J.R., M. Tien, L.A. Morehous e and S.D. A u s t , 1983. Redox Cycling and Lipid Peroxidation: The
Cen tra l Role of Iro n Chelat es . Fun dam. A ppl. To xicol., 3: 222-226.
Cai, B.C., M. Hattori an d T. Namba, 1990. Proc es s ing of n u x vomica. II. Ch a n g es in alkalo id c o mpos ition of
th e se eds of Strychnos nux-vomica L. on trad itio nal dru g -proc es s ing. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 38: 1295-1298.
Cao G., E. Sofic and R.L. Prior, 1997. A ntioxidant and proxidant behaviour of flavonoids structure activity
relat ion s h ip. Fre e Ra d. Biol. Med ., 22: 749-760.
Cha uras ia, S . , P . T ripath i an d Y.B. Tripat hi, 1995. An tioxida nt an d an ti-inflammato ry prop ert y of Sandh ika
: a co mpou nd h erbal dru g. Ind . J. Exp. Biol., 33: 428-432.
Cho u dhu ry , R.C., 1977. Role o f s o me ind igen ous d rugs in San d higata vata. Rhe umatis m, 13(1): 10-15.
Con n er, E.M . an d M .B. Grisham, 1996. Inflammation, fr e e radicals , an d an tio xid ant s . Nu tritio n, 12: 274-277.
Ellman, G.L., 1959. Tissue s ulph ydril gro u ps. Arc h. Biochem. Biophy s , 82: 70-77.
Halliwell, B., 1987. Oxy gen rad icals an d metal ions : po te ntial a n t ioxida nt interven tion s trate gies. An n. Intern.
Med ., 107: 526-45.
Halliwell, B. and J.M.C. Gutteridge, 1999. Free radicals in biology and medicine, Oxford University press.
Hoge berg , J., S . Orre nius and R.E. Lars on, 1975. Lipid pe roxidation in iso lat ed hep at ocytes. Eu. J. Bioch em.,
50: 595-602.
Ja in , S.K. a n d R.A . De Filipps , 1991. In M ed i c in a l Pla n t s o f In d ia . Refe re n c e Pu b licat io n s , A lg o nac , M ichigu n ,
1: 392-393.
K o s h y H., B.S . Dw arka n ath , H.G. Ra j, R. Ch andra a n d T L. M ath e w, 2003. Su ic id al by ce rt ain an t io xid a n t s .
Ind . J. Exp. Biol., 41: 1273-1278.
Lowery, O.H., N.J. Roserbrough, A .L. Farr and J.R. Randoll, 1951. Protein measurement with Folin Phenol
reage nt. J. Biol. Chem., 193: 265-275.
Mah ajan, A . a nd V.R. Tand on, 2004. A n tioxid a n t s an d rhe umato id a rth ritis . J. In dian Rh eumato l. As s o c., 12:
139 - 142.
Mas ilamani, G., T.P.R. Bharadwaj and K.K. Puru s hothaman, 1979. Role of etti ennei and n anguneri ennei in
th e treatment o f Karappan (Eczema) – A p ilot stu dy. J. Re s . Indian M ed. Yoga Homoeop ., 14: 74-80.
Masilamani, G., A . Showkath and V. Subbalakshmi, 1981. Study on Karappan (Eczema). J. Res. Ayur. Siddha,
2(2): 109-121.
Mukh o pad hya y, A. a nd S.C. Lahiri, 199 2. Evalua tio n of s o me n ewer n on-s tero ida l anti-inflammato ry indan -1-
ac id s in v a rio u s b io lo g ical s ys tems . In d ia n J. Exp . Bio l., 30(7): 583-586.
Murthy, K.S., P.C. Sharma and P. Kishore, 1986. Tribal remedies for s nakebite from Orissa. Ancient Sci. Life,
6: 122-123.
Okh a wa, H, W .Ohishi an d K. Yag i, 1979. A s s a y fo rmu la tion lipid p e ro xides in a n i ma l tis s u es b y th io b a rb it u ric
acid reaction, A n al. Bioch em., 95: 351-358.
Offer T., A . Ru s s o , A . Sa mu ni, 2000. The p rooxid ativ e act iv ity of SOD a nd nitroxide SOD mimics . FA SEB
J., 14: 1215-1223.
