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Projective techniques usage worldwide: A review of applied settings


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Projective techniques have been the target of extensive criticism, from both clinicians and academicians, since the 1940s. However, the last two decades have witnessed a steady stream of rather reviled and condescending commentary directed largely on the lack of psychometric credibility of individual projective methods. The intent of the current study is to determine whether this collective movement, evident in the scholarly literature, against projective techniques has had a deleterious impact on test usage worldwide. To that end, the author identified, through an extensive literature review, published survey research that reported on test usage patterns from 1995-2015. The 28 identified studies served as the data pool to ascertain the extent of use of projective instruments within the context of psychological tests available to mental health practitioners. Around 70% of the sample was from the USA, but other countries (e.g., Africa, UK, Hong Kong, Belgium, and Brazil) were also represented. The analysis showed that at least one projective technique was ranked among the top 5 tests, in terms of usage, in 14 of the 28 studies. Moreover, human-figure-drawings, sentence completion measures, and the TAT were ranked among the top 15 tests in all but three of these studies. These findings confirm continued use (albeit to a lesser degree than 50 years ago) of projective tests among mental health practitioners worldwide, despite the onslaught of perennial criticism in the research literature.
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Projective Techniques Usage Worldwide:
A Review of Applied Settings 1995-2015
Chris Piotrowski
University of West Florida, USA.
Projective techniques have been the target of extensive criticism, from both clinicians
and academicians, since the 1940s. However, the last two decades have witnessed a
steady stream of rather reviled and condescending commentary directed largely on the
lack of psychometric credibility of individual projective methods. The intent of the current
study is to determine whether this collective movement, evident in the scholarly literature,
against projective techniques has had a deleterious impact on test usage worldwide. To
that end, the author identi! ed, through an extensive literature review, published survey
research that reported on test usage patterns from 1995-2015. The 28 identi! ed studies
served as the data pool to ascertain the extent of use of projective instruments within the
context of psychological tests available to mental health practitioners. Around 70% of the
sample was from the USA, but other countries (e.g., Africa, UK, Hong Kong, Belgium,
and Brazil) were also represented. The analysis showed that at least one projective
technique was ranked among the top 5 tests, in terms of usage, in 14 of the 28 studies.
Moreover, human-! gure-drawings, sentence completion measures, and the TAT were
ranked among the top 15 tests in all but three of these studies. These ! ndings con! rm
continued use (albeit to a lesser degree than 50 years ago) of projective tests among
mental health practitioners worldwide, despite the onslaught of perennial criticism in
the research literature.
Keywords: Projective Techniques, Psychological Assessments, TAT, Rorschach,
Mental Health.
© Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology
2015, Vol. 41, No.3 (Special Issue), 9-19.
C opi ous surv e y data, from the 19 40s
throu gh the 1980 s, attes ts to the clinical
popularity of projective techniques in mental
health settings worldwide, particularly in the
USA (chronologically: Louttit & Browne, 1947;
Frank, 1948; Burton, 1949; Sundberg, 1961;
Hinkle, Nelson, & Miller, 1968; Lubin et al.,
1971; Brown & McGuire, 1976; Wade & Baker,
1977; Piotrowski & Keller, 1978, 1989; Sell
& Torres-Henry, 1979; Fee, Elkins, & Boyd,
1982; Tuma & Pratt, 1982; Lubin, Larsen, &
Matarazzo, 1984; Piotrowski, 1985; Sweeney,
Clarkin, & Fitzgiggon, 1987; Harrison et al.,
1988; Bubenzer, Zimpher, & Mahrle, 1990;
Archer et al., 1991). Thus, over these years,
projective techniques were found to be popular
in adult settings, used frequently in child and
adolescent assessment (Cashel, 2002), relied
upon by school psychologists (Hutton, Dubes,
& Muir, 1992; Miller & Nickerson, 2007), and
applied in forensic settings (Hamel, Gallagher,
& Soares, 2001). Interestingly, the Rorschach
and TAT have been accepted in the assessment
armam entariu m by clin ici ans harb ori ng a
behavioral orientation (see Piotrowski & Keller,
1984).Furthermore, applications of projective
testing to culturally-diverse populations and
ethnic groups have been evident in the research
literature (e.g., Dana, 1998; Lindzey, 1961;
Retief, 1987).
