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Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora für Deutschland und angrenzende Gebiete, 8. Aufl. – Stuttgart

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... Zur syntaxonomischen Ordnung wurden den einzelnen Arten, entsprechend der Systematik nach Ellenberg et al. (1992), welche größtenteils aus Oberdorfer (1990) entnommen wurde, die maximal fünfstelligen Dezimalzahlen der Formationen, Klassen, Ordnungen, Verbände sowie Unterverbände zugeordnet (Legende im Anhang). Wenige Arten wurden ergänzend durch die Systematik nach Oberdorfer (2010) und der Synopsis der Pflanzengesellschaften (Dierschke, 2012) eingeordnet. Anhand dessen konnte eine pflanzensoziologische Ordnung der Tabelle in die folgenden 8 Gruppen erfolgen, welche Arten mehrerer, vergleichbarer Klassen bzw. ...
... Bromus racemosus verzeichnet keine Verluste. Die Art ist sowohl mäßig schnitt-als auch weideverträglich und hat einen guten Futterwert, weshalb sie häufig noch in Fragmentgesellschaften oder auf zunehmend intensivierten Flächen anzutreffen ist (Sturm et al., 2018, Oberdorfer, 2010 (Klauck, 1993;Dierschke, 2012 (Oberdorfer, 1983;Michel et al., 2010;Dierschke, 2012). Im Vergleich zu den anderen Arten dieser Gruppe hat Rumex obtusifolius eine geringere Überflutungstoleranz (Dierschke, 2012 Röhrichte-und Großseggen-Sümpfe zuzuordnen und nur einzelne Arten entfallen auf die übrigen sechs Klassen. ...
... Ranunculus repens wird in der synthetischen Tabelle als einzige Art der Litorelletea geführt, gilt heute jedoch als eine der am weitesten verbreiteten Arten in Mitteleuropa und steht in der Liste der häufigsten Pflanzenarten an fünfter Stelle (Krause, 1998). Seine weite ökologische Amplitude und vor allem sein kriechender und ausläuferbildender Wuchs, verschaffen ihm eine hohe Anpassungsfähigkeit in verschiedensten Gesellschaften (Oberdorfer, 2010). ...
... This vegetation type shares a diagnostic species (Epilobium alsinifolium) with the Cratoneuro-Philonotidetum seriatae Geissler 1976. E. alsinifolium makes no special demands on substrate chemistry, but prefers very wet, cold sites (Geissler 1976;Oberdorfer 2001). The character species Saxifraga stellaris is also a cold-water specialist. ...
... The character species Philonotis tomentella is also diagnostic here, and the calcifuge Diobelonella palustris occurs sporadically. Compared to Pinguicula vulgaris, the diagnostic species P. alpina is more likely to occur in high mountains and is less bound to limestone (Oberdorfer 2001). However, it is questionable whether this vegetation type could be assigned to a siliceous alliance: although the substrate is carbonate-poor, many typical species of the Cratoneurion are present, including the character species Pinguicula alpina and Palustriella falcata, which are diagnostic for this type. ...
... Diverse calcicoles are present, and the differential species Arabis subcoriacea is diagnostic and common. This species colonizes base-rich, humic soils as well as weakly trickling springs over gravel (Oberdorfer 2001). Brachythecium rivulare is conspicuously rare, and Saxifraga aizoides is more common than S. stellaris, as is characteristic for the association. ...
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Aims : The spring habitats of Central Europe are insular biotopes of high ecological value. Although subject to severe exploitation pressures, they do not yet have a comprehensive protection status in Switzerland. Contributing to this challenge is the controversy involved with their syntaxonomic classification. In the context of the development of a regional conservation strategy and the establishment of a national inventory of Swiss springs, we carried out a regional survey of spring vegetation and aimed to translate this into a classification system. Study area : Montane and subalpine zones of Parc Ela (Grisons, Switzerland). Methods : We selected 20 springs to cover different regions, elevations and bedrock types within the park. In each of them we recorded complete vascular plant and bryophyte composition as well as a range of environmental variables in three 1-m² plots that were placed to reflect the heterogeneity within the spring. After running an unsupervised classification with modified TWINSPAN, the distinguished vegetation units were characterized in terms of diagnostic species, species richness and environmental variables and placed within the syntaxonomic system. Results : Species richness was high (total species 264, mean 21.7 species in 1 m ² ). The two most important environmental gradients of the ordination were elevation/water conductivity and insolation/water pH/soil reaction EIV. We distinguished seven communities within two main groups. Conclusions : All unshaded springs, including those over siliceous bedrock, could be assigned to a broadly defined Cratoneurion . The petrifying springs were not strongly distinguishable floristically from other base-rich springs. The forest springs, although often not clearly differentiated from their unshaded counterparts, could be provisionally divided into the alliances Caricion remotae and Lycopodo europaei-Cratoneurion commutati . As there is a certain threat to these habitats in the park due to anthropogenic influence, protection measures are recommended, most importantly the appropriate management of alpine pastures. Taxonomic reference : Juillerat et al. (2017) for vascular plants, Meier et al. (2013) for bryophytes. Abbreviations : ANOVA = analysis of variance; DCA = detrended correspondence analysis; EIV = ecological indicator value; FOEN = Federal Office of the Environment (Switzerland); NCHO = Ordinance on the Protection of Nature and Cultural Heritage; SD = standard deviation; TWINSPAN = Two Way Indicator Species Analysis; WPA = Federal Act on the Protection of Waters.
... For genetic analyses, we selected the two widespread and outcrossing grassland species Knautia arvensis (Coult) and Plantago lanceolata (L.). K. arvensis is a hemicryptophytic, perennial plant species, belonging to the Caprifoliaceae family (Oberdorfer, 2001). Its distribution ranges from North-West Africa to Asia and Europe. ...
... In the study presented here, all individuals were tetraploid, as detected by flow cytometry (Dolezel et al., 2007). K. arvensis flowers between July and September and is insect-pollinated by bees, bumblebees, butterflies, syrphid-flies, and wasps (Oberdorfer, 2001). P. lanceolata is a hemicryptophytic, perennial plant species, belonging to the Plantaginaceae family (Oberdorfer, 2001). ...
... K. arvensis flowers between July and September and is insect-pollinated by bees, bumblebees, butterflies, syrphid-flies, and wasps (Oberdorfer, 2001). P. lanceolata is a hemicryptophytic, perennial plant species, belonging to the Plantaginaceae family (Oberdorfer, 2001). The species is widespread all over Europe from the Iberian peninsula to central Asia and occurs in fertile meadows and fields and on loamy or sandy soils (Rothmaler, 2005). ...
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Restoration of species-rich grasslands is a key issue of conservation. The transfer of seed-containing local plant material is a proven technique to restore species-rich grassland, since it potentially allows to establish genetically variable and locally adapted populations. In our study, we tested how the transfer of local plant material affected the species diversity and composition of restored grasslands and the genetic variation of the typical grassland plant species Knautia arvensis and Plantago lanceolata. For our study, we selected fifteen study sites in southeastern Germany. We analyzed species diversity and composition and used molecular markers to investigate genetic variation within and among populations of the study species from grasslands that served as source sites for restoration and grasslands, which were restored by transfer of green hay and threshed local plant material. The results revealed no significant differences in species diversity and composition between grasslands at source and restoration sites. Levels of genetic variation within populations of the study species Knautia arvensis and Plantago lanceolata were comparable at source and restoration sites and genetic variation among populations at source and their corresponding restoration sites were only marginal different. Our study suggests that the transfer of local plant material is a restoration approach highly suited to preserve the composition of species-rich grasslands and the natural genetic pattern of typical grassland plant species.
... Sampling took place in July/August 2018. All species of vascular plants were identified per relevé by using Oberdorfer (2001) and Jäger (2017). Nomenclature of vascular plants followed Metzing et al. (2018). ...