Pan dey, S., M. Sharma, P. Chaturve di and Y.B. Tripath i, 199 4. P rotective effect o f R. cordifolia on lipid
pe roxide formation in iso lat ed liver ho mogena te . Ind. J. Exp. Biol., 32: 180-183.
Parke, D.V. an d A. Sapota, 1996. Chemical toxicity a nd rea ct iv e o xy g e n s p ecies . Int. J. Occup. M ed. Env iron .
Hea lth , 9(4): 331-340.
Reitma n , S. and S. F r a n k e l, 1957. A colorimet ric meth o d fo r det e rmin atio n o f S GOT and S GPT . A m. J . Clin .
Pat h., 28: 56-63.
Sen , R., D.C. Pa l an d A .M . Saren, 1983. T r a d it io n a l u s es a nd eth nob o ta ny o f Ku ch ila. J. Eco n. Tax. Bot .,
5: 533-537.
Sh u kla , K.P., S.P . Sing h , N. Kis h ore, D.R. Sin g h a n d S. S riv as tav a , 1985. Ev a lu atio n o f r a s n a d i g u g g u lu
co mpo u nd in th e t rea tment of rh eumato id arth ritis . Rhe umatis m, 21: 16-25.
Specto r W .G., 1969. The g ran u lomat ous in flammato ry exud at e. In t. Rev. Exp . Path ol., 8: 1-55.
Suleyman , H., L.O. De mire ze r, A . Ku ruu zum, Z.N. Bano glu, F. Goce r an d G. Ozbakir, 1999. Antiinflammatory
effect o f t h e aq u e o u s e xtra c t fro m Rumex patientia L. roo ts J. Ethno pha rmacol., 65: 141-148.
Sv i n g e n , B.A ., J.A . Bueg e , F .O. O'Nea l a n d S.D . A u s t , 1979. T h e mech a n is m o f NA DP H-dep e n d ent lip id
peroxidation . Th e p ro p agat io n o f lip id p ero xida tion. J. Biol. Che m., 254(13): 5892-5899.
252
Am.-Eurasian J. Sustain. Agric., 3(2): 244-252, 2009
Swingle, K .F. an d F.E. Shide ma n , 197 2 . Phas es o f t h e in flamma tory re s p o n s e to s ubcu t a n eous implan t atio n
of a co tto n pellet and the ir modification by certain antiinflammatory a g e n ts . J. Pha rmacol. Exp. Ther.,
183(1): 226-234.
Thakur, R.S., H.S. Puri and A. Husain, 1989. In Major M edicinal Plants of India. Central Institute of
Med icinal an d Aromatic Plants , Luc know, Ind ia, p p. 471-474.
Tripa th i, Y.B. and S. Ch au ras ia, 1996a. Effect o f Strychnos nux vomica alcohol extract on lipid pero xidation
in rat liver. Int . J. Ph armacogn o s y, 34(4): 295-299.
Tripa th i, Y.B. and S. Ch au ras ia , 19 96b . Stu dies on th e inhibitory effect of Strychnos nux vomica alcohol
extrac t o n iron ind u ce d lipid pero xida tio n. Phytomedicine, III(2): 175-180.
Tripathi, Y.B. and S. Chaurasia, 2000. Interact io n of St rychnos nux vomica products and iron: with reference
to lipid peroxidation . Ph y to med icine, 7(6): 523-528.
Vinegar R., W. Sc h reiber and R. Hugo, 1969. Biphas ic dev elopment of carrageenin edema in rats. J.
Pharmac ol. Exp. Th er., 166: 96-103.
W a rrie r, P.K., V.P.K. N ambi a r a n d C. Rama n ku lly (e d s .), 1996. In In d ia n M e d icinal Plan t s , a c o mp endiu m
of 500 s p ecies . Orient Lon g man Ltd., Mad ras , In dia, 5: 202-206.
Winrow, V.R., P.G. Winyard, C.J. Morris and D.R. Blake, 1993. Free ra d icals in inflammation: second
mes s en g ers a nd mediat ors of t issue de s tru ction. Britis h Med ical Bulletin , 49: 506-522.
Winter, C.A., E.A. Risley and G.W. Nuss, 1962. Carrageenan induced oedema in hind paw of the rats as an
as s ay fo r ant i-inflammatory d rugs . Pro c. Soc . Exp. Bio Med ., 111: 544-547.
