ArticlePDF Available

Evaluation of hair growth promoting activity of Musa paradisiaca unripe fruit extract

Authors:
  • Rajarambapu College of Pharmacy, Kasegaon

Abstract and Figures

For the evaluation of the hair growth promoting activity of Musa paradisiaca unripe fruit extract, the study was aimed to investigate the hair growth promoting activity of M. paradisiaca unripe fruit extract. Objective: We examined the effect of M. paradisiaca unripe fruit extract for the hair growth promoting activity, which has been traditionally used for treating hair loss. Materials and Methods: The mice were divided into four groups the extract and minoxidil were applied over the shaved skin surface on to the backs of mice and monitored for 30 days. Results: The extract of M. paradisiaca unripe fruit when tested for the hair growth activity was assed by studying hair length and microscopic study of follicles in vehicle control, 2% minoxidil treated and extract treated animals. Conclusion: The fi ndings suggest that extract of M. paradisiaca unripe fruit has potential as a hair growth promoter.
Content may be subject to copyright.
JOURNAL OF NATURAL
PHARMACUETICALS
An Official Publication of
Pharmacognosy Network Worldwide [Phcog.Net]
Vol 2 | Issue 3 | Jul-Sep 2011
www.jnatpharm.org
ISSN: 2229-5119
Edited by: Dr. Ilkay Orhan
Dept of Pharmacognosy
Faculty of Pharmacy
Gazi University 06330 Ankara,
TURKEY
www.jnatpharm.org
editor@jnatpharm.org
www.phcog.net
contact@phcog.net
CONTENTS
Message from the Editor
Evaluation of hair growth promoting
activity of Musa paradisiaca unripe fruit
extract
Effect of oral administration of ethanolic
root extract of Tinospora cordifolia on
aflatoxin B -induced toxicity in swiss
1
albino mice
Flavonoids inhibited NADPH consumption
and ecdysis processes in Oncopeltus
fasciatus
The genus Xanthorrhoea (Australian grasstrees) (collectively
known as curare, a South American arrow poison) from
Chondrodendron tomentosum. Photograph taken in Toohey
Forest, Brisbane Australia
by Dr. Ian Cock.
Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals • Volume 2 • Issue 2 • April-June 2011Pages 47-118
Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals, Volume 2, Issue 3, July-September, 2011
120
Address for
correspondence:
Prof. Anil Sidram Savali,
RMES’s College of
Pharmacy, Department
of Pharmacology and
Toxicology, Old Jewargi
Road, Balaji Nagar,
Gulbarga – 585 102,
Karnataka, India.
E-mail: anil.savali@
gmail.com
Departments of
Pharmacology and Toxicology,
1Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
2Pharmaceutics,
RMES’S College of Pharmacy,
Gulbaraga, Karnataka, India
Evaluation of hair growth promoting activity of Musa paradisiaca
unripe fruit extract
Anil Sidram Savali, Somnath Devidas Bhinge1, Hariprasanna R Chitapurkar2
ABSTRACT
For the evaluation of the hair growth promoting activity of Musa paradisiaca unripe fruit extract, the study
was aimed to investigate the hair growth promoting activity of M. paradisiaca unripe fruit extract. Objective:
We examined the effect of M. paradisiaca unripe fruit extract for the hair growth promoting activity, which
has been traditionally used for treating hair loss. Materials and Methods: The mice were divided into four
groups the extract and minoxidil were applied over the shaved skin surface on to the backs of mice and
monitored for 30 days. Results: The extract of M. paradisiaca unripe fruit when tested for the hair growth
activity was assed by studying hair length and microscopic study of follicles in vehicle control, 2% minoxidil
treated and extract treated animals. Conclusion: The ndings suggest that extract of M. paradisiaca unripe
fruit has potential as a hair growth promoter.
Key words: Hair growth promotion, hair length and hair follicles, Musa paradisiaca, 2% minoxidil
INTRODUCTION
As to keep hair intact is the rst and the
foremost duty of Sikh. As in mammals hair
play a vital role in thermal insulation, for
social and sexual communication, and is
protective appendages on the body and
considered accessory structure of the
integument along with sebaceous glands,
sweat glands, and nails.[1] Humans are
relatively hairless compared to other
mammals and human hair has no known
signi cance for survival of species.[2] Hair
loss is one the dermatological disorder to
human race being common throughout
the world, and is of great concern for
decades.[2] Hair growth is a complex
and cyclically controlled process that is
characterized by a nite period of hair ber
production, a brief regression phase and a
resting period.[3] The precise mechanism
of regulating hair growth cycle has not
yet been fully understood.[3] Many factors
such as metabolism, hormones, heredity,
and side effect of antineoplastics and
immunosuppressant drugs have been
negatively affecting the healthy growth of
hair.[2]
Use of minoxidil and finasteride for the
treatment of hair loss and hair thinning have
shown their side effects.[2] In this respect,
alternatives have attracted interest. These
crises lead to the search for natural products
from plant origin possessing potential hair
growth. The folklore claim of medicine in
India acclaims the hair growth promotion
of medicinal plants belonging to various
families, but lack of scientific literature
limited the use of these plants among the
community.