Few survey-based studies on test usage
outside the USA appeared in the 1970s; for
example in Canada (La Pointe, 1974), in South
America (Gonzalez, 1977), and in Germany
(Schober, 1977). In the 1980s, test usage
patterns were noted in a survey of the British
Psych ological Society (Tyler, 1986). Later,
Piotrowski, Keller, & Ogawa (1992) reported on
projective test usage patterns in four countries
during the 1980s, i.e., USA, Japan, Netherlands,
and China (Hong Kong). The analysis showed
Invited Article
10 Chris Piotrowski
that projective tests were quite popular in clinical
assessments across all these geographical
regions. However, it must be noted that during
these decades, the sentiment toward projective
techniques was quite unfavorable across Europe
(see Mahmood, 1988; Poortinga et al., 1982;
Porteous, 1986; Rausch de Traubenberg, 1976).
However, survey data from the early 1990s
found that proj ective measures were quite
popular in Japan (Ogawa & Piotrowski, 1992).
Unfortunately, some published reports on test
use internationally tend to omit discussion of
projective tests (e.g., Cheung, 2004; Evers et
al., 2012; Oakland, 2004; Paterson & Uys, 2005).
Nevertheless, there were perennial concerns
and critiques of projective techniques over the
last 50 years (see Butcher, 2006; Piotrowski,
1984; Reynolds, 1979). It was not until the early
1990s that an onslaught of hardened opposition
to use most projective techniques was evident
from many quarters (Garb 1999; Garb, Wood,
Lilienfeld, & Nezworski, 2002; Hunsley & Bailey,
1999 ; Medoff, 2010; Wood, Nezwo rsk i, &
Stejskal, 1996; Ziskin,1995).In support of these
rather reviled appraisals, extensive reviews of
the literature concluded that validity evidence
for projective techniques has been very limited
(see Lilienfeld, Wood, & Garb, 2000; Mihura,
Meyer, Dumitrascu, & Bombel, 2013; Motta,
Little, & Tobin, 1993; Smith & Dumont, 1995),
including reviews by European researchers
(e .g., Wittko w ski, 1996) . Howe v e r, oth e r
researchers, in reviewing meta-analytic studies,
have reported positive differential diagnostic
outcomes regarding several projective tests
(e .g. ,Kah ill , 1984; Kubisz yn et al. , 200 0;
Piotrowski, 1999 ). In psychometric theory,
the central contention regarding assessment
instruments rests on ‘validity’ metrics that re" ect
psychological and behavioral tendencies (see
Abe ll, Wood, & Liebman, 2001; Bornstein,
1999; Messick, 1995). With regard to projective
tests, the focus of criticism was predominantly
targeted at the lack of validity per se. Based on
this dramatic shift (commencing around 25 years
ago) to expunge projective techniques from both
training emphasis and clinical practice, it would
be of interest to examine extant published data
on clinical use of projective techniques in clinical
and other applied settings since 1990. Moreover,
it would be revealing to investigate recent usage
trends with regard to individual projective tests
In order to appreciate historical trends on
the role of projective testing in applied clinical
settings, the author utilized bibliometric analysis
of the extant literature to: a) identify the extent
of research emphasis on various topics of
investigatory interest, and b) identify data-
based survey studies on usage of projective
techniques. To that end, a systematic search
of the dat abase PsycI NFO (pub lis hed by
th e Americ an Psy chol o gica l As soci ation )
was conducted, as this research repository
is consid ered the lead ing schola rly file of
research in the social and behavioral sciences
worldwide. Table 1 presents areas of topical
focus by researchers regarding projective tests
since 1990. Psychometric credibility, empirical-
quantitative approaches seem to predominate
Table1. Major Investigatory Aspects of Journal
Articles on Projective Techniques (1990-2015)
Topical focus
Test validity 548
Personality measures 412
Test reliability 334
Psychometrics 306
Empirical analysis 1,771
Quantitative approach 666
Interviews 71
Clinical case study 66
Qualitative design 53
Literature review 47
Longitudinal design 43
Meta-Analysis 16
Age Group
Adult (18+ yrs. of age) 1,553
Adolescents (13-17 yrs. of age) 450
Children (1-12 yrs. of age) 307
Aged (65+ yrs. of age) 268
Projective Techniques Usage Worldwide 11
this area of research, perhaps highlighted by
meta-analysis methods in more recent years.
