Article

A comprehensive review of the therapeutic effects of Hericium erinaceus in neurodegenerative disease

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Abstract

Mushrooms are considered not only as food but also for source of physiologically beneficial medicines. The culinary-medicinal mushrooms may important role in the prevention of age-associated neurological dysfunctions, including Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s diseases. Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus), is edible mushrooms, is a parasitic fungus that grows hanging off of logs and trees and well established candidate for brain and nerve health. H. erinaceus contains high amounts of antioxidants, beta-glucan, polysaccharides and a potent catalyst for brain tissue regeneration and helps to improve memory and cognitive functions. Its fruiting bodies and the fungal mycelia exhibit various pharmacological activities, including the enhancement of the immune system, antitumor, hypoglycemic and anti-aging properties. H. erinaceus stimulates the synthesis of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) which is the primary protein nutrient responsible for enhancing and repairing neurological disorders. Especially hericenones and erinacines isolated from its fruitin body stimulate NGF, synthesis. This fungus is also utilized to regulate blood levels of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol. H. erinaceus can be considered as useful therapeutic agents in the management and/or treatment of neurodegeneration diseases. However, this review focuses on in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials for neurodegerative disease.

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... Within the kingdom of Fungi, macrofungi are a group of 90,000 known mushroom species that form visible cap-like structures (namely known as fruiting bodies or sporocarps). Based on a large number of chemical and myco-pharmacological studies, the macrofungi (fruiting bodies and mycelium) are producers of different pharmacologically active compounds (PhAC) with neuroprotective effect (NPE) to prevent the development of different neurodegenerative processes in the human brain (Kim et al. 2014;Mahmoud et al. 2014;Phan et al. 2015Phan et al. , 2017Zengin et al. 2015;Cheng et al. 2016;Trovato et al. 2016a, b;Zhang et al. 2016a, b;Ahuja et al. 2017;He et al. 2017;Sabaratnam and Phan 2018;Knežević et al. 2018;Trovato Salinaro et al. 2018;Bai et al. 2019;Ćilerdžić et al. 2019;Lai et al. 2019;Varghese et al. 2019;Wang et al. 2019a, b;Liang et al. 2020;Lucius 2020;Yadav et al. 2020). Mushroom-derived LXA4 is an emerging endogenous eicosanoid (based on the enzymatic or nonenzymatic of polyunsaturated fatty acids, PUFA) able to prevent an inflammatory process (Cornelius et al. 2013;Trovato et al. 2016a). ...
... The perturbation of cellular processes in neuronal cells can lead to life-threatening neurological disorders, which are the most frequent cause of death in elderly people (Uddin and Ashraf 2018). Oxidative stress and antioxidant systems, as well as mitochondrial dysfunction and neuro-inflammation, are considered to play a very important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of major NDD (Lin and Beal 2006;Kim et al. 2014;Phan et al. 2015;Chen et al. 2016b;Sabaratnam and Phan 2018;Trovato Salinaro et al. 2018;Uddin and Ashraf 2018;Jiang et al. 2020;Yadav et al. 2020). Under oxidative and inflammatory pathological conditions, the development of different NDD, including ocular neural degeneration or neurosensory degeneration occurring in glaucoma and MD, is taking place, respectively (Chen et al. 2016b;Luryi et al. 2019). ...
... The fruiting bodies and mycelium of H. erinaceus possess immunomodulating, antitumor, hypoglycemic, and antiaging properties. This fungus can be considered as useful therapeutic agents in the The Neurotrophic and Neuroprotective Potential of Macrofungi 55 management and/or treatment of NDD (Ma et al. 2010;Wong et al. 2012;Kim et al. 2014;Cheng et al. 2016;Zhang et al. 2016a;Diling et al. 2017;Chong et al. 2019). The fruiting bodies and fermented mycelia of H. erinaceus have been reported to produce different groups of bioactive compounds (polysaccharides, proteins, lectins, phenolic derivatives, and terpenoids) among which two classes of terpenoidshericenones and erinacines stimulate the synthesis of nerve growth factor (NGF)a neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide primarily involved in the regulation of growth, maintenance, proliferation, and survival of certain target neurons (Kim et al. 2014;Thongbai et al. 2015). ...