M. paradisiaca Linn plant belongs to the
family Musaceae. The plant is mostly found
in Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat,
Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Jalgaon
district (Maharashtra), West Bengal, and
Tamil Nadu. Traditionally the plant was
used for different purposes such as abscess,
alopecia (female), anasarca, burns, cancer,
cataplasm, diabetes, diarrhea, dog bites,
dysentery, dyspepsia, cruptions, fractures,
gangrene, headache, hematuria, hemiplegia,
hemoptysis, hemorrhage, hypertension,
lizard bites, mange, marasmus, migraine,
nausea, otalgia, psoriasis, ringworm,
scorpion sting, septicemia, shingles,
smallpox, snake bite, sore, strain, syphilis,
tuberculosis, tumor, uremia, urticaria,
JNP_17_11R4 Original Article
Access this article online
Access this article online
Website:
Website: www.jnatpharm.org
DOI:
DOI: 10.4103/2229-5119.86257
Quick Response Code:
Quick Response Code:
Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals, Volume 2, Issue 3, July-September, 2011 121
warts, and wound.[4,5] Based on these traditional uses
of the plant we investigate the fruit extract for its hair
growth promoting activity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant material
The unripe fruits of M. paradisiaca procured from the
local area of Gulbarga in October 2010. M. paradisiaca
authenticated by regional Medical council of India,
Belgaum, India. The unripe fruit was spiced and dried in
the shade, powdered to a coarse consistency and stored
in an airtight container at room temperature.
Preparation of plant extract
The dried and powdered fruit was soxhlet extracted with
methanol and aqueous. The extract was weighed after
solvent elimination under reduced pressure. The percent
yield of the extract was found to be 8% and 10% of the
methanolic and aqueous, respectively.
Animals
Swiss Albino mice of either sex weighing 18–25 gm
were used for hair growth studies. These animals were
maintained under standard conditions in the animal
house of RMES’s College of Pharmacy, Gulbarga. The
animals were provided with standard diet Ad libitum tap
water. All the experiments using animals were carried
out as per guidelines of IAEC (341/5a/CPCSEA) of college,
after the approval dated 31 January 2008.
In vivo
hair growth activity
The mice were divided into three groups of three mice
each. A 4 cm2 area of hair from dorsal portion of all mice
was shaved with electric hair clippers. 0.2 ml of 1% fruit
extracts in 50% of ethanol were applied to denuded area
of the respective groups once a day, a standard group
received 2% minoxidil solution[6] and a control group
received vehicle treatment. This treatment was continued
for 30 days and during this course the hair growth pattern
was observed.[1,3]
Hair length determination
Hairs were plucked randomly from the shaved area of all
mice on 20, 25, and 30 days after beginning the treatment.
The length of ten hair was measured and average length
was determined. The results were expressed as the mean
length S.D. of ten hairs.[1,7]
Histological studies
Using method of Adhirajan et al., 2003, with slight
modi cation, has done histological studies. One mouse
from each group was euthanicated on the thirtieth
day of the drug treatment. Skin biopsies were taken
from the shaved area and xed in 30% formalin buffer.
Tissues were embedded in paraf n wax and sectioned
into uniform thickness of 10 m and were stained with
haematoxylin and eosin. From the sections, the number
of hair follicles per millimeter of the skin[8] and percent
ratio of different cyclic phases such as anagen and telogen
of hair follicles were determined using microscope tted
with an ocular micrometer facility.
Statistical analysis
All the values were expressed as mean ± S.E.M (n=3
in each group. Statistical analysis was performed
using student t-test. A value of P<0.05 was considered
statistically signi cant.
RESULTS
In vivo
hair growth effect
It was observed that the hair growth was initiated from
the shaved area on 14 days in control; on standard- and
extract-treated animals the growth was initiated on sixth
and seventh day of treatment. As result shown in Table 1
and Figure 1, the whole denuded area of aqueous-extract-
treated mice has been covered at the end of the second
week, the standard- and methanolic-extract-treated mice
has been covered at the end of third week as compared
to control.
Measuring of hair length
As observed in Table 2 and Figure 2, and the results
shown in Figure 1, mice treated with aqueous and
methanolic extract produced greater effect on the hair
growth when compared standard and control group.
It was found that the length of hair of aqueous and
methanolic extract treated group measures 7.8±0.23
and 7.8±0.31mm as compared to standard (5.7±1.1) and
control group (5.5±0.29), respectively.
Histological studies
As shown in Table 3 and Figure 3, the skin biopsies
have shown the marked difference in the different cyclic
phases (anagen and telogen) of hair follicles in treated
and control mice. On the last day of treatment the control
group showed the 48% of follicles were in the anagen
phase, 60% of follicles in the minoxidil-treated group,
57% of follicles in the aqueous-treated group, and 62% of
follicles in the methanolic-extract-treated group showed
follicles in the anagen phase, respectively.