Moreover, samples that re" ect all age groups
appear to be representative of this body of
research. Table 2 summarizes survey ! ndings on
usage of projective techniques since 1995. This
analysis includes the 28 published studies that
appear in journals, based on clinician/practitioner
samples worldwide. A brief discussion of general
conclusions on projective test use, over the last
two decades, follows below.
This sec tion discus ses the findings on
projective test usage reported in the 28 survey-
type studies of either practicing psychologists/
mental health practitioners or in mental health
settings worldwide since 1995. Table 2 presents
a summary of the country of origin, samples
surveyed, and degree of test use on speci! c
projective tests. In general, the overall analysis
indicates that projective tests have continued
to be used (to some degree) in the majority of
countries surveyed over the past 20 years. In 50%
of these studies (n=14), at least one projective
technique was ranked within the top ! ve tests
in terms of usage. The Rorschach seems to
be the most popular projective test, evident by
being ranked among the top ! ve tests in 12 of
these 14 studies. This corroborates research-
based ! ndings ( Piotrowski, 1996). Human ! gure
drawings, sentence completion methods, and
the TAT ranked among the top 15 tests in 25 of
the 28 surveys in the current analysis. Validation
research on these instruments show modest
support (e.g., Yama, 1990). In the aggregate, a
general conclusion can be con! dently offered
that projective tests continue to be relied upon
ac ros s div erse psyc holo gic al practi tioner
groups, in various clinical settings, for all age
groups (children, adolescents, adults), across
many countries worldwide, over the last two
decades (1995-2015). These results support the
continued popularity of and interest in projective
assessment, as evidenced in scholarly books
on these select instruments (Aronow, Weiss,
& Reznikoff, 2013; Dana, 2014; Frick, Barry,
& Kamphaus , 201 0; Gr oth -Mar nat, 2009;
Harwood, Beutler, & Groth-Marnat, 2011; Rabin,
The af! rmation on projective test use, based
on this extensive analysis of the literature seems
to counter several highly-cited studies (e.g.,
Lilienfeld et al., 2000; Wood et al., 2000) and
research compendiums (e.g., Ziskin, 1995)
that contend (the unsupported position) that
projective techniques are moribund in clinical
practice, lack psychometric credibility, and
should be excised from graduate education and
internship training. This perennial degradation of
projective techniques can be aptly summarized
by the comments in Ziskin (1995).
“Of all the criticisms to which projective
techniques have been subject to, perhaps, the
potentially most devastating one is when the
examiner may engage in as much projection and
subjectivity in the interpretation of responses as
did the examinee in generating the responses….
may be primarily biased by clinical impression.”
(p. 824).
What is particularly alarming regarding
such derisive commentary from critics is that
these drawbacks can be readily applied to
objective tests and even behavioral assessment
techniques. Unfortunately, it appears that terms
like ‘Moratorium’ is leveled solely on projective
techniques (Garb, 199 9).Yet, inter es tingly,
opp on en ts of projective tests conveniently
neglect to apply their string ent evalua tive
standards to non-projective instruments.
The current analysis shows that based on
the self-report data from practicing clinicians,
pr o j ectiv e te c h niques co n t inue to be an
appropriate ‘instrument of choice’ in the available
clinical assessment protocol of tests. Although,
the exten t of projective test use has been
tempered over the past 50 years, based on
survey data over the decades (Piotrowski &
Colleagues, 1984, 1985,1992, 1998), it appears
that such techniques continue to provide rich
clinical data for a sizeable segment of mental
health practitioners worldwide (Blatt, 1976;
Keddy & Piotrowski, 1992; Kennedy et al., 1994).
Perhaps, as evidence for the high level of interest
in select projective measures, research teams
continue to explore creative adaptations to the
Rorschach method and Human Figure Drawing
applications. It should be noted that projective
12 Chris Piotrowski
techniques should not be immune from intense
criticism from both clinical and research scholars
- the assessment enterprise can prosper from
thought-provoking challenges. However, cynical
attacks on the future of projective methods
would best be framed on hard data. Irv Weiner
(1983), in his award presentation exclaimed
that despite severe criticisms leveled against
projective techniques (some 50 years ago),
published survey data clearly showed that these
assessment approaches were held in high
regard by practicing clinicians, both in practice
and academic settings. The current ! ndings,
based on objective survey data worldwide,
indicate that although there has been a tepid
decrease in use of projective tests over the
last two decades, Weiner’s contention has not
been invalidated - to the dismay of opponents
of projective techniques.