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Badalyan S.M. et Rapior S. The neurotrophic and neuroprotective potential of macrofungi. In: Medicinal Herbs and Fungi – Neurotoxicity vs. Neuroprotection. Agrawal D.C. et Dhanasekaran M. (Eds). Publisher Springer. Chapter 2: 37-78 (2021). doi:10.1007/978-981-33-4141-8_2 ____ Diversity of wild and cultivated macrofungi as edible and medicinal mushrooms has long been known by humans as a source of valuable food and medicines used by tradipraticians. In the fungal kingdom, macrofungi taxonomically belong to two phyla, the Basidiomycota (class Agaricomycetes) and Ascomycota (class Pezizomycetes). Macrofungi have been used in traditional Asian and European Medicines, and based on 90,000 known worldwide distributed mushroom species, are considered an important resource for modern clinical and pharmacological research. They are regarded as a source of high- and low-molecular-weight bioactive compounds (alkaloids, lipids, phenolics, polysaccharides, proteins, steroids, terpenoids, etc.) with more than 130 therapeutic effects (anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, immunomodulatory, etc.). There is also scientific evidence of using macrofungi as neuroprotectants, that is, Agaricus blazei (= Agaricus subrufescens), Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, Hericium erinaceus, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Trametes versicolor. However, their neuroprotective effects have not been fully explored. This review discusses recent advances in research on the neuroprotective potential of macrofungi and perspectives for their application as neuroprotectants in biomedicine to prevent, support, or cure neurodegenerative disorders. Corresponding authors: s.badalyan@ysu.am, sylvie.rapior@umontpellier.fr
... Within the kingdom of Fungi, macrofungi are a group of 90,000 known mushroom species that form visible cap-like structures (namely known as fruiting bodies or sporocarps). Based on a large number of chemical and myco-pharmacological studies, the macrofungi (fruiting bodies and mycelium) are producers of different pharmacologically active compounds (PhAC) with neuroprotective effect (NPE) to prevent the development of different neurodegenerative processes in the human brain (Kim et al. 2014;Mahmoud et al. 2014;Phan et al. 2015Phan et al. , 2017Zengin et al. 2015;Cheng et al. 2016;Trovato et al. 2016a, b;Zhang et al. 2016a, b;Ahuja et al. 2017;He et al. 2017;Sabaratnam and Phan 2018;Knežević et al. 2018;Trovato Salinaro et al. 2018;Bai et al. 2019;Ćilerdžić et al. 2019;Lai et al. 2019;Varghese et al. 2019;Wang et al. 2019a, b;Liang et al. 2020;Lucius 2020;Yadav et al. 2020). Mushroom-derived LXA4 is an emerging endogenous eicosanoid (based on the enzymatic or nonenzymatic of polyunsaturated fatty acids, PUFA) able to prevent an inflammatory process (Cornelius et al. 2013;Trovato et al. 2016a). ...
... The perturbation of cellular processes in neuronal cells can lead to life-threatening neurological disorders, which are the most frequent cause of death in elderly people (Uddin and Ashraf 2018). Oxidative stress and antioxidant systems, as well as mitochondrial dysfunction and neuro-inflammation, are considered to play a very important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of major NDD (Lin and Beal 2006;Kim et al. 2014;Phan et al. 2015;Chen et al. 2016b;Sabaratnam and Phan 2018;Trovato Salinaro et al. 2018;Uddin and Ashraf 2018;Jiang et al. 2020;Yadav et al. 2020). Under oxidative and inflammatory pathological conditions, the development of different NDD, including ocular neural degeneration or neurosensory degeneration occurring in glaucoma and MD, is taking place, respectively (Chen et al. 2016b;Luryi et al. 2019). ...
... The fruiting bodies and mycelium of H. erinaceus possess immunomodulating, antitumor, hypoglycemic, and antiaging properties. This fungus can be considered as useful therapeutic agents in the The Neurotrophic and Neuroprotective Potential of Macrofungi 55 management and/or treatment of NDD (Ma et al. 2010;Wong et al. 2012;Kim et al. 2014;Cheng et al. 2016;Zhang et al. 2016a;Diling et al. 2017;Chong et al. 2019). The fruiting bodies and fermented mycelia of H. erinaceus have been reported to produce different groups of bioactive compounds (polysaccharides, proteins, lectins, phenolic derivatives, and terpenoids) among which two classes of terpenoidshericenones and erinacines stimulate the synthesis of nerve growth factor (NGF)a neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide primarily involved in the regulation of growth, maintenance, proliferation, and survival of certain target neurons (Kim et al. 2014;Thongbai et al. 2015). ...
