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Study of Sedation, Pre-Anesthetic and Anti-Anxiety Effects of Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) Extract Compared with Diazepam in Rats

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Abstract

Humulus lupulus (hops) is a climbing perennial vine that vigorously grows 20-35 feet each year. Humulus lupulus is a member of the hemp family which has grown wild since ancient times in Europe, Asia and North America. The female flowers mature in late Summer and are used to add bitterness, flavor and aroma to beer. In ancient times the young shoots were eaten as a vegetable and the dried flowers were used for their slight narcotic effect and sedative action in the treatment of mania, toothache, earache and neuralgia. One modern herbal medicine practitioners continue to use hops as a sedative and mild hypnotic as well as for its endocrine, free radical scavenging and antitumor properties. The aim of this study was to investigation of the sedation, pre-anesthetic and anti-anxiety effects of hop (Humulus lupulush.) extract compared with diazepam in rats. In the present study 30 wistar male rats weighting 300±10 g and about 3 months old were used for laboratory experiments. In order to evaluate the sedation and pre-anesthetic effects of hop extract compared with diazepam, 50 mg kg -1 of extract in 1 st group, 100 mg kg -1 in 2nd group, 1.2 mg kg -1 in 3rd group, 2 mg kg -1 in Group 4th, 2 mg kg -1 amount of dimethyl sulfoxide was injected intra peritoneal in 5th group and 6th group did not receive any drug. Data showed that hop extract has better sedation, pre-anesthetic and anti-anxiety effects than diazepam. Researchers suggest that still need more studies on this plant component in order to understand the more sedative and anxiolytic effects of this plant.

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Hops are used almost exclusively for bitterness and flavor by brewers. We propose the first analytical application of CZE coupled to ESI-MS for the separation and structural elucidation of organic compounds in the methanolic extracts of hops, and different extraction procedures of the plant material have been carried out. The proposed method permits the identification of hop polyphenols (flavonoids glycosides and chalcones), bitter acids (alpha-acids and beta-acids), and their oxidation products. The optimization of CZE parameters (pH, concentration, and type of buffer) and ESI-MS parameters (nature and flow rate of the sheath liquid, nebulizer pressure, drying gas flow rate, temperature, and compound stability) have permitted the development of a rapid, simple, direct, and straightforward CZE-ESI-MS method for the identification of components of methanolic extracts from different hops used in the brewing process.
Article
Mice with point-mutated alpha2 GABAA receptor subunits (rendering them diazepam insensitive) are resistant to the anxiolytic-like effects of benzodiazepines (BZs) in unconditioned models of anxiety. We investigated the role of the alpha2 GABAA subtype in a model of conditioned anxiety. alpha2(H101R) and wildtype mice were trained in a conditioned emotional response (CER) task, in which lever-pressing for food on a variable interval (VI) schedule was suppressed during the presentation of a conditioned stimulus (CS+) that predicted footshock. The ability of diazepam, ethanol and pentobarbital to reduce suppression during the CS+ was interpreted as an anxiolytic response. Diazepam (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg) induced a dose-dependent anxiolytic-like effect in wildtype mice. At high doses, diazepam (2, 4 and 8 mg/kg) was sedative in alpha2(H101R) mice. Analysis of the anxiolytic properties of nonsedative diazepam doses (0.5 and 1 mg/kg), showed that alpha2(H101R) mice were resistant to the anxiolytic effects of diazepam. Equivalent anxiolytic properties of pentobarbital (20 mg/kg) and ethanol (1 and 2 g/kg) were seen in both genotypes. These findings confirm the critical importance of the alpha2 GABAA subtype in mediating BZ anxiolysis. However, as a compound, L-838417, with agonist properties at alpha2, alpha3 and alpha5-containing receptors, gave rise to anxiolytic-like activity in alpha2(H101R) mice in the CER test, alpha3-containing GABA receptors are also likely to contribute to anxiolysis. Observations that alpha2(H101R) mice were more active, and displayed a greater suppression of lever pressing in response to fear-conditioned stimuli than wildtype mice, suggests that the alpha2(H101R) mutation may not be behaviourally silent.