Critical appraisal is a fundamental, and
welcomed, aspect of scholarship, which clearly
applies to projective methods (Butcher, 2006;
Porto-Noronha, 2002). However, reviews of
the recent literature confirm that projective
techniques have been unfairly targeted by
what can only be characterized as reviled
criticism from a select group of detractors.
Psychometric theory, supported in recent years
by advancements in statistical modeling, posits
that all assessment methods have drawbacks
with regard to validity issues (Messick, 1995;
Meyer et al., 2001). Thought ful, schol arly
rebuttals to attacks on the viability of projective
tests, in recent years, have been scant (see
Weiner, 1996, 1997, for a review). Thus, the
curre nt stud y was des igned to adher e to
providing an objective, data-based approach
in determining whether the perennial weight
of criticism against projective techniques, over
the last two decades, has impacted usage
of this group of assessment instruments in
applied settings worldwide. The ! ndings of the
analysis clearly indicate that a sizeable minority
of mental health practitioners, from over 10
countries, continue to rely on the Rorschach,
Thematic measures, Human-Figure-Drawings,
and Sentence Completion tests as part of the
clinical assessment armamentarium. Such
usage is evident across various patient age
groups (e.g., Kamphaus, Petoskey, & Rowe,
2000; Palmiter, 2004) and in a host of treatment
settings, in addition to court-related evaluations
(Gava & Dell’Aglio, 2013; Lally, 2001; Meloy,
Hansen, & Weiner, 1997; Weiner, Exner, Sciara,
1996). These robust ! ndings suggest that the
clarion-call to abandon projective methods has
largely fallen on deaf ears. Perhaps, this re" ects
the science-practice divide noted so keenly
in the literature (Beutler, Williams, Wake! eld,
& Entwistle, 1995; Hogan & Rengert, 2008;
Piotrowski, 2012). At the same time, the evidence
suggests that practitioners view the merits of
projective testing as a diagnostic tool, as an
indicator or direction for progress in therapy,
and as a compliment to the overall assessment
enterprise (Basu, 2014). Future research should
address the potential impact of evidence-based
psychological assessment guidelines on overall
projective test usage (Jensen-Doss & Hawley,
2011; Youngstrom, 2013). Finally, studies on test
use patterns in countries not represented in the
current analysis would provide a more accurate
appraisal on the current status of projective
testing worldwide (see Bartram & Coyne, 1998;
Boucherat-Hue, 2001; Datu, 2013).
Table 2 Summary and Findings on Use of Projective Techniques across 28 Studies (1995-2015)
Study Country Sample Findings
Chan & Lee (1995) Hong Kong 50 practicing psychologists in
H-T-P ranked 2nd; DAP 7th; SCT
8th; TAT 12th; MAPS Test 16th;
CAT 18th; Rorschach 29th
Kennedy et al.
(1994) USA School psychologists
HFDs ranked 3rd; SCT 4th; H-T-P
5th; KFDs 7th; TAT 9th; CAT 12th;
Rorschach 13th
Projective Techniques Usage Worldwide 13
Watkins et al. (1995) USA 412 clinical psychologists
SCT ranked 4th; TAT 5th;
Rorschach 6th; H-F-Ds 8th; CAT
Borum & Grisso
USA 102 forensic psychologists/
33% of practitioners, in
court-mandated competency
evaluations, use projective tests;
30% rely on the Rorschach;
other PT used infrequently
Lees-Haley et al.
(1996) USA 100 forensic neuropsychology
SCT ranked 10th; Rorschach
23rd; Figure drawings 26th
Ackermann &
Ackermann (1997) USA Practitioners in court-related
Rorschach ranked #2; TAT #4;
SCT 5th
Frauenhoffer et al.
(1998) USA
Surveyed 487 mental health
practitioners (psychologists,
counselors, social workers)
SCT ranked 5th; H-F-Ds 6th;
Rorschach 9th; TAT 12th
Piotrowski et al.