... The number of target species was lowest, and among the indicator species, plants characteristic of clear cuts (Digitalis purpurea, Epilobium angustifolium, Galeopsis tetrahit, Rubus idaeus and Senecio ovatus) and forests (Dryopteris dilatata, Luzula luzuloides, Moehringia trinervia, Picea abies) dominated (cf. Oberdorfer, 2001). As shown by NMDS, species composition of WIND was clearly separated from the heathland vegetation types. ...
... List of target species that occurred within the data set (according to Peppler, 1992;Peppler-Lisbach and Petersen, 2001;Oberdorfer, 2001) ...
Article
Heathlands are highly threatened ecosystems with high conservation value. Montane heathlands have suffered from widespread habitat loss due to land-use abandonment and afforestation. The aim of our study was to analyse the long-term effects of montane heathland restoration, nine to ten years after restoration, on vegetation in the Rothaar Mountains (Central Germany). We compared vegetation composition in four vegetation types: (i) early-successional heathland stages on sod cut sites or ski pistes (hereafter referred to as EARLY), (ii) late-successional (old-growth) heathland stages (LATE), (iii) restored heathlands on former spruce forests where seed transfer by hydroseeding or the application of chopper material (crushed aboveground biomass from donor heathland site including seeds) had been applied (RESTORED) and (iv) windthrows with salvage logging (WIND). In every vegetation type, ten vegetation relevés were carried out and the cover of all vascular plant, bryophyte and terricolous lichen species were analysed. Furthermore, soil samples were taken in every relevé and measured with respect to soil acidity as well as carbon, nitrogen, phosphate and potassium contents. Our study demonstrated that the restoration plots were characterised by chemical soil conditions comparable to those of existing heathland communities. RESTORED was the hotspot of phytodiversity. Species richness of vascular plants, threatened vascular plants and target species peaked on RESTORED, followed by EARLY. Additionally, EARLY was characterised by the highest number of terricolous lichen species and threatened bryophyte species. The applied restoration measures were successful in establishing montane-heathland and acidic-grassland vegetation on former spruce forests. However, two usually dominant species of montane heathlands, Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea, had hardly established. Both species are slow colonisers and require specific microsites characterised by high moisture and organic content of the soil for generative reproduction. Additionally, the study demonstrated that early- to mid-successional stages of montane heathlands play a vital role for the conservation of cryptogams and low-competitive plant species.
... The plots had a size of 4 m × 4 m, and sampling was carried out in July/August 2018. Within every plot, all vascular plant species of all vegetation layers (herb and shrub layer) were identified using Oberdorfer (2001) and Jäger (2017). Nomenclature of vascular plants followed Metzing et al. (2018). ...
... Additionally, the number of target species was analysed for every plot. Target species were defined as all character species of the phytosociological class Nardo-Callunetea (heathlands and acidic grasslands) and its lower units according to Peppler (1992), Peppler-Lisbach and Petersen (2001) and Oberdorfer (2001) ...
... List of target species that occurred within the data set (according to Peppler, 1992;Peppler-Lisbach and Petersen, 2001;Oberdorfer, 2001) ...
Article
Heathlands are of high importance for biodiversity conservation, and most heathlands depend on management. While the effects of management on biodiversity are well-studied for lowland heathlands, studies on Central European montane heathlands are scarce. Therefore, we analysed the effects of heathland rejuvenation measures on soil characteristics and phytodiversity within Central European montane heathlands. We focused on four heathland types: sod-cut heathlands with (i) early-successional stages (SOD CUT-EARLY) and (ii) mid-successional stages (SOD CUT-MID), (iii) choppered heathlands with mid-successional stages (CHOP-MID) and (iv) late-successional heathland stages (CONTROL). For every heathland type, ten vegetation relevés were carried out. In every relevé, we analysed the cover of all vascular plant, bryophyte and terricolous lichen species. Additionally, soil characteristics were measured. Statistical analyses included generalised linear mixed-effects models and non-metric multidimensional scaling. Our study revealed that rejuvenation of montane heathlands reduced soil nutrient levels, increased pH values and had positive effects on phytodiversity. The effects of rejuvenation were persistent. Even after around 20 years following the measures, SOD CUT-MID and CHOP-MID were characterised by lower nutrient levels and different plant assemblages compared to CONTROL. Sod cutting and choppering promoted the rejuvenation of Calluna vulgaris, one target species of montane heathlands. However, the regeneration of Vaccinium vitis-idaea – another ericaceous target species – was clearly favoured by choppering in comparison to sod cutting. By contrast, overall vascular plant species diversity as well as the number of threatened vascular plant and target species were favoured by sod cutting in the long run while early-successional stages after sod cutting had positive effects on lichen diversity. Due to the contrary effects of the two rejuvenation measures, we recommend a spatial mix of high-intensity (sod cutting) and less intensive (choppering) rejuvenation methods in montane heathlands.
... The fruits and nuts were offered as food, but maybe also for their decorative or medicinal values. In folk belief, many of them were traditionally known as medicinal plants (Oberdorfer 2001;Fischer et al. 2008;Fleischhauer et al. 2013). ...
... The generally higher occurrences of coniferous wood during the Bronze Age could be caused by the beginning of land use and burnt offering sites in the subalpine and alpine zones. The results of human activities like clearings in the woods would have encouraged these trees because they all need light for germination and growth (Oberdorfer 2001). It would seem that they were easily available due to their wide altitudinal and latitudinal distribution. ...
... (guelder rose), and Sambucus nigra/racemosa (black/red elder) were positively correlated with the valley bottom sites. Their natural potential distribution is on hills to high mountains and they grow in shady to more open conditions at woodland edges and in open woodlands (Oberdorfer 2001;Fischer et al. 2008;Ellenberg and Leuschner 2010). These taxa contribute to the trend detected in the "Iron Age" variable, because they were solely found in the Iron Age material. ...
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Burnt offering sites reflect the physical and spiritual aspects of human life in the inner Alps during the Bronze and Iron Ages. Burnt offerings were made in ceremonies with various parts including fire rites, from which the carbonised macro-remains testify to a significant use of plants. The individual finds and records provide information about diet, firewood supply, economic and social behaviour, faith, skills, crafts, and trade. In this study, the focus was on plant uses and in rites at 25 Bronze and Iron Age burnt offering sites in the Eastern Alps. Wood was the basis for the burnt offering rite, similar to the cremation rite, which was also beginning in the Bronze Age. The most consistently found fuel remains were charcoal from coniferous wood, especially Picea/Larix-type (most probably Picea, spruce), probably due to its burning qualities and easy availability during this period. Corylus avellana (hazel) was the commonest deciduous wood. All identified wood taxa correspond with the local natural vegetation types of the time. Overall, they suggest low-density woodland stands and more or less sustainable human land use near the burnt offering sites, in the hill and mountain vegetation zone. The wood for the pyre was collected near the offering sites, so there are variations in firewood taxa resulting from the differences in the local natural landscape, (micro)climate, geology and edaphic conditions. The charred wood, crops and wild fruit and nut remains were ritually deposited in pits after the fire rite, which is another link to cremation. Food plant remains were usually present in low quantities due to the nature of burnt offerings, but their consistent records at the burnt offering sites point to a deep spiritual connection to nature and a high appreciation for plants as sources of food, raw materials and energy. They show that essentials were central elements of the burnt offering rite and that everyday matters overlapped with spiritual or religious concerns. Altogether, the finds of 15 different crops and 15 different edible plant taxa demonstrate a fairly high food plant diversity at the sites during the Bronze and Iron Ages. Hordeum vulgare (barley), Triticum dicoccum (emmer), Panicum miliaceum (broomcorn millet) and Vicia faba (broad bean) were the most consistent and important crops. They reflect a common food trend, which most probably resulted from climate extremes and deterioration. Plants naturally growing outside the Eastern Alpine vegetational zones were nearly absent, showing a lack of trade in food at the time, while native fruits and nuts were often used as ritual plants and played an important role as food plants. They are an argument for local agriculture and economy. Of the wild plants, Corylus avellana (hazel) was the most often found by far, followed by Fragaria vesca (strawberry), Rubus idaeus (raspberry), R. fruticosus (blackberry) and Sambucus nigra (elder). Like the wood taxa, the fruits and nuts indicate a human influenced environment and point to woodland edges, margins and clearings. Some of the firewood and food plants may also have been elements of the offering rite due to their medicinal and psychedelic effects, burning characteristics and symbolic background.