Book
Diversity of wild and cultivated macrofungi as edible and medicinal mushrooms has long been known by humans as a source of valuable food and medicines used by tradipraticians. In the fungal kingdom, macrofungi taxonomically belong to two phyla, the Basidiomycota (class Agaricomycetes) and Ascomycota (class Pezizomycetes). Macrofungi have been used in traditional Asian and European Medicines, and based on 90,000 known worldwide distributed mushroom species, are considered an important resource for modern clinical and pharmacological research. They are regarded as a source of high- and low-molecular-weight bioactive compounds (alkaloids, lipids, phenolics, polysaccharides, proteins, steroids, terpenoids, etc.) with more than 130 therapeutic effects (anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, immunomodulatory, etc.). There is also scientific evidence of using macrofungi as neuroprotectants, that is, Agaricus blazei (= Agaricus subrufescens), Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, Hericium erinaceus, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Trametes versicolor. However, their neuroprotective effects have not been fully explored. This review discusses recent advances in research on the neuroprotective potential of macrofungi and perspectives for their application as neuroprotectants in biomedicine to prevent, support, or cure neurodegenerative disorders.
... NGF is essential for protecting nerve tissue and maintaining neuron functionality where studies have shown NGF levels in MDD patients is also significantly reduced [120]. Interestingly, NGF itself is unable to pass the BBB highlighting the benefits of these compounds which stimulate NGF production within the brain and encourage nerve myelination throughout the CNS [121]. Perhaps such myelination effects may also aid in alleviating the symptoms of FM in patients where improper myelination of nerves is a possible issue [56]. ...
... Such anti-inflammatory activity may also prove beneficial in alleviating symptoms of autoimmune co-morbidities of mental illness. Studies show when consuming H. erinaceus adults with mild cognitive impairment and menopausal women were less depressed, anxious with improved cognitive abilities compared to placebo control groups [121]. Studies are warranted however, confirming the efficacy of biological extracts from H. erinaceus mushrooms comparative to consuming the entire fruiting body of the mushroom at a therapeutic level. ...
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Mushrooms have been used as traditional medicine for millennia, fungi are the main natural source of psychedelic compounds. There is now increasing interest in using fungal active compounds such as psychedelics for alleviating symptoms of mental health disorders including major depressive disorder, anxiety, and addiction. The anxiolytic, antidepressant and anti-addictive effect of these compounds has raised awareness stimulating neuropharmacological investigations. Micro-dosing or acute dosing with psychedelics including Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD )and psilocybin may offer patients treatment options which are unmet by current therapeutic options. Studies suggest that either dosing regimen produces a rapid and long-lasting effect on the patient post administration with a good safety profile. Psychedelics can also modulate immune systems including pro-inflammatory cytokines suggesting a potential in the treatment of auto-immune and other chronic pain conditions. This literature review aims to explore recent evidence relating to the application of fungal bioactives in treating chronic mental health and chronic pain morbidities.
... Erinacine A Hericenone-l [18] 4-chloro-3,5dimethoxybenzoic acid Erinacine B [8] Hericenone-J [19] 4-chloro-3,5dihydroxybenzaldehyde [28] Erinacine C Erinacerin A [20] 4-chloro-3,5dihydroxybenzyl alcohol Erinacine D Erinacerin B CP-412,065 [29] Erinacine E [9] Erinapyrone A [21] cyatha-3,12-diene Erinacine F Erinapyrone B cyatha-3(18),12-diene Erinacine G Erinapyrone C [22] Hericirine [30] Erinacine H [10] Herierin III [23] Erinacene D [31] www.wjpps.com Vol 9, Issue 6, 2020. ...
