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What is Impulse Buying? An analytical network processing framework for prioritizing factors affecting impulse buying

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One of the most important issues affecting profitability is to determine the impact of different factors influencing purchasing activities. In this paper, we perform an extensive literature survey to detect different purchasing factors influencing customers' behavior. The factors are categorized in three different groups and they are ranked using analytical network process. The results of our survey indicate that three factors of personal, product and situational play important roles in purchasing impulse. The personal item includes different factors where demographic characteristic factors receive the highest ranking (35%) followed by other factors are feelings, excitement and fun, self identify, education and novelty. There are also three sub-factors associated with demographic characteristics including gender, age and race and the weights are 0.46748, 0.42668 and 0.10584, respectively, which means gender is the most important factor followed by age and race. Finally, the other factor is associated with situational factors' group, which includes presence of others, culture, design of store, time available, local market condition, sales staff and self service with the relative importance of 0.04296, 0.08733, 0.12130, 0.22217, 0.05643, 0.15346 and 0.31635, respectively.
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E-mail addresses: (J. Siahkali Moradi)
© 2012 Growing Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi: 10.5267/j.msl.2012.03.016
Management Science Letters 2 (2012) 1053–1064
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Management Science Letters
What is Impulse Buying? An analytical network processing framework for prioritizing factors
affecting impulse buying
Sahel Ehsani Masouleha, Marzieh Pazhanga and Javad Siahkali Moradib*
aM.A. in Marketing Research, Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
bM.A. in Operational Research, Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Article history:
Received October 17, 2011
Accepted 12 March 2012
Available online
16 March 2012
One of the most important issues affecting profitability is to determine the impact of different
factors influencing purchasing activities. In this paper, we perform an extensive literature
survey to detect different purchasing factors influencing customers' behavior. The factors are
categorized in three different groups and they are ranked using analytical network process. The
results of our survey indicate that three factors of personal, product and situational play
important roles in purchasing impulse. The personal item includes different factors where
demographic characteristic factors receive the highest ranking (35%) followed by other factors
are feelings, excitement and fun, self identify, education and novelty. There are also three sub-
factors associated with demographic characteristics including gender, age and race and the
weights are 0.46748, 0.42668 and 0.10584, respectively, which means gender is the most
important factor followed by age and race. Finally, the other factor is associated with situational
factors' group, which includes presence of others, culture, design of store, time available, local
market condition, sales staff and self service with the relative importance of 0.04296, 0.08733,
0.12130, 0.22217, 0.05643, 0.15346 and 0.31635, respectively.
© 2012 Growin
Science Ltd. All ri
hts reserved.
Impulse buying
Impulse buying effective factors
Analytical network process
Mixed method
1. Introduction
With a glance to different studies, we will easily understand the importance of impulse buying.
According to Liao et al. (2009) impulse buying plays an important role on changing the purchasing
figures in United states. Impulsive customers' buying behavior accounts for up to 80% of all buying
items in certain product categories and it has been recommended that purchases of new products
result more from impulse buying than from prior planning (Abrahams, 1997; Smith, 1996; Sfiligoj,
1996; Liao et al, 2009). There are other studies, which specify that an estimated $4.2 billion annual
store volume was created by impulse sales of items such as candy and magazines (Mogelonsky, 1998;
Liao et al., 2009). Another study indicates that impulse purchases, making operational as unplanned
purchases and they represent between 27 and 62 percent of all department store purchases (Bellenger
et al., 1978). These mentioned studies and others explain the relative importance and the impact of
impulse buying on consumers' behavior. In this research, we decide to provide a comprehensive
definition for impulse buying and determine important factors affecting consumers to change their
planned behavior and show impulsiveness in their purchase behavior.
2. Impulse Buying
Impulse buying is a sudden, compelling, hedonically complex purchase behavior in which the speed
of the impulse purchase decision precludes any thoughtful, deliberate consideration of alternatives or
future implications (Kollat & Willet, 1967; Cobb & Hoyer, 1986; Rook, 1987; Piron, 1991; Beatty &
Ferrel, 1998; Bayley & Nancarrow, 1998; Kacen & Lee, 2002; Vohs & Faber, 2003; Parboteeah,
Impulse buying is a major research issue among consumer behavior researchers not only because of
its complexities but also its wide-spread prevalence across a broad range of product categories
(Applebaum, 1951; Baumeister, 2002; Beatty and Ferrell, 1998; Clover, 1950; Kacen and Lee, 2002;
Ramanathan and Menon, 2006; Rook, 1987; Vohs and Faber, 2007; West, 1951).
Impulse buying is defined as an unplanned, which is characterized by both relatively rapid decision-
making, and a subjective bias for immediate possession (Rook & Gardner, 1993). Impulse buying is
associated with consumer impulsiveness (CI) trait, positively (Puri, 1996).
According to Ko (1993), impulse buying behavior is a sufficient unplanned attitude when it is
associated with objective evaluation and emotional preferences in shopping. Impulse buying plays
vital role in fulfilling hedonic desires associated with hedonic consumption (Hausman, 2000; Piron,
1991; Rook, 1987). Impulse buying is more emotional than rational, which is why it is normally used
by states of intense feeling. An impulse arises immediately upon confrontation with a certain stimulus
(Wolman, 1973). Consumer impulse buying is an important concept along with product involvement
as they are involved with a specific product (Jones et al., 2003). According to Han et al. (1991),
impulse buying was classified as four types:
(1) Planned impulse buying;
(2) Reminded impulse buying;
(3) Fashion-oriented impulse buying; and
(4) Pure impulse buying.