(1998) USA
137 practitioners in National
Register of Health Service
providers in Psychology
Tests considered most important
to practice: Rorschach ranked
3rd; TAT 5th; HFDs 12th. Also,
20% of respondents felt that the
Rorschach & TAT are no longer
Muniz et al. (1999)
Portugal, &
Latin America
Test use by Practicing
Rorschach ranked 3rd; DAP 8th;
TAT 10th
Boccaccini &
Brodsky (1999) USA 80 practicing forensic
40% of sample use the
Rorschach-ranked 5th; only 10%
use TAT-ranked 11th
Camara et al. (2000) USA 179 practitioners, mostly clinical
Rorschach ranked 4th; TAT 6th;
SCT 15th; CAT 16th
Archer & Newsom
(2000) USA 346 psychologists, working with
Rorschach ranked 2nd; SCT 3rd;
TAT 4th; H-T-P 7th; KFDs 11th;
Roberts Apperception Test 19th
Boothby & Clements
(2000) USA Correctional (prison)
Rorschach ranked 5th; Projective
drawings 6th
Muniz et al. (2001)
(Spain, UK,
3,455 professional psychologists
use psychological tests
Objective psychometric tests
predominate; Rorschach listed
among Top 10 in Spain, Belgium,
& Slovenia; TAT & CAT popular
in Belgium.
Bow et al. (2002) USA
84 psychologists, assessment
practices with parents in child
custody disputes
Rorschach ranked 3rd; TAT 6th;
SCT 8th. Projective drawings
were used most with children.
Lally (2003) USA
64 Diplomate-status forensic
psychologists, test use in court-
related evaluations
Tests considered ‘unacceptable’
by at least 50% of sample:
Projective drawings; Rorschach;
Foxcroft et al. (2004) South Africa Practitioners in psychological
Both objective and projective
tests are acceptable clinical
Bekhit et al. (2005) England 158 British clinical psychologists
50% of sample use projective
drawings, but only informally in
the assessment process.
14 Chris Piotrowski
de Oliveira et al.
(2005) Brazil 35 professional psychologists
TAT ranked #1; CAT-Human 4th;
Rorschach 5th; CAT-Animal 7th;
HFDs 15th
Hojnoski et al.
(2006) USA 170 school psychologists
reported use of projective tests
About one-third (38%) use
projective assessment; (in rank
order) sentence completion tests,
H-T-P, Kinetic Family Drawing,
DAP, TAT, Rorschach, and CAT
Archer et al. (2006) USA
152 forensic psychologists’ use
of projective techniques in court-
related assessments
About 30% of respondents use
the Rorschach; about 20% use
the TAT, SCT, and projective
Herzberg & Mattar
(2008) Brazil
Clinical psychology faculty use
of projective tests in practice,
University of Sao Paulo
Overall, 87% of sample use
projective techniques, a
decrease from a decade earlier;
TAT used most frequently,
whereas the CAT-A usage has
Musewicz et al.
(2009) USA
215 psychologists, members
of the APA or Society for
Personality Assessment (SPA)
views on the Rorschach (RIM)
SPA members held more
favorable views toward the
Rorschach; Moreover, the RIM
continues to be used despite
continuing criticism levels against
this test.
Smith et al. (2010) USA
404 members of the
International Neuropsychological
Society or National Academy
of Neuropsychology surveyed
on personality assessment
The TAT and Rorschach were
used (to some degree) by about
32% of the respondents.
Vaskinn et al. (2010) Norway
Members of the Norwegian
Psychological Association
(n=6246) surveyed on use &
opinions on psychological tests
Older psychologists use fewer
tests than younger cohorts;
Psychometric credibility of
individual tests is a major
Donoso et al. (2010) USA
150 professionals who conduct
vocational rehabilitation
Overall, projective techniques
were seldom used; Projective
drawings ranked 13th; Rorschach
15th; TAT 18th
Ackermann & Pritzl
(2011) USA
213 forensic psychologists
surveyed on Tests used
with parents in child custody
50% of sample use the
Rorschach, ranked 4th; 40% use
SCT, 5th; 30% use TAT, 8th; 27%
use H-F-Ds, 10th
Peterson et al.