... This species is a widespread grass with a high fodder value (Sebald et al., 1998). D. glomerata prefers good nutrient availability and depends on light for seed germination (Oberdorfer et al., 2001;Rothmaler, 2017). ...
... Pollination mainly occurs by flies and bees. H. sphondylium thrives in nutrient-rich meadows (Sebald et al., 1992), but its fodder value and grazing tolerance are low (Oberdorfer et al., 2001;Rothmaler, 2017). ...
... Like D. glomerata this species is a valuable fodder plant (Sebald et al., 1992). T. pratense is mainly pollinated by bumblebees and is self-sterile (Oberdorfer et al., 2001;Rothmaler, 2017). ...
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Global changes in land use are threatening the diversity of many ecosystems on both the intra- and interspecific levels. Among these ecosystems are the species-rich hay meadows, which have drastically declined in quality and quantity, due to land use intensification or abandonment in recent decades. The remaining genetic resources of their plant species must therefore be protected. To determine the driving forces impacting genetic variation in common hay meadow species (Dactylis glomerata, Heracleum sphondylium, and Trifolium pratense), we used data on the land use history, historic and present landscape structure and habitat quality. Our results showed average genetic diversity within the study sites, with low differentiation levels and a high gene flow among grasslands. Land use history, landscape structure and habitat quality were found to be related to the distribution of genetic diversity in the studied species, highlighting the complex forces acting in these ecosystems and showing the specific impact of litter accumulation on genetic diversity. Both historic and current environmental variables influence genetic diversity, demonstrating the importance of the land use history of a habitat. The most important group of variables impacting genetic variation in all three species was the landscape structure (e.g., distance to the nearest-located urban area or grassland). Also important was the influence of litter cover on genetic diversity in D. glomerata, which provides an interesting starting point for further research.
... Mimulus guttatus DC. (Phrymaceae) is an annual or perennial plant species native to North America that is naturalizing along streams in Central Europe (Oberdorfer and Schwabe 2001;Truscott et al. 2006). It has large yellow zygomorphic flowers pollinated by large bees (Ivey and Carr 2005). ...
... Ellenberg indicator values ranging from 1 (habitat characterized by very low values of an environmental factor) to 9 (very high values) have been assigned to most plant species in Central Europe and describe the realized ecological niche of the species in Central Europe (Diekmann 2003). Like M. guttatus, P. palustris grows in wet meadows and on river banks of Central and Northern Europe and North America (Oberdorfer and Schwabe 2001) and the two species can occur in the same habitat (e.g., Hilbig 1975). ...
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The magnitude of inbreeding depression (ID) varies unpredictably among environments. ID often increases in stressful environments suggesting that these expose more deleterious alleles to selection or increase their effects. More simply, ID could increase under conditions that amplify phenotypic variation (CV²), e.g., by accentuating size hierarchies among plants. These mechanisms are difficult to distinguish when stress increases both ID and phenotypic variation. We grew in-and outbred progeny of Mimulus guttatus under six abiotic stress treatments (control, waterlogging, drought, nutrient deficiency, copper addition, and clipping) with and without competition by the grass Poa palustris. ID differed greatly among stress treatments with δ varying from 7% (control) to 61% (waterlogging) but did not consistently increase with stress intensity. Poa competition increased ID under nutrient deficiency but not other stresses. Analyzing effects of initial size on performance of outbred plants suggests that under some conditions (low N, clipping) competition increased ID by amplifying initial size differences. In other cases (e.g., high ID under waterlogging), particular environments amplified the deleterious genetic effects of inbreeding suggesting differential gene expression. Interestingly, conditions that increased the phenotypic variability of inbred progeny regularly increased ID whereas variability among outbred progeny showed no relationship to ID. Our study reconciles the stress-and phenotypic variability hypotheses by demonstrating how specific conditions (rather than stress per se) act to increase ID. Analyzing CV² separately in inbred and outbred progeny while including effects of initial plant size improve our ability to predict how ID and gene expression vary across environments. Heredity; https://doi.
... Taxonomy follows (Lambinon et al. 1998). The ecological interpretation is based on Weeda et al. (1985Weeda et al. ( -1994 and Oberdorfer (2001). ...
... Taxonomy follows Lambinon et al. (1998). The ecological interpretation is based on Weeda et al. (1985Weeda et al. ( -1994; Rodwell (1995) and Oberdorfer (2001). ...
... Under mowing, Plantago lanceolata and Trifolium pratense, two mesophilic species, and Rhinanthus minor were significantly more abundant. Rhinanthus minor is a typical species of meadows (Oberdorfer, 2001) which are rather nutrient poor (Landolt et al., 2010), and its seed dispersal is enhanced by mowing (Coulson ...
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Questions Wet grasslands are among the most threatened habitats in Central Europe and are subject to a loss of their unique species assemblages. Grazing and mowing are important conservation management tools for such semi-natural habitats. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the influence of grazing and mowing on the diversity and species composition of wet grassland vegetation. Location Montane wet grasslands in the Gantrisch Nature Park, Switzerland. Methods We sampled 18 pairs of vegetation plots along land-use borders between grazing and mowing (fence-line contrasts), distributed over six fens, mostly belonging to the phytosociological alliance Calthion palustris. We tested for differences in structural parameters, biodiversity indices, mean ecological indicator values, and the frequency of individual species. In addition, a detrended correspondence analysis was carried out. Results The management type had no influence on species richness, Shannon index or Shannon evenness. Maximum microrelief, vegetation height, mean nutrient indicator value and mean competitive strategy were significantly higher with grazing, while the mean aeration indicator value and the mean ruderal strategy were significantly higher with mowing. Cirsium oleraceum, Filipendula ulmaria, Geum rivale and Juncus effusus, species of nutrient-rich wet meadows, were more frequent under grazing, while mowing favoured grassland species with wide ecological amplitude, such as Plantago lanceolata and Trifolium pratense. Conclusions At the plot scale, vascular plant diversity did not differ between these management regimes. Thus, from the conservation point of view, in the study region, there is no clear preference for either management type, and both should be eligible for subsidies. At the landscape scale, it is beneficial to have both management types present to ensure high gamma diversity, as they favour different species.
... Ears were calculated on a cylindrical shape. Length, widths, and diameter of flowers were taken from the literature, which are based on the mean proportions of several flowers (Eisenreich et al. 2000;Oberdorfer 2001;Lauber et al. 2018;Parolly and Rohwer 2019). Also, species richness of flowering plants was calculated. ...
Article
Forests in Germany are occupied with roads, paths, and trails with a density of 5.03 km/km². Their construction and maintenance create a network of verges promoting flowering plants. Whether these verges are visited by bees, which factors are determining their abundance, diversity, and composition, and which flowering resources are used is unknown. We selected 13 verges in the Black Forest (Germany), sweep-netted wild bees along transects, calculated the flowering area of all herbs, and measured the area (hectares) of grassland within 1 km around the transects. To evaluate the resource use of a common bumblebee species, we analyzed the pollen load of common carder bees (Bombus pascuorum) using microscopes. The abundance and diversity of wild bees was positively related to flowering area. With an increasing area of grassland, the abundance of ubiquitous species increased. Wild bee community composition was driven by flowering area. Common carder bees collected pollen from several flower resources but mainly used few species, such as the common hemp nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L.). As the flowering area influenced wild bee abundance, diversity, and composition, we suggest creating road verges that favor the occurrence of native flowering plants to support wild bees in forest ecosystems. Study Implications: Forest road verges generally have higher light availability than the forest interior and therefore have higher availability of flowering plants. Although the importance of verges for wild bee conservation in agricultural landscapes is known, forest road verges are understudied. Our study demonstrates that forest road verges are important habitats for many ubiquitous bees and that the flowering area on these verges is the key determinant for the abundance and diversity of wild bees. Therefore, creating road verges that favor the occurrence of native flowering plants is key to support bees on these verges.