Table 1: E ect of Musa paradesiaca unripe fruit extract on the
qualita ve hair growth
Treatment (Topical) Hair growth (days) (mean± SEM)
Ini a on me Comple on me
Control 14±1.2 29±0.88
Minoxidil 6.7±1.5** 22±1.7**
Aqueous extract 6 ±0.58** 16±1.5***
Methanolic extract 6.3±1.2** 22±1.5***
*Signi cant di erence at P>0.05.
Savali,
et al
.: Hair growth promoting activity of
Musa paradisiaca
Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals, Volume 2, Issue 3, July-September, 2011
122
DISCUSSION
As to keep hair intact is the rst and the foremost
duty of Sikh. In mammal’s hair plays a vital role.[1]
Recently the number of men and women who suffered
from hair loss/ thinning is increasing. Therefore, it
is important to develop novel therapies that prevent
hair loss and enhance the hair growth. The two drugs
tropical minoxidil and oral Finasteride approved by
the food and drug administration for the treatment
of hair loss. But use of these drugs restricted because
of dermatological adverse effect of minoxidil[9,10] and
nasteride is not indicated for use in women.[11] In this
respect, alternative medicine has attracted interest.
Due to limited scienti c and incomplete knowledge of
mechanisms involved, alternative medicine has be come
an increasingly, alternative approach worldwide.[12]
M. paradisiaca Linn plant belongs to family Musaceae.
Traditionally the plant was used for different actions
such as roots of M. paradisiaca are anthelmintic. Flowers
are astringent.[13] Fruits are mild laxative. It helps in
combating diarrhea and dysentery and promotes healing
of intestinal lesions in ulcerative colitis.[13] It is useful in
celiac disease, constipation, and peptic ulcer.[13] Unripe
fruit and cooked ower are useful in diabetes.[13] The
bananas have avonoids with the antioxidant activity.[14]
Different parts of the plant have the medicinal value.[5]
Topical application with the 0.2 ml of 1% fruit aqueous
and methanolic extracts of M. paradisiaca reduced the
time required for hair growth initiation and was superior
to the standard solution. The quality of hair in the extract-
treated groups was observed as soft and silky hairs. The
1% aqueous and methanolic extracts of M. paradisiaca
where the best in inducing hair growth initiation and
Minoxidil treatment comes next. The signi cant increase
in length of hair follicle also supports the hair growth
promoting effect of the M. paradisiaca. In both mice
and human, the hair cycle is regulated by interplay of
stimulatory and inhibitory growth factors (Stennly paus
12 ml). The topical application of 5% minoxidil produced
approximately 10% conversion of telogen follicles into
the anagen follicles in macaque monkey and fuzzy
rats.[15] Minoxidil it is an antihypertensive drug. It was
postulated that they readily stimulate telogen buds and
transform them to larger anagen follicles than those in
Table 2: E ect of Musa paradesiaca unripe fruit extract on qualita ve
hair length
Treatment (topical) Hair length (mm) (mean SEM)
Control 5.50.24
Minoxidil 5.71.1*
Aqueous Extract 7.80.23**
Methanolic Extract 7.80.31**
*signi cant di erence at P>0.05.
Table 3: E ect of Musa paradesiaca unripe fruit extract on the
quan ta ve hair growth
Treatment (topical) A er 30 days (% of hair follicles)
Telogen
(mean± SEM)
Anagen
(mean± SEM)
Ra o
Control 541.2 480.88 1.25
Minoxidil 401.2 601.2 0.66
Aqueous Extract 431.5** 571.5** 0.75
Methanolic Extract 381.5** 621.5** 0.61
*signi cant di erence at P>0.05.
Figure 1: E ect of Musa paradesiaca unripe fruit extract on the qualita ve
hair growth
a
c
b
Savali,
et al
.: Hair growth promoting activity of
Musa paradisiaca
Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals, Volume 2, Issue 3, July-September, 2011 123
Figure 2: Hair growth promo ng e ect of the M. paradesiaca in Swiss albino mice a er 30 days. (a) Ini ally shaved skin of mice. (b) E ect of vehicle
(control group). (c) E ect of 2% minoxidil solu on. (d) E ect of 1% aqueous extract. (e) E ect of 1% methanolic extract
a b c
d e
Figure 3: Histopathological studies, the number of hair follicles counted in subcu s. (a) E ect of vehicle (control group). (b) E ect of 2% minoxidil solu on.