The purchase is unintended because it is made while shopping, although the individual was not
actively looking for that item, had no pre-shopping plans to buy the item, and was not involved with a
shopping task, such as searching for a gift. Unintended buying arises from an immediate intend to
purchase a particular item while shopping. The decision and interest to buy happens after the person
visits the item (Hoch & Loewenstein, 1991). Unintended and unplanned have long been associated
with impulse buying and is an important item but not sufficient basis for categorizing a purchase as
an impulse purchase (Kollat & Willet, 1967; Rook, 1987; Rook & Fisher, 1995).
Impulse buying is unreflective because the buy is made without engaging in a significant deal of
evaluation. An individual buying on impulse is less likely to consider the consequences or to think
carefully before making the purchase (Rook, 1987).
Kroeber-Riel (1980) explained that impulse buying is a reactive behavior, and often involves an
sudden response to a stimulus (Rook, 1987). Beatty and Ferrell (1998) defined impulse buying as
instantaneous purchase having no previous objective to buy the commodity. Stern (1962) found that
products bought on impulse are usually cheap. According to a number of studies (Rook & Fisher,
1995; Beatty & Ferrell, 1998; Verplanken & Herabadi, 2001; Virvilaite et al., 2009) the main
characteristics of impulsive purchasing behavior are: inclination to impulse buying, spontaneity in
buying, satisfaction felt after unplanned purchase, and lack of shopping list. This refers to the
individual characteristics of the consumer.
S. Ehsani Masouleh et al./ Management Science Letters 2 (2012)
2.1 Impulse buying factors
There are a lot of studies on various factors affecting impulse buying. Stern (1962) characterized nine
factors affecting impulse buying as follows,
1- Low price,
2- Marginal need for item,
3- Mass distribution,
4- Self service,
5- Mass advertising,
6- Prominent store display,
7- Short product life,
8- Small size or light weight, and
9- Ease of storage.
In addition, there are other studies that investigate the role of various factors on impulse buying. For
example the researches of Beatty and Ferrell (1998); Husman (2000); Rook and Gardner (1993);
Youn and Faber (2000) found that emotions and feelings strongly influence buying behaviors, which
result into consumer impulse buying. Babin and Babin (2001) found that in stores consumer’s
purchasing intentions and spending can largely be influenced by emotions. For better focusing on this
area we divide impulse buying factors in three different groups:
2.1.1 Personal factors
In this group, we collect all different factors which are associated with a person who is shopping. For
instance, feelings and education are categorized in this group. Impulse buying behavior is motivated
by a powerful urge (Verplanken & Herabadi, 2001) and feelings of pleasure and excitement
(Hausman, 2000; Rook, 1987; Rook & Fisher, 1995; Ramanathan & Menon, 2002; Peck & Childers,
2006). Some other internal, personal-related factors thought to influence the act of impulse buying
are: educational experience (Wood, 1998) and mood states (Rook & Gardner, 1993).
Stores are the place where buyers buy products whether it’s planned or unplanned purchase. It only
depends on the personal income, which indicates how much and how many times he or she visits
shopping stores to buy products (Tirmizi et al, 2009). Previous researches have shown that different
factors impact impulsive purchasing behavior, including the presence of others (Luo, 2005), the
consumer's mood (e.g., Beatty and Ferrell, 1998; Rook and Gardner, 1993), trait impulsiveness (e.g.,
Jones et al., 2003; Rook and Fisher, 1995; Weun et al., 1998), product category impulsiveness (Jones
et al., 2003), evaluation of the appropriateness of engaging in impulse buying (e.g., Rook and Fisher,
1995), individual and environmental touch (Peck and Childers, 2006), self-identity (e.g., Dittmar et
al., 1995; Lee and Kacen, 1999), cultural orientation (e.g., Kacen and Lee, 2002; Lee and Kacen,
1999), as well as demographic characteristics such as gender (e.g., Dittmar et al., 1995; Rook and
Gardner, 1993) and age (e.g., Helmers et al., 1995; Wood, 1998). An individual’s impulsive behavior
tendencies have also been associated with demographic characteristics such as a consumer’s age.
Based on a national sample of adults in the United States, Wood (1998) found a reverse relationship
between age and impulse buying overall. However, the relationship is non-monotonic — between the
ages of 18 and 39 impulse buying increases slightly and thereafter declines. This is consistent with
Bellenger et al. (1978) who found that shoppers under 35 were more prone to impulse buying
compared to those older than 35 years. Research on trait impulsiveness indicates that younger
individuals score higher on measures of impulsivity compared to older people (Eysenck et al., 1985;
Helmers et al., 1995; Rawlings et al., 1995) and demonstrate less self-control than adults (Logue &
Chavarro, 1992). The theory of individualism and collectivism offers several insights into many of
the variables linked to impulsive buying behavior, including self-identity, normative influences, the
suppression of emotion, and postponement of instant gratification. In the next section, we discuss this
theory and demonstrate that it is well suited to the study of impulse buying.
2.1.2 Product related factors
All the factors, which influence some body's impulse buying and are associated with a product are
categorized in this group. Examples of product related influences are product appearance and design
(Verplanken & Herabadi, 2001). Other external or product-related factors may include actual or
perceived concept from advertisement and spending power, which is associated with price and
discount amount of a product (Beatty & Ferrell, 1998). Product's design and price or its discount can
affect consumers buying. Retailers can increase the number of impulsive purchases through product
displays, store and packaging designs, and contemporary marketing innovations (e.g., 24-hour
convenience stores, television shopping channels, and internet shopping) (Hoyer & Maclnnis, 1997;
Jones et al., 2003). Other additional buying motivators are the price discounts or sales (Parsons, 2003;
Virvilaite et al., 2009).