(2014) USA
926 counselors (clinical mental
health, school, occupational)
rated tests of all types regarding
H-T-P ranked 17th, H-F-Ds 21st,
DAP 35th, TAT 40th, KFD 47th,
Rotter ISB 54th, & Rorschach 57th
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... Widely used in clinical trial and psychological assessments, projective techniques have gained acceptance since World War II (Bellak, 1992;Piotrowski, 2015). However, tourism and hospitality researchers have yet to make use of such techniques to their full potential. ...
... The authors explain each of them, drawing from their own experiences and from various research contexts. Despite the extensive criticisms levied against projective techniques (see Piotrowski, 2015 for a comprehensive review of projective techniques usage worldwide), the chapter concludes that they have huge potential for advancing psychologically grounded investigations in tourism and hospitality. ...
... Lilienfeld et al. (2000) are also important opponents to projective tests. Piotrowski (2015), in the opposite, challenges critics to present their reservations on "hard" data, though, he himself quotes only one study of Yama (1990) that presented the proof on empiric validity of test. "Publication silence" on experience with the test of adult population that is characteristic for the Czech republic and the Slovak republic is unacceptable, because the test had been widely used and not only in our country but in the whole world (Piotrowski, 2015). ...
... Piotrowski (2015), in the opposite, challenges critics to present their reservations on "hard" data, though, he himself quotes only one study of Yama (1990) that presented the proof on empiric validity of test. "Publication silence" on experience with the test of adult population that is characteristic for the Czech republic and the Slovak republic is unacceptable, because the test had been widely used and not only in our country but in the whole world (Piotrowski, 2015). Newer publication of Vagnerova (2017) is explicitly aimed at drawings of children and sporadically appearing studies or conference papers are aimed more at experience with psychiatric patients. ...
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The aim was to verify the potential of holistic approaches towards the evaluation of human figure drawing. Groht-Marnat, Tharinger, Stark favour this approach, and findings seem to legitimize considerations about its diagnostic productivity. Yama, Dans-Lopez and Tarroja have identified bizarre and artistic quality criteria for drawing that have a relevant interpretative meaning. Within the study involving 525 normal adult subjects, the hypothesis of differences in personality traits and performance level produced by authors of selected types of drawings, was verified. The criterium of bizarre drawing proved to be an important indicator of intellectual abilities monitored by subtests of the ISA-S test, the non-verbal CF 2A test, Decision-making test. They achieved the lowest scores in all parameters, with significance in relation to more detailed drawings. Results from IHAVEZ and DOPEN questionnaires suggest that bizarre character producers are more emotionally instable, less emotionally resilient, less anticipating, and less self-controlling, less rational, responding more intensely to problems and are less orientated towards their solution. They are more neurotic and present more psychotic experience. The main limitation is the chosen approach. Holistically evaluated drawing is rare in terms of its occurrence in a normal population. Even within the files involving several hundred participiants, it is possible to clearly classify drawing in the maximum number of tens. Diversity of the terminology and methodological ambiguity constitutes another limitation. The bizarreness itself is not interpreted clearly, rather the contrary.
... It is therefore advisable for future research to also collect information about the emotional development and the home environment. Although the validity of drawings for assessing emotional development has been disputed (Piotrowski, 2015), this information may provide more insight into what the presence of Emotional Indicators in drawings of children with high abilities means. Lack of this information and the knowledge that misclassifications of individuals based on EIs happen often (Chantler et al., 1993;Flanagan & Motta, 2007;Fuller et al., 1970) prohibit conclusions about the emotional development of the participants in the present study. ...
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The present study aimed to determine whether exceptional items in human figure drawings (HFDs) can serve the identification process of talents and (educational) needs of children with high intellectual abilities. Participants were 152 children aged 4 to 6 years at the time of drawing. After 2 years, 85 had received regular curriculum (the typically developing group) and 67 had received enriched curriculum (the potentially gifted group). Analyses of item categories suggested that HFDs can serve as a screener for giftedness for 4- and 5-year-olds, but not for 6-year-olds. For 4- and 5-year-olds, the presence of items that indicated what is drawn or indicated deliberate abnormalities in shape and size predicted the likelihood of being in the potentially gifted group. No such predictive relation was found for items that indicated how good drawings look.
... The Rorschach has survived the Wood et al. era where true criticisms have been addressed and false ones debunked (Gacono & Evans, 2008;Khadivi & Evans, 2012;Piotrowski, 2015), to find itself facing the challenges outlined in this commentary. Likely it will survive this new challenge. ...