... The ex is tence of a shal low lake was dem onstrated by sparse fruit of the aquatic plants Typha sp. and Potamogeton sp. (Oberdorfer, 2001). The con stant pres ence of Juniperus communis dur ing P-2 and P-3 L PAZ in di cates an aver age July tem per a ture of +8 to +10°C (Isarin and Bohncke, 1999); how ever, the gen eral na ture of the chang ing veg e ta tion, i.e. a slightly in creased share of her ba ceous plants and a clear with drawal of pine, tes ti fies to the cool ing of the cli ma tic con ditions at the very end of Late Saalian. ...
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We describe the penultimate glacial – last interglacial transition from the one of the numerous palaeolake successions in central Poland, which have yielded many documented Eemian and Early Weichselian floral records. In the new profile, Parchliny 2016, the lacustrine deposits were analysed lithologically, botanically, zoologically, and geochemically, providing new data that illustrate the environmental transition from the Late Saalian (MIS 6a) to the Eemian interglacial (MIS 5e). Five phases of palaeolake development have been distinguished. The first phase was related to the rapid melting of a dead ice block buried in the tills to form a lake. The second phase documented a Late Saalian initial succession, with the dominance of open steppe communities (Stadial 1), followed by a third phase with gradual increasing density of vegetation, the spread of boreal forests (Zeifen interstadial) and further increase in open communities and the retreat of pine (Kattegat stadial). The fourth phase reflected the beginning of Eemian interglacial by the expansion of pioneering birch-pine and purely birch forests and an increasing proportion of deciduous trees, including oak (Vth phase). Diatom, cladoceran and geochemical studies indicate at least two stages of lake development. The first stage (Late Saalian) was of an open lake (2–4 m deep), in relatively cold conditions and nutrient-poor water with the lowest amounts of organic carbon and nitrogen. The second stage (Eemian interglacial), shows warmer, shallower conditions in which the lake’s primary production increased, the water was well oxygenated, and there were more trophic levels.
... They were then quantified so as to roughly obtain a Minimum Number of Individuals (MNI) ( [3]) before being recorded by the programme ArboDat (©Kreuz and Schäfer). Their classification into ecological groups was based on phytosociological and botanical literature ( [45,46]; www. infoflora.ch). ...
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The excellent preservation of the waterlogged botanical remains of the multiphase Neolithic pile-dwelling site of Zug-Riedmatt (Central Switzerland) yielded an ideal dataset to delve into the issue of plant economy of a community spanning several decades. The study identified a major change in crops where oil plants played a key role in the site’s initial phase before being supplanted over the course of a few decades by naked wheat, barley and pea. Wild plants continued to be gathered albeit in different proportions. In the latest settlement phase, the changes in the local vegetation and in the values of the analyses of carbon stable isotopes suggest a less humid environment. The hypothesis is that the changes perceived in the plant economy represent a resilience strategy adopted by the inhabitants in reaction to short term local climatic alterations. The two types of soil sampling techniques (monolith and bulk) allowed comparing these results. While the density of plant remains appears to be underestimated among the samples collected by the monolith technique, the proportions of economic taxa remain unaffected. The findings thus reveal that when the bulk samplings are distributed carefully throughout multiphase sites and avoid mixing stratigraphical units, and if the samplings are representative of all archaeological features from a whole area, then each of the two techniques offer analogous results.
... Aus pflanzensoziologischer Sicht sind hier vor allem anthropo-zoogene Rasen wie Festuco-Brometea (Trocken-, Halbtrockenrasen und basiphile Magerrasen) und Molinio-Arrhenatheretea (Mähwiesen und Weidegesellschaften) (vgl. Oberdorfer, et al., 2001) zu verstehen. Regelmäßige Mahd und manchmal zusätzliche Beweidung verhindern einen Wiederbewuchs durch Gehölze (Sitte et al. 1999, 921). ...
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Zusammenfassung Wiesen sind wertvolle Elemente unserer gewachsenen Kulturlandschaft. Welche Vorstellungen besitzen Schülerinnen und Schüler bezüglich dieser menschengemachten Ökosysteme? Die Erhebung von Alltagsvorstellungen bzw. Schülervorstellungen stellt ein geeignetes Instrument dar, um das Vorwissen von Schülerinnen und Schülern abzubilden. Die Schülervorstellungen bieten wertvolle Anknüpfungspunkte für Pädagoginnen und Pädagogen, um weiteres Wissen aufzubauen. Erhoben wurden die Schülervorstellungen zum Themenkreis Wiese in vier dritten Primarstufenklassen über Schülerzeichnungen, die die Schülerinnen und Schüler einzeln in einer festgelegten Zeit anfertigten, sowie leitfadengestützter Gruppeninterviews, die pro Klasse durchgeführt wurden. Die Auswertung erfolgte mittels zusammenfassender Inhaltsanalyse und induktiver Kategorienbildung. Diese empirische Untersuchung der Schülervorstellungen zum Thema Wiese zeigt, dass diese sehr differenziert und vielfältig sind. Schülerinnen und Schüler sehen Wiesen in erster Linie als Lebensräume für Tiere und Pflanzen, überdies unterscheiden sie eine Reihe an Nutzungsmöglichkeiten; einerseits die landwirtschaftliche Nutzung andererseits eine Vielfalt an Freizeitnutzungen. Divergierende Vorstellungen wurden bezüglich der Entstehung der Wiesen und der Auswirkungen der Nutzungsaufgabe sichtbar. Abstract Meadows are valuable elements of our cultivated landscape. Which conceptions do students have about these anthropogenic ecosystems? Detection of students' conceptions is a suitable instrument to map the prior knowledge of students. The students' conceptions offer valuable starting points for teachers to plan their teaching about biological topics. The students' conceptions about meadows were collected in four school classes in grade three (primary school in Austria) by means of students' drawings, which the students made individually in a specified period of time, and guided group interviews, which were conducted per class. The analysis was conducted using summary content analysis and inductive categories. This empirical investigation of students' conceptions about the topic meadows shows that these conceptions are highly
... 2). Die Unterart ist charakteristisch für felsige Standorte, Mauern sowie Geröll und besiedelt dabei unterschiedliche Gesteinsarten (OBERDORFER 2001). Nachweise in der Westfälischen Bucht sowohl der Sammelart als auch der Unterart quadrivalens sind selten (HAEUPLER et al. 2003), weshalb sie im Naturraum als "gefährdet" eingestuft wird (RAABE et al. 2011). ...
Article
published in Abhandlungen aus dem Westfälischen Museum für Naturkunde 100: 59-149. Abstract: After the fauna and flora of a sand pit near Haltern-Flaesheim (Recklinghausen district, North Rhine-Westphalia) has been summarized for the first time from 2014 to 2019 by a working group of 23 scientists (HANNIG 2020), an update of the data situation became necessary due to new findings, which will be documented in this first supplement. This concerns the taxonomic groups of flowering plants, mammals, birds, grasshoppers, beetles, hymenoptera, butterflies, bugs, flies, cicadas, and silverfishes. In addition, invertebrate groups which have not been considered or have been recorded not systematically, as for example selected families of small moths and cicadas, were included in the study. The results will be presented subsequently as commented supplementary species lists. The cicada species Allygus maculatus Ribaut, 1952, Cicadula placida (Horváth, 1897) and Psammotettix excisus (Matsumura, 1906) are reported for North Rhine- Westphalia for the first time.