2.1.3 Situational Factors:
This category is devoted to all factors that can direct impulse buying act out of a person and a
product. We can mention time available and self-service factors in this group. Environmental factors
of the shopping area or the physical surrounding include: (1) general interior design – color, lighting,
aroma, music, equipment, etc.; (2) arrangement of equipment and merchandise within the store; (3)
display of merchandise; (4) point of sale promotional materials (Mihić, 2002).
The more time is available, the higher is the chance for unplanned buying (Iyer, 1989; Iyer et al.,
1989; Herrington and Capella, 1995; Nicholls et al., 1997; Underhill, 1999, Anić & Radas, 2006)
especially when there is no buying task (Beatty & Ferrell, 1998).
Store accessibility and sales staff (Aylott & Mitchell, 1998) as well as the location (Hart & Davies,
1996) will affect the impulse buying act.
We are showing the factors collected from literature review in a model depicted below. As we
mentioned before there are two different groups of factors influencing impulse buying act. As we are
depicting in this model there some relationships between different sub-criteria of each group.
3. Analytical Network Process
Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is one of the widely used approaches to handle such a multi-criteria
decision making problems. There are several assumptions when AHP is implemented to make
decisions, such as, the independence between higher level elements and lower level elements, the
independence of the elements within a level, and the hierarchy structure of the decision problem
(Saaty 1994, Saaty & Zoffer 2011). However, a significant limitation of AHP is the assumption of
independency among different criteria of decision-making. Analytic network process (ANP), on the
other hand, captures interdependencies among the decision attributes and allows a more systematic
analysis. In addition, the interactions of decision attributes within the same level and the feedbacks
between two different levels are important issues, which should be considered during the decision
making procedure. Therefore, the AHP method does not work accurately when solving such decision
problems (Saaty, 1996). ANP, as an extensive and complementary method of the AHP, was
introduced and further developed by Saaty (1996, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2008). On
the contrary to AHP, ANP provides a more generalized model in decision-making without making
additional assumptions about the independency of the higher-level elements from lower-level
elements and also of the elements within a level. Despite all these features, the applications of ANP
are not very common in a decision-making problem. However, in recent years, there has been an
increase in the use of ANP in multi-criteria decision-making problems (Jharkhariaa & Shankar,
S. Ehsani Masouleh et al./ Management Science Letters 2 (2012)
Fig. 1. Different factors affecting impulse buying act
ANP method can be used to make decision problems which cannot be structured hierarchically and
does not have the inner-independent and outer-independent assumptions. Since its introduction, the
ANP method is applied to diverse areas. It also allows inclusion of all the relevant criteria (tangible
or intangible, objective or subjective, etc.) that have some bearing in arriving at the best decision
(Saaty, 2005). The ANP is the most comprehensive framework for the analysis of societal,
governmental and corporate decisions that is available today to the decision makers. ANP models
have two parts: the first is a control hierarchy or network of objectives and criteria that control the
interactions in the system under study; the second are other sub-networks of influences among the
elements and clusters of the problem, one for each control criterion (Saaty, 2008). For devising an
ANP model and solving it, Chung et al provided bellowing steps: (Chung et al, 2005):
Step 1: Model construction and problem structuring
The problem should be stated clearly and decomposed into rational system like network. The
structure can be obtained by the opinion of decision makers through brainstorming or other
appropriate methods.
Personal Product Situational
Impulse Buying
Presence of Others
Age Race
Ease of Storage
Local Market
Design of Store
Time available
Excitement and
Sales Staff
Step 2: Pairwise comparisons matrices and priority vectors
In ANP, like AHP, decision elements at each component are compared pairwise with respect to their
importance towards their control criterion, and the components themselves are also compared
pairwise with respect to their contribution to the goal. Decision makers are requested to respond to a
series of pairewise comparisons where two elements or two components at a time are compared in
terms of how they contribute to their particular upper level criterion (Sarkis, 2003). The relative
values are determined with Saaty's 1-9 scale (Table 1), where a score of 1 represents equal
importance between the two elements and a score 9 indicates the extreme importance of one element
(row component in the matrix) compared to the other one (column component in the matrix) (Sarkis,
Table 1
Saaty's 1-9 scales for AHP
Definition Equal
Very strong
Intensity of
1 3 5 7 9 2,4,6,8
Like AHP, pairewise comparison in ANP is made in the framework of a matrix, and a local priority
vector, which can be derived as an estimate of relative importance associated with the elements (or
components) being compared by solving the following equation:
21 2 2
×= ×
where A is the matrix of pairewise comparison, w is the eigenvector, max
is the largest Eigen value of A.
Step 3: Super matrix formation
The super matrix concept is similar to the Markov chain process (Saaty, 2005). To obtain global
priorities in a system with interdependent influences, the local priority vectors are entered in the
appropriate columns of a matrix. As result, a super matrix is actually a partitioned matrix, where each
matrix segment represents a relationship between two nodes (components or clusters) in a system
(Sarkis, 2003).
Let the components of a decision systems be k
C, k=1, 2, n, and each component k has k
denoted by 1k
e,…, kmk
e. The local priority vectors obtained in step 2 are categorized and located
in appropriate positions in a super matrix based on the flow of influence from one component to
another one, or from a component to itself as in the loop. A standard form of a super matrix is as in
Fig. 2. Super matrix
S. Ehsani Masouleh et al./ Management Science Letters 2 (2012)
As an example, the super matrix representation of a hierarchy with three levels as shown in Fig. 2 (a),
is follows (Saaty, 2005),
where 21
w is a vector that represent the impact of the goal on the criteria, 32
w is a matrix that
represent the impact of criteria on each of the alternatives, I is the identity matrix, and entries of zeros
corresponding to those elements that have no influence.
