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The Belief in a Just World: A Fundamental Delusion.

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1. The Belief in a Just World.- 2. The First Experiment: The Effect of Fortuitous Reward.- 3. The Second Experiment: Observers' Reactions to the "Innocent Victim".- 4. The Third Experiment: The Martyred and Innocent Victims.- 5. Three Experiments That Assess the Effects of Sex and Educational Background of Observers, Experimenter and Observer Influence on One Another, and the Reactions of "Informed" and Nonimplicated Observers.- 6. Reactions to the Belief in a Just World Theory and Findings: The "Nay-Sayers".- 7. Condemning the Victimized.- 8. The Assignment of Blame.- 9. The Response to Victimization: Extreme Tests of the Belief in a Just World.- 10. Who Believes in a Just World: Dimension or Style.- 11. Deserving versus Justice.- References.

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... The present chapter focuses on ideologies pervasive in Western cultures such as the Protestant Work Ethic (PWE; e.g., Katz & Hass, 1988;Mirels & Garrett, 1971;Weber, 1904Weber, -1905Weber, /1958 and the Belief in Just World (BJW; Furnham, 2003;Lerner, 1980;Rubin & Peplau, 1975). Ideologies are culturally bound, and the cultural derivation of particular ideologies is a complex topic that is beyond the scope of this chapter. ...
... Although some functions of ideologies are common to both hierarchy-enhancing and hierarchyattenuating ideologies, there are other individual functions of ideologies that are unique to hierarchyenhancing ideologies. For example, ideologies such as BJW and PWE often serve the function of control and predictability (Furnham, 2003;Lerner, 1980). BJW and PWE o er individuals reassurance about their ability to control their own outcomes-simply work hard and be a good person and one can obtain positive outcomes (e.g., Lipkus, Dalbert, & Siegler, 1996). ...
... Hierarchy-enhancing ideologies such as PWE and BJW explain group di erences in the distribution of wealth in terms of group di erences in e ort and merit (Crandall, 1994;Furnham, 1990;Hafer & Olson, 1989;Hafer & Olson, 1993;Jost & Hunyady, 2002;Lerner, 1980;Major, 1994 ...
Article
To keep pace with the changing business environment as globalization permeates both consumer and labor markets, this handbook offers the most current research in the workplace diversity, exploring what diversity means and its impact on group and organizational functioning. The volume is comprised of eight sections. The first section provides a fundamental introduction and overview to the history and current state of workplace diversity. The second section explores various conceptualizations of diversity. The third section focuses on psychological perspectives on diversity, touching on the self in diverse work contexts, intergroup bias, and the experience of stigma. The fourth section deals with interactionist perspectives on diversity, including chapters on diversity as knowledge exchange, diversity as disagreement, and diversity as network connections. The fifth section provides contextual perspectives on diversity, e.g., how context shapes diversity outcomes, diversity cognition and climate, and viewing diversity as a competitive advantage. Sections six and seven consider practice perspectives and systems perspectives in diversity, touching on leadership, diversity training, work-life interface, and law and diversity. Finally, the book concludes with a chapter on future directions for diversity theory and research.
... Negative attitudes towards innocent victims have been explained by the just world belief (BJW) and the related justice motive perspective (Lerner, 1980;Lerner & Simmons, 1966;see Hafer & Bègue, 2005 for a review). This theory states that humans are motivated to perceive the world as a just place in which people get what they deserve in order to reduce the perception of threat from the world. ...
... cognitive dissonance, dissonance induction, just world belief (BJW), justice motive, secondary victimisation, victim blaming, victim derogation 1.1 | Belief in a just world, the justice motive and cognitive dissonance According to Lerner (1980), the need for justice is a fundamental motive, although it may vary between individuals and also with the situations people face. When people hear of "innocent" victims, either of accidents, violence, diseases, etc, their just world perspective comes under threat. ...
... This can be done by trying objectively to improve the situation of innocent victims, for instance by helping them (Correia, et al., 2016), protesting (Runciman, 1966), or seeking retaliation (e.g., Adams, 1965). However, if these responses are not feasible, it is not uncommon to see the perception of justice restored by adopting negative perceptions of the victims, for example, by questioning the virtue of the victim (Lerner, 1980). Indeed, several processes of cognitive restoration of justice when people meet innocent victims have been identified such as denial of the victimization, minimization of the victimization, avoidance of the victim, victim derogation, and victim blaming (Lerner, 1980). ...
Article
The “belief in a just world” and the related “justice motive” can be construed as a fundamental drive‐in people's life. Paradoxically this “justice motive” may motivate people to be unfair by assigning blame to objectively innocent victims. In two experimental studies, we address the possibility that inducing cognitive dissonance can reduce the assigning of blame to innocent victims. Study 1 (n = 71) consisted of a 2 × 2 design in which participants were randomly assigned to two types of induction (Dissonance induction/Awareness Induction Only condition) and two victims' background conditions (innocent victim v non‐innocent victim). In Study 2 (n = 171) 3 types of induction were compared (Dissonance Induction/Awareness Induction/Control condition) with all victims' scenarios considering them innocent. Study 1 showed that innocent victims were less negatively evaluated in the Dissonance Induction condition compared to the Awareness Only Induction condition; non‐innocent victims were not differently evaluated in both conditions. Study 2 showed that innocent victims were less negatively evaluated in the Dissonance Induction condition compared to the Awareness Induction condition and the Control condition. Overall, findings suggest that cognitive dissonance induction can be an effective mechanism to reduce assigning blame to innocent victims.
... Perceived injustice refers to cognitive appraisals reflecting the severity and irreparability of the circumstance, allocation of blame, and a sense of unfairness. [7][8][9] According to Just World Theory, individuals have a need to believe that the world is just, allowing them to view their environment as predictable, stable, ordered, and meaningful. [7][8][9] However, this sense of stability and order is disrupted when personal suffering is perceived as unnecessary and undeserved, resulting in a sense of injustice. ...
... [7][8][9] According to Just World Theory, individuals have a need to believe that the world is just, allowing them to view their environment as predictable, stable, ordered, and meaningful. [7][8][9] However, this sense of stability and order is disrupted when personal suffering is perceived as unnecessary and undeserved, resulting in a sense of injustice. [7][8][9] Perceived injustice differs from related constructs of embitterment and demoralization. ...
... [7][8][9] However, this sense of stability and order is disrupted when personal suffering is perceived as unnecessary and undeserved, resulting in a sense of injustice. [7][8][9] Perceived injustice differs from related constructs of embitterment and demoralization. Embitterment refers to feelings of being wronged or mistreated in response to negative circumstances and includes specific cognitive, affective, and behavioral manifestations such as bitterness, destructive rage, and seeking revenge. ...
Article
Objective: Many advanced cancer patients struggle with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and anger toward God and illness-related stressors. Patients may perceive their illness as an injustice (i.e., appraise their illness as unfair, severe, and irreparable or blame others for their illness), which may be a risk factor for poor psychological and spiritual outcomes. This study examined relations between cancer-related perceived injustice and psycho-spiritual outcomes as well as potential mediators of these relationships. Methods: Advanced lung (n=102) and prostate (n=99) cancer patients completed a one-time survey. Using path analyses, we examined a parallel mediation model including the direct effects of perceived injustice on psycho-spiritual outcomes (i.e., anxiety, depressive symptoms, anger about cancer, anger towards God) and the indirect effects of perceived injustice on psycho-spiritual outcomes through two parallel mediators: meaning making and acceptance of cancer. We then explored whether these relations differed by cancer type. Results: Path analyses indicated that perceived injustice was directly and indirectly - through acceptance of cancer but not meaning making - associated with psycho-spiritual outcomes. Results did not differ between lung and prostate cancer patients. Conclusions: Advanced cancer patients with greater perceived injustice are at higher risk for poor psycho-spiritual outcomes. Acceptance of cancer, but not meaning making, explained relationships between cancer-related perceived injustice and psycho-spiritual outcomes. Findings support testing acceptance-based interventions to address perceived injustice in advanced cancer patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Umgekehrt ist indessen auch möglich, dass die persönliche Bewertung einer Rechtsvorschrift die Einschätzung der einschlägigen Sanktionierungsrisiken beeinflusst. Der sogenannte "Just World Fallacy" (Lerner 1980)namentlich die Tendenz vieler Menschen, an eine gerechte Welt zu glauben, in der jeder bekommt, was er verdient -lässt erwarten, dass die Verinnerlichung einer materiellrechtlichen Bestimmung zu einem Anstieg der für den Übertre-2 Auch Legitimitätszuschreibungen an Autoritäten der Rechtspflege (eine Anerkennung und Wertschätzung der Institutionen, welche Rechtsvorschriften erlassen oder durchsetzen) leisten einen Beitrag zur Herstellung von Rechtstreue in der Bevölkerung (Tyler 1990 Der vorliegende Beitrag schickt sich an, die angesprochene Leerstelle teilweise zu füllen. In der Tradition einer theoriegeleiteten empirischen Rechtsforschung (Tyler 2017) wird sich die gegenständliche Arbeit der Frage nach der Beziehungsordnung von Normakzeptanz und Sanktionsrisikobeurteilung erfahrungswissenschaftlich annähern. ...
... Eine inverse Wirkungsdynamik -also Einflüsse des Grades der Norminternalisierung auf die subjektive Sanktionsrisikobeurteilung -lässt sich aus der sogenannten "Just World Hypothesis" (Lerner 1980) ableiten. Im Zentrum dieser für die deutschsprachige Rechtsforschung noch kaum erschlossenen Hypothese steht der Glaube an eine geordnete und gerechte Welt, in der jeder Mensch bekommt, was er verdient. ...