Article
Ten newly isolated hop proanthocyanidin oligomers and flavan-3-ol monomers from 13 different hops have been identified as gallocatechin, gallocatechin-(4alpha-->8)-catechin, gallocatechin-(4alpha-->6)-catechin, catechin-(4alpha-->8)-gallocatechin, catechin-(4alpha-->6)-gallocatechin, afzelechin-(4alpha-->8)-catechin, catechin-(4alpha-->8)-catechin-(4alpha-->8)-catechin, epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-catechin, catechin-(4alpha-->8)-gallocatechin-(4alpha-->8)-catechin, and gallocatechin-(4alpha-->8)-gallocatechin-(4alpha-->8)-catechin, together with seven previously isolated oligomers, namely, catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-catechin, epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin, catechin-(4alpha-->8)-catechin, catechin-(4alpha-->8)-epicatechin, and epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-catechin-(4alpha-->8)-catechin. These compounds were subjected to acid-catalyzed degradation in the presence of phloroglucinol or by partial or complete acid-catalyzed degradation and reaction with benzyl mercaptan followed by desulfurization. The resultant adducts when compared to authentic samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry served to identify the precursors. The composition of proanthocyanidins from 13 different hops was similar, but the concentration of individual compounds showed some differences, which indicated that hop proanthocyanidin profiles are affected by geographic origin and are variable depending on the cultivars.
Article
This study investigates the applicability of on-line coupling of capillary electrophoresis with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (CZE-ESI-MS) for the separation and characterization of alpha- and beta-acids and oxidized hop acids from crude extracts of different hop varieties. CZE-ESI-MS with negative-ion electrospray ionization proved to be a suitable technique for the determination of these types of natural compounds and their oxidized derivatives. The CZE parameters (pH, concentration, and buffer type) and ESI-MS parameters (nature and flow rate of the sheath liquid, nebulizer pressure, drying gas flow rate, temperature, and compound stability) were optimized. The optimized method provides the potential for a fast qualitative determination of hop acids and their oxidation compounds. The method was also applied to the determination of iso-alpha-acids in beer.
Article
It was the aim of the study to check ethanolic and CO2 extracts from Humulus lupulus for sedating activity. Both preparations reduced the spontaneous locomotor activity, increased the ketamine-induced sleeping time and reduced body temperature, confirming a central sedating effect. No indications of anxiolytic activity were found in the elevated plus maze test for any of the test preparations. This sedating activity could be attributed to three categories of constituents of lipophilic hops extracts. Though the alpha-bitter acids proved to the be most active constituents, the beta-bitter acids and the hop oil clearly contributed to the sedating activity of lipophilic Humulus extracts.
Article
Humulus lupulus (hops) is traditionally used as a tranquilizing herbal remedy. Here, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effect of hop beta-acids on central nervous system function. Oral administration of beta-acids (5-10mg/kg) in rats produced an increased exploratory activity in the open field, a reduction in the pentobarbital hypnotic activity and a worsening of picrotoxin-induced seizures. When dosed at 10mg/kg, beta-acids increased, in the elevated plus maze, open arm entries reducing in parallel those in closed arms. In the forced swimming test, we observed a reduction in the immobility time that could suggest an antidepressant-like activity. Electrophysiological studies performed on cerebellar granule cells in culture showed that the beta-acids fraction decreased GABA-evoked current in a dose-dependent way. The effect was not inhibited by the benzodiazepine antagonist Ro 15-1788. Benzodiazepine receptors involvement was also excluded by [(3)H]-Ro 15-1788 binding assay. In conclusion, the behavioral effects of beta-acids fraction could be explained by a reduction in the GABAergic activity although we cannot rule out the involvement of other neurotransmitter systems.
Article
The plant family Guttiferae comprises a large number of widely distributed species. The antidepressant activity of one such species Hypericum perforatum has generated interest in the metabolites from this family. Over 100 biologically active polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) in either or both enantiomeric forms have been isolated from Guttiferae plants in the past few decades. These compounds share highly oxygenated and densely substituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-2,4,6-trione core adorned with prenyl or geranyl side chains. This review covers the structure and chemical synthesis of PPAPs. Topics discussed include the biological activity of PPAPs, biosynthesis of PPAPs and synthetic efforts toward PPAPs.