4. Solving Impulse Buying Model
For solving this model, we reform our model in a simple figure to put in software. Fig. 3 is the
simplified model.
We gathered factors' weights from experts by using special ANP questionnaires. Then we put these
gathered weights in the Supper decision software. Table 2 shows details of the results of our
comparison using ANP implementation in terms of personal group factors,
Excitement and Fun
Ease of Storage
Presence of Others
Designof Store
Time available
Local Market Condition
Sales Staff
Fig. 3. The final model of effective factors and their relationship
Table 2
The results of ANP implementation for ranking personal group factors
Factor Education Feelings Self identify Novelty Excitement and fun Demographic
Relative importance 0.07466 0.27060 0.10504 0.04546 0.15153 0.35272
As illustrated from the results of Table 2, demographic characteristic factors receive the highest
ranking (35%) followed by other factors are Feelings, Excitement and Fun, Self Identify, Education
and Novelty. Table 3 presents details of the weighted matrix in terms of personal figures.
Table 3
Weighted matrix in terms of personal figures
Demographic Education Excitement
and fun
Feelings Novelty Self
Demographic 0.000000 0.370250 0.577265 0.569946 0.560275 0.551301
Education 0.087133 0.000000 0.058647 0.104417 0.047054 0.044230
Excitement and fun 0.191937 0.129051 0.000000 0.210054 0.112570 0.116563
Feelings 0.477833 0.383270 0.237867 0.000000 0.240035 0.252171
Novelty 0.045266 0.048247 0.044826 0.056691 0.000000 0.035735
Self identify 0.197830 0.069181 0.081395 0.058893 0.040066 0.000000
There are three sub-factor associated with demographic characteristics including gender, age and race
and the weights are 0.46748, 0.42668 and 0.10584, respectively. As we can observe, gender is the
most important factor followed by age and race. Table 4 demonstrates details of weighted matrix in
terms of demographic characteristics.
Table 4
Weighted matrix in terms of demographic characteristics
Age Gender Race
Age 0.000000 0.875000 0.166667
Gender 0.888889 0.000000 0.833333
Race 0.111111 0.125000 0.000000
In terms of product, the relative priorities of advertisement, design, discount, distribution, ease of
storage, packing and price are 0.23483, 0.10406, 0.29533, 0.03103, 0.08155, 0.06186 and 0.19133,
respectively. As we can observe advertisement and price are the most important factors in this group.
The weight factors of these items are summarized in Table 5.
Table 5
Weighted matrix in terms of product
Advertisement Design Discount Distribution Ease of storage Packing Price
Advertisement 0.000000 0.244810 0.446136 0.224471 0.220273 0.144890 0.228456
Design 0.128767 0.000000 0.147434 0.060432 0.105816 0.057559 0.084747
Discount 0.356546 0.391287 0.000000 0.359372 0.397042 0.423168 0.528781
Distribution 0.030397 0.032430 0.031456 0.000000 0.034236 0.031213 0.034131
Ease of storage 0.104221 0.082159 0.102732 0.084102 0.000000 0.071168 0.058417
Packing 0.088308 0.058956 0.057116 0.037512 0.054332 0.000000 0.065468
Price 0.291762 0.190359 0.215226 0.234112 0.188310 0.272002 0.000000
The other factor is associated with situational factors' group, which includes presence of others,
culture, design of store, time available, local market condition, sales staff and self service with the
relative importance of 0.04296, 0.08733, 0.12130, 0.22217, 0.05643, 0.15346 and 0.31635,
respectively. The weight factors of these items are summarized in Table 6.
S. Ehsani Masouleh et al./ Management Science Letters 2 (2012)
Table 6
Weighted matrix in terms of situational factors
Presence of
Culture Design of
Local market
Sales staff Self
Presence of others 0.000000 0.079506 0.086985 0.119945 0.096241 0.101859 0.092846
Culture 0.070697 0.000000 0.060418 0.103904 0.141247 0.163229 0.152948
Design of store 0.034970 0.049330 0.000000 0.034866 0.073378 0.069528 0.056900
Time available 0.044971 0.034551 0.033251 0.000000 0.047657 0.046817 0.048787
Local market
0.113607 0.121763 0.108395 0.165670 0.000000 0.230578 0.191714
Sales staff 0.513265 0.511892 0.476941 0.432397 0.407001 0.000000 0.456796
Self service 0.222489 0.202957 0.234010 0.144098 0.234405 0.387989 0.000000
Finally, the main three factors of personal, product and situational are ranked using the proposed
model of this paper and the relative importance of these factors are 0.38462, 0.18462 and 0.43077,
respectively. Table 7 shows details of the weighted relative importance.
Table 7
Weighted matrix in terms of the main factors
Personal Product Situational
Personal 0.000000 0.333333 0.750000
Product 0.200000 0.000000 0.250000
Situational 0.800000 0.666667 0.000000
5. Discussion and conclusion
After understanding the importance of impulse buying in forming consumers' behavior, we decided to
extract different factors that are effective in impulse buying. So we categorized these extracted factors
from literature review in three groups and asked experts to weight these factors one by one. We
utilized an ANP model because there are meaningful relationships between sub-factors in each group
and between the groups. Then we put these gathered data in Super decision software and gained
presented results. Based on our experts' opinions, situational factors category is the most important
factor, which must be considered by decision makers. Then personal and product related factors are in
the importance rank. Other ranking results are presented in different tables and decision makers can
use from these ranked factors for directing their customers' behavior on buying impulsively.