... Im Zentrum der vorliegenden rechtssoziologisch-empirischen Untersuchung stand die Frage nach dem Beziehungsgefüge zwischen der Akzeptanz materiellrechtlicher Normen und der Beurteilung der auf die Übertretung dieser Normen gerichteten Sanktionierungsrisiken. Gestützt auf eine Panelbefragung junger Menschen in England wurde beleuchtet, ob eine gehobene Sanktionsrisikoeinschätzung zu einer größeren Normakzeptanz führt oder ob umgekehrt eine größere Normanerkennung in eine Höherbewertung der Sanktionierungsrisiken mündet. Die erste Beziehungsordnung würde der Idee der positiven Generalprävention (Müller-Tuckfeld 1998) entgegenkommen, die zweite Beziehungsrichtung lässt sich im Rückgriff auf den "Just World Fallacy" (Lerner 1980) argumentieren. Die Resultate komplexer statistischer Modellierungen enthüllen eine reziproke Wirkungsdynamik: Alle zwei geprüften Hypothesen finden eine gewisse Resonanz in den empirischen Daten. ...
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Zusammenfassung Die vorliegende rechtssoziologische Untersuchung bemüht sich um eine empirische Klärung des Beziehungsverhältnisses von Normakzeptanz und Sanktionsrisikobeurteilung. Querschnittskorrelationen auf Befragungsdatenbasis zeigen regelmäßig, dass eine gehobene Normanerkennung von einer größeren Sanktionsrisikoeinschätzung begleitet wird, sagen aber nichts über die kausale Richtung der Verbindung. Der Verinnerlichungsgrad einer Rechtsnorm kann sowohl Ursache als auch Ergebnis der perzipierten Sanktionierungswahrscheinlichkeit sein. Ersteres lässt sich mit Blick auf den „Just World Fallacy“, Letzteres im Sinne der positiven Generalprävention argumentieren. Die Ergebnisse einer Längsschnittbefragung junger Menschen enthüllen, dass Normakzeptanz und Sanktionsrisikobeurteilung in einer reziproken Beziehung stehen. Panelmodelle mit kreuzverzögerten Effekten bestätigen, dass eine größere Sanktionsrisikoeinschätzung eine höhere Normanerkennung hervorbringt und eine gehobene Normakzeptanz zu einer Höherbewertung der Sanktionierungsrisiken führt. Der Einfluss der wahrgenommenen Sanktionierungschancen auf die dispositionelle Normbindung wird als vorläufiger Beleg für eine partielle Wirksamkeit der positiven Generalprävention gedeutet.
... En este sentido, se discuten dos aproximaciones teóricas complementarias que explican las actitudes hacia la redistribución. Por un lado, teorías del intercambio social y de la elección racional, que plantean que las personas toman decisiones deliberadas para maximizar su beneficio personal (Emerson 1976;Sears and Funk 1991); y por otro, teorías cognitivas y motivacionales de la psicología social en las que se propone que las personas se adhieren a creencias ideológicas para explicar y justificar el statu quo (Jost and Banaji 1994;Lerner 1980). Por otra parte, el estatus socioeconómico subjetivo cobra especial importancia, en la medida que tiene un efecto único, además del estatus objetivo, para explicar actitudes sociales y respuestas individuales (Brown-Iannuzzi, Lundberg y McKee 2021;Adler et al. 2000). ...
... Un segundo motivo para alejarse del interés personal es planteado por la teoría en la creencia en el mundo justo y la justificación del sistema (Jost and Banaji 1994;Lerner 1980). Desde esta aproximación teórica, en ciertas circunstancias, las personas con bajo estatus socioeconómico también pueden llegar a justificar el statu quo como una forma de reducir la disonancia cognitiva de estar en una situación desfavorecida, lo cual ha sido denominado como la "hipótesis de legitimidad del estatus" (Jost and Hunyady 2003). ...
... Las ideologías que justifican la desigualdad se definen como sistemas de creencias o ideas compartidas sobre el mundo que racionalizan, naturalizan y legitiman la desigualdad social (Jost y Hunyady 2005). Este tipo de creencias están asociadas con una motivación psicológica para comprender la realidad y percibirla como justa o apropiada (Jost y Banaji 1994;Lerner 1980). Esta propuesta teórica se fundamenta en postulados de la psicología social que plantean que las personas procuran reducir cognitivamente la incertidumbre e incrementar su sensación de control. ...
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Este artículo examina la interacción entre el estatus socioeconómico y las creencias que justifican la desigualdad en lo relativo al apoyo a la redistribución. Utilizando datos de una encuesta de São Paulo (Brasil) (N=928), encontramos que el apoyo a la redistribución estuvo negativamente asociado con el estatus socioeconómico subjetivo; pero estuvo positivamente relacionada con el estatus socioeconómico objetivo. Además, las creencias que justifican la desigualdad moderaron esta relación. Por un lado, el efecto negativo del estatus subjetivo sobre el apoyo a la redistribución fue más fuerte para las personas que apoyan las creencias que justifican la desigualdad. Por otro lado, el efecto positivo entre el estatus objetivo y el apoyo a la redistribución solo ocurrió para las personas que rechazaron estas creencias. Los resultados sugieren que el efecto del estatus socioeconómico sobre el apoyo a la redistribución depende del grado de apoyo a las creencias ideológicas que justifican la desigualdad.
... In this context this means that Scandinavians adapt their values, attitudes and perceptions of society and equality to a new reality and re-legitimize it as just (e.g. Lerner, 1980). ...
... To do justice to Homans' (1961) original claim of '…, in the long run, and with some lag', these results do not rule out that the normative opinions in time will adjust to the factual views. The problem is that the suggested causal mechanismsfor example that people need to justify and believe that the reality they perceive is just, if they are not able in the short term to do anything successful to adjust it (Bénabou & Tirole, 2006;Lerner, 1980) at least at first glance seem to become more speculative then. 39 39 It should be mentioned that an analysis which is not shown, indicate that the relative measure functions as a moderator on the relation between the perceived level of actual inequality in gross wages and attitudes to the level of inequality in gross wages. ...
... Moreover, social psychology theory emphasises that people will go to great lengths to uphold the belief that they live in a just world. As such, they will postrationalise and attempt to justify the reality they experience, including the distribution of gross incomes, in order to make it fit the dictum that the world in which they live is actually just (Bénabou & Tirole, 2006;Lerner, 1980). ...
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The dissertation finds that, compared to people in other western countries, the Scandinavians were exceptionally egalitarian in the period from 1992 to 2009. This Scandinavian egalitarianism seems constituted mostly of an aversion to top-level excess, rather than a wish to spoil the bottom of the labour market excessively. This egalitarianism cannot be ascribed to mainstream non-contextual explanations within the field, but instead rests on a perceived nexus of legitimated harmonic egalitarian societies. The attitudinal patterns of Danes and Swedes are however quite different. These differences are in congruence with the historical differences in the two countries’ political economies, and with differences in how the media in the two countries still represent “the rich”: The Swedish legacy of the ideological but peaceful class-society has evolved into representations of the rich as a class distinct from the middle class, and into attitudes divided by class and income. The Danish legacy of consensus democracy on the other hand has evolved into representations of the rich as part of the very wide perceived middle class, and very similar attitudinal patterns across class and other potential cleavages.
... At this point, they stick to their just world theory by justifying the act. People frame any incident in such a way that preserves their belief in the just world theory (Lerner, 1980). Sometimes they alter the information only to adhere to the idea of a just world. ...
... That is how people restore their belief in the just world (Delbert, 2009). Lerner (1980) suggested strategies through which individuals convince or restore their belief in a just world. The protective strategies distinguish between just and unjust environments emphasizing ultimate justice. ...
... The rational strategies try to repair the injustice, for example by providing monetary compensation to the victims. Finally, there are four types of irrational strategies to restore the belief (Lerner, 1980). Firstly, blaming the victim is an irrational strategy where behavioral responsibility is imposed upon the victim. ...
... Thus, on the basis of these convictions, human behaviour results in a predictable consequence of specific actions. According to Lerner (1980), belief in a just world is adapted on the basis of experience with the real world and the realities we experience in it. Belief in a just world provides people with a need for logic and security if they have a need to look for rules and explain events in causal terms so that they can influence them as they wish, but on the other hand it is a delusion because this belief is unjustified. ...
... So we are talking about the time range of the development of society between 1966 and 2001, which is 35 years of turbulent change. In terms of generations, we can talk about Generation X(born 1965-1980), Generation Y - Millennials (born 1981 and GenerationZ (born 1996-2010). Generation X is already realizing that it won't be young forever. ...
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Social justice as a key value of social policy is an integral part of the social security system of every democratic and legal state of Western Civilization.The scientific monograph focuses on social justice in the old-age pension system in the Slovak Republic within diapason 2004 - 2022. The attention is dominantly focused on II., the so-calledcapitalization pension pillar.The aims of the scientific monograph correspond to the selected aims formulated as part of the project VEGA 1/0290/20 Social justice and old-age pension savings in the Slovak Republic.The main aim of the monograph is to identify the perception of social justice in the capitalization pillar of old-age pension savings through the value orientations of savers who are deciding to invest in funds II.pillar, as models created by relevant political representations in the Slovak Republic.
... 28 People with strong beliefs have more confidence in the future and are more willing to invest in the future. As a kind of "psychological 198 contract", 29 BJW makes individuals believe that their efforts will be rewarded, which can promote the pursuit of longterm goals. [30][31][32] Many studies have confirmed that belief in a just world makes individuals willing to invest time and energy in goals, which can positively predict academic performance. ...