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This article shows the analysis of 58 biomolecules present in the Hericium Erinaceus fungus. This analysis was carried out using the Electron Transfer Coefficient (ETC) theory of quantum chemistry. The study's objective was to find that amino acids (AA) have a high probability of presenting reducing characteristics. The reducing characteristics of this AA are related to the biological activity in the nervous system. The analysis results show 27 molecules and 12 AA with a high probability of interaction. The AAs Serine and Threonine participate as donors of hydrogen bonds, Aspartic, and Glutamic acid as potential acceptors of hydrogen bonds.
... H. erinaceus is one of the most studied culinary mushroom for its neuro-health giving properties [51]. Polysaccharide from its aqueous extract has been reported to induce neuronal differentiation and promotion of neuronal survival [52]. ...
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В огляді представлені результати сучасних досліджень та перспективи застосування грибів роду Hericium в профілактичних та лікувальних цілях. Найбільш відомим представником цієї родини є H. erinaceum — цінний їстівний лікарський гриб, який здавна використовували в народній медицині та традиційній кухні країн Східної Азії, насамперед, Китаю. Сучасні відомості щодо лікувальних властивостей H.erinaceus свідчать про широкий біологічний спектр його дії. Загалом з плодових тіл, міцелію та культуральної рідини H.erinaceus виділено близько 70 біоактивних сполук, перспективних для запобігання або лікування хронічних, когнітивних та неврологічних захворювань людини. Особливу увагу приділено грибним полісахаридам і вторинним метаболітам, таким як гериценони, еринацини, цереброзиди, аміценон тощо. Повідомляється про імуномодулюючу, протипухлинну, гастропротекторну, нейропротекторну, нейротрофічну, цитопротекторну, антиоксидантну, антибактеріальну, гіпоглікемічну, гепатопротекторну дію екстрактів H. erinaceum. Нечисленні повідомлення стосуються утворення метаболітів іншими представниками роду Hericium. Наведено дані щодо виділення еринацинів із H. flagellum та нової групи сполук — коралоцинів із H. coralloides, що індукують нейротрофічний ростовий фактор та нейротрофічний фактор головного мозку.
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It was found that an exo-biopolymer (M.W. 1,000,000, molar ratio of 1.5:1.7:1.2:0.6:0.9, glucose:galactose:xylose:mannose:fructose, purity 99%) purified from the liquid culture broth of Hericium erinaceus mycelium enhanced the growth of rat adrenal nerve cells. The polymer also improved the extension of the neurites of PC12 cell. Its efficacy was found to be higher than those from known nerve growth factors such as Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Brain-Derived Nerve Factor (BDNF). The effect of two standards has not been observed above 0.1 (mg l(-1)) of supplementation; however, the polymer did show the effect of cell growth and neurite extension at up to 1.0 (mg l(-1)) of addition. While the polymer improved both cell growth and neurite extension, NGF and BDNF did only outgrowth of the neurites. Maximum cell density and length of the neurites were observed as 1.5x10(5) (viable cells ml(-1)) and 230 mum, respectively in adding 0.8 (mg l(-1)) of the biopolymer for 8 days cultivation. The control growth was observed only as 1.2x10(5) (viable cell ml(-1)) of maximum cell density and 140 mum of maximum length, respectively. It was also confirmed that the polymer reacted with the nerve cells within 30 min after adding the sample, compared to 80 min in adding two other growth factors. Number of neurite-bearing cells remained relatively steady in adding the polymer even when the cell growth started to be decreased. It was interesting that the polymer effectively delayed apoptosis of PC12 cells by dramatically reducing the ratio of apoptotic cells to 20% from 50% of the control.
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A double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 50- to 80-year-old Japanese men and women diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment in order to examine the efficacy of oral administration of Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus), an edible mushroom, for improving cognitive impairment, using a cognitive function scale based on the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS-R). After 2 weeks of preliminary examination, 30 subjects were randomized into two 15-person groups, one of which was given Yamabushitake and the other given a placebo. The subjects of the Yamabushitake group took four 250 mg tablets containing 96% of Yamabushitake dry powder three times a day for 16 weeks. After termination of the intake, the subjects were observed for the next 4 weeks. At weeks 8, 12 and 16 of the trial, the Yamabushitake group showed significantly increased scores on the cognitive function scale compared with the placebo group. The Yamabushitake group's scores increased with the duration of intake, but at week 4 after the termination of the 16 weeks intake, the scores decreased significantly. Laboratory tests showed no adverse effect of Yamabushitake. The results obtained in this study suggest that Yamabushitake is effective in improving mild cognitive impairment.