For further studies, we suggest other weighting methods like Entropy and utilizing Fuzzy methods for
better conformity.
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... Pembelian impulsif dapat terpengaruh oleh faktor internal yang berkaitan dengan demografis serta kepribadian konsumen, dan faktor eksternal antara lain lingkungan sekitar, promosi produk, serta kelebihan produk yang dipasarkan penjual (Bhakat & Muruganantham, 2013). Produk, situasi dan kondisi pembelian, serta faktor demografis juga dapat menjadi faktor lainnya yang mempengaruhi perilaku pembelian impulsif (Masouleh et al., 2012). Seseorang dapat melakukan pembelian impulsif diikuti oleh hadirnya emosi kesenangan, kegembiraan, serta perasaan untuk melakukan pembelian produk secara spontan dan berulang kali (Verplanken & Herabadi, 2001). ...
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Perkembangan teknologi internet secara pesat beberapa tahun ini diiringi adanya kehadiran konsep marketplace memudahkan konsumen dalam melakukan pembelian. Kemudahan ini dapat memunculkan fenomena pembelian impulsif pada masyarakat apabila tidak dapat dikendalikan dengan baik. Tingginya motivasi belanja hedonis dapat menjadi salah satu faktor dalam pembelian impulsif, terutama pada kalangan remaja akhir. Sehingga penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan memiliki tujuan mencari pengaruh variabel motivasi belanja hedonis terhadap perilaku pembelian impulsif remaja akhir pada konsumen marketplace. Studi penelitian ini bersifat kuantitatif dengan teknik purposive sampling. Penelitian ini melibatkan 400 partisipan dengan usia 18 hingga 21 tahun dan pernah membeli produk fashion pada marketplace. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan motivasi belanja hedonis memberikan pengaruh sebesar 41.9% terhadap variabel pembelian impulsif pada marketplace. Hasil dari penelitian ini diharapkan dapat membawa kontribusi mengenai variabel serupa pada penelitian berikutnya. Kata Kunci: Motivasi belanja hedonis, marketplace, pembelian impulsif, konsumen, produk fashion Klasifikasi JEL: D100, M31, L67
... The buying process can also be understood as a typically social phenomenon and understood as a form of integration with the environment, assuming that the individual is directly influenced by the people who are part of his group (Garðarsdóttir & Dittmar, 2012). For example, the mere presence of other people in a purchasing situation can influence the ultimate behavior of the consumer (Luo, 2005;Masouleh, Pazhang, & Moradi, 2012). ...
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The objective of this study was to obtain evidence of validity of an instrument to measure the tendency to buy impulsively. A version adapted to Brazil of a Buying Impulsiveness Scale was applied to 1296 Brazilians from all states of the federation, with a mean age of 35.8 years (SD = 12.8). The results indicated a scale with one-factor structure, just like the original instrument, with an adequate index of internal consistency. Positive correlations were found between impulse buying tendency, normative social influence, and traits of impulsiveness of the consumer. The instrument was also able to differentiate people who make shopping lists from those who do not do them, and people who prefer to go shopping alone from those who prefer to buy accompanied by someone else. The evidences found in the study provide support to the use of the instrument for the Brazilian context.
... Influências sociais podem ser efetivadas sob diversificados ensejos: consumidores podem obter aprovação seja através de opiniões de amigos (Luo, 2005;Masouleh, Pazhang, & Moradi, 2012), ou filhos e/ou cônjuge (Angelo, Siqueira, & Fávero, 2003); seja através de interação com vendedores, materiais informativos no ponto de venda, redes sociais (Silveira & Soares, 2011), ou propagandas (Hee & Yen, 2018). Assim, a compra pode se relacionar com fatores sociais e estar ligada também a grupos de referência, papéis sociais, família e posições do consumidor (Escalas & Bettman, 2003;Yang, He, & Lee, 2007). ...
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Este estudo teve o objetivo de testar o poder preditivo dos cinco grandes fatores de personalidade, da influência interpessoal e de variáveis sociodemográficas sobre a compra por impulso. Participaram do estudo 1.296 brasileiros, média de idade de 35,8 anos (DP = 12,8), escolaridade mínima de Ensino Médio incompleto. Os resultados mostraram relações da compra por impulso com variáveis sociodemográficas, hábitos de consumo e personalidade. O modelo de regressão explicou 23% da variância da compra por impulso, sendo os maiores poderes preditivos o da influência interpessoal normativa e o do fator de personalidade neuroticismo, ambos preditores positivos; seguidos do hábito de fazer lista de compra e do fator conscienciosidade, como negativos. Os resultados confirmam o poder preditivo de fatores de personalidade, hábitos de consumo e variáveis sociodemográficas sobre o comportamento de compra por impulso.
... O processo de compra também pode ser compreendido como um fenômeno tipicamente social, e entendido como uma forma de integração ao meio, assumindo que o indivíduo é diretamente influenciado pelas pessoas que fazem parte do seu grupo (Garðarsdóttir & Dittmar, 2012). Por exemplo, a simples presença de outras pessoas numa situação de compra pode influenciar o comportamento final do consumidor (Luo, 2005;Masouleh, Pazhang, & Moradi, 2012). ...