... VTH pill is a poly herbal formulation containing well-known antioxidant herbs like Strychnosnuxvomica,Syzygiumaromaticum and Centratherumanthelminticum. Anti-lipid-peroxidative property of Strychnosnuxvomica extract has been reported on cumenehydroperoxide and ferrous sulphate induced models of lipid peroxidation [1]. It also possesses significant metal chelating property and chelates both forms of iron (Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ) [1].The essential oil of Syzygiumaromaticum is a very good antioxidant in vivo and in vitro [2].In vitro antioxidant experiments with the fenton reaction and UV irradiation of hydrogen peroxide, both of which generate hydroxyl radicals, showed Syzygiumaromaticum extract to directly scavenge hydroxyl radicals. ...
... Anti-lipid-peroxidative property of Strychnosnuxvomica extract has been reported on cumenehydroperoxide and ferrous sulphate induced models of lipid peroxidation [1]. It also possesses significant metal chelating property and chelates both forms of iron (Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ) [1].The essential oil of Syzygiumaromaticum is a very good antioxidant in vivo and in vitro [2].In vitro antioxidant experiments with the fenton reaction and UV irradiation of hydrogen peroxide, both of which generate hydroxyl radicals, showed Syzygiumaromaticum extract to directly scavenge hydroxyl radicals. It is also a potent scavenger of superoxide anions [3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To evaluate the acute oral toxicity of VTH pills in wistar rats Methods: The study was conducted in two phases: initial and continuation phase. In the initial phase there were two groups: control and test, with ten rats (5 male and 5 female) in each group. The control group received 2% gum acacia (vehicle) 10mg/kg; the test group received 5000mg/kg of VTH pillssuspended in 2% gum acacia,orally as a single dose on day 1. All the animals were observed for clinical signs of toxicity and/or death at 1hour (±10min), 2hours (±10min), 4hours (±10min) and 6hours (±10min) on day 1 and thereafter once daily for 14 days. On day 15, the animals were subjected to necropsy. In the continuation study, 30 rats were divided into three groups receiving 2000, 1000 and 500mg/kg VTH pills respectively. Behavioural toxicity analysis was done at the end of the continuation study. Results:There was no mortality andthere wasalso no biochemical, hematological or histopathological changes at any of the doses. However, VTH pills showed significant behavioral toxicity at 5000mg/kg which was reduced at 2000mg/kg. No behavioral toxicity was noted at 500 or 1000mg/kg body weight. Conclusion: The test item, VTH pill is non-toxic upto and at 1000 mg/kg when administered by oral gavage in a single dose to wistar rats.
... [175] The preclinical data concluded the anti-arthritic activity of S. nux-vomica by suppressing the PGE2 and diminishing vascular permeability which is a key contributor in the sensation of pain from arthritic joints in carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema in rats. [176][177][178] Therefore, it acts as analgesic and antiinflammatory agent. ...
Article
Objectives Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease manifested clinically by polyarthralgia associated with joint dysfunction triggering the antibodies targeting against the self‐neoepitopes determined by autoimmune responses associated with chronic arthritic attacks. The activation of macrophages and other defence cells in response to self‐epitopes as biomarkers in RA provides a better understanding of pathogenesis of disease and has led to the development of novel therapeutic approaches acting as potent inhibitors of these cells. Key findings The current review retrieved the various medicinal plants possessing an active phytoconstituents with anti‐inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which tends to be effective alternative approach over the synthetic drugs concerned with high toxic effects. The current available literature provided an evident data concluding that the active constituents like fatty acids, flavonoids, terpenes and sesquiterpene lactones attenuate the RA symptoms by targeting the inflammatory biomarkers involved in the pathogenesis of RA. Summary Despite the various synthetic treatment approaches targeting immune cells, cytokines improved the quality of life but still the drug management is challenging due to toxic and chronic teratogenic effects with anti‐arthritic drugs. The current review has elaborated the selected traditionally used herbal medicinal plants with phytoconstituents possessing anti‐inflammatory activity by suppressing the inflammatory biomarkers with lesser side effects and providing the future exploration of natural drug therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.