(c) E ect of aqueous extract. (d) E ect of methanolic extract
a b
c d
Savali,
et al
.: Hair growth promoting activity of
Musa paradisiaca
Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals, Volume 2, Issue 3, July-September, 2011
124
the previous cycle.[7] Another report was that Minoxidil
induces proliferation of epithelial cells near the base
of hair follicles and may induce the vasodilation of
scalp blood vessels.[16] However, the exact mechanism of
stimulation of the hair growth was not known. Similarly,
in our study we have observed that the hair follicles may
periodically transform from telogen to the anagen phase
in all groups. At the end of the study, aqueous-extract-
treated group showed 57% of follicles in the anagen phase,
the methanolic extract treated group showed 62% of the
follicles in the anagen phase whereas the 2% minoxidil
treated group and the control group showed 60% and 48%
of follicles in the anagen phase, respectively.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, the effect of M. paradisiaca unripe fruit
extract on the qualitative hair growth and length was
found to be more signi cant as compared to standard and
control-group-treated animals. The quantitative effect of
M. paradisiaca unripe fruit extract de nitely promotes
hair growth by inducing hair follicles in the anagen phase.
Animals treated with aqueous and methanolic extract of
M. paradisiaca showed better ef cacy as compared to the
control and standard group. The percentage of anagen
induction with methanolic extract of M. paradisiaca and
minoxidil were comparable. On the basis of similarities
observed between the minoxidil and the M. paradisiaca
studies, it is expected that M. paradisiaca will have
the similar hair growth activity as shown by minoxidil.
Further research is needed for structural elucidation
and identifying the mechanism of action responsible for
using M. paradisiaca as a potential hair growth promoter.
REFERENCES
1. Jung IY, Sharif M, Al-Reza, Sun CK. Hair growth promoting effect of
Zizyphus jujuba essential oil. Food Chem Toxicol 2010;48:1350-4.
2. Suraj R, Rejitha G, Sunilson JA, Anandarajgopal K, Promwichit P. In vivo
hair growth activity of Prunus dulcis seeds in rats. Biol Med 2009;4:34-8.
3. Rho SS, Park SJ, Hwang SL, Lee MH, Kim CD, Lee IH, et al. The hair
growth promoting effect of Asiasari radix extract and its molecular
regulation. J Dermatol Sci 2005;38:89-97.
4. Khare CP. Indian Medicinal Plants. Berlin: Springer; 2007. P.426
5. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Musa paradisiaca L. In: Kirtikar KR, Basu BD,
editors. Indian Medicinal Plant. Vol. 4. Delhi: Periodical Experts Book
Agency; 1991. p. 2452-6.
6. Jaybhaye D, Varma S, Gagne N, Bonde V, Gite A, Bhosle D. Effect of
Tectona grandis Linn. seeds on hair growth activity of albino mice. Int
J Ayurveda Res 2010;1:211-5.
7. Adhirajan N, Ravikumar T, Shanmugasundaram N, Babu M. In vivo and
in vitro evaluation of hair growth potential of Hibiscus rosa-sinesis Linn.
J Ethnopharmacol 2003;88:235-9.
8. Sawada M, Terada N, Taniguchi H, Tateishi R, Mori Y. Cyclosporin
Astimulates hair growth in nude mice. Lab Invest 1987;56:684-6.
9. DeVillez RL. The therapeutic use of topical minoxidil. Dermatol Clin
1990;8:367-75.
10. Datta K, Singh AT, Mukherjee A, Bhat B, Ramesh B, Burman AC. Eclipta
alba extract with potential for hair growth promoting activity. J
Ethnopharmacol 2009;124:450-6.
11. McClellan KJ, Markham A. Finasteride: A review of its use in male
pattern hair loss. Drugs 1999;57:111-26.
12. Bhaumik S, Jyothi MD, Khar A. Differential modulation of nitric oxide by
curumin in host macrophages and NK cells. FEBS Lett 2000;483:78-82.
13. Joshi S. Musa paradisiaca L. In: Joshi S, editor. Medicinal Plants. Delhi:
New Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.; 2000. p. 294.
14. Vijayakumar S, Presannakumar G, Vijayalakshmi NR. Antioxidant activity
of banana flavonoids. Fitoterapia 2008;79:279-82.
15. Uno H. Quantitative models for the study of hair growth in vivo. Ann
N Y Acad Sci 1991;642:107-24.
16. Savin RC, Atton AV. Minoxidil: Update on its clinical role. Dermatol
Clin 1993;11:55-64.
Cite this article as: Savali AS, Bhinge SD, Chitapurkar HR. Evaluation of
hair growth promoting activity of Musa paradisiaca unripe fruit extract. J Nat
Pharm 2011;2:120-4.
Source of Support: Nil. Con ict of Interest: None declared.
Savali,
et al
.: Hair growth promoting activity of
Musa paradisiaca
... In 2011, the hair growth promoting activity of Musa paradisiaca unripe fruit extract was explored [70] and Fard et al. explored the hair growth potential of E. cottonii [71]. found the hair growth potential of fresh leaf extracts of Naringi crenulata by using rodent model and activity was attributed to terpenoidal and flavonoid content [73]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Beauty is a prime concern of life. The standards of beauty varies from place to place but healthy skin and lustrous hair are focused point of concern in poetries and also applicable in daily life. So this review is based on various disorders of skin such as hyperpigmentation, wrinkle, leucoderma, dark circles, acne etc. and various disorders of hair such as alopecia, dandruff, seborrhea which give rise to ugly and aged appearance and the natural remedies for these disorders as they do not have side effects and are economic, biocompatible and ecofriendly.