... 27,49 This belief gives people more confidence in the future. 29,50 The stronger the belief in a just world, the more efficiently an individual can manage their time, increasing the amount of time devoted to study and reducing the amount of time spent playing. 51 However, when individuals perceive injustice, they will reduce their motivation to learn and show no concern for academic progress and achievements. ...
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Purpose: This paper reveals the mechanism of the influence of belief in a just world on college students' learning satisfaction, and provides reference for further improving the quality of talent training in higher education. Methods: By convenient sampling method, 131,894 college students from 348 undergraduate universities in China were investigated on the belief in a just world scale, gratitude scale, learning engagement scale and learning satisfaction scale. Then, SPSS, AMOS and other software were used to analyze the data. Results: 1) Belief in a just world, gratitude, learning engagement and learning satisfaction are positively correlated. 2) Belief in a just world can not only directly and positively predict college students' learning satisfaction, but also indirectly and positively predict college students' learning satisfaction through gratitude and learning engagement respectively. 3) Gratitude and learning engagement play a chain mediating role between belief in a just world and learning satisfaction. Conclusion: Belief in a just world positively predicts college students' learning satisfaction through gratitude and learning engagement, suggesting that colleges and universities should create a fair learning environment and enhance college students' sense of gratitude, so as to improve college students' belief in a fair world and gratitude level, thus promoting their learning engagement and finally improving their learning satisfaction.
... 5 According to Just World Theory, people have a need to believe that the world is just, ordered, and stable. [5][6][7] However, this belief is disrupted when people suffer due to unnecessary and undeserved circumstances, such as a cancer diagnosis, leading to perceptions of injustice. [5][6][7] Perceived injustice has primarily been examined with the Injustice Experience Questionnaire (IEQ) in patients with chronic pain. ...
... [5][6][7] However, this belief is disrupted when people suffer due to unnecessary and undeserved circumstances, such as a cancer diagnosis, leading to perceptions of injustice. [5][6][7] Perceived injustice has primarily been examined with the Injustice Experience Questionnaire (IEQ) in patients with chronic pain. 5,8,9 The IEQ was originally developed and validated for adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain following injury. ...
Article
Context: When diagnosed with advanced cancer, patients may perceive their situation as an injustice. The Injustice Experience Questionnaire (IEQ) is a 12-item measure of perceived unfairness originally developed for patients with chronic pain. The factor structure, reliability, and validity of the IEQ in patients with cancer have not been assessed. Objectives: To examine the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of the IEQ in patients with advanced cancer. Methods: Patients with advanced lung or prostate cancer (N=201) were recruited from academic and public clinics in Indianapolis, IN. Patients completed the 12-item IEQ and other measures of psychological processes and distress. IEQ instructions were modified to focus on cancer-related perceived injustice. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the dimensionality of the measure. Internal consistency reliability and construct validity were examined. Results: CFA showed that the original IEQ's 2-factor structure had an adequate fit (RMSEA=0.07, CFI=0.96, SRMR=0.05). The factors included Severity/irreparability and Blame/unfairness. Internal consistency was excellent (α=0.92, ω=0.94). The IEQ showed significant positive associations with physical and psychological symptoms (rs=0.20-0.65, ps<0.05). The IEQ also showed significant negative associations with quality of life and acceptance of cancer (rs=-0.51-0.46, ps<0.05). Conclusion: Findings provide preliminary support for using the IEQ in patients with advanced cancer. Future research should assess the sensitivity of the IEQ to change in an interventional context.
... A ce titre, ils énoncent : « les gens s'attribuent à eux-mêmes et aux autres des traits qui sont en accord avec leur position sociale … plutôt que de remettre en question l'ordre ou la légitimité du système qui a produit un tel arrangement » (Jost & Banaji, 1994, p.11). Cette lecture des stéréotypes comme mécanisme de reproduction sociale est le point de départ d'une théorie plus large qui s'inspire entre autres de la TIS, de la théorie du monde juste de Lerner (1980), de la dissonance cognitive et de la théorie de la dominance sociale (Jost & Hunyady, 2003 ;Jost, 2018). Les auteurs assument également une inspiration marxiste avec la réutilisation du concept de fausse conscience . ...
... En effet, les recherches sur la justice sociale proposent que les personnes aient tendance à ressentir de la détresse psychologique face à des inégalités injustifiées, et cela peu importe le caractère avantageux que la situation inégalitaire pourrait présenter pour elles-mêmes (Wakslak et al., 2007). Cela reprend en fait le postulat de la théorie du monde juste (Lerner, 1980). La perception d'évoluer dans un 12 monde équitable et juste, autorisant la croyance qu'il existe une « adéquation appropriée » entre comportements et renforcements, serait un besoin fondamental de l'être humain (Lerner & Simmons, 1966). ...
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L'idéologie néolibérale est fréquemment théorisée comme un facteur de dépolitisation des citoyens. Néanmoins, les travaux explorant empiriquement ses effets sur des attitudes et des comportements politiques sont rares. Cette thèse a donc pour objet l'étude des implications psychosociales de l'idéologie néolibérale, comprise comme un ensemble de valeurs (i.e., idéographie) conditionnant une conception particulière de la personne (i.e., conception néolibérale du sujet). Afin d'éclairer la manière dont cette idéologie peut influencer les attitudes des personnes (e.g., justification du système) et leurs comportements politiques, 9 études ont été menées. Les deux premières études ont mis en évidence l'association entre l'adhésion aux valeurs néolibérales, la justification du système et les comportements politiques (i.e., manifestation et vote). Consécutivement, 5 études expérimentales ont été réalisées afin de vérifier la nature causale de la relation entre l'idéologie néolibérale et la justification du système. Plus encore, ces études visaient à éclairer le rôle du contrôle personnel perçu comme mécanisme explicatif de cette relation. Les résultats ne permettent pas de conclure sur l'ensemble de la médiation mais étayent l'hypothèse selon laquelle le contrôle personnel perçu constitue un antécédent à la justification du système. Enfin, les deux dernières études expérimentales explorent les effets de l'idéologie néolibérale et de la justification du système sur les intentions comportementales des sujets face à des problématiques systémiques (i.e., inégalités de genre et crise climatique). Les résultats indiquent que l'idéologie néolibérale, en tant qu'idéologie justificatrice, favorise des réponses individuelles, normatives et non-disruptives. Dans son ensemble, cette thèse fait apparaitre que l'idéologie néolibérale favorise un « citoyen minimal », figure individualisée polarisée autour de la liberté individuelle, à l'opposé d'un « citoyen agent social » polarisé autour de la liberté politique.
... From a cognitive perspective, fairness heuristic theory argues that once people form their justice evaluations, they use such acquired knowledge as an anchor to infer (and bias) future justice evaluations (Lind, 2001;van den Bos et al., 2001). From a motivational perspective, the justice motive theory claims that people have a fundamental need to believe in a just world in which people get what they deserve and deserve what they get (Bobocel & Hafer, 2007;Lerner, 1980). Thus, people engage in motivated reasoning to perceive situations according to their beliefs (Kunda, 1990) and to rationalize (or justify) the status quo (Jost, 2019;Jost & Banaji, 1994). ...
... The role of ideologies in distributive justice evaluations is grounded in three theoretical perspectives. First, according to the justice motive theory, people are psychologically motivated to believe that the world is a fair place where people get what they deserve and deserve what they get (Lerner, 1980). This approach has received empirical support across countries and has shown that justworld beliefs serve as a coping mechanism to deal with stressful events (Dalbert & Stoeber, 2006;Furnham, 2003). ...
... (BJW) whereby bad things somehow happen to bad people. As cases of misfortune in many cases seem to clash with that assumption, people might preserve their belief by assuming that the victim is not such a good person after all (Lerner, 1965(Lerner, , 1980. There is however no independent justification for this hypothesis. ...
... There is however no independent justification for this hypothesis. Lerner simply stated that people must have that belief, without which they would find life intolerable (Lerner, 1980). 13 After Lerner, a large experimental literature confirms the correlation between the belief in a just world, measured through normed instruments, on the one hand, and victim blame on the other (Furnham, 2003;Rubin & Peplau, 1975). ...