... The leaves are used for treating chronic wounds, ulcers and the root bark in treatment of cholera [4]. Ayurveda recommends use of Strychnos nuxvomica in purified form since time immemorial in treatment of various diseases [5] and also in folk medicine for alleviating inflammation and joint pains [6]. Different formulations of the plant are used in treatment of metabolic ailments [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Strychnos Nux-vomica Linn. is an Loganiaceae family and distributed in India, Srilanka, Southeast Asia and Northern America. Chief alkaloids of Strychnos nux-vomica are Strychnine and Bruc-ine. It contains many bioactive compounds used as biopharmaceu-tical agent in the treatment of inflammation,
... Strychnos nux-vomica, a seed of Strychnos nux-vomica L. (Loganiaceae), can effectively ease pain and diminish inflammation. Thus, it has been widely used in the treatment of rheumatism and related inflammatory diseases by oral administration in traditional Chinese medicine [1][2][3][4][5]. For instance, it is a major ingredient in many finished herbal products, including "maqian-zi-san", "shu-feng-ding-tong-pian", and "fei-bu-wan" [6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica L., as a traditional Chinese medicine, have good anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. However, it usually leads to gastrointestinal irritation and systemic toxicity via oral administration. In the study, it was discovered that a novel gel transdermal delivery system contained brucine, the main effective component extracted from Strychnos nux-vomica. Results showed that the brucine gel system inhibited arthritis symptoms and the proliferation of the synoviocytes in the rat adjuvant arthritis model, which indicated its curative effect for rheumatoid arthritis. Meanwhile, it significantly relieved the xylene-induced ear edema in the mouse ear swelling test, which manifested its anti-inflammatory property. Moreover, the brucine gel eased the pain of paw formalin injection in the formalin test, which demonstrated its analgesic effects. In addition, the brucine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production without affecting the viability of cell in vitro anti-inflammatory test, which proved that its anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions were related to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. It is suggested that the brucine gel is a promising vehicle for transdermal delivery on the treatment of inflammatory disease.
... The plant contains caffeic acid and monomeric caffeic acid. It is used by tribals for snake bites and has anti inflammatory activity [47]. The plant is reported to effectively neutralize viper venom lethality. ...
Article
Snake bite is a significant health concern, especially in rural populations of tropical and subtropical countries. In India, snake bites take a heavy toll of human lives, and therefore warrant urgent attention. High mortality is due to poor health services in rural areas and delay in getting the victim to a well-equipped health care facility, where anti snake venom can be administered. However, geographical and species variation, logistic, economic and production issues restrict the use of anti-snake venom. India has a large repository of medicinal herbs, which have been used in folk medicine for treatment of snake bites. Though numerous herbal remedies are scientifically unsubstantiated, yet they cannot be glossed over due to their inherent advantages. They are practiced by diverse social groups for long, offering unconditional benefits. In view of limited presence of modern medical avenues in far flung areas, such a resource needs to be harnessed, as herbals are cheap, acceptable and often at the disposal of victims. Exhaustive ethno botanical studies in different regions of the country can help to undertake well designed scientific studies, for establishing therapeutic efficacy of various herbals for treating snake bites. The present article highlights an assortment of herbal plants used in India for snake bites.
... Brucine and brucine N-oxide are two natural alkaloids, which are isolated from the seeds of S. nux-vomica. [75,76] In hot-plate and writhing test, the alkaloids of S. nuxvomica has shown protective effect on thermic and chemical stimuli. Their analgesic activity has been long lasting in comparison with pethidine. ...
Article
Objectives: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease, which affects synovial tissue in multiple joints. Although conventional treatments of RA commonly alleviate the symptoms, high incidence of adverse reactions leads to research tendency towards complementary and alternative medicine. As various medicinal plants are traditionally used for the management of symptomatologies associated with RA in Persian medicine, we reviewed medicinal literature to confirm their efficacy in the management of RA. Key findings: Scientific evidence revealed that traditional medicaments exert beneficial effects on RA through several cellular mechanisms including downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6 and NF-κB, suppression of oxidative stress, inhibition of cartilage degradation with destructive metalloproteinases and enhancement of antioxidant performance. Various active constituents from different chemical categories including flavonols, lignans, coumarins, terpenes, glycosylflavons, dihydroflavonols, phytoestrogens, sesquiterpene lactones, anthraquinones, alkaloids and thymoquinones have been isolated from the medicinal plants. Summary: The pharmacological mechanisms of the medicinal plants traditionally used for RA in Persian medicine are discussed in the current review. Further investigations are mandatory to focus on bioefficacy of these phytochemicals for finding novel natural drugs.