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Versão em português (BR) de manuscrito original em inglês, a ser publicado na Revista PSICOUSF. ............................................................................................................................. Resumo - O objetivo deste estudo foi buscar evidências de validade de um instrumento para aferir a tendência de comprar impulsivamente. Aplicou-se uma versão adaptada para o Brasil de uma escala de compra por impulso em 1296 brasileiros de todos os estados da federação, média de idade de 35,8 anos (DP = 12,8). Os resultados indicaram uma escala com estrutura unifatorial, tal como o instrumento original, com adequado índice de consistência interna. Foram encontradas correlações positivas entre a tendência de comprar por impulso, a influência social normativa e traços de impulsividade do consumidor. O instrumento também foi capaz de diferenciar pessoas que fazem lista de compras das que não fazem, e pessoas que preferem ir às compras sozinhas das que preferem comprar acompanhadas. As evidências encontradas suportam o uso do instrumento para o contexto brasileiro. - Palavras-chave: comportamento do consumidor; impulsividade; validade do teste; escalas de autoavaliação ......................................................................................................................................... Abstract - The aim of this study was to seek validity evidence for an instrument that assesses impulsive buying tendency. An adapted version for Brazil of an impulse buying scale was applied in 1296 Brazilians from all states of the country, mean age 35.8 years (SD = 12.8). The results indicated a scale with a unifatorial structure, just as the original instrument, with an adequate index of internal consistency. Positive correlations were found among impulsive buying tendency, normative social influence, and traits of consumer impulsiveness. The instrument was also able to differentiate people who make shopping lists from those who do not, and people who prefer to shop alone from those who prefer to shop accompanied by someone else. The evidence supports the use of the scale in the Brazilian context. - Keywords: consumer behavior; impulsiveness; test validity; self-assessment scale ......................................................................................................................................... Resumen - El objetivo de este estudio fue buscar evidencias de validez de un instrumento para medir la tendencia de comprar impulsivamente. Se aplicó una versión adaptada para Brasil de una escala de compra por impulso en 1296 brasileños de todos los estados de la federación, media de edad de 35,8 años (DP = 12,8). Los resultados indicaron una escala con estructura de un factor, tal como el instrumento original, con adecuado índice de consistencia interna. Se encontraron correlaciones positivas entre la tendencia de comprar por impulso, la influencia social normativa y rasgos de impulsividad del consumidor. El instrumento también fue capaz de diferenciar personas que hacen lista de compras de las que no la hacen, y personas que prefieren ir de compras solas de las que prefieren comprar acompañadas. Las evidencias encontradas soportan el uso del instrumento para el contexto brasileño. - Palabras clave: conducta del consumidor; impulsividad; validación de test; escala de autoevaluación
... 145). Whereas impulsive buying is defined as -a sudden, compelling, hedonically complex purchase behavior in which the speed of the impulsive purchase decision on precludes any thoughtful, deliberate consideration of alternatives or future implications‖ (Masouleh, Pazhang, & Moradi, 2012, p. 1054. Similarly, Žnideršić, Grubor, & Marić (2014) describe impulsive buying as the customers' deviation from standard and rational behavior to satisfy their physiological and personal psychological needs. ...
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Today, marketing has become highly competitive across the industry, and understanding consumers' behavior has become a challenging task for the marketers. In strategic marketing planning, consumer behavior is an integral part of said process as the consumer plays the role of the user, the buyer and the payer. The behavior of the consumers changes as the factors that affect the consumer's behavior change. The goal of this research is to examine the effect of education on consumers' impulsive buying behavior. Data is collected using a 30-question questionnaire to test the respondents' impulsive buying behavior, their attitude to impulsive buying, and their education level and Emotional Intelligence. The sample size is 200, of which 184 are valid. Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) is used to analyze the acquired data to discern the correlation between the level of education and impulsive buying behavior.
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Tüketicilerin satın alma karar süreci demografik, sosyal, kültürel, kişisel, psikolojik faktörlerin ya da pazarlama araçları tarafından şekillenen faktörlerin etkisi altında ortaya çıkmaktadır. Bu anlamda dışsal ve içsel faktörler olarak ele alınabilecek olan bu türden faktörler, tüketicilerin zihninde gerçekleşen değerlendirmeyi etkileyerek bazı yanıtlar (tepkiler) meydana getirmektedir. Bu araştırma, sanal mağaza atmosferi, satış promosyonları, akış deneyimi ve impulsif satın alma değişkenleri arasındaki ilişkileri S-O-R paradigması kapsamında incelemeyi amaçlamıştır. Bu doğrultuda sanal mağaza atmosferi ve satış promosyonları dışsal uyaranlar, akış deneyimi organizma (zihinsel süreç) ve impulsif satın alma bir tüketici tepkisi olarak ele alınmış ve bir nicel araştırma kapsamında araştırmanın teorik modeli değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırmanın verilerini online anket yoluyla erişilen 407 tüketicinin yanıtları oluşturmuş ve veriler SPSS 24 ve AMOS 24 istatistik yazılımlarında çözümlenmiştir. Yapılan analizler sonucunda iyi uyum iyiliği gösteren bir yapısal eşitlik modeli kapsamında elde edilen bulgular, sanal mağaza atmosferi, satış promosyonları, akış deneyimi ve impulsif satın alma davranışı arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı ilişkiler bulunduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Sonuçlara göre akış deneyimi, hem sanal mağaza atmosferi ile impulsif satın alma arasında hem de satış promosyonları ile impulsif satın alma arasında aracılık rolü üstlenmektedir. Ayrıca sosyo-demografik özellikler ile alışveriş alışkanlıklarına ilişkin bazı faktörlerin istatistiksel olarak anlamlı gruplararası farklılıklar sergilediği ortaya çıkmıştır.