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In this piece we answer frequently asked question regarding the R-PAS and CS. We present the facts supported by data. A must read for proponents and/or critics of the Rorschach.
... Clinicians, educators, and academics consider HFDs valuable tools for getting a view of children's cognitive and social-emotional development, and many use them to establish a more comprehensive picture of the whole child (Di Leo, 1983). However, researchers do not agree on the validity of HFDs (Piotrowski, 2015;Reisman & Yamokoski, 1973). Some researchers found positive relationships between drawing levels and cognitive functioning or development (e.g., Chappell & Steitz, 1993;Schepers et al., 2012). ...
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This study described exceptional items in human figure drawings (HFDs) which have been discussed as possible expressions of intellectual giftedness. The aim was to serve as a first step in the development of a screener for HFDs that can be used as part of the identification process of gifted children. We examined the frequency of occurrence of 158 items in HFDs of 206 children aged 4 to 6 years (17 potentially gifted). Fine details and additions to the human figure turned out to be exceptional, especially in drawings of 4-year-olds. Several exceptional items were drawn more frequently or exclusively by potentially gifted children. Descriptively, exceptionality in drawings of potentially gifted children was most visible in HFDs of 4-year-olds, and tended to become less visible with age. Further research with larger samples is required to draw solid conclusions about HFDs of gifted children.
... Um die Nützlichkeit projektiver Verfahren als tatsächliche Testverfahren beurteilen zu können, sollte zunächst ein Blick auf die empirische Fundierung der bekanntesten und am meisten genutzten projektiven Verfahren geworfen werden. International werden der Rorschach-Test (Rorschach 1921) und der Thematische Apperzeptionstest (TAT; Morgan und Murray 1935) häufig eingesetzt (Archer et al. 2006;Lubin et al. 1984;Piotrowski 2015;Watkins et al. 1995). Im deutschsprachigen Raum handelt es sich bei den beliebtesten Verfahren meist um zeichnerische, verbal-thematische Verfahren oder auch spielerische Gestaltungsverfahren, wie z. ...
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Zusammenfassung Projektive Verfahren werden auch heute noch in der familienrechtspsychologischen Diagnostik eingesetzt. Erfahrungsgemäß lassen sich 3 unterschiedliche Anwendungsarten unterscheiden: a) als klassisch diagnostisches Instrument, b) als informelle Verhaltensprobe oder c) als Explorationshilfe bzw. Gesprächseinstieg. In der folgenden Übersicht werden diese 3 Anwendungsarten dargestellt sowie ihr Nutzen für die familienrechtspsychologische Diagnostik kritisch diskutiert. Hierfür wird zunächst ein Überblick über die empirische Fundierung der am meisten genutzten projektiven Verfahren (des Thematischen Apperzeptionstests und zeichnerische Verfahren allgemein) gegeben. Es wird dann diskutiert, ob die klassischen psychometrischen Gütekriterien auf projektive Verfahren anwendbar sind. Hinsichtlich der Verwendung projektiver Verfahren als informelle Verhaltensprobe wird auf mögliche Urteilsverzerrungen hingewiesen, insbesondere den „confirmation bias“, den Effekt der illusorischen Korrelation und den möglichen Einfluss irrelevanter Informationen auf den diagnostischen Prozess. Angesichts der potenziell negativen Auswirkungen auf die Validität der Diagnostik empfehlen wir, projektive Verfahren nicht in der Einzelfalldiagnostik einzusetzen, wenn keine direkten empirischen Belege für die Validität des spezifischen Verfahrens für die genutzte Auswertungsart und das zu diagnostizierende Konstrukt vorliegen.
... Esta afirmação parece estar em consonância com a tendência similar de uso decrescente de testes projetivos por psicólogos escolares, constatada por Oakland et al. (2016), em 64 países, e por Benson et al. (2019) nos Estados Unidos. A menor tendência do uso de técnicas projetivas por psicólogos escolares pode refletir as críticas feitas à sua validade e fidedignidade, e ocorre a despeito de suas pretensas qualidades, tais como a facilidade de utilização e a baixa resistência do avaliado às tarefas (Benson et al., 2019a;Piotrowski, 2015; Almeida, Araújo e Diniz, 2013). ...