... -Plagiomnium spec.: Die gesammelten Exemplare konnten nicht weiter bestimmt werden. Die Nomenklatur der Gefäßpflanzen folgt der Pflanzensoziologischen Exkursionsflora (Oberdorfer 2001). Zur Bestimmung der Moosarten wurden neben dem "Bildatlas der Moose Deutschlands" (Lüth 2004(Lüth -2011 die Schlüssel aus "Moosflora" (Frahm & Frey 1983) und "Die Moose Baden-Württembergs" (Nebel & Philippi 2000) verwendet. ...
Thesis
This master thesis reports on the impact of different forest management strategies on today’s occurrence of Dicranum viride. The current distribution, habitat selection and association of D. viride were recorded in the largely uniform deciduous forest „Endinger Wald“ in the western part of the German state Baden-Württemberg. Furthermore, the forestry history of the stands in the study area was analysed. Maps of the present distribution of D. viride and of the genesis of forest stands are presented in this thesis. In the study area, primarily ash, hornbeam and alder were the carrier trees of D. viride. The moss species occurred mainly on trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) > 30 cm, but the high amount of carrier trees with a DBH < 30 cm shows that also younger trees are important habitats. The maximum D. viride colony size was 2896.7 cm , the median of all recorded D. viride colony sizes was 21.1 cm. In the study area, tilted and straight carrier trees were approximately equally frequent. At tilted trunks, D. viride was prevalent on bark areas benefitting from treetop passage and stem-runoff. No strong correlation between the size of D. viride cushions and carrier tree age was observed. Next to Dicranum montanum, other acidophilic species as well as indifferent species like Hypnum cupressiforme were often associated with D. viride. Forest structure and age class composition of stands are of great importance for D. viride. Stands densely populated with D. viride show continuity of habitats and a diverse age distribution. D. viride is primarily missing in even-aged stands originating from the reforestation of clearings. The species is presumably able to survive at tree stumps and trees that are allowed to grow in coppice forests, so-called „standards“. From these refuges, a resettlement of the surrounding habitats seems possible under favourable conditions. The state Baden-Württemberg is aware of its responsibility to protect the moss species D. viride (FFH directive/Natura 2000). Currently, the Forest Research Institute Baden-Württemberg in Freiburg, Germany is working on a recommended course of action for forestry management. In this thesis, the suggested recommendations were assessed and possibilities for improvement were described. Thus, the results of this work directly contribute to conservation actions for Dicranum viride.
... Nomenclature of plants follows the work of Király (2009). In Tab. 2. the species were ordered according to phytosociological groups according to Oberdorfer (2001). With the help of available historic maps and orthophotos the presumed land-use history of the sites has also been reconstructed (e.g. ...
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Gypsophila perfoliata (Caryophyllaceae) is a rare, only casually occurring species in Central Europe. Its native range spans from western Asian to the coast of the Black Sea. Several adventive occurrences of G. perfoliata were documented in Central Europe, especially in Germany where the naturalisation of the taxon occurred during the first decades of the 20th century. As a rare weed, it is suspected to have been introduced with iron ore from the former Soviet Union via railways (Kryvyi Rih region, now Ukraine). In this paper, we gathered information on the occurrence of G. perfoliata from its adventive range. These data indicate an ongoing and fast spread of the species across Central and Eastern Europe. For instance, prior to this study, G. perfoliata have two occurrence records from Hungary. Six new and recent records from Miskolc town and its surrounding areas are presented in this paper. The studied plant occurs in former industrial areas (steel factory, transshipment yards, external slag heaps) or along transport lines (esp. road verges, railway lines). We also describe 18 phytosociological relevés taken at the location of occurrences. All occurrences were documented on heavily modified anthroposols, where the populations flourish on bare ground (esp. road verges or parking areas) or on ground with admixture of metalliferous slag debris. With the help of available orthophotos the presumed land-use history of the locations has also been reconstructed. Based on data presented here we recommend modifying the species' adventive status in Hungary from casual to naturalised. Further expansion of the species is expected not only 172 at industrial sites but also at locations where slag material was utilised (e.g. landfill, road and rail construction). Due to its halophyte characteristics the species might expand its range along roads where de-icing salt is used.
... Galium boreale grows in both wet meadows and semidry grasslands. It has also been found in sparse pine or oak forests (Oberdorfer 2001;Gubanov et al. 2004). ...
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This paper presents the first record of a rare species of Miridae, Polymerus (Pachycentrum) carpathicus (Horváth, 1882), in Poland. A broad analysis of its occurrence was conducted, which was based on modelling its potential ecological niche using past and future models, which enabled new and valuable information about the potentially suitable habitats and its possible range of distribution as well as its climatic preferences to be identified. The results of the research indicate that P. (P.) carpathicus prefers habitats in highlands and mountains. This species probably came to Europe from Asia via a postglacial migration and the disjunctive range that characterises P. (P.) carpathicus may be due to a lack of data. Additionally, the key to identifying the Polish species from the subgenera Pachycentrum and Polymerus and maps of their distribution in Poland are also presented.
... The rooting density of the species was classified into sparse, medium dense, dense, and very dense roots 59 . The mean leaf size and plant height of the species (sources: 60,61 ; http:// www. flora web. ...
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Plant rooting strongly affects most hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological processes in terrestrial ecosystems, as it presents the main pathway for carbon, water and nutrient transfer from soil to the atmosphere and is a key factor in stabilizing the soil layer. Few studies have actually investigated the link between phytosociological and structural vegetation composition and diversity in soil rooting parameters. Our study provides a comprehensive evaluation of plant cover and diversity effects on rooting parameters dependent on different land-use types along a north–south transect in the Eastern Alps. We conducted field studies of root biomass, rooting density and rooting depth for the six main land-use types: intensively and lightly used hay meadows, pastures, arable land, agriculturally unused grasslands and forests. The variation in rooting parameters was explained by different aspects of species and functional richness, species and functional composition, functional traits, abundance of key species and site variables depending on the land-use types. Our results showed that different characteristics of biodiversity explained the variance in root parameters (mass, density and depth) to a high degree (determination coefficient R ² values varied between 0.621 and 0.891). All rooting parameters increased with increasing plant species richness, as well as with a higher diversity of plant functional traits. The inclusion of site parameters significantly increased the explained variance, while we could not find evidence for key species and their abundance to provide additional explanatory power. Allowing the effects to vary depending on land-use types turned out to be a necessity supporting the importance of considering land-use types for rooting. The findings indicate that vegetation composition has a clear relationship with rooting parameters across different habitats in the European Alps. As the effect of plant composition differs with respect to the land-use type, rooting can be monitored by land management to achieve the desired benefits. For example, intensified rooting through extensive management decreases erosion risk and increases carbon uptake.
... In the previously mentioned study by Reif et al. [4], forests on sandy soils were also described to be heavily endangered. Pine trees are generally considered to be undemanding in terms of soil quality and are therefore able to grow on e.g., sandy locations better compared to other competing tree types [126]. However, in terms of drought conditions, different soil types can have a significant influence on the vulnerability of pine trees as seen in this study. ...
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Forest systems provide crucial ecosystem functions to our environment, such as balancing carbon stocks and influencing the local, regional and global climate. A trend towards an increasing frequency of climate change induced extreme weather events, including drought, is hereby a major challenge for forest management. Within this context, the application of remote sensing data provides a powerful means for fast, operational and inexpensive investigations over large spatial scales and time. This study was dedicated to explore the potential of satellite data in combination with harmonic analyses for quantifying the vegetation response to drought events in German forests. The harmonic modelling method was compared with a z-score standardization approach and correlated against both, meteorological and topographical data. Optical satellite imagery from Landsat and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used in combination with three commonly applied vegetation indices. Highest correlation scores based on the harmonic modelling technique were computed for the 6th harmonic degree. MODIS imagery in combination with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) generated hereby best results for measuring spectral response to drought conditions. Strongest correlation between remote sensing data and meteorological measures were observed for soil moisture and the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI). Furthermore, forests regions over sandy soils with pine as the dominant tree type were identified to be particularly vulnerable to drought. In addition, topographical analyses suggested mitigated drought affects along hill slopes. While the proposed approaches provide valuable information about vegetation dynamics as a response to meteorological weather conditions, standardized in-situ measurements over larger spatial scales and related to drought quantification are required for further in-depth quality assessment of the used methods and data.