... It has been reported that Musa paradisiaca has various therapeutic properties, such as hair growth, anti-ulcer, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, among other activities (Eleazu et al., 2010;Karadi et al., 2011;Pannangpetch et al., 2001;Savali et al., 2011). Furthermore, some studies have shown that some species of Musa paradisiaca exhibited antidiabetic, antihyperglycemic and hypoglycemia activities (Adewoye et al., 2009;Ojewole and Adewunmi, 2003;Mallick et al., 2006). ...
Article
Purpose In the Indian system of medicine – Ayurveda, Musa paradisiaca has been mentioned as a remedy for various diseases and ailments. Based on the folkloric use, the purpose of this paper is to verify and compare the hypoglycemic potential of unripe, ripe and overripe fruit extract of Musa paradisiaca . Design/methodology/approach Hypoglycemic activity of fruit extracts has been evaluated using various in vitro methods, namely, determination of glucose adsorption capacity, glucose uptake in yeast cells, amylolysis kinetics and glucose diffusion. Findings The extracts of unripe, ripe and overripe fruits of Musa paradisiaca adsorbed glucose, and the adsorption of glucose increased remarkably with an increase in glucose concentration. In the amylolysis kinetic experimental model, the rate of glucose diffusion was found to increase with time, and all the extracts of unripe, ripe and overripe fruits of Musa paradisiaca demonstrated significant inhibitory effects on the movement of glucose into external solution across the dialysis membrane as compared to the control. The extracts under study also promoted glucose uptake by the yeast cells in all the five glucose concentrations used in the study. Practical implications Here, the authors have verified and compared the hypoglycemic potential of Musa paradisiaca , its unripe fruit extract was found to show a better activity than ripe and overripe fruit extracts. Originality/value Banana, being an all season readily available fruit, is widely consumed due to its ready availability and low cost. It acts as a complete food for even low socio-economic classes of society, owing to its rich nutritional values. Even in a processed and unprocessed manner, it is an important constituent of diet. The research suggests that instead of consuming ripe and overripe fruit, the unripe fruit will help in management of diabetes.
... Antiulcer Activity (Devaraj et al. 2007) 9 Bad phal Hypoglycemic activity (Pari and Maheshwari 2000), analgesics activity , hair growth promotion activity (Savali et al. 2011) 12 Gular ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite pervasiveness of the market forces and supplementary role of the state and in some cases, even civil society organisations, there are unmet social needs which remain unaddressed by the existing institutions. With industrial growth becoming jobless, the need for new models of social innovation is being felt all around the world to provide jobs to the youth, skills for the new economy and entrepreneurial opportunities for transforming resources and skills. The persistence of some of these unmet needs (also referred as wicked problems sometimes) or unaddressed problems for a long time shows that the existing institutional arrangements are inadequate for the purpose. Innovations are imperative. A socio-ecological system that recognizes and rewards innovation can withstand many external shocks, provided it is agile and innovates quickly to remain responsive to emergent challenges (Anderies, Janssen, & Ostrom. Ecology and society, 9(1)2004). Whether corporations will follow an open innovation approach to blend grassroots ideas and innovations with their expertise in a reciprocal, responsible and respectful manner (Gupta et al., Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity 2: 16, 2016) is still an open question. The design of appropriatemanufacturing and frugal supply chain will then become closely linked with other features of open innovation ecosystem. The debate on the role of social innovation in multi-stakeholder context in European focused on how these innovations fostered trust among different actors and influenced policy (Defourny and Nyssens. Social Enterprise Journal 4: 202–228, 2008). In this paper, we describe the market and social forces which influence the emergence of social innovations through various processes. We then look into the evolutionary pathways for social innovations (Mulgan, Innovations 1: 145–162, 2006), to avoid inertia and spur initiatives to bridge the social gap in an inclusive manner through mobilization of youth in particular. The ecosystem for social open innovations provides scope for connecting corporations and communities (Herrera, 2015; Gibson-Graham and Roelvink, Social innovation for community economies: how, 2013). Following the theory of reciprocal and responsible open innovation systems (Gupta et al., Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity 2: 16, 2016), we explore the way barriers are overcome on the way to reach the base of economic pyramid [BOEP] customer. Technological adaptability and institutional or market adaptability are explored to understand how communities get empowered to deal with corporations through an open innovation platform. The corporations need to be empowered to understand the decision heuristics followed by grassroots and community frugal innovators (Gupta, Innovations 1: 49–66, 2006). Just as communities need to be empowered to negotiate fair and just exchange relationship with corporations (Honey Bee Network, 1990–2017). Finally, we conclude with the recommendations based on the experiences of grassroots innovators that can enrich both social innovations and social enterprises following commercial as well as social business models for meeting the unmet needs of the disadvantage section of the society.