Conference Paper
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Recently, Vietnam has attracted more and more tourists. The tourism industry accounts for a large proportion of the economic structure and tends to develop more. Through tourism activities, we enhance Vietnam’s tourism reputation all over the world. Consequently, tourism service enterprises could make a profit as tourists tend to have impulsive buying behaviors when traveling abroad. Therefore, enterprises should have the right movement to develop business and bring our product out of the Vietnamese border. By grasping the factors that influenced the impulsive buying of tourists, enterprises can conduct specific marketing strategies that stimulated tourists to buy more. Most significantly, there is currently no specific previous study on the relationship between impulsive buying behaviors and the effect of currency differences among countries. In terms of tourism, many researchers conducted a study on customers’ behavior. Nonetheless, the currency effect on impulsive buying behavior of tourists when traveling abroad have not focused on, that is the reason why we carry out the research: “A research on the impact of monetary to tourists impulsive buying behavior: Case study of foreign tourists travel to Vietnam Study on impulsive buying behavior of tourists when traveling to Vietnam and recommendations of marketing strategies for Vietnamese enterprises” to fulfill the gap in this field.
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A compra por impulso é um tema complexo e com variadas influências. Este estudo experimental tem por objetivo analisar o efeito da identidade social, das emoções e da marca do produto na tendência de jovens para comprar sapatilhas por impulso. Participaram 545 jovens portugueses, que responderam a um questionário online sobre um cenário experimental de compra de sapatilhas da marca Adidas. Os resultados indicam que o desconto influencia a compra impulsiva e as emoções positivas medeiam a relação entre identificação com jovens e compra por impulso. Também verificou-se uma propensão à apropriação da marca como um marcador identitário da juventude portuguesa. Assim, além das características do produto, os processos grupais poderão estar relacionados com este comportamento de compra.
Palavras-chave: valores; compra por impulso; comportamento do consumidor. Resumo Os valores podem ser pessoais (SCHWARTZ, 2011) ou culturais (VANDELLO; COHEN, 1999) e são critérios e modelos que guiam ações, decisões e julgamentos (ROKEACH, 1979a). Valores são consequências de experiências de di-versos grupos sociais e são formados no interior desses, por meio do consenso, de pluralidade de opiniões, de comparação social e de crenças sobre a realidade (VALA, 1997). Além de serem crenças duradouras de um tipo particular de comportamento e poderem prever atitudes e orientar ações em diferentes contextos, os valores são preditores de comportamentos de compra (LINS; PEREIRA, 2011). O estudo dos valores em comportamento do consumidor se dá por seu caráter permanente e por abranger a predição não só do comportamento do consumidor, mas também dos processos de decisão, por exemplo. Os valores (segundo ENGEL; BLACKWELL; MINIARD, 2000) são representativos das “crenças do consumidor so-bre a vida e o comportamento aceitável”. Assim, eles expressam motivações dos in-divíduos, sendo importantes balizadores do comportamento humano. A natureza du-radoura dos valores e seu papel na estrutura de personalidade fazem sua aplicação em situações de consumo fundamental para entender, por exemplo, a compra por impulso, que é caracterizada por “uma tendência do consumidor a comprar espontaneamente, sem re-flexão, de forma imediata, estimulado pela proximidade física do obje-to desejado, dominado pela atração emocional (...) e absorvido pela promessa de gratificação imediata.” (ROOK, FISHER, 1995, pg 306). O objetivo principal deste estudo foi identificar quais valores humanos básicos estão relacionados à compra por impulso. Participaram da pesquisa 960 jovens e adultos de todos os estados do Brasil, sendo 233 homens e 727 mulheres. A média de idade foi de 29,6 anos (DP = 7,37; min = 18 e máx = 44) e mais de 50% da amos-tra foi de respondentes da região Sudeste. Sobre a escolaridade: 47,6% declarou ter ensino superior e 38,6%, pós-graduação. Divulgando via e-mail e redes sociais, a coleta de dados foi realizada em ambi-ente online. Os participantes responderam a duas escalas: 1) Escala de Compra por Impulso (1=discordo totalmente a 7=concordo totalmente); e 2) Questionário de Valo-res Humanos Básicos (1=nada importante a 7= extremamente importante). Para veri-ficar a relação entre os valores e a compra por impulso foi realizada uma análise de correlação para cada sexo. Os resultados indicaram que dois valores apresentaram relação significativa com a compra por impulso, e eles diferem entre os sexos. Para homens, o compor-tamento de compra por impulso se correlaciona com o valor “Poder” (“Ter poder para influenciar os outros e controlar decisões; ser o chefe de uma equipe”), r (233) = 0,14; p < 0,05. Para mulheres, a compra por impulso se correlaciona com o valor “Prazer” (“Desfrutar da vida; satisfazer todos os seus desejos”), r (727) = 0,14; p < 0,01. Os valores humanos são dimensão importante do comportamento do consu-midor, e entendê-los colabora na caracterização do consumo contemporâneo. Os dados deste estudo mostram que quanto mais se atribui importância a valores pesso-ais (que priorizam benefícios próprios), maior a tendência a realizar compras impulsi-vas. Sendo que os valores que predizem a compra por impulso são diferentes para sexo masculino e feminino. À luz do interesse crescente nos aspectos do comporta-mento do consumidor, os valores desempenham papel crítico no julgamento e toma-da de decisões, e estão entre as crenças avaliativas mais importantes (SELIGMAN & KATZ, 1996). Este trabalho usa variáveis sociodemográficas e psicográficas, e avan-ça no entendimento de situações de consumo abordando um fenômeno de caracte-rística social ligado a fatores psicológicos.