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Explanations of misfortune are the object of much cultural discourse in most human societies. Recurrent themes include the intervention of superhuman agents (gods, ancestors, etc.), witchcraft, karma, and the violation of specific rules or ‘taboos’. In modern large‐scale societies, people often respond by blaming the victims of, for example, accidents and assault. These responses may seem both disparate and puzzling, in the sense that the proposed accounts of untoward events provide no valuable information about their causes or the best way to prevent them. However, these responses make sense if we see them in an evolutionary context, where accidents, assault, and illness were common occurrences, the only palliative being social support to victims. This would create a context in which all members of a group might be (a) required to offer support, (b) willing to offer such support to maintain a reputation as co‐operators, and (c) desirous to limit that support because of its cost. In this context, recurrent explanations of misfortune would constitute strategic attempts to create and broadcast a specific description of the situation that concentrates responsibility and potential costs on a few individuals. This strategic model accounts for otherwise perplexing features of explanations based on mystical harm (ancestors, witchcraft, etc.), as well as the tendency to denigrate victims, and offers new predictions about those cultural phenomena. Perspectives : pourquoi nous faisons des reproches aux victimes, accusons les sorcières, inventons des tabous et invoquons les esprits : un modèle de réponses stratégiques à l'infortune Résumé Les explications de l'infortune alimentent de multiples discours culturels dans la plupart des sociétés humaines. L'intervention d'agents surhumains (dieux, ancêtres, etc.), la sorcellerie, le karma et la violation de règles ou « tabous » spécifiques en sont quelques thèmes récurrents. Dans les grandes sociétés modernes, on réagit souvent au malheur, par exemple aux accidents ou aux agressions, en critiquant ses victimes. Ces réactions peuvent sembler à la fois discordantes et intrigantes en cela que les récits proposés d’événements malencontreux n'apportent pas d'informations utiles sur leur cause ni sur le meilleur moyen de les éviter. Pourtant, elles ont un sens si nous les voyons dans le contexte de notre évolution, au cours de laquelle accidents, agressions et maladies étaient monnaie courante et la seule mesure palliative était le soutien du groupe aux victimes. Dans ce contexte, tous les membres d'un groupe pourraient être (a) appelés à apporter leur soutien, (b) disposés à offrir ce soutien afin de conserver leur réputation de coopérateurs et (c) désireux de limiter ce soutien à cause de son coût. Les explications récurrentes de l'infortune constitueraient dès lors des tentatives stratégiques de créer et de diffuser une description spécifique de la situation, qui en concentrerait la responsabilité et le coût potentiel sur quelques individus. Ce modèle stratégique rend compte des explications mettant en cause des entités mystiques malintentionnées (ancêtres, sorcellerie, etc.) qui laisseraient sinon perplexes, ainsi que la tendance à dénigrer les victimes. Il ouvre également de nouvelles perspectives sur ces phénomènes culturels.
... Awarding a settlement is in no way guaranteed, as there are psychological motivators for believing that an outcome is just. According to just-world theory, individuals are motivated to see outcomes as just in order to preserve their belief that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get (Lerner 1980;Hafer 2000;Hafer and Gosse 2011). Similarly, for perpetrators of harm or those who identify with the perpetrators, moral disengagement can lead individuals to reinterpret the cause and effects of violence to see it as justified (Bandura et al. 1996;Bandura 2002). ...
... Whites may simply be more likely to embrace conservative ideals about limited government spending, and consequently would be reluctant to support a settlement, even if they believed that the target was neither responsible nor engaged in criminal activity (Sniderman and Tetlock 1986). A third explanation could be racial differences in just-world beliefs (Lerner 1980). Given the long history of racial injustice within the carceral state, Black respondents may be less inclined than Whites to expect interactions with the police to be just, and consequently less likely to search for ways to justify the beating. ...
Article
Divergent public responses to police brutality incidents demonstrate that for some, police violence is an injustice that demands remediation, while for others state violence is justice served. We develop a novel survey experiment in which we randomize the race and gender of a victim of police violence, and then provide respondents with an opportunity to establish justice via compensation. We uncover small but consistent effects that financial restitution is most supported for a White female detainee and least supported for a Black female detainee, and this is largely driven by White respondents. Beyond the treatment effects, we show that Black respondents are much more likely to perceive detainees as deserving of restitution; across all treatments, Black respondents are 58 percent more likely than Whites to support a financial settlement. We further show that White respondents’ perceptions of deservingness are highly related to their perceptions of who is at fault for the beating—the detainee or the police—and whether the detainee was involved in crime. Black respondents remain likely to award a settlement even if they think the detainee was at fault and involved in crime. Our results provide further evidence that perceptions of who deserves restorative justice for state violence are entangled with race in targeted ways.
... The Belief in a just world (BJW) is the belief that people get what they deserve in life, meaning that bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people (Furnham, 2003). People need to believe in a just world to cope with witnessed or experienced injustice (Lerner, 1980). Furthermore, as Wenzel et al. (2017) argue a high personal BJW can be considered as a socially and normatively expected trait linked to normative and desirable behavior. ...
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This study examined relations between political ideology, religiosity, individual characteristics, belief in a just world, and attitudes toward asexuals’ parenting rights aiming to gain a better understanding of the complex roots of sexual prejudice. An exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted between May 2 and July 30, 2021, via an online survey. Two hundred and four participants were recruited for this study. A between-subject, correlational design was employed. Bivariate correlation was generated to explore the associations between variables of interest. Next, a bootstrapping analysis for simple mediation models was conducted. Also, a multiple regression model was employed to predict attitudes towards asexuals’ parenting rights from the study measures. This study suggests that religious opposition to asexuals’ parenting rights is attributable, at least in part, to political ideology. In addition, gender is also a significant factor influencing the formation of attitudes toward asexuals’ parenting rights. In light of the current debates regarding the expansion of sexual and gender minority rights in several countries, this study presents a timely investigation into the underpinnings of opposition to asexuals’ parenting rights. Research data in this scarcely researched field may support the efforts of advocacy groups to promote social justice.
... The reduction of social distance makes it possible to adapt the response of one party to the other (Goulner, 1960), leading to the formation of a "popular belief" (Lerner, 1980), which describes how someone should behave and the reciprocal response that should be given (Moore, 2004). A successful social response produces satisfaction by responding appropriately to the other (Wang et al., 2003). ...
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Cross‐border cooperations have been usually approached from developing trade agreements between international regions to upgrade their socioeconomic conditions and promote international tourism flows in territories. However, few attention has paid to the role that touristic companies play in underprivileged territories highly dependent on tourism. Through the theory of social exchange theoretical implications can be drawn from those territories can be compared to developed regions to understand what role tourism flows play in the reciprocal attitude between touristic companies and visitors. Political implications force tourist authorities to involve companies in promoting their regional tourism resources through detailed in participatory tourism programs. For this, the opinion of companies strongly related to the tourism generated by the Parque Natural Tajo Internacional on both sides of the border between Spain and Portugal have participated in the research to develop tourism on both sides of the border. To collect the data, 126 interviews were carried out with companies among the 53 Spanish and Portuguese companies that participated in the research between January to June, 2022. For data tabulation, version 3.26 of SmartPLS was used. The study concludes that social exchange policies that bring companies and residents closer together favour socioeconomic development in territories that have natural resources and are economically disadvantaged.
... In addition to the factors illustrated above, VBA can be exacerbated by a handful of attitudinal factors, including just world beliefs, sexist attitudes, and heterosexism. According to the Belief in a Just World (BJW) concept (Lerner, 1980), people tend to believe that good things happen to good people and bad things happen to bad people, despite the fact this is necessarily not the case. The desire to believe in a just world catalyses actions of justifying the crime and acceptance of the offence by favouring the perpetrator. ...
Article
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an extensive public health concern, largely affecting women aged 20-24 years. Research suggests that bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual and homosexual women to be victims of IPV. Bisexual women are also more likely to be blamed for their abuse experiences after disclosing, a phenomenon known as victim blame attribution (VBA). However, there is very little VBA research that recognises bisexuality as a separate category. Therefore, the main aim of this quasi-experimental study was to investigate the role of female victim sexuality (bisexuality, homosexuality, and heterosexuality) and observer sex in the attribution of blame to the victim and perpetrator of IPV. Participants (N = 232; aged 18-24 years, M = 21.05, SD = 1.73) were randomly assigned into one of four conditions (heterosexual victim, bisexual victim with same-sex partner, bisexual victim with different-sex partner, homosexual victim), each containing a vignette portraying IPV within a relationship. Randomisation checks were performed to ensure that participants in the four conditions did not differ significantly on underlying attitudes (institutional heterosexism, aversive heterosexism, heterosexual privilege, sexist attitudes, just world beliefs) that may have affected their responses on outcomes measures. Main analyses demonstrated that bisexual victims with a same-sex partner received the highest attribution of blame, whereas perpetrators in this condition received the lowest blame attribution. Male participants attributed significantly higher blame to victims than did female participants, regardless of victim sexuality. These findings substantiate the role of victim sexuality and observer sex in IPV blame attribution patterns. This research aimed to promote equality and rightful treatment to all victims of IPV regardless of their sexuality.
... En un mundo en el que la información existe cuando se quiere buscarla existen múltiples razones para la sensibilidad pero la inacción. Solo por citar algunos, la idea el Principio de Dilución de Responsabilidad que demuestra que cuanta más gente es testigo de una situación injusta, menor es la probabilidad de que alguien haga algo (Darley y Latane, 1968), el principio de Creencia en el Mundo Justo (Lerner, 1980) que muestra cómo el ser humano tiende a atribuir a las personas que están en situación peor que él, la responsabilidad por lo que les ocurre, o la Creencia en la equidistancia de responsabilidades y el Principio de ecuanimidad que muestra como ante situaciones de conflicto el ser humano tiende a pensar que las dos partes son co-res-ponsables por igual y que, por tanto, lo más razonable es abstenerse de actuar (Miller, 2004). Seguramente hay muchas más. ...
... If people did not believe that what happens to them is a consequence of their actions, they would feel that they will continually be exposed to unpleasant situations beyond its control. Thus, to avoid the discomfort generated by these threats, they blame the victims of injustices by holding them responsible for their suffering (Lerner, 1980;Lerner & Clayton, 2011). Belief in the just world is present in different cultures and is related to sociopolitical factors (Furnham, 2003). ...