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This study aims to identify and analyze school psychological assessment practices. Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review of the literature published in the Scopus and Web of Science databases was conducted between 2014 and 2020. The review was based on the selection of 60 studies. The results showed that behavioral tests such as BASC and versions DESSA 1-2-3 and DESSA-mini are among the most used. Throughout time there is stabilization in the preference for standardized tests of intelligence such as the Wechsler, Woodcock-Johnson, KABC and Stanford-Binet-5 scales, which is frequently reported in research and professional practices of the school psychologist. Additionally, the routine use of interviews and behavioral observations continues to be the basis of school psychological assessment processes. Implications for the investigation and practice of psychological assessment in the school context are discussed.
Present study aims to validate the Modified Hand Test with Human Figure Drawing Test on aggression and anxiety dimensions of the personality. Cross sectional research design was implied. Total of 88 participants (50 males and 50 females) were recruited from a larger sample of 350 participants. Purposive sampling technique was used, written informed consent was obtained from the participants. Both the Hand Test and The Human Figure Drawing Test were administered in a battery of other tests like Thematic Apperception Test, Sentence Completion Test and Word Association Test etc. However, results of The Hand Test and The Human Figure Test were compared on aggression and anxiety dimensions. While computing Pearson product moment correlation results remained significant at .37 and .45 respectively both at .01 of significance. Results of the study are instrumental both for clinicians and researchers for establishing assessment and therapeutic interventions as well as a lead to pursue further researches in validation sphere.
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The human figure drawing test as a psychodiagnostic method has been used for almost 100 years. During this period it has gained its supporters and opponents. The human figure drawing test can be approached in several ways that have historically developed. The aim of this work is to present interpretative paradigms (complex evaluation systems), which have different theoretical backgrounds as well as ways of interpreting the results. Each of the approaches – performance based, projective, global, dynamic, and typological – is presented by the main representatives, by the basic ideas behind their origin, manners of evaluation, but also by critical evaluation based on research – pointing to perspectives and limits.
A survey was conducted to evaluate current psychological testing practice in acute care inpatient settings. Findings indicated that psychologists typically continue to use the standard test battery developed by Rapaport, Gill, and Schafer in the 1940s. We outline an alternative problem-oriented approach to assessment that seems better suited for short-term care settings. In this model the primary assessment strategy emphasizes rapid assessment of symptoms and problem areas rather than comprehensive personality assessment.
The authors studied test usage defined by test appearance in research articles in counseling journals and test usage self-reported by counselors in previous studies. Many tests used by counselors according to self-report rarely appear in research studies. Absence of research articles using mental ability and projective measures was especially noticeable.
Controversy, debate, and differences of opinion over the Rorschach Inkblot Method's validity and utility in forensic settings are not new. In this article, the authors offer bases anchored in research and the real-world to support the relevance, validity, reliability, and necessity for the Rorschach Inkblot Method in forensic evaluations.
The current status of the Rorschach test, the Holtzman Inkblot Technique, and the Wuerzburg Rorschach Modification is reviewed on the basis of recent findings and meta-analyses. From an academic point of view, the theoretical and conceptional foundations, the unsolved methodological problems, the reliability, and the validity of these techniques are discussed. Education in the Rorschach is reviewed. With respect to the practitioner, the actual usage of the Rorschach in clinical settings and attitudes toward the Rorschach are mentioned. The main issues are summarized in six theses, and perspectives of future research are outlined. It is concluded that the status of the Rorschach has improved because of the Comprehensive System, because of psychometric modifications, and because computer aided scoring is available. However, there is still not sufficient evidence that the Rorschach is a reliable and valid test in any respect.
This study examined the testing practices of 150 professionals who conduct psychological assessments for the vocational rehabilitation (VR) system. A convenience sample, participants represented five large and culturally diverse states (i.e. California, Florida, Illinois, New York, and Texas). They responded to a semi-structured, online survey that was created by the authors to examine testing practices. Results indicated that (a) the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory ranked highly in terms of use; (b) the overall test ranking, for the most part, did not vary based on participants' demographic and professional characteristics; (c) neuropsychological instruments were commonly endorsed; and (d) projectives were not commonly used. Although findings corroborate prior research with regards to continued use of "popular" instruments, they also suggest increased use of psychometrically sound tests.