Article
The antiallergic properties of hop water extract (HWE) were studied by evaluating histamine release from human basophilic KU812 cells induced by calcium ionophore A23187. HWE significantly inhibited histamine release, but boiling water extract and chloroform-methanol extract did not show any inhibitory effect on it. A 50% methanol-eluted fraction separated from HWE by XAD-4 column chromatography (MFH) had a strong inhibitory effect as compared with HWE. Quercetin glycosides and kaempherol glycosides were identified in MFH, of which quercetin glycosides contributed to the inhibition of histamine release. Most quercetin in HWE existed in glycoside form and its quercetin content, obtained by acid hydrolysis, was about 200 mug/g. HWE and MFH significantly inhibited protein kinase C, which plays a pivotal role in the degranulation of chemical mediators. These results indicate that HWE can inhibit type-I allergic reactions.
Article
The concentrations of alpha-acids, beta-acids, desmethylxanthohumol, and xanthohumol were monitored in the hop varieties Admiral (A), Wye Challenger (WC), and First Gold (FG) during the harvest seasons of 2003 through 2005. Hops grown under an organic regimen were compared to plants grown conventionally in hop fields in close vicinity. The concentrations of the key compounds depended very much on climatological conditions showing, in general, highest levels in poorest weather conditions (2004). Of the three varieties studied, FG was the only one showing a clear trend for higher concentrations of secondary metabolites under organic growing conditions than under conventional farming conditions. Cultivation of A and WC seems to be very sensitive to climatic conditions and environmental stresses caused by pests and diseases, thereby leading to various results. WC proved to be a rich source of bioactive chalcones, particularly desmethylxanthohumol.
Article
In the present study, the composition of the hop strobilus extract by using different extraction methods under different solvent conditions was analysed and compared. Several separation methods were applied to obtaining detailed information about the hop extract: capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), high-performance liquid chromatography-mass-spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). The electropherograms of different extracts varied dramatically. The oxidation reaction of the hop strobilus extract was examined.
Article
Humulone, a bitter acid derived from hop (Humulus lupulus L.), possesses antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and other biologically active activities. Although humulone has been reported to inhibit chemically induced mouse skin tumor promotion, the underlying mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Since an inappropriate over-expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is implicated in carcinogenesis, we investigated effects of humulone on COX-2 expression in mouse skin stimulated with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Topical application of humulone (10 mumol) significantly inhibited TPA-induced epidermal COX-2 expression. Humulone also diminished TPA-induced DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). Pre-treatment with humulone attenuated TPA-induced phosphorylation of p65 and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB subunit proteins. Humulone blunted TPA-induced activation of inhibitory kappaB (IkappaB) kinase (IKK) in mouse skin, which accounts for its suppression of phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IkappaBalpha. An in vitro kinase assay revealed that humulone could directly inhibit the catalytic activity of IKKbeta. Humulone suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in TPA-treated mouse skin. The roles of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase-1/2 and p38 MAPK in TPA-induced activation of NF-kappaB in mouse skin had been defined in our previous studies. The present study revealed that topical application of SP600125, a pharmacological inhibitor of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), abrogated the activation of AP-1 and the expression of COX-2 in TPA-treated mouse skin. Taken together, humulone suppressed TPA-induced activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 and subsequent expression of COX-2 by blocking upstream kinases IKK and JNK, respectively, which may account for its antitumor-promoting effects on mouse skin carcinogenesis.
Article
Resveratrol, a well-known phytoalexin and antioxidant, is produced by the action of stilbene synthase (STS) in some plant species. Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) plants of the Tettnang variety were transformed with a gene encoding for STS from grapevine. Under the control of the constitutive 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter, expression of the transgene resulted in accumulation of resveratrol and high levels of its glycosylated derivatives in leaves and inflorescences. Piceid, the predominant derivative, reached a concentration of up to 560 microg/g of fresh weight (f.w.) in hop cones, whereas no stilbenes were detected in nontransformed controls (wild-type). In transgenic plants the amounts of alpha- and beta-acids, naringenin chalcone, and prenylated flavonoids did not change significantly when compared with nontransformed plants. Transgenic plants showed normal morphology and flower development as did the nontransformed controls. The results clearly show that in hop constitutive expression of sts interferes neither with plant development nor with the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites relevant for the brewing industry. Since resveratrol is a well-known phytoalexin and antioxidant, sts transgenic hop plants could display enhanced pathogen resistance against microbial pathogens, exhibit new beneficial properties for health, and open new venues for metabolic engineering.