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Introduction: Adolescent-to-Parent Violence (APV) is a social problem with serious family and social repercussions. Research on the subject has so far focused mainly on parents and children, ignoring the socializing role played by teachers in the development of children and adolescents. The aim of the study is to analyze the explanations given by teachers at different levels of education about VFP and its relationship with sexist attitudes and belief in a just world. Method: A total of 127 kindergarden, primary and secondary school teachers, aged between 20 and 61 years, participated in this study. 77.8% were women. They answered a questionnaire that included the Spanish versions of the Marlowe and Crowne Scale (1960), the Glick and Fiske Ambivalent Sexism Scale (1996), and the Lipkus Belief in the Just World Scale (1991), as well as the Causal Explanations Scale of Cortina and Martín (2021). Results: The results indicate that, regardless of age, level of education and gender, the participants considered the emotional reaction of the son or daughter as the main cause of the VFP, followed by inadequate parenting, defensive behavior of the son or daughter, an inadequate environment, being an adolescent and, finally, due to traits of evil or madness of the perpetrator of the violence. As expected, there were differences in the explanations chosen by the teachers who scored higher in the two forms of sexism and in the belief in a just world, with those chosen by the teachers who scored lower. Discussion: Results are discussed in the context of the culture of parental blaming and the role of the teacher as a link between families and family intervention professionals in APV cases.
... 사회정체성 또는 자기범주화 이론이 말해주듯이 (Tajfel and Turner, 1979;Turner et al., 1987), 개개인이 아니라 집단의 일원으로 범주화되어 소속감 및 공동의 운명을 공유할수록 자신보다는 내집단 구성원들의 이익을 우선시하게 되기 때 문이다 (Brewer and Kramer, 1986;Orbell et al., 1988 (Cardenas, 2003;Rosenbaum et al., 2016). 또한 여러 연구들을 통해 인종적으로나 문화적으로 이질적 일수록 공공재 기여와 같은 집합행동 딜레마를 극복하기 어렵다는 사실이 입증되어 왔다 (Alesina et al., 1999;Habyarimana et al., 2007;Schaub et al., 2020) (Han, 2012;Xie et al., 2012;Xie and Zhou, 2014;An and Ye, 2017;Ma et al., 2021;Dalen, 2022 (Ledyard, 1995;Chaudhuri, 2011 에서 출발하는 전형적인 공공재 게임 (Isaac et al., 1984;Fischbacher et al., 2001) (Sennett and Cobb, 1972;Lerner, 1980;Jost and Banaji, 1994 (Brewer and Kramer, 1986;Orbell et al., 1988;Polzer et al., 1999;Parks et al., 2001;Chen and Li, 2009 [ Figure 2] The Contribution Rates between the Test and Windfall Condition 한편 Figure 3은 집단 정체성 유무에 따른 라운드별 기여율의 변화를 보여주고 있 다. Figure 2의 ...
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This experimental study intends to examine how the contribution of public goods varies according to perceived reasons for distributional inequality and group identity. A 2x2 factorial between-subjects design was considered with an unequal assignment of initial endowments among game participants. One factor depends on whether the ascribed asset at each round is attributable to efforts or luck. The other factor is related to whether ingroup identity is manipulated or partners are matched at random. A total of 16 Chinese students at a public university were randomly assigned and then played ten rounds of a one-shot voluntary public goods game through the z-Tree platform. First, we found that the rates of contribution tend to decline over time and that most players were conditional cooperators. Second, the average contribution is considerably lower under the test condition, while it is higher when playing with perceived in-group members. Third, the framing effect regarding the sources of unfairness is moderated by group identification, indicating that the gap in the contribution rate becomes wider between the test and windfall condition in the presence of in-group identity. Even when perceived themselves as a group, a shared meritocratic belief tends to render not only the highest-endowment group but also the lowest-endowment group less involved in public goods contribution. Under the same condition, in contrast, a non-meritocratic frame seems to fuel the advantageous inequity aversion and weaken the disadvantageous inequity aversion, resulting in the overall higher contribution rates by both groups. Taken together, the current study offers a considerable implication that an equity principle based on meritocratic values could trump solidarity and cooperation in pursuit of fair inequality and also that it might be hard to resolve conflicts in public goods provision with a non-meritocratic principle alone in increasingly heterogeneous societies with ethnically and culturally diverse groups.
... Recent explanations focus on the behavioural tendencies -towards compliance (Freedman and Fraser, 1966), conformity (Asch, 1951), and obedience (Milgram, 1974) -as well as on the social cognitive tendencies conductive to genocide, such as cognitive dissonance (Festinger, 1957), diffusion of responsibility (Darley and Latane, 1968), dehumanisation (Bandura et al., 1975), just-word thinking (Lerner, 1980), in-group bias (Tajfel, 1981), deindividuation (Zimbardo, 2004), and ultimately moral disengagement (Bandura, 1999). Together -or apart -these psychological processes enable the individual to change his mental framework to such a degree that mass murder seems not only justifiable, but also morally good or even required. ...
Article
I denne artikel håber jeg at vise, at storpolitik (læs: folkemord) er yderst menneskelig og derfor også psykologisk. Psykologi har definitivt meget at tilføre både historieforskning og den politiske videnskab, siden historie er politik og politik ER psykologi. Psykologer må ikke være bange for de store processer. Når man blot fokuserer på det individuelle i vor globaliserede verden, risikerer man at trivialisere sig selv og sine argumenter i den samfundsmæssige debat. Hvis psykologien vil noget mere end at lindre privat lidelse inden for klinikkens lyddæmpede vægge, må den få øjnene op ikke kun for det sociale i mennesket, men også for det menneskelige i det sociale og det socialpsykologiske i samfundets systemer. Denne artikel er et eksempel på denne indgangsvinkel. Jeg udforsker den psykopolitiske sammenhæng mellem demokrati og folkemord, både gennem at skitsere de historiske og systemiske forbindelser og ved at undersøge den farlige interaktion mellem voldsregimer og deres demokratiske modparter. Det er klart, at folkemord er enorme historiske og politiske processer, men dette betyder ikke, at de ikke også er højst psykologiske begivenheder.
... Понятие «вера в справедливый мир» было введено психологом Мелвином Лернером в 1960 годы и описано в его одноименной теории (Lerner, 1980). Оно может быть определено как общая мировоззренческая установка, часто рассматриваемая как заблуждение или иллюзия, следуя которой, люди убеждены в том, что мир -это правильное упорядоченное место, где каждый человек в конечном итоге получает то, что заслуживает: и награды, и наказания. ...
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Монография посвящена исследованию высокозначимого для адаптации, развития и коммуникации человека феномена — психологической суверенности. В книге раскрывается эволюционный и социальный смысл суверенности, обосновывается вывод о том, что суверенность представляет собой черту личности второго порядка. Эмпирические данные свидетельствуют, что суверенные личности реже переживают негативные эмоции и сильнее ощущают подлинность собственной жизни, что они более успешно общаются, однако при этом не отличаются более высоким нравственным отношением к миру. Описаны модераторы эффектов суверенности: показано, что наиболее ресурсной эта черта оказывается в подростково-юношеском возрасте, у представительниц женского пола и в диапазоне средних значений. Результаты исследования могут быть использованы в психоразвивающих программах и приемах стихийной повседневной психотерапии. Книга адресована исследователям психологии личности и социальной психологии, практикам, работающим с разными группами населения, студентам, изучающим гуманитарные предметы, и широкому кругу интересующихся психологией читателей.
... Research on the belief in a just world (BJW) represents one of psychology's most systematic efforts to understand how humans conceptualise justice. A fundamental theoretical tenant of just world research is that BJW is a universal implicit assumption common to all people (Lerner, 1980). This foundational notion has underpinned the translation and use of BJW self-report measures across dozens of countries and languages. ...
Article
Belief in a just world (BJW) is theorised to be a universal personality disposition. In this study we contrast this notion with that of Justice Capital, which suggests that BJW varies based on the individual’s justice experience. We achieve this comparison via a psychometric analysis of the BJW scales across cultural and demographic groups. Invariance; equivalence of reliability metrics; differences in latent means; and consistency in construct validity—differential associations with perceived control, hopelessness, and optimism—were analysed across Germany, Russia, Australia, Brazil, Turkey, the USA, sex, age, income type, and economic status (n=1250). Findings provide support for both the universality and malleability of BJW. We discuss how these findings advance BJW theorising and their important implications for BJW measurement.
... This has been explained by two social psychological concepts, the illusion of transparency and the belief in a just world. The former refers to the belief 18 that others can see their internal states (the illusion of transparency, see e.g., Gilovich et al., 1998;Savitsky & Gilovich, 2003), and the latter to the belief that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get (the belief in a just world, see e.g., Hafer & Begue, 2005;Kassin & Norwick, 2004;Lerner, 1980). That is, whilst truth-tellers may also think that it is important to provide consistent statements, they are more likely to think that this will happen naturally without the need to prepare . ...