... The seed size of sown species was abstracted from the BIOLFLOR database (Klotz et al., 2002). Dispersal mode of plant species was derived from Oberdorfer (2001). Total vegetation cover, cover of plant functional groups and individual cover of sown species were used to assess the effectiveness of different revegetation measures two years after sowing. ...
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In mountain regions, the likelihood of mudflows might increase due to climate change. Although mudflows are common worldwide and devastate agricultural land, virtually nothing is known about the revegetation of mudflow deposits for agricultural purposes. To provide recommendations for rapid revegetation of mountain pastures, 52 permanent plots (4 m × 4 m) on 20 revegetated mudflow deposits in the Nature Park Sölktäler were established. We evaluated different revegetation measures (seed addition alone or combined with application of straw, lime or cattle manure) two years after sowing using commercial clover-grass seed mixtures. Furthermore, 27 permanent plots on 15 unsown mudflow deposits were surveyed. Sowing seeds can considerably accelerate revegetation on siliceous mudflow deposits. Festuca rubra, Agrostis capillaris, Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens and Lotus corniculatus are particularly suitable for rapid grassland reestablishment, whereas Poa pratensis is not recommendable. A pure straw application should be avoided because it delays the revegetation success. Lime addition is not recommended because it can lead to an undesirable legume dominance if clover-grass seed mixtures are used for revegetation. The most effective measure for large-scale revegetation seems to be seed addition without additives. To facilitate revegetation on coarse-grained deposits, large rocks should be crushed using a stone mill.
... To assess drivers and their interactions, we established a snow manipulation and rain exclusion experiment at 2500 m a.s.l. This late successional grassland, dominated by Carex curvula, is the most widespread type of alpine grassland on siliceous bedrock in the European Alps (Oberdorfer 2001;Leuschner and Ellenberg 2017). We present a phenological dataset covering the 3 years 2016-2018, supplemented with detailed microclimatic data for the growing seasons. ...
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Alpine plants complete their seasonal phenological cycle during two to three snow-free months. Under climate change, snowmelt advances and the risk of summer droughts increases. Yet, photoperiodism may prevent alpine plants from benefiting from an earlier start of the growing season. To identify the drivers of flowering phenology in the seven main species of an alpine grassland, we experimentally shifted the snowmelt date through snow manipulations, and excluded precipitation during summer. With “time-to-event” models, we analysed the beginning of main flowering with respect to temperature sums, time after snowmelt, and calendar day (photoperiod). We identified two phenology types: four species tracking snowmelt dates directly or with a certain lag set by temperature sums, including the dominant sedge Carex curvula , Anthoxanthum alpinum Helictotrichon versicolor , and Trifolium alpinum , and three species tracking photoperiod: Geum montanum , Leontodon helveticus and Potentilla aurea . Photoperiodism did not act as daylength threshold but rather modulated the thermal sums at flowering. Hence, photoperiod delayed flowering after earlier snowmelt. The grass A. alpinum was the only one of seven species that clearly responded to drought by earlier and longer flowering. The remarkably high importance of snowmelt dates for both phenology types suggests an earlier onset of flowering in a warmer climate, particularly for non-photoperiod-sensitive species, with an increasing risk for freezing damages and potential disruptions of biotic interactions in the most frequent type of alpine grassland across the Alps. Consequentially, the distinct microclimate and species-specific responses to photoperiod challenge temperature-only based projections of climate warming effects on alpine plant species.
... kamen unter anderem schützenswerte Pflanzengesellschaften der Littorelletea uniflora vor (NLPV 2005), mit einigen nach GARVE (2004) in Niedersachsen und Bremen stark gefährdeten Arten. Das Eindringen von C. helmsii in Littorella-und Potamogeton-Gesellschaften konnte bereits an anderer Stelle beobachtet werden (OBERDORFER et al. 2001). Von der Charakterart Littorella uniflora gelangen im gesamten Untersuchungsgebiet mit den hier vorgelegten Untersuchungen nur noch der Nachweis von zwei Exemplaren sowie vereinzelte Vorkommen von Samolus valerandi. ...
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Crassula helmsii is a semi-aquatic, invasive neophyte from Australia and New Zealand. It was first recorded on the East Frisian island Norderney in the early 2000s. Since then, it has been spreading rapidly into the Südstrandpolder and the Meierei-Wiesen. To date, there are no scientific studies on the habitat requirements and distribution of C. helmsii along the coastal zone of Northwest Germany. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the distribution, vegetation community composition and habitat requirements, as well as the preconditions for dispersal of C. helmsii on Norderney through habitat modelling. The habitat requirements were analysed based on 44 presence and 44 absence points of C. helmsii; these were generated using GIS-based stratified random sampling. Additional vegetation relevés were conducted at 22 presence points. Several associated species were identified: Mentha aquatica, Phragmites australis, Rubus caesius, Myosotis scorpioides and Rumex conglomeratus. It is likely that these are remnants of the original vegetation. To identify habitat requirements, some general-ized linear models were generated. The final model included the parameters conductivity, light and shore characteristics. Crassula helmsii preferred flat, unshaded aquatic spots with a conductivity of less than 2000 μS/cm. The model shows that the majority of all potential habitats in the study area are already occupied by C. helmsii. Further propagation of C. helmsii to the coastal dunes or dune slacks is likely and should be avoided. The presented model provides some possible management approaches, the most promising is a combination of controlled salinization and shading.
... He aimed for a comprehensive description of the regional flora but did not score the abundances or population sizes of each species. Among others, the presence lists include 91 species that are considered habitat specialists for Molinia meadows (i.e., the plant community alliances Molinion caeruleae and Caricion davallianae, according to the Braun-Blanquet system; Oberdorfer et al., 2001). Peintinger (2012) adapted Baumann's species lists to a presence-absence matrix for the 91 Molinia-meadow species and 37 sites with Molinia meadows in the early 1900s ( Figure 1b; Table S1). ...
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Species losses and local extinctions are alarmingly common, frequently as a consequence of habitat destruction. Nevertheless, many intact habitats also face species losses, most likely due to environmental changes. However, the exact drivers, and why they affect some species more than others in apparently intact habitats, are still poorly understood. Addressing these questions requires data on changes in occurrence frequency of many species, and comparisons of the responses of those species to experimental manipulations of the environment. Here, we use historic (1911) and contemporary (2017) data on the presence–absence of 42 plant species in 14 seemingly intact Molinia meadows around Lower Lake Constance to quantify changes in occurrence frequency. Then, we performed a common‐garden experiment to test whether occurrence frequencies in 1911 and changes therein by 2017 could be explained by responses of the 42 species to nutrient addition and competition with the acquisitive generalist grass Poa pratensis. Within the 14 still intact Molinia meadows, 36 of the 42 species had declined since 1911. As expected, nutrient addition generally led to increased biomass production of the 42 target species, and competition with P. pratensis had a negative effect. The latter was stronger at high nutrient availability. The more frequent species were in 1911 and the more they declined in frequency between 1911 and 2017, the less above‐ground biomass they produced in our experiment. Competition with P. pratensis magnified this effect. Our work highlights that environmental change can contribute to local extinction of species in otherwise intact habitat remnants. Specifically, we showed that increased nutrient availability negatively affected formerly widespread Molinia‐meadow species in competition with P. pratensis. Our study thus identified a likely mechanism for the decline in occurrence frequency of species in the remaining Molinia meadows.
... Robin et al., 2018). Today, they are classified as Bromion or Xerobromion associations which are known for their richness in otherwise rare vascular plant, cryptogam, and animal species (Pott, 1995, Ellenberg, 1996, Oberdorfer, 2001. At the same time, they are endangered by abandonment and high airborne nutrient input leading to successional processes and changes in species composition (Bobbink et al., 2003;Ellenberg, 1996, Bakker & Berendse, 1999, Willems, 2001, Bobbink et al., 2003, Poschlod, 2015. ...