Article
Full-text available
Background In Aayurveda, Blumea eriantha DC has been used in the management of various diseases and is found to exhibit antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic, anti-diarrhoeal, larvicidal, antimicrobial properties. Objective The present study has focused on isolation of the active fraction from B. eriantha DC extract and to investigate its effect as a hair growth promoter along with identification of phytoconstituent(s) responsible for hair growth activity and its probable mechanism of action. Materials and methods Our work introduces an effective isolation protocol for the active fraction from B. eriantha DC extract using chromatographic techniques. Fraction A was isolated by using mobile phase toluene:acetone (9:1). In-vitro and in-vivo methods were executed for the evaluation of hair growth activity. Moreover, the docked conformations of the isolated phytoconstituent Dimethyl sulfone was compared to Minoxidil for selected proteins namely 2FGF, 2PVC and 4U7P. The PDB identifications 2PVC (DNMT3L recognizes unmethylated histone H3 lysine 4), 4U7P (Crystal structure of DNMT3A-DNMT3L complex and 2FGF (Human Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor) were downloaded from Protein Data Bank. Results The study data revealed that B. eriantha DC alcoholic extracts exhibited prominent hair growth activity and it was affirmed that Dimethyl sulfone a phyto-constituent isolated from B. eriantha DC alcoholic extract contributed for the same. Conclusion The findings strongly suggest hair growth promotion potential of the extract of B. eriantha DC.
Article
Full-text available
Background More people—in both developing and developed countries—now use, and are favourably disposed to, traditional medicine. Musa paradisiaca (plantain) is used extensively in traditional medicine across continents. In this review, we investigated the scientific justification of this extensive usage. Main body Generally, several studies validate usage in infectious diseases, but limited antiviral and in vivo reports exist. The mechanistic elicitation of antimicrobial activity has similarly not been ascertained. Contrarily, data abound from rigorous studies on physiological conditions. Activity across categories is tied to the potent phytosterols duo of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol; and the triterpenes viz. cycloeucalenone, 24-methylene-cycloartanol, and 31-norcyclolaudenone; present in plantain. Toxicity studies, while finite, suggest general safety and tolerance. Conclusions Findings in the studies reviewed projects plantain as a veritable source for drug bioprospecting that will be of benefit to scientific research and pharmaceutical industries.
Article
Full-text available
The intent of the present investigation was to explore the utility of alcoholic and aqueous extract of Punica granatum L. as hair growth promoter along with anti-lice and antidandruff activity. A filter paper diffusion approach was employed for screening of the pediculocidal and ovicidal activity. Albino mice, preselected for their telogen phase of hair growth were used during the study. The prepared extracts, Minoxidil and control were applied over shaved skin surface on to the backs of mice to assess telogen to anagen transition. The qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed. The outcome of the studies revealed that Punica granatum L. alcoholic and aqueous extracts exhibited prominent anti-lice activity. The transition of telogen to anagen phase of the number of anagen hair follicle was observed in approximately 45, 27 and 51% of animals treated with alcoholic and aqueous extract of Punica granatum L., and Minoxidil, respectively, which suggest the hair growth promoting potential of the extract of Punica granatum L. Also, 3 % Punica granatum L. alcoholic extracts exhibited a potent antidandruff activity against fungal strains tested. Maltol, was identified as a principal phytoconstituent in the alcoholic extract. The findings greatly suggest anti-lice, antidandruff and hair growth promoting potential of the extract of Punica granatum L.
Article
Background: To execute green synthesis approach for the preparation of silver and iron nanoparticles by using alcoholic Blumea Eriantha DC extract and to verify the biological potential of the prepared nanoparticles as a hair growth promoter. Method: Extract was mixed with silver nitrate and ferric chloride for synthesis of silver and iron nanoparticles, respectively. Prepared nanoparticles were confirmed by UV, FT-IR, SEM, X-ray diffraction and TEM. The qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed namely hair growth initiation, hair growth completion, hair length, hair weight, histopathological studies, skin thickness and length of the hair follicle. Results: The prepared nanoparticles were observed as a blend of spherical and irregular shape with an average particle size of 35nm. The transition of anagen hair follicles was observed in approximately 63.43 % of animals treated with Minoxidil, whereas 2% and 5% Blumea eriantha silver nanoparticles treated animal group exhibited 33.02% and 60.93% respectively. The animal groups treated with 2% and 5% iron nanoparticles of Blumea Eriantha showed 44.09 and 38.89% in anagen induction respectively, which suggest the hair growth promoting potential of the extract of Blumea eriantha DC. Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that silver nanoparticles of Blumea Eriantha exhibits promising hair growth promoting activity.