Thesis
Research on the topic of group deception has primarily focused on cooffenders. The aim of this thesis was to further our understanding of group deception by examining the context of honest and deceptive alibis corroborated by witnesses. Specifically, the deceptive pairs contained one partly innocent member, and this setup provides a different group dynamic as compared to cooffending groups with only guilty members. Furthermore, this thesis aimed to increase our knowledge of the consistency of such corroborated statements. Study I examined whether the consistency of corroborated honest and deceptive alibi-witness statements was moderated by the salience of event details. In line with the expectations and previous research, all pairs obtained lower betweenperson consistency scores for less salient details—however, truth-tellers’ consistency scores dropped considerably more than liars’. Study II applied strategic interviewing through memory-enhancing tactics, and examined whether this would increase the differences between honest and deceptive pairs on a within-subject measure. Contrary to the predictions, both honest and deceptive participants responded similarly to the memory-enhancing tactics. Study III approached the topic of counter-interrogation strategies in a new way, and observed honest and deceptive pairs’ conversations while preparing for their interview in addition to collecting self-reported measures. The results partly supported the hypotheses. In line with the expectations, liars were concerned with establishing a story, keeping it simple and being consistent—and truth-tellers were concerned with being honest and detailed. However, contrary to the expectations truth-tellers were also concerned with establishing a story. Study IV manipulated between-person consistency in vignettes, and operationalised inconsistency both in terms of low degree of overlap as well as the presence of contradictions. The study examined whether these different operationalisations of statement consistency affected veracity judgements. Results showed that in line with the expectations and previous research, believability was rated lower, and guilt was rated higher for contradicting versus consistent statements. However, statements with a low degree of overlap were not rated less believable or more guilty than the consistent statements, which might imply that people are inattentive to overlap as a representation of inconsistency. In sum, this thesis illustrates that whether or not honest and deceptive pairs differ in between-person consistency seems to depend on the salience of the details, but also on how consistency is operationalised. Previous group deception literature on beliefs about statement consistency and counter-interrogation strategies is dominated by self-reports, and empirical studies testing between-person consistency primarily examine the degree of overlap. In order to move the field forward, we must empirically approach these topics with a wider range of designs (such as dialogue observations and vignettes) and be aware of—and systematically examine—different operationalisations. Parts of work Study I: Sakrisvold, M. L., Granhag P. A., & Mac Giolla, E. (2017). Partners under pressure: Examining the consistency of true and false alibi statements. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 35(1), 75-90. http://doi.org/10.1002/bsl.2275 Study II: Sakrisvold, M. L., Luke, T. J., Mac Giolla, E., & Granhag, P. A. (2022). Can memory-enhancing interview tactics help distinguish honest and deceptive alibis corroborated by witnesses? Manuscript Study III: Sakrisvold, M. L., Mac Giolla, E., Luke, T. J., & Granhag, P. A. (2022). What they say and what they do: A novel approach in the investigation of counter-interrogation strategies of honest and deceptive alibi-witness pairs. Manuscript Study IV: Sakrisvold, M. L., Mac Giolla, E., Luke, T. J., & Granhag, P. A. (2022). Putting the consistency heuristic to the test: Are inconsistent statements judged more deceptive than consistent statements? Manuscript
... Empirical studies showed that students, who strongly endorse personal belief in a just world (BJW), feel treated more fairly by their teachers, and engage less in bullying and delinquency (Correia & Dalbert, 2008;Donat et al., 2014Donat et al., , 2018. The just world hypothesis claims that people have the need to believe in a just world where everyone gets what she/he deserves (Lerner, 1980). Strong believers in a just world have trust in being treated fairly by others (Dalbert & Radant, 2004), and are more likely to intuitively avoid rule-breaking behaviors because such behaviors pose a threat to BJW (Donat et al., 2018). ...
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Although previous studies have shown the association between students’ perceived teacher procedural justice and their aggressive behaviors, there are still mediating mechanisms that need to be explored to fully understand the relationship. This study proposed a parallel mediation model through both legitimacy of authority and through motivation to decrease the advantage of others. A total of 402 fifth and sixth graders (10–12 years of age) from three public primary schools in central China participated in this study. They completed the self-report measures of perceived procedural teacher justice, negative evaluation of school rules, malicious and benign envy, aggressive behaviors, and personal belief in a just world. The results showed that students’ perceived teacher procedural justice negatively predicted their aggression, and this relationship was mediated by both negative evaluation of school rules and malicious envy in a parallel mediation model after controlling for students’ gender and personal belief in a just world. In conclusion, perceiving teachers’ behaviors as procedurally just, students are less likely to have a negative attitude toward school rules and feel malicious envy, and thus are less likely to engage in aggressive behaviors. The findings help understand the psychological processes underlying the relationship between perceived teacher procedural justice and aggression and have practical implications for justice-related daily teaching practices and school-based interventions for reducing aggression.
... Evolutionary studies have also underscored fairness or justice as an a priori moral nature (Baumard, 2016). In the social psychology literature, Lerner's (1980) conceptualization of justice motives supports this inherent need for humans to believe that they live in a just world, where everyone gets what they deserve. In addition, teachers perceived justice as relative, articulating that justice needed to be defined situationally in various contexts and that achieving ideal justice seemed impossible. ...
Article
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Upholding justice in classrooms is a major concern for teachers and students, leading to a growing body of literature over the last 50 years. By contributing to this growing body of literature, this study aimed to examine high school teachers’ conceptions of classroom justice through the lens of social psychology theory. Purposeful sampling was used to select 27 high school teachers for semi-structured interviews on the issues pertinent to classroom justice. Findings indicate that teachers conceived of classroom justice based on a constant dialogue between two overarching themes: their individuality and the social context. Teachers’ individuality included subthemes such as teacher philosophy of justice, teacher philosophy of education, teacher caring, teacher background life experiences as student, teacher education, and teaching experience. The social context included the social, cultural, and economic structures of the society and the educational structures. The results suggest that social psychology theory needs to be expanded to account for drivers of teachers’ conceptions of classroom justice. The fndings have implications for teacher education and policy-making to promote justice in classrooms.
... Por lo amenazantes que resultan ser para los individuos las situaciones de injusticia, éstos necesitan creer, de cara a mantener una sensación de control sobre el medio, que en la vida todos obtienen lo que merecen (Lerner, 1980). De no ser posible creer que las cosas suceden como consecuencia de los actos realizados por cada uno, las personas se sentirían expuestas a multitud de situaciones cotidianas desagradables por lo ineludible de pensar que las situaciones injustas que hoy les ha tocado vivir a otros, mañana podrían ocurrirles a ellos (Lerner y Clayton, 2011). ...
... Rape myths are a set of stereotypical beliefs about what constitutes a "real" rape and a "worthy" rape victim. Stuart et al. (2019) note that rape myths are conceptually rooted in the "just world" bias (Lerner, 1980), or the belief that a person's actions will result in fair or fitting consequences for that person (as exemplified by the adage, "She got what was coming to her"). A common rape myth about the crime is that a "real" or "genuine" rape is perpetrated by a stranger in a dark, deserted public place (rather than by an acquaintance in the victim's or the assailant's home or other private space). ...
Chapter
The present chapter reviews experimental research investigating the complexities and phenomena influencing legal decision-making involving an outcome measure (e.g., verdict, guilt rating, and/or sentence recommendation) in cases of adult rape. Because rape is a crime subject to social bias, myths, and cultural beliefs, rape cases are vulnerable to the influence of extralegal factors (i.e., not within the scope of the law) when making judgments. Major theoretical perspectives (e.g., the Story Model, the Commonsense Justice model, and the theory of Generic Prejudice) concerning legal decision-making and rape are presented, as well as methodological details of existing legal decision-making research. Coverage of prior research involving extralegal factors includes investigations of the influence of mock juror characteristics (e.g., mock juror gender), acquaintance rape (including victim and defendant characteristics and contextual factors such as intoxication), intimate partner rape, non-heteronormative rape, and legal issues that arise in both a criminal trial context (e.g., sentencing) and outside of this context (e.g., civil trials). The chapter concludes with a discussion of avenues for future research and the practical implications of research investigating perceptions of rape cases.KeywordsRapeVictimCourtJusticeJurorJuryConsentTrialSexual assault
... Numerous studies have identified psychosocial factors that protect low-income adolescents from the adverse effects of limited resources. One potentially vital protective factor is one's belief in a just world, which refers to the basic conviction that the world is a fair and just place in which people get what they deserve and deserve what they get (Lerner, 1980). One's beliefs about the fairness of the world enables people to trust in the justice of their fate and promotes investment in their own future (Hafer & Bègue, 2005). ...
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We examined the ways low-income adolescents’ family resources, school resources, and belief in a just world, served to predict their subjective well-being, propensity for depression, and problem behaviors. One hundred and ninety-four low-income Chinese adolescents completed self-reported questionnaires. The results found that family resources interacted with school resources in predicting subjective well-being and depression, with resources made available through schools diminished the detrimental effects of low levels of family resources. Moreover, the relationship between the different sources of resources and psychological adjustment was moderated by the adolescents’ belief in a just world. The belief in a just world enhanced the positive effects of high levels of school resources on subjective well-being and depression only among adolescents with relatively high family resources. The belief in a just world buffered the negative effects of low levels of school resources that contributed to problem behaviors. This study identified school resources and belief in a just world, which are potentially malleable, as protective factors related to low-income adolescents’ psychological adjustment. The results have important implications for future studies and interventions.
... While justice sensitivity shares certain similarities with the concept of belief in a just world (Lerner, 1980), such that both have been conceptualized as a part of the justice motive, both constructs differ empirically as well as theoretically: Whereas belief in a just world represents a need for justice as a general principle of order in the world, justice sensitivity reflects the motivation to adhere to justice principles (see Baumert, Rothmund, et al., 2013, for an extended discussion). Importantly, justice sensitivity has been differentiated in four different perspectives: victim sensitivity, beneficiary sensitivity, perpetrator sensitivity, and observer sensitivity Schmitt et al., 2010). ...
Article
In ostracism situations, the role of uninvolved observers is a crucial one, as observers can decide to either support the ostracized target or the ostracizing sources. Previous research has established the important role of target norm adherence for observer's moral judgment and reactions to ostracism. Here, we extend this line of research to investigate the moderating effects of observers' dispositional justice sensitivity. Two experimental studies show that justice sensitivity moderates the effects of target norm adherence on observers' moral judgments, moral emotions, and punitive behavior. Particularly, individuals tended to show stronger negative reactions towards the target and less negative reactions towards the sources if the target had violated a social norm (and vice versa if the target had acted norm-consistently). This effect was more pronounced for observers high (vs. low) in observer justice sensitivity. The results emphasize the role of trait justice sensitivity in moral reactions to observed ostracism episodes.