Article
Neurotrophic factors are essential to maintain and organize neurons functionally; thereby neurotrophic factor-like substances or their inducers are expected to be applied to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we firstly examined the effects of ethanol extracts of four edible mushrooms, Hericium erinaceus (Yamabushitake), Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi), Grifola frondosa (Maitake), and Agaricus blazei (Himematsutake), on nerve growth factor (NGF) gene expression in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. Among the four mushroom extracts, only H. erinaceus extract promoted NGF mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, secretion of NGF protein from 1321N1 cells was enhanced by H. erinaceus extracts, and the conditioned medium of 1321N1 cells incubated with H. erinaceus extract enhanced the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. However, hericenones C, D and E, constituents of H. erinaceus, failed to promote NGF gene expression in 1321N1 cells. The enhancement of NGF gene expression by H. erinaceus extracts was inhibited by the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125. In addition, H. erinaceus extracts induced phosphorylation of JNK and its downstream substrate c-Jun, and increased c-fos expression, suggesting that H. erinaceus promotes NGF gene expression via JNK signaling. Furthermore we examined the efficacy of H. erinaceus in vivo. ddY mice given feed containing 5% H. erinaceus dry powder for 7 d showed an increase in the level of NGF mRNA expression in the hippocampus. In conclusion, H. erinaceus contains active compounds that stimulate NGF synthesis via activation of the JNK pathway; these compounds are not hericenones.
Article
This study examined a possible peripheral site of action of opioids in the modulation of the response to noxious pressure on inflamed tissue. Rats developed a unilateral localized inflammation upon injection of Freund's complete adjuvant into one hindpaw. 4-6 days after inoculation, intraplantar administration of mu, delta and kappa selective agonists [D-Ala2,N-methyl-Phe4,Gly-ol5]-en-kephalin (1 micrograms), [D-Pen2,5]-enkephalin (40 micrograms) and U-50, 488H (50 micrograms) produced marked antinociceptive effects in inflamed but not noninflamed paws. Equivalent doses applied systemically (s.c. and i.v.) were without effect. Dose dependency and stereospecificity of these effects were demonstrated using (-)- and (+)-morphine and (-)- and (+)-tifluadom. Furthermore, by use of (-)- and (+)-naloxone, dose-dependent and stereospecific antagonism was shown. Lastly, reversal of effects of [D-Ala2,N-methyl-Phe4,Gly-Ol5]-enkephalin, [D-Pen2,5]-enkephalin and U-50,488H by mu, delta and kappa selective antagonists D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2, ICI 174,864 and nor-BNI, respectively, indicated that these agents interact with discriminable populations of receptors. These observations suggest that several selective opioid agonists can modulate responses to noxious pressure through a peripheral opioid receptor-specific site of action in inflammation and that these receptors possess distinguishable pharmacological characteristics resembling those of mu, delta and kappa receptors.
Article
Studies of ischemic brain injury in cell culture, animal models, and humans have revealed inter- and intra-cellular signaling pathways that increase resistance to cell degeneration and death. Brain injury induces expression of many different growth factors and cytokines which can protect neurons against insults relevant to the pathogenesis of ischemic brain injury including excitotoxicity, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, acidosis, and pro-oxidants. Neuroprotective signal transduction pathways elicit changes that promote the maintenance of cellular ion homeostasis and/or suppress the accumulation of free radicals. For example: basic fibroblast growth factor suppresses expression of a glutamate receptor protein and induces antioxidant enzymes; tumor necrosis factor induces expression of a Ca(2+)-binding protein and Mn-superoxide dismutase; and secreted forms of beta-amyloid precursor protein hyperpolarize neurons by activating K+ channels. Transcriptional regulation involves activation of tyrosine phosphorylation cascades and NFkB. Interestingly, similar neuroprotective pathways can be activated by moderate levels of cell "stress" such as that induced by glutamate in cell culture or a brief period of cerebral ischemia in vivo. Novel rapid and delayed intracellular neuroprotective signaling mechanisms are being revealed, such as the regulation of Ca2+ influx by actin filaments and the induction of genes by Ca2+ and radicals. New therapeutic approaches arising from this research include low molecular weight lipophilic compounds that activate neurotrophic factor signaling pathways and agents that selectively depolymerize actin.