Article
The identification of effective cancer preventive compounds from hops has become an important issue in public health-related research. We compared the antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of side chain variants of prenylflavanones, e. g., 8-prenylnaringenin (7) and 8-geranylnaringenin (10), which have been identified in hops (Humulus lupulus), and their synthetic variations 8-furanmethylnaringenin (8) and 8-cinnamylnaringenin (9). These were accessible by a Mitsunobu reaction and Claisen rearrangement. Flavanones 9 and 10 showed cytotoxic and apoptotic activities. Apoptosis was induced in a mitochondrial dependent manner. 8-Cinnamylnaringenin (9) displayed noticeably improved apoptotic effects when compared to 8-prenylnaringenin. The potential of 8-prenylnaringenin (7) is shown in an ex vivo experiment on a multi-drug resistant leukaemia blast. Abbreviations Eu(Fod)3:heptafluoro-7,7-dimethyloctanedionatoeuropium(III) LDH:lactate dehydrogenase PBS:phosphate-buffered saline RPMI:Roswell Park Memorial Institute
Article
The present review describes the morphological, phytochemical and ethnopharmacological aspects of Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabinaceae) and summarizes the most interesting findings obtained in the preclinical and clinical research related to the plant. The female inflorescences of Humulus lupulus (hops), well-known as bittering agent in brewing industry, have long been used in traditional medicine mainly to treat sleep disturbances. However the sedative activity is still under investigation in order to recognize the active principles responsible for the neuropharmacological effects observed in laboratory animals, and their mechanism of action. Here we report the data from our experiments as well as those obtained from other researchers, focusing on the variability of the results. Other traditional applications of hops as stomachic, antibacterial and antifungal remedy have been supported by in vivo and/or in vitro investigations. In recent years some prenylated chalcones present in hops have received much attention for their biological effects: in particular, xanthohumol has been shown to exert cancer chemopreventive activity in in vitro experiments, while 8-prenylnaringenin has been characterized as one of the most potent phytoestrogens isolated until now. Nevertheless much additional work is needed to open up new biomedical application of these compounds.
Article
The aerial parts of Tilia americana var. mexicana (Schltdl) Hardin (Tiliaceae) have been widely used in Mexican traditional medicine to relieve sleeplessness, headache, and nervous excitement. The anxiolytic effect of four extracts and several flavonoid fractions from the bracts of Tilia americana subsp.mexicana, var. mexicana (Schltdl) Hardin or Tilia mexicana (Tiliaceae) was studied. Administration of 100mg/kg of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts to elevated plus-maze (EPM)-exposed mice displayed no anxiolytic effect; however, identical doses of methanol extract was able to increase the time percentage that mice spent in the EPM's open arms, as well as the percentage of crossings in the EPM's arms. The dose-response curve produced by methanol extract showed anxiolytic activity since 25mg/kg; animals showed no motor activity alteration in the open field test (OFT). Methanol extract was subjected to a bioassay-guided fractionation to obtain four ascendant polarity fractions (F1-F4) which were administrated at 100mg/kg. Data results indicate that F1 displayed the main anxiolytic effect. The purification of F1 produced a rich flavonoid anxiolytic mixture (F1C). This fraction was purified by RP-18 open chromatographic column to obtain four polar descent fractions: F1C(1), F1C(2), F1C(3), and F1C(4), respectively. Tiliroside was the major ingredient from the active fraction. High performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that F1C was constituted principally of tiliroside, quercetin, quercitrin, kaempherol, and their glycosides. These results supported the use of Tilia americana in Mexican traditional medicine as well as the anxiolytic effect of a rich flavonoid fraction without affect motor activity.
Article
The minor hop ( Humulus lupulus) chalcones 3'-geranylchalconaringenin (3), 5'-prenylxanthohumol (4), flavokawin (5), xanthohumol H (8), xanthohumol C (9), and 1'',2''-dihydroxanthohumol C (10) were synthesized. The non-natural chalcones 3'-geranyl-6'-O-methylchalconaringenin (2), 3'-methylflavokawin (6), and 2'-O-methyl-3'-prenylchalconaringenin (7) were also synthesized. Cytotoxicity was investigated in HeLa cells, and these compounds all had IC 50 values comparable to xanthohumol (8.2-19.2 microM). The ORAC-fluorescein assay revealed potent antioxidative activity for 7 and 8 with 5.2 and 4.8 Trolox equivalents, respectively.