... [132][133][134][135]Tribulus terrestris Zygophyllaceae Gokhru CNS stimulant, diuretic, antiuroplithiatic, antioxidant and antihypertensive, tonic, aphrodisiac [136][137][138]Tinospora cordifolia menispermaceae Guduchi Hepatoprotectant and immunomodulant, diuretic, general debility, antileprotic, chronic rheumatism, diabetes and malarial fevers, leprosy, jaundice, rheumatoid. [137, 138, 139,143] Smilax chinensis Liliaceae Chopchini Anti-diabetic, Anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, anticancer , analgesic agent, pelvic inflammation, chronic pelvic inflammation [143, 144] Commiphora wighti Burseraceae Guggul Hypolipidemic, antiarthritic, hypertension [145] Strychnos Nux- Vomica loganiaceae kucchla Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, appetizer, tonic, anthelmintic, febrifuge, purgative, diabetes, paralysis, rheumatism. [146][147][148][149][150]Rubia cordifolia Rubiaceae Indian madder Anti-cancer, hypoglycemic,diabetes, anticonvulsant,antiinflammatory , analgesic. ...
Article
Full-text available
Analgesic from the family of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have probably been used for more than 2000 years. In the 1900 ASA become an established treatment for pain and migraine. The detection of the main mechanism of the clinical effect of ASAs in John R.Vane's group in 1972(who received the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1982 for his discovery of prostaglandin synthesis inhibition) gave a new and persistent drive to the development of other chemically different NSAID. The currently available analgesic and antipyretic drugs in allopathic system of medicine are not so effective in combating wide variety of complications. The remedial measure may lie in the ayurvedic system of medicine. The various herbal drugs such as Acacia nilotica, Bauhinia racemosa Linn. Cleome viscose, Hippobromus panciflorus etc known for their potential analgesic and antipyretic activity shall be discussed. The various branded herbal formulations like Rumalaya, Charak, Rumartho, Arthrella, and Reosto etc available in the market as analgesic and antipyretic remedies are also discussed along with their clinical merits. It may be concluded that since ayurvedic formulations contain number of ingredients in which one ingredient may act to enhance the action of other ingredient. Also as a result of so many ingredients present in the particular ayurvedic formulation it helps in combating other diseases in addition to analgesic and antipyretic activity.
... So metal-chelation-agents are also effective. Metal-chelation is found in many plant extracts [21][22][23]. ...
Article
Full-text available
During radiotherapy, apoptosis of normal cells, especially the actively dividing cells, is one of the major drawbacks. Thus, search for safe radio-protectors is the demand of time. Since radiation involves PKC activation in the signalling cascade of DNA damage mediated apoptosis, so we have used an in vitro screening model to assess the protective effect of methanolic extract of Nigella sativa Linn seeds (NSM). Here the Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) has been used as PKC activator in place of irradiation to normal human lymphocytes. Both preventive and curative effects of NSM have been assessed. In 1st experiment, cells were pre-incubated with different concentrations of NSM and then exposed to fixed concentration of PMA and in 2nd experiment cells were first treated with PMA and then exposed to NSM to assess the effect on their viability and degree of DNA damage. The trypan-blue exclusion method and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining showed significant and concentration dependent protection in NSM pre-treatment. However, the post NSM treatment did not protect the DNA damage. Thus, it could be suggested that NSM could be used as preventive measure against PKC mediated apoptosis (e.g. radiation), only in pre-treated condition. The comet assay data showed shorter tail length and lesser percentage of DNA in the tail, suggesting significant DNA protection. Thus it could be suggested that pre-treatment with methanol-extract of NS seeds, the lymphocytes resist from PMA induced apoptosis.
Article
Full-text available
Sarbocalm is recently marketed broad spectrum analgesic formulation of ayurvedic nature. The clinical merit of this was elucidated by structural plausibility and rationality of mechanism through non-ayurvedic approach.
Chapter
Arthritis is an inflammatory, chronic, autoimmune disorder identified by swelling, stiffness, and pain. It covers 0.5% of population of the world and leads to disability in joint. Synthetic drugs are used to treat these abnormal conditions but are associated with side effects like osteoporosis and gastric bleeding. Herbal drugs are becoming popular due to their less toxicity in comparison to synthetic drugs. Many therapeutic agents are developed from herbal drugs. Scientific reports explored the beneficial effects of herbal medicines in the treatment of arthritis by various basic mechanisms like downregulation of inflammatory cytokines such as NF-jB, IL-6, TNF-a, and oxidative stress suppression; cartilage degradation inhibition; and increase of antioxidant potential. Medicinal plants contain various bioactive compounds like alkaloids, flavonols, dihydroflavonols, coumarins, glycosylflavons, terpenes, phytoestrogens, anthraquinones, sesquiterpene lactones, thymoquinones, and lignans which play a significant role in ameliorating the effects of arthritis. In this chapter, we summarize updated information on RA including epidemiology, etiology, role of phytoconstituents in the treatment of arthritis, available treatments, and side effects of synthetic medicine in comparison to herbal medicine and individual herbal drugs.