Article
Bioactive principles from the hyroalcoholic (50%) extract of Musa paradisiaca L. stem were isolated and characterized to evaluate antifertility activity in female albino rats. Oral acute toxicity study was done with crude extract for 24h. The hydro alcoholic extract of M. paradisiaca stem was subjected to silica gel column chromatography using gradient solvent system DCM: Eth, Mth: Eth and Mth., ten different fraction were collected. The yield of fraction Mu-HA- Mps was 580 mg, further fractionated for purification by using solvent DCM-MeOH (3:2) to yield compound Mu-HA-Mps (20.22 %w/w). Isolated compound Mu-HA-Mps was subjected to evaluation of its antifertility potential by antiovulatory and estrogenic activity. The isolated compound Mu-HA-Mps was found to exhibit significant antiovulatory and antiestrogenic activity at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Isolated compound Mu-HAMps was subjected to structure elucidation by UV, IR, NMR and MASS spectral analytical methods. The results of the present study provide evidence of anti-fertility activity of isolated compound Mu-HA-Mps as claimed in the traditional use. The hydroalcoholic extract of Musa paradisiaca L. furnished a compound whose structure was established as 4'-methoxy-7-hydroxyisoflavone on the basis of physical and spectral basis and could be a good source of drug for birth control. © 2018 Indian Drug Manufacturers' Association. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
The present study was undertaken to verify the hypoglycemic potential of unripe and ripe fruit extracts of Musa sapientum by using various in-vitro techniques, namely glucose adsorption capacity, glucose diffusion, amylolysis kinetics and glucose transport across the yeast cells. The results revealed that the unripe and ripe fruit extracts of Musa sapientum adsorbed glucose and the adsorption of glucose increased remarkably with an increase in glucose concentration. There were no significant (p≤0.05) differences between their adsorption capacities. In the amylolysis kinetic experimental model the rate of glucose diffusion was found to be increased with time from 30 to 180 min and both extracts exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the movement of glucose into external solution across the dialysis membrane as compared to control. The plant extracts also promoted glucose uptake by the yeast cells and enhancement of glucose uptake was dependent on both the sample and glucose concentration. The hypoglycemic effect exhibited by the extracts was observed to be mediated by inhibiting α-amylase, inhibiting glucose diffusion by adsorbing glucose and by increasing glucose transport across the cell membranes as revealed by an in-vitro model of yeast cells.
Article
Women, especially in the marginalized communities of the high-risk regions prone to flood and drought are considered most vulnerable to climate change risks. They play a very important role in household nutrition management and resource management in terms of labor, off-farm products, and small savings. In the absence of help from formal and informal R and D and technology institutions, their knowledge and resources’ exchange system has to be very robust to cope with the seasonal shortages arising due to climate fluctuations. The study found that these exchanges, spilling over caste or class boundaries, serve as valuable informal safety nets and contribute to household resilience. Researchers seeking to strengthen community coping strategies should pursue such polices and institutional interventions which strengthen women's resource exchange and exploitation mechanisms. We offer in the end a 4-E model involving exchange, expertise, ethics, and environmental consciousness which describes how these empower women and help in articulation of their unique coping strength at intra- and inert-community levels. Lateral learning among community members sustains and enhances over time collective and household coping strategies with climate risks.
Article
Full-text available
The seeds of Tectona grandis Linn. are traditionally acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian system of medicine. Studies were therefore undertaken in order to evaluate petroleum ether extract of T. grandis seeds for its effect on hair growth in albino mice. The 5% and 10% extracts incorporated into simple ointment base were applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino mice. The time required for initiation of hair growth as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control. The result of treatment with minoxidil 2% is 49% hair in anagenic phase. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts compared to control animals. The treatment was successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles (64% and 51%) in anagenic phase than standard minoxidil (49%). The results of treatment with 5% and 10% petroleum ether extracts were comparable to the positive control minoxidil.
Article
Full-text available
Curcumin, the yellow pigment from Curcuma longa, has been shown to possess tumoricidal activity. We have earlier reported the induction of apoptosis in AK-5, rat histiocytic cells by curcumin leading to the inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. In this study we have observed differential activation status in host macrophages and NK cells induced by curcumin during the spontaneous regression of subcutaneously transplanted AK-5 tumors. Closer scrutiny of the cytokine profile and nitric oxide (NO) production by immune cells showed an initial downregulation of Th1 cytokine response and NO production by macrophages, and their upregulation in NK cells, which picked-up upon prolonged treatment with curcumin, culminating in a stronger tumoricidal effect. These studies suggest that the host macrophages and NK cells play an important modulatory role in the remission of AK-5 tumor.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Eclipta alba is traditionally known to potentiate hair growth promotion. Aim of the study: The study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of methanol extract of Eclipta alba as hair growth promoter. Materials and methods: Pigmented C57/BL6 mice, preselected for their telogen phase of hair growth were used. In these species, the truncal epidermis lacks melanin-producing melanocytes and melanin production is strictly coupled to anagen phase of hair growth. The extract was applied topically to assess telogen to anagen transition. Immunohistochemical investigation was performed to analyze antigen specificity. Animals in anagen phase of hair growth were positive for FGF-7 and Shh and negative for BMP4, whereas the animals in telogen phase were positive only for BMP4 antigen. Results: The methanol extract of whole plant when tested for hair growth promoting potential, exhibited dose dependent activity in C57BL6 mice. The activity was assessed by studying the melanogenesis in resected skin, follicle count in the subcutis, skin thickness and surrogate markers in vehicle control and extract treated animals. Conclusion: These findings suggest that methanol extract of Eclipta alba may have potential as a hair growth promoter.