Article
A kappa opioid receptor binding inhibitor was isolated from the fermentation broth of a basidiomycete, Hericium ramosum CL24240 and identified as erinacine E (1). Three analogs of 1 were produced by fermentation in other media and by microbial biotransformation. Of these compounds, 1 was shown to be the most potent binding inhibitor. Preliminary SAR studies of these compounds indicated that all functional groups and side chains were required for the activity. Compound 1 was a highly-selective binding inhibitor for the kappa opioid receptor: 0.8 microM (IC50) for kappa, >200 microM for mu, and >200 microM for delta opioid receptor. Compound 1 suppressed electrically-stimulated twitch responses of rabbit vas deferens with an ED50 of 14 microM. The suppression was recovered by adding a selective kappa opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine, indicating that 1 is a kappa opioid receptor agonist.
Article
Erinacines as cyathane-xylosides are known to have potent stimulating activity for nerve-growth-factor synthesis. Our search for new cyathane metabolites from a liquid culture of Hericium erinaceum YB4-6237 resulted in the isolation of a new erinacine named erinacine Q (1). NMR spectrometry and a chemical derivation from erinacine P (2) determined the compound to be a derivative in which the formyl group of erinacine P had been reduced to the hydroxymethyl group. To clarify the biosynthetic relationship between erinacine Q and the others, [1'-13C]erinacine Q ([1'-13C]-1) was chemically derived from [1'-13C]erinacine P ([1'-13C]-2) which had been prepared by feeding [1-13C]-D-glucose to the basidiomycete. The biotransformation of labeled erinacine Q into [1'-13C]erinacine C ([1'-13C]-5) via [1'-13C]erinacine P in this basidiomycete was demonstrated by NMR spectrometry.
Article
Phenotypic knockout of nerve growth factor (NGF) activity in transgenic anti-NGF mice (AD11 mice) results in a progressive neurodegenerative phenotype resembling Alzheimer's disease. In this article, we examine whether and how the progressive neurodegenerative phenotype of AD11 mice could be prevented or ameliorated by pharmacological treatments with NGF or the cholinergic agonist galantamine, at a relatively early phase of Alzheimer's disease-like neurodegeneration. We demonstrate that the neurodegeneration induced by the expression of anti-NGF antibodies in AD11 mice can be largely reversed by NGF delivery through an olfactory route.
Article
There are various neurotrophic factors, such as nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which are essential for the promotion of neuronal survival (prevention of apoptosis), differentiation and regeneration in the central nervous system. Neurotrophic factors, neurotrophic factor-like substances and inducers of neurotrophic factor biosynthesis have enormous therapeutic potential for serious neuronal diseases such as Alzheimer's disease or traumatic, chemical and ischemic lesions in the brain. The clarification of the mechanism in neurotrophic factor biosynthesis is important in understanding the development of the drugs that stimulate neurotrophic factor production. In this review, we describe these mechanisms in the biosynthesis of NGF, BDNF, GDNF and IL-6, and also discuss the drugs that could possibly promote neurotrophic factor biosynthesis. (c) 2002 Prous Science. All rights reserved.
Article
The hypolipidemic effect of an exo-biopolymer produced from a submerged mycelial culture of Hericium erinaceus was investigated in dietary-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Hypolipidemic effects were proportionally increased with the increasing concentration of the exo-biopolymer for oral administration. The exo-biopolymer, at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight, substantially reduced the plasma total cholesterol (32.9%), LDL cholesterol (45.4%), triglyceride (34.3%), phospholipid (18.9%), atherogenic index (58.7%), and hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity (20.2%). It increased the plasma HDL cholesterol level (31.1%) as compared to the control group. The molecular mass of this exo-biopolymer measured by HPLC was under 40 kDa. Total sugar and protein contents were 91.2 and 8.8%, respectively. The sugar and amino acid compositions of the exo-biopolymer were analyzed in detail.
Article
The first enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-erinacine B has been achieved. Our approach features convergent construction of the 5-6-7 tricyclic cyathane core system via chiral building blocks prepared using asymmetric catalysis developed by us and highly stereoselective construction of all stereogenic centers in the aglycon. [reaction: see text].