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The Current study focused on the Impact of Credit card Usage on Impulse Buying Behavior. The study has been conducted in Gwalior Region by using 150 respondents mostly mall shoppers. The finding showed a significant contribution that credit card usage as an Independent Variable has a significant effect on Impulse buying as a dependent variable also there is a significant relationship between both. The relationship between Credit Card as independent and Impulse Buying as a dependent variable is indicated by standardized coefficient Beta with a value .338. The significance of beta is tested using T-test and value for t is 4.798 which is significant at 0% level of significance indicating significant relationship between Impulse Buying and Credit Card Usage. The study also concluded that there is no effect of age and gender on both the variables neither individually nor collectively.
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Many factors affect the store patronage decision, e.g. location, service levels, pricing policies, merchandise assortment, store environment and store image, but very little research has considered stress as a determinant. This is despite the increase in dual income families and longer working hours which are making general shopping a more stressful activity for many families because of time pressure and lack of response by retailers. This exploratory research confirms grocery shopping to be stressful, but time pressure was mentioned as only one factor causing shopping stress; other factors included: crowd density, staff attitude and training, store layout/relocation, impulse purchasing pressure, location, product assortment, music, and lighting. The article concludes by proposing a shopping stress curve for future examination.
This paper applies Belk’s taxonomy (1975) to examine the impact of situational factors on shoppers’ purchasing outcomes in the Croatian hypermarket setting. It explores how store environment, social surroundings, temporal perspective, shopping task and antecedent situational dimensions influence the amount of money spent and number of items purchased. The model itself was tested with data collected from a consumer survey, carried out in the Croatian hypermarket setting. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, including one-way analysis of variance. Research results indicate that social surroundings, high perceived density and large-scale shopping were factors that significantly contribute to higher level of purchasing outcomes. The longer a shopper stays inside the store, the more she or he spent. Shopping outcomes were shown to be the highest on Saturday and for shoppers who patronized one or two stores as compared to other days and other shopper types respectively. Contrary to expectations, no statistically significant difference in purchasing outcomes was found across shopper types grouped by store atmospheric responses, travel time to store and time of the day shopping. By using this model, retailers may better predict the consumer response to situational factors, and thus can design a store strategy that will encourage particular pattern of shoppers’ behaviour.
Impulse buying generates over $4 billion in annual sales volume in the United States. With the growth of e-commerce and television shopping channels, consumers have easy access to impulse purchasing opportunities, but little is known about this sudden, compelling, hedonically complex purchasing behavior in non-Western cultures. Yet cultural factors moderate many aspects of consumer's impulsive buying behavior, including self-identity, normative influences, the suppression of emotion, and the postponement of instant gratification. From a multi-country survey of consumers in Australia, United States, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Malaysia, our analyses show that both regional level factors (individualism-collectivism) and individual cultural difference factors (independent-interdependent self-concept) systematically influence impulsive purchasing behavior.
Eleven girls and nine boys, aged 41–59 months, chose repeatedly, under controlled laboratory conditions, between one sticker available immediately and three stickers available after 30 s. On the average, the children chose the immediate one sticker more often than the three delayed stickers (i.e., they more often demonstrated impulsiveness than self-control). The boys showed significantly more impulsiveness than did the girls. These data are consistent with other data collected using related procedures and preschool children, but they are in contrast to those collected using procedures very similar to those used here but with adult humans, who tend to show self-control. This research establishes a methodology and points to future directions for quantitative examination of the determinants of self-control in preschool-aged subjects.
Simple multi-criteria decisions are made by deriving priorities of importance for the criteria in terms of a goal and of the alternatives in terms of the criteria. Often one also considers benefits, opportunities, costs and risks and their synthesis in an overall outcome. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) with its independence assumptions, and its generalization to dependence among and within the clusters of a decision - the Analytic Network Process (ANP), are theories of prioritization and decision-making. Here we show how to derive priorities from pair-wise comparison judgments, give the fundamental scale for representing the judgments numerically and by way of validation illustrate its use with examples and then apply it to make a simple hierarchic decision in two ways: pair-wise comparisons of the alternatives and rating the alternatives with respect to an ideal. Network decisions are discussed and illustrated with market share examples. A mathematical appendix is also included.
The seven pillars of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) are presented. These include: (1) ratio scales derived from reciprocal paired comparisons; (2) paired comparisons and the psychophysical origin of the fundamental scale used to make the comparisons; (3) conditions for sensitivity of the eigenvector to changes in judgements; (4) homogeneity and clustering to extend the scale from 1–9 to 1-℞; (5) additive synthesis of priorities, leading to a vector of multi-linear forms as applied within the decision structure of a hierarchy or the more general feedback network to reduce multi-dimensional measurements to a uni-dimensional ratio scale; (6) allowing rank preservation (ideal mode) or allowing rank reversal (distributive mode); and (7) group decision making using a mathematically justifiable way for synthesising individual judgements which allows the construction of a cardinal group decision compatible with individual preferences. These properties of the AHP give it both theoretical support and broad application.
Examines the situational dimensions affecting purchasing behavior of Hispanic customers in a mall at some distance from their neighborhoods. The Hispanic shopper (which would also include a large segment of immigrants) makes the (shopping) trip worthwhile by travelling with companions, consummating a purchase while at the mall, and buying food or beverage during the visit. The Hispanic shopper also spends more time at the mall and visits more stores while there. This is an example of how marketers have become increasingly interested in the extent to which situational factors influence immigrants' purchase behavior.