... The belief in a just world theory (Dalbert, 2001;Lerner, 1965Lerner, , 1980 represents a fundamental contribution to the understanding of how people perceive and deal with the world. This theory posits that people feel a need to believe that they live in a world where everyone gets what they deserve and deserve what they get (Lerner, 1965). ...
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The study presents the Italian adaptation of the Personal and General Belief in a Just World (P-BJW and G-BJW) Scales. Dalbert and colleagues developed these scales to capture the belief in a just world for oneself and a just world in general. After the translation and back-translation, the P-BJW and G-BJW scales were administered first to a pilot sample of 213 university students and then to a national sample of 2683 Italian people. Results showed that it was necessary to make some revisions to the predicted two correlated factor structure. These changes entailed correlating the error terms for some manifest variables and removing the first item of the P-BJW factor. The final structure of the P-BJW and G-BJW scales presented satisfactory indexes of model fit as well as high reliability and moderate validity values. Additionally, this structure proved to fit the data better than an alternative one-factor or a bi-factor model with two orthogonal-specific factors. As predicted, well-being strongly predicted scores on the BJW, but age and gender did not. Multigroup comparisons among Northern, Central, and Southern Italy respondents indicated that Italian people interpret scale items equivalently, regardless of their geographical location. Introducing the P-BJW and G-BJW scales to the Italian justice scholarship is very useful to unpack the reasons why Italy reports lower levels of social justice than other European countries and also to investigate the link between justice, well-being, and other socio-psychological variables.
... In this regard, it is important to bear in mind that some people maintain what is referred to as a just world belief [40]; that is, a belief system that leads them to perceive the world as a fair and equitable place where we receive what we deserve and deserve what we receive, where good deeds are rewarded and bad deeds are punished [41,42]. This constitutes a foundation for making sense of a world that is not only a fair place but also predictable [43]. ...
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Within the context of emergency situations, the terms witness or bystander are used to refer to individuals involved in oppressive incidents who are neither the victim nor the perpetrator. Among the different types of emergency situations, our study focuses on violence against women (VAW). In keeping with current efforts in the scientific literature on bystander intervention and the evidence currently available, the main focus of this study is to analyze some personal factors that reflect the characteristics or experiences of bystanders and that could have a bearing on their predisposition to help victims of VAW (i.e., empathy, a just world belief system, and expectations of self-efficacy) and later analyze the possible relationship between these personal characteristics and gender or previous experience as a VAW bystander. An opportunity sample of 546 Spanish participants (73.4% women and 26.6% men) between 18 and 56 years of age took part in this study and fill out a sociodemographic data sheet, a questionnaire to evaluate the experience as violence witness designed ad hoc, and the Characteristics of People who Help Questionnaire scale (CPHQ). The results obtained indicate that CPHQ could constitute an adequate measure for the three dimensions analyzed. Female participants are significantly more empathetic than males, but in the case of a just world belief and expectations of self-efficacy the results showed no gender-related differences. Additionally, only a just world belief was clearly influenced by having been a bystander to some form of VAW. In conclusion, this study contributes a proposal for an evaluating instrument featuring three relevant personal characteristics in the development of helping behaviors, presenting some results of interest regarding empathy, a just world belief, and expectations of self-efficacy and their relationship with gender or previous experiences as VAW bystanders. These results obtained suggest an initial path toward future research in the development of interventions with bystander participation in our environment.
... Third, because we collected data in South Korea, we caution against generalizing the results of this study to other cultures. Our findings of the interaction pattern between PCT and gender in BJW-self might rely on the national cultural context of South Korea, as cultural context might affect BJW (Bertrams, 2021;Lerner, 1980). Given that the cultural context of the United States values freedom, with a higher tolerance for deviance and the perception that norm conformity is undesirable and weak (Kim & Markus, 1999), future researchers could extend our results by examining Springer Nature journal content, brought to you courtesy of Springer Nature Customer Service Center GmbH ("Springer Nature"). ...
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Although substantial research has documented the importance of belief in a just world for self (BJW-self) for subjective well-being (SWB), little is known about the individual characteristics that serve as antecedents of BJW-self. This article delineates how individual differences in perceived cultural tightness (PCT) and neuroticism may account for differences in BJW-self and how gender moderates this relationship. We proposed a moderated mediation model wherein the indirect relationships of PCT and neuroticism with SWB through BJW-self change depending on gender. Data were collected from 296 South Korean university students using an online survey at two time points about four days apart. As predicted, the results showed that for male participants, only PCT had a significant relationship with BJW-self, which in turn had a relationship with SWB. In addition, for female participants, only neuroticism was significantly associated with SWB via BJW-self. Overall, these findings extend research on belief in a just world by identifying individual characteristics that account for variance in BJW-self associated with SWB.
... (s. 20) Dále M. Naím poukazuje na globální obchod s lidmi, který postihuje přibližně 4 miliony lidí a hodnota obchodu se odhaduje na 7 až 10 miliard dolarů. Podobně lze počítat s globalizovaným obchodem s drogami, se zbraněmi, s léky, s lidskými orgány či exo-tickými zvířaty. ...
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A U S P I C I A Recenzovaný neimpaktovaný časopis zaměřený na oblast společenských a humanitních věd (primárně na oblast veřejné správy a řízení, sekundárně i na další společenskovědní otázky) VYSOKÁ ŠKOLA EVROPSKÝCH A REGIONÁLNÍCH STUDIÍ ČESKÉ BUDĚJOVICE FILOSOFICKÝ ÚSTAV AKADEMIE VĚD ČESKÉ REPUBLIKY PRAHA 2008
... č. 17 všimnúť, že 45 Rozprávame sa teda o časovom rozpätí vývoja spoločnosti medzi rokmi 1966 až 2001, čo je 35 rokov turbulentných zmien. Z hľadiska generácií môžeme hovoriť o Generácii X (narodená v rokoch 1965-1980), Generácii Y -Mileniáli (narodená v rokoch 1981 a Generácii Z (narodená v rokoch 1996-2010). Generácia X si už uvedomuje, že nebude večne mladá. ...
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Sociálna spravodlivosť ako kľúčová hodnota sociálnej politiky predstavuje neoddeliteľnú súčasť systému sociálneho zabezpečenia každého demokratického a právneho štátu Západnej civilizácie. Vedecká monografia sa zameriava na sociálnu spravodlivosť v starobnom dôchodkovom systéme Slovenskej republiky v časovom diapazóne 2004 - 2022. Pozornosť je dominantne zameraná na II., tzv. kapitalizačný dôchodkový pilier. Ciele vedeckej monografie korešpondujú s vybranými cieľmi formulovanými v rámci riešenia vedeckého projektu VEGA 1/0290/20Sociálna spravodlivosť a starobné dôchodkové sporenie v Slovenskej republike. Hlavným cieľom monografie je identifikovať vnímanie sociálnej spravodlivosti v kapitalizačnom pilieri starobného dôchodkového sporenia cez hodnotové orientácie sporiteľov pri rozhodovaní sa o investovaní vo fondoch II. piliera, ako modeloch vytvorených relevantnými politickými reprezentáciami v Slovenskej republike. URL: https://unibook.upjs.sk/
... First, we examined beliefs in a just world (BJW) which is a concept about the tendency of people to blame victims of misfortunes for their own fate (Lerner, 1980). The idea is that people have a fundamental need to believe that the (social) world is a just place and that this belief is functionally necessary for them to develop principles of deservingness. ...
... Por outro lado, percebíamos claramente que nossa estratégia de pesquisa, que consistia em escolher certas noções psicológicas e retirá-las de seu contexto individualista e mecanicista, para utilizá-las como sinônimos de conceitos do materialismo dialético, não se havia mostrado eficaz para construir uma teoria psicológica diferente. Assim, ao substituir a noção de ideologia pela noção de "Crença no Mundo Justo", de Lerner (1980) Tajfel (1981), mas que nós tentamos dar-lhe uma conotação menos psicologizante. Assim considerávamos que a identidade social poderia ser entendida como um processo dialético porque, por um lado, mudaria o sujeito, facilitando a incorporação de valores e normas do grupo social, mas por outro lado, implicaria na participa ção ativa do sujeito na construção da identidade grupal e, portanto, na transformação contínua do grupo. ...
... In other words, we are usually convinced that just behaviour will always be rewarded, whereas foul play will always be punished, somehow, in due course. This is the Belief in a Just World Theory (Lerner, 1980). Needless to say, believing in a just world is a fallacy. ...
Article
The significance of illusion as a positive force in everyday life has been underestimated in both societal discourse and in empirical science. The objective of this study is to provide a synthesis of many academic disciplines’ understanding of illusion and reality by proposing a taxonomy of functional and dysfunctional subjective realities as based on the assumption that the human mind is adaptive in an evolutionary sense and likely to be a quantum entanglement system. Assumptions and discussions needed to construct the taxonomy are generally based on empirical research drawing from evolutionary theory, neurology, biology, anthropology, psychology, psychiatry, physics and other disciplines. The purpose of the proposed taxonomy is heuristic, serving as a base for further studies drawing particular attention to the fact that, by evolutionary processes, Homo sapiens have been made dependent on multiple subjective realities where illusion and reality are not necessarily opposites. The article is concluded by discussing possible reasons for why illusions as a positive force in human behaviour has been neglected in comparison to the dysfunctions of the human mind of which research abound.