Article
Full-text available
This report investigates the antioxidant properties of the purified Strychnos nux vomica L. seed extract for protection against non-enzymatic formation of lipid peroxides and on reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in rat liver homogenate. Results were compared with the natural antioxidant vitamin E. For the first time it could be reported that this drug protects against cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) induced lipid peroxidation in a dose dependent manner. It also inhibits the process of the lipid peroxidation, once induced. The drug significantly maintains the hepatic content of glutathione in a dose and time dependent manner, even in the presence of the above toxin (CHP). Thus it appears that S. nux vomica is a potent antioxidant and the mechanism of action could be through the scavenging of free radicals.
Article
Full-text available
Many substances which interfere with the inflammatory response have been isolated from plants. This review shows some alkaloids of vegetal origin which in the period of 1907 to 2000 were evaluated regarding a possible anti-inflammatory activity. The alkaloids were classified in sub-groups in accordance with their chemical structures and the pharmacological data were obtained from different experimental models. Of the 171 evaluated alkaloids, 137 presented anti-inflammatory activity, and among those, the isoquinoline type was the most studied. The Carrageenin-induced paw edema was the most used model for evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity. In this review, 174 references were cited.
Article
Full-text available
This report investigates the antioxidant property of Strychnos nux vomica Linn, alcohol extract on FeS04-induced lipid peroxidation in vitro. The results have been compared to those of vitamin E, parabenzoquinone, Tris, mannitol and EDTA. Tris and mannitol, the standard hydroxyl trappers failed to block this process. Interestingly EDTA, a strong metal chelator, significantly blocks the process of lipid peroxidation. S. nux vomica inhibits the lipid peroxidation in the dose dependent manner. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was reversed by adding high concentration of Fe(2+). This suggests the mechanism of action of S. nux vomica through the chelation of Fe(++)/Fe(+++) ion in the system and not by trapping the hydroxyl radicals. This extract significantly maintains the hepatic glutathione content also in the time and dose dependent manner even in the presence of FeSO(4), which is not the case with EDTA. It also inhibits the process of lipid peroxidation once induced.
Article
Full-text available
This communication presents an account of usage of 13 species of plant in the treatment of Snakebite by the tribals of Orissa, Botanical name, family, local name and Sanskrit name, if available of the plants along with mode of administration and place collection of the claims are enumerated.
Article
1. Oxygen is a toxic gas - an introductionto oxygen toxicity and reactive species 2. The chemistry of free radicals and related 'reactive species' 3. Antioxidant defences Endogenous and Diet Derived 4. Cellular responses to oxidative stress: adaptation, damage, repair, senescence and death 5. Measurement of reactive species 6. Reactive species can pose special problems needing special solutions. Some examples. 7. Reactive species can be useful some more examples 8. Reactive species can be poisonous: their role in toxicology 9. Reactive species and disease: fact, fiction or filibuster? 10. Ageing, nutrition, disease, and therapy: A role for antioxidants?
Article
Intracellular lipid peroxidation was initiated by the addition of ADP-complexed ferric iron to isolated rat hepatocytes and the reaction monitored by the thiobarbituric acid method or by measurement of the formation of conjugated dienes. Both the production of malondialdehyde (thiobarbituric-acid-reacting substances) and of conjugated dienes was dependent, on the ADP · Fe³⁺ concentration in a dose-related fashion. Malondialdehyde formation stopped spontaneously within 20 min after the initiation of the reaction and the plateau reached was also related to the ADP · Fe³⁺ concentration. Control experiments revealed that more than 90%, of the malondialdehyde accumulating during the incubation period could be ascribed to intracellular production. The cellular NADPH/NADP⁺ ratio was always high and only slightly decreased upon ADP · Fe³⁺-induced lipid peroxidation which, however, was associated with a marked decrease in the cellular glutathione concentration.