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Land-use history and habitat age are considered highly important regarding the species composition and conservation value of, e.g., grasslands and forests. Ancient sites, i.e., sites with a continuous habitat history, are thought to be richer in rare, threatened, and more specialised species than recent sites. However, species composition is also affected by abiotic and ecological factors such as soil and climate parameters, and further analyses are needed to determine whether history or other factors are more important. In previous studies carried out at two study areas in the German Jurassic mountains, land-use history was identified as the main factor shaping vascular plant composition of ancient vs. recent grassland sites. Ancient was defined that there was a continuous grazing history since at least 200 years, while recent grasslands have developed from arable fields considerably after this time. Many species such as arable weeds and crop species, being residuals of the former land-use type, were found in the recent grasslands. In the present study, we assessed the terricolous cryptogam vegetation (bryophytes, lichens, macromycetes) of the same ancient and recent sites regarding species composition, occurrence of endangered species, and the applicability of the indicator species concept and Ellenberg indicator values. Although land-use history was the strongest explaining factor regarding vascular plant vegetation in previous studies, cryptogam vegetation did not reflect this signal. Species numbers and Ellenberg indicator values were quite similar in ancient and recent grasslands but we could, nevertheless, identify indicator species for both grassland types, with Rhytidium rugosum, Cladonia furcata ssp. subrangiformis and Hygrocybe persistens as strongest indicators of ancient grasslands, and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus as strongest indicator of recent grasslands. When we compared the results for vascular plant and cryptogam vegetation we found that land-use history seems to have much less influence on the composition of the cryptogam vegetation in grasslands, given a certain time of recreation and succession. This is very likely due to an enhanced dispersability of cryptogam propagules. We found rare and endangered cryptogam species in ancient and recent sites; therefore, species maintenance measures can be worthwile in both grassland types.
... Another freshwater resource, Trapa natans (water caltrop) should be mentioned. It is a floating aquatic plant which produces starch rich edible fruits that ripen from September to October (Oberdorfer, 1990). It is widespread in temperate Europe, growing in still or slow moving shallow and nutrient-rich water, as found in the numerous Hungarian oxbow lakes and meanders of the river valleys ( Fig. 9; Behre, 1970;Gams, 1927;Lang, 1994). ...
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This special issue of Quaternary International contains a selection of contributions from the international Conference entitled “LBK & Vinča - Formation and Transformation of Early Neolithic Lifestyles in Europe in the second half of the 6th millennium BC” held from 21st to 23rd of March, 2019 in Tübingen (Germany).
... In der Garchinger Heide kom-Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft 90, 2020 men neben den pflanzensoziologischen Kennarten der Kalkmagerrasen auch viele weitere Arten vor, die im Gebiet eng an Kalkmagerrasen gebunden sind und in dieser Arbeit als "Spezialisten" bezeichnet werden. Diese gehören nach ELLENBERG & LEUSCHNER 2010, ELLENBERG et al. 2001, OBERDORFER 2001 zu folgenden Pflanzengesellschaften: Blaugras-Kugelblumenrasen (Seslerietalia coeruleae), Mauerpfeffer-Gesellschaften (Sedo-Scleranthetalia), basenreiche Pfeifengraswiesen (Molinietum caeruleae), meso-und thermophile Säume (Trifolio-Geranietea), Schneeheide-Kiefernwälder (Erico-Pinetea), Haarstrang-Kiefern-Trockenwälder (Peucedano-Pinetum) und Flaumeichenwälder (Quercion pubescenti-petraeae). ...
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With english abstract, headings and captations. Zusammenfassung: Die Garchinger Heide ist das zweitälteste Naturschutzgebiet Bayerns und ein Relikt der historischen Kulturlandschaft in der intensiv genutzten Region zwischen München und Freising. Auf dieser Fläche kommt eine ungewöhnlich hohe Zahl an Rote-Liste-Arten vor und sie wird seit über 100 Jahren im Sinne des Naturschutzes gepflegt. Dennoch kam es auch auf der Gar-chinger Heide zu Vegetationsveränderungen durch Umwelteinflüsse wie Eutrophierung, Fragmen-tierung oder einem Wechsel des Pflegeregimes. Um diesen Wandel zu dokumentieren, wurden Vegetationsaufnahmen aus den Jahren 1984, 1993 und 2003 im Jahr 2018 wiederholt. Dazu wurden 40 Quadrate mit der Frequenzmethode (1984-2018) und 42 Quadrate mit der Braun-Blanquet-Methode (2003-2018) erhoben. Zusätzlich wurden Individuenzählungen von Adonis vernalis und Pulsatilla patens aus dem Jahre 1990 wiederholt. Es kam zu einem deutlichen Wandel der Vegeta-tionsstruktur: Insgesamt nahm die mittlere Artenzahl der Probeflächen von 1993 auf 2018 ab. Unter den statistisch auswertbaren Einzelarten nahmen 20 von 1984 bis 2018 ab (27 %) und bei 8 Arten (11 %) kam es zur Zunahme. Die Individuenzahl der Flaggschiffarten Adonis vernalis und Pulsatilla patens war 2017 deutlich geringer als 1990. Zugenommen hat die Abundanz der Grasartigen, v.a. der großen Süßgräser wie Brachypodium rupestre. Dennoch überwiegen mit über 95 % der Gesamtde-ckung und-artenanzahl immer noch die für Kalkmagerrasen charakteristischen Sippen. Trotz inten-siver Pflege konnte eine Vegetationsveränderung auf der Garchinger Heide nicht verhindert werden. Das könnte an atmogenen Stickstoffeinträgen, einem nicht optimalen Pflegeregime, dem Bestäu-berrückgang oder der Isolation der Garchinger Heide liegen. Die Einrichtung und das kontinuierli-che Monitoring von unterschiedlich gepflegten Dauerbeobachtungsflächen erscheint notwendig, um die zukünftigen Entwicklung der Heide noch gezielter nach naturschutzfachlichen Kriterien zu steu-ern und um die Qualität des für die Neuanlage von Kalkmagerrasen gerne verwendeten Samenma-terials sicherzustellen. Summary: The Garchinger Heide is the second oldest nature reserve in Bavaria and a relic of the cultural landscape in the intensively used landscape between Munich and Freising. As this area harbors an extraordinarily high number of Red List species, it has been managed for nature conservation purposes for over 100 years. Nevertheless, also the Garchinger Heide is affected by changing environmental conditions such as eutrophication, fragmentation or by modifications of the verrinmangement. To document the changes, vegetation surveys from the years 1984, 1993 and 2003 were repeated in 2018. 40 plots were analysed with the frequency method (1984-2018) and 42 plots with the Braun-Blanquet method (2003-2018). In addition, a census of individual plants from 1990 was repeated for Adonis vernalis and Pulsatilla patens. There was a significant change in the vegetation structure: the mean number of species per plot significantly decreased from 1993 to 2018. Comparing individual species from 1984 to 2018, an increase of 8 species (11% of all statistical analysable species) contrasts a decrease of 20 species (27%). In particular, the flagship species Adonis vernalis and Pulsatilla patens were significantly fewer than in 1990. The abundance of grasses has increased, especially large sweet grasses such as Brachypodium rupestre. However, with more than 95% of the total number and coverage of species, the target species for calcareous grassland still predominate. Despite careful management, the vegetation on the Garchinger Heide considerably changed. This could be due to atmospheric nitrogen depositions, non-optimal conservation measures, pollinator decline or the isolation of the reserve. Establishment of monitoring plots and of plots with treatments to test countermeasures against such negative effects seem to be necessary to maintain the species diversity of the Garchinger Heide and to conserve its function as seed source for the establishment of new calcareous grassland.
... B. POTT 1995). Auffällig ist aber eine Konzentration von Vorkommen im Bereich der wesentlichen Zugrouten von Wasservögeln (OBERDORFER 2001). ...