... Because humans have a motivation to believe that the world is fair, they will look for ways to explain or rationalize away injustices, often blaming the victim for any negative treatment they experience. This phenomenon protects self-esteem, helps control fear, and allows people to remain optimistic about the world (Lerner 1980). In other words, people high in just-world beliefs are motivated to look for something or someone to blame for unfortunate events, rather than believe there are systemic or structure features that produce them. ...
Article
Racial reckoning in response to racial injustice has compelled individuals, organizations, and institutions to acknowledge and adopt policies that actively challenge racial injustice. A central tenet of this era of reckoning is that it is no longer acceptable to ignore racist behaviors and expressions. To the extent that active opposition to racial prejudice is an effective strategy for individuals to pursue, we examine individual inclinations to act on matters of racial prejudice. We argue that in spite of best intentions, the motivation to act against racism, what we call “antiracism action orientation,” can be disrupted by system-justifying beliefs that raise questions about deservingness, legitimize the status quo, and therefore defend inaction. Survey data from the 2020 Congressional Election Study show that antiracism action orientation is strongest among African Americans, and those with more positive affect toward racial-ethnic minorities, and supporters of change. Among Whites, racial resentment dominates the motivations for antiracism to the point that typical political allies like Democrats, liberals, and those who acknowledge White privilege reduce their antiracism action orientation to lower levels than Republicans, conservatives, and deniers of White privilege. We conclude that most Americans, but especially Whites, have a high bar for change, making racism an ongoing American dilemma because of both racial attitudes and the costs of change.
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Background Interpersonal violence damages mental health and frequently leads to aggressive defence strategies. If survivors are subsequently blamed for the events, both consequences worsen. Stigma flourishes, especially when survivors are silenced so that details of the trauma remain unknown. Breaking the secrecy both at the individual and collective level is key to enable the healing and reconciliation of individuals and communities living under continuous threat. Method The NETfacts health system is a stepped care model with three components: (1) Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET), an evidence-based trauma therapy that includes survivor testimony (2) NET for Forensic Offender Rehabilitation (FORNET) acknowledges that perpetrators are frequently also victims and assists in reducing aggression and the attraction to violence, and (3) a community intervention disseminating and discussing Facts derived from NET treatment (NETfacts) to challenge the collective avoidance of atrocities and other traumatic material. The intervention was piloted in a community with 497 adult residents in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The willingness of clients to consent to sharing their anonymised testimonies (with a focus on sexual violence survivors and ex-combatants) was investigated, together with other components of feasibility including security and clinical safety, extent of support of respected local authorities and participation rates. As secondary outcomes, clinical and social measures were assessed before and post NETfacts among 200 village residents of whom 160 self-enrolled and 40 had not participated in any form of treatment. Results Implementation was feasible with 248 clients from a partner project giving consent to use their testimonies and high support of respected local authorities and participation rates (56% of residents self-enrolled in NETfacts). Immediate beneficial effects were shown for posttraumatic stress and rejection of rape myths among NETfacts participants who experienced multiple traumatic events in their own past. Attitudes towards ex-combatants improved and the perceived lack of social acknowledgement after trauma increased independent from participation. No significant change was observed for depressive symptoms. Conclusion NETfacts is a feasible and promising approach to challenge the culture of secrecy surrounding trauma, suppression and social exclusion. Long term effectiveness requires further evaluation.
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Prejudice related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a social issue worldwide. A possible psychological factor that promotes prejudice is the belief in just deserts (BJD) regarding individuals infected with COVID-19 ( i.e. , the belief that the infected individual deserves to be infected). The BJD is based on the belief in immanent justice. It is reportedly higher in Japan than in other countries. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the BJD among Japanese individuals and clarify its associations with demographic factors or infection-related and socio-psychological characteristics. To this end, we conducted an online questionnaire survey in Japan from August 7–8, 2020, with 1,207 respondents aged 20–69 years. We performed screening to exclude inappropriate responses. We investigated the association between the BJD and demographic factors such as gender and age. We also investigated the association between the BJD and infection-related and socio-psychological characteristics, including risk perception of COVID-19 infection and human rights restrictions ( i.e. , the degree of agreement with government restrictions on individuals’ behavior during emergencies). Among the surveyed items, human rights restrictions showed a strong association with BJD, followed by risk perception of COVID-19 infection. Men had a slightly higher BJD than women. Our study is significant in that it is the first to investigate the items associated with the BJD, thereby providing foundational information for revising individual perceptions of justice related to COVID-19 and solving prejudice-related issues.
Chapter
Gerechtigkeit gilt als einer der zentralen Aspekte menschlichen Zusammenlebens und dient wichtigen Funktionen, wie beispielsweise der Kooperation. Entsprechend wichtig sind Gerechtigkeitsthemen in vielen Facetten unseres Lebens. In unseren Familien, an unserem Arbeitsplatz und in unseren Rechts- und Sozialsystemen ist Gerechtigkeit also ein zentrales Element. Bemerkenswert ist dabei die Tatsache, dass gerechtes und ungerechtes Handeln einer Person über verschiedene Situationen hinweg wenig konsistent zu sein scheint. Zum einen gibt es Manager, die in großem Stil Geld veruntreuen und sich durch Wirtschaftskriminalität ins Gerede (oder sogar ins Gefängnis) bringen. Die gleichen Menschen sind als Bürger jedoch engagiert und spenden hunderttausende Euro für wohltätige Zwecke. Menschen haben oft wenig Probleme damit, einen Stift im Wert von 1 € aus der Firma mit nach Hause zu nehmen, würden jedoch niemals einen Euro aus der Kaffeekasse entwenden. Gerechtigkeit und (un)gerechtes Handeln von Menschen zu verstehen, ist daher ein äußerst komplexes Unterfangen (Lotz, 2010).
Article
Brosnan (2006) proposed that animal responses to inequity mirror human response tendencies that are summarized as inequity aversion. In this comment two issues are raised. The first issue deals with the assumption of continuity between humans and nonhuman species in reference to cooperative behaviour. The second issue focuses on the idea that the state of inequity aversion may motivate intervention processes.
Chapter
Die Höhle ist der Ort, in dem vor 40.000 Jahren eine Weltbild-Revolution stattgefunden hat, deren Auswirkungen wir heute noch spüren. Um diese Annahme theoretisch sinnvoll modellieren zu können, beziehen wir uns auf Erkenntnisse der Gehirnforschung, Kognitionspsychologie, politischen Psychologie, und der Kultur- und Sozialwissenschaft, die unter dem Rubrum Kognitionswissenschaft (Eckardt 1993; Thagard 2005; Karnath und Thier 2012; Bermúdez 2014) mittlerweile Fortschritte bei der Verknüpfung und Integration disparater Ansätze erzielen. Im Folgenden wird aus diesen Quellen eine Theorie des Weltbildmanagements entwickelt, in der vier Ebenen unterschieden werden: (1) kognitive Selbstregulation, die auf Situationsanpassung, Konsistenz und identitäre Stabilität zielt, (2) biologische Strukturen, die uns aus der Evolution zugewachsen sind und die kognitive Selbstregulation ermöglichen. Außerdem werden (3) diejenigen Denk- und Verhaltensmuster thematisiert, die einer problemlösenden Intention unterliegen und dabei von archaischen und gegenwartsbezogenen Mechanismen der Selbstregulation beeinflusst sind. Als Ebene (4) figuriert die soziale Strukturierung des Weltbildmanagements, die aus der alltäglichen Lebenswelt heraus erfolgt oder durch politische Institutionen und staatliche Rahmensetzungen herbeigeführt wird. Im Kapitel werden die zentralen Begriffe der Theorie wie Weltbild und kognitive Selbstregulation definiert sowie die neurophysiologischen, psychologischen und soziologischen Implikationen des Konzepts Weltbildmanagement (WBM) erörtert.
Thesis
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In the patriarchal system, men’s higher status in the gender hierarchy is maintained by various practices and beliefs promoting women’s subordination. Previous studies have shown that men especially engage in threat-compensation strategies when their manhood status is threatened either at personal or societal level. Sexual harassment is another form of gender discrimination that reproduces male domination and often prone to be neglected. This thesis aims to investigate men’s perceptions of sexual harassment under a threat to their advantaged position. For that aim, I conducted an online experiment with a community sample, including 227 participants. Participants were randomly assigned either to the control condition or to the gender hierarchy threat condition. Participants in the gender hierarchy threat condition read an ostensible news article summarizing that women’s power is on the rise both at home and in business, while those in the control condition read an irrelevant article. I expected that men who were exposed to gender hierarchy threat would tend to downplay the ambiguous sexual harassment cases, while the effect of the manipulation would be even greater for participants who had stronger gender identification and were more threatened by the subordination to women. The results have shown that men’s perceptions of sexual harassment were not affected by the threat, controlling for participants’ age, religiosity, political orientation, hostile and benevolent sexism levels. However, participants’ explanations on their sexual harassment judgments provided a rich information. I discussed the study findings and future research directions in light of the literature.
Chapter
Translational empathy is a quality of presence in which a sense of withness is generated through a situated and productive process of emotion translation moves of expression and response. This chapter describes how translational empathy commences through a stance of honouring opacity. We may not be able to gain access to another’s inner world. We may also need to suspend the assumption that we share the same experiential space. The importance of recognising and respecting otherness is vital. The chapter distinguishes this helpful stance from damaging forms of Othering that serve oppressive and dehumanising agendas. Beneficial radical othering allows the other to remain in their infinite otherness. We can only enter a relationship with another if we allow them to be truly Other. One of the ways we can attempt this is through ongoing curiosity and cultural humility.KeywordsTranslational empathyRadical othernessOpacityOtheringCultural humilityCuriosityMusic therapy
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