Article
This study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of essential oil from seeds of Zizyphus jujuba for its potential role on hair growth by in vivo method. Essential oil was applied at different concentrations (0.1%, 1% and 10%) over the shaved skin onto the backs of BALB/c mice and monitored for 21 days. After 21 days, mice treated with 1% and 10% of oil produced a greater effect on the length of hair which were measured to be 9.96 and 10.02 mm, respectively, as compared to the control (8.94 mm). We measured the weight of hair/cm(2) area of dorsal skin and also evaluated hair thickness and hair follicles microscopically after plucking the hair immediately from the shaved area of mice and found the best results for 1% of essential oil-treated mice. From this study, it is concluded that Z. jujuba essential oil possesses hair growth promoting activity.
Article
Seeds of Prunus dulcis were traditionally known for its hair growth activity. The study was aimed to investigate theefficacy of various extracts of P. dulcis as a potential hair growth promoter. Petroleum ether, methanol, chloroformand water extracts of P. dulcis seeds incorporated in oleaginous ointment base were applied topically on shaveddenuded skin of albino rats and screened for hair growth activity. Petroleum ether extract showed consistent andsignificant increase in the length of hair (p<0.001) and also showed a good percentage of hair follicles in the anagenphase after histological studies. The total number of days taken to complete hair growth for petroleum ether was 24where as for methanol, water and chloroform extracts were 28, 29 and 30 respectively. From this study it can beconcluded that the seed extracts of P. dulcis exhibits a significant potency in promoting hair growth.
Article
Topical minoxidil is a trichogenic agent that stimulates the hair follicle via the vasoactive metabolite minoxidil sulfate without any evidence of antiandrogen activity or an effect on the immune system. Less than 5% of the applied dose is absorbed. The therapeutic effect on hair regrowth is demonstrated for androgenetic alopecia in males and females, by a computer-assisted image analysis counting technique of nonvellus hairs from a photographic print. Patients with severe alopecia areata respond poorly to topical minoxidil treatment. The most common adverse reactions are limited to irritant and allergic contact dermatitis on the scalp. The use of retinoic acid with topical minoxidil has been disappointing relative to the increase in systemic exposure. The value of topical minoxidil as an adjunct for the hair transplant procedure and its effect on hair loss from chemotherapy are being evaluated.
Article
When cyclosporin A (CyA) at doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight/day was given for 14 days to six-week-old female and male nude mice, the length of the hair of CyA-treated mice began to increase from day 7 of the treatment at both doses. There was no hair growth in the control mice, which were given only olive oil. The hair length of CyA-treated mice was 3 to 4 times longer than that of control mice. CyA at both doses induced hair growth to the same extent. There was no difference in the hair growth between the male and female mice. The growth of hair was apparent on the neck, back, and hip. However, no hair growth was observed in the abdominal region. The hair length of the CyA-treated mice decreased after cessation of the treatment, and returned to the level of the control mice on day 14 after the end of the treatment. Microscopic examination revealed that there was no difference in the number of hair follicles between the control and the CyA treated mice.
Article
Prior to the introduction of minoxidil, the treatment of common baldness was limited to hair transplants, hair pieces, and cosmetic agents based largely on unsubstantiated claims. Minoxidil is the first FDA-approved topical medication for the treatment of both male and female androgenetic alopecia. The background of minoxidil's development and use in clinical practice is reviewed in this article. The scientific study and common use of topical minoxidil has ushered in a new era of research into hair loss and its treatment.
Article
Unlabelled: The 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride blocks the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the androgen responsible for male pattern hair loss (androgenetic alopecia) in genetically predisposed men. Results of phase III clinical studies in 1879 men have shown that oral finasteride 1 mg/day promotes hair growth and prevents further hair loss in a significant proportion of men with male pattern hair loss. Evidence suggests that the improvement in hair count reported after 1 year is maintained during 2 years' treatment. In men with vertex hair loss, global photographs showed improvement in hair growth in 48% of finasteride recipients at 1 year and in 66% at 2 years compared with 7% of placebo recipients at each time point. Furthermore, hair counts in these men showed that 83% of finasteride versus 28% of placebo recipients had no further hair loss compared with baseline after 2 years. The clinical efficacy of oral finasteride has not yet been compared with that of topical minoxidil, the only other drug used clinically in patients with male pattern hair loss. Therapeutic dosages of finasteride are generally well tolerated. In phase III studies, 7.7% of patients receiving finasteride 1 mg/day compared with 7.0% of those receiving placebo reported treatment-related adverse events