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Kurzfassung: Im Naturschutzgebiet Ruhraue Witten-Gedern im Ennepe-Ruhrkreis/NRW wurden in den Jahren 2019 und 2020 drei Bestände der in NRW stark gefährdeten Reisquecke (Leersia oryzoides) in Blänken und in einem Altarm der Ruhr gefunden. Die bisher bekannte Verbreitung der Art in der Region und die neuen Vorkommen werden beschrieben und ihre Abhängigkeit von Pflegemaßnahmen, besonders im Kontext extensiver Beweidungen, diskutiert. --- Abstract: Rice cutgrass (Leersia oryzoides) in the nature reserve Ruhraue Witten-Gedern (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) In the nature reserve Ruhraue Witten-Gedern in the Ennepe-Ruhrkreis/North Rhine-Westphalia, three populations of the endangered rice cutgrass (Leersia oryzoides) were found in temporary ponds and a former river channel of the Ruhr river in 2019 and 2020. The previously known distribution of the species in the region and the new occurrences are described and their dependency on care measures, especially in the context of extensive grazing, is discussed.
... La nomenclature utilisée se conforme à celle de la flore de Lambinon et Verloove (2012). Les interprétations écologiques se basent sur les publications d 'Ellenberg et al. (1991), Oberdorfer (1992Oberdorfer ( , 2001 Gueidan et Trémolières (2003), Bettinger (2010), et de la Commission Européenne (European Commission, 1999, 2007. ...
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Thousands of sub-circular closed depressions or “mardelles” are observed on Keuper marls of the North-eastern Paris Basin. Their anthropogenic or geological origin is highly debated by archaeologists and naturalists since the first half of the 19th century. During rescue archaeological excavations along the high speed train line ‘LGV-Est Européenne’ seven closed sub-circular depressions were investigated to resolve the question of their origin, their formation processes and their evolution of their sedimentary filling. To that goal, a new field methodological approach combining geoarchaeology, archaeobotany and archaeology was carried out by the optimization of mechanical excavator. The realisation of long and deep trenches allowed direct observations of both substratum and sedimentary filling. This study evidences the natural origin of closed depressions by the play of the following processes: (1) Initiation of closed depressions is realised by ancient fractures affecting the Triassic marls; (2) Deepening of closed depressions is realised by alteration of superficial marls and residual clays passage down several wells formed through existing faults; (3) When the closed depression exists, the modifications of the shape of the closed depression's edges, is due to degradation of marl blocks; (4) The following sedimentary filling traduces environmental conditions influenced by forest evolution and land use changes since Antiquity. Direct observations at the scale of closed depression complete spatial information from a Lidar survey along the LGV-Est line. The analysis of this survey shows alignments of closed depressions with orientations similar to those of the drainage system, the origin of which is probably linked to the fracturing of the Keuper marls. Finally, even if a process of natural formation is envisaged, a role of human activity in the initiation of the process could be envisaged in particular by the action on the evolution of the land use (plant cover) and thus in the marls karstogenesis.
... BiolFlor (Klotz, et al., 2002) and pertinent Floras (Oberdorfer, 2001;Seybold, 2006). ...
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... The litter meadows investigated here are typically mown by only few conservation managers once in the autumn (personal communication), enhancing gene flow by seed exchange among sites. Additionally, the occurrence of the study species is not strictly limited to litter meadows (Oberdorfer et al. 2001) and they are pollinated by a diverse group of insects (Kühn et al. 2004), providing many opportunities for gene flow by pollinators among sites, leading to an increase in genetic diversity and a decrease of genetic differentiation. ...
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... The small sticky seeds are dispersed by animals or by hayseed (litter meadows; Poschlod & Biewer, 2005) and also form a long lived seed bank (>100 years) (Fischer, Poschlod, & Beinlich, 1996;Milberg, 1994;Poschlod, Kiefer, Tränkle, Fischer, & Bonn, 1998), but seedling mortality is considered high (Bradshaw & Doody, 1978). L. catharticum mainly occurs on calcareous substrate with a wide range of moisture levels (Oberdorfer, Schwabe, & Müller, 2001;Sebald et al., 1992). ...
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To minimise the parameters for the comparison of Festuco-Genistelletum sagittalis, we re-sampled only those plots which were still characterised by a Nardetalia community. Among the 174 plots that were sampled in 1977–1978, many had developed into other types: they had been, e.g., fertilized or afforested. Once the material was sampled, we compiled the relevés in a presence table, using a classical approach. Additionally, for comparison, we included older relevés from about 1930 to 1975 in separate columns in the same table. In further steps, we compiled the relevés in multivariate ordinations (Detrended Correspondence Analysis, DCA). For dif ferent parameters (also including Ellenberg indicator values), we applied statistical tests (paired exact Wilcoxon rank test in R) and showed the most important results for both time windows in boxplot diagrams. The DCA demonstrates that the new relevés are mostly clearly separated from the old ones, mainly because of the increase in indicator species of nutrient-rich conditions. We elaborated these figures for the south-western Black Forest and separately for the south eastern Black Forest. The ‘Target Species Ratio’ (TSR) is a sensitive indicator for changes in the floristic struc ture, showing the ratio between the target species and all other species. TSR decreased overall, especially with high level of significance in the south-western Black Forest. Montane Borstgrasrasen (Festuco-Genistelletum sagittalis) im südlichen Schwarzwald 341 The following developments could be detected for the 60 plots: • Absence of Antennaria dioica and Jasione laevis in the plots (although sparce pre sence remains in the investigated area) • Change of the ratio between target species and other species (decrease in proporti on, to the disadvantage of target species) • Decrease of the presence and cover of the acidophytic moss Pleurozium schreberi • Increase of indicator species for nutrient rich conditions in all areas and for the south western Black Forest increase of cover of indicator species for nutrients and the moss Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus • Increase of the Ellenberg indicator value for nutrients (N), i.e., increase of indicator species for nutrients • Increase of the cover of Agrostis capillaris • Increase of the Ellenberg indicator value for soil reaction (R) in the south-western Black Forest, i.e., decrease of indicator species for acidity • Occurence in the new relevés of the invasive species Lupinus polyphyllus (alien spe cies: still with small populations and in the study area only locally), a species with N fixing bacteria, which contributes to nutrient enrichments. The increases of Agrostis capillaris and of different nutrient indicator species corres pond to the subtle transition into a new level of eutrophication. Actually a coexistence of most of the Nardetalia target species and the nutrient indicator species is still possible. Some sites remain, either sheltered at the edges of pastures or perfectly managed, whe re Festuco-Genistelletum stands still reflect nutrient poor conditions comparable to the years 1977–1978. We found no clearly provable indications for floristic changes caused by new climate-change processes. Despite these changes, the floristic structure of the Festuco-Genistelletum sagittalis re mains highly valuable for nature conservation as compared with the conditions in other parts of Germany. This still remarkable status with, e.g., large populations of Arnica mon tana and an average number of target species of 9–10 per plot was realised through the efforts of farmers, local government authorities and the successful work of different nature conservation institutions (including management plans and diverse financial sup ports). Grazed sites of the Festuco-Genistelletum fulfill all criteria for ‘high nature value farmland’ and have to be managed mainly by extensive cattle grazing. As a rule manuring is not allowed in the case of such valuable sites in nature protection areas. Nevertheless, nearly hidden developments do exist; e.g., by nutrient transfers of cattle (after additional feeding or when changing from nutrient-rich pastures) or by edge effects by application of liquid manure. This may be strengthened by atmospheric N immissions, which are within the lower zone (8–10 kg N ha-1 a-1, period 2013–15) of the range compared to Germany as a whole. 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Second volume covering 16 Portraits of rare tree species: Distribution in Europe and Bavaria, ecological niche, risk evaluation, growth, wood characteristics, aspects of biodiversity, forest protection and forest management. 124 p (in German). available als print or PDF. http://www.lwf.bayern.de/service/publikationen/sonstiges/253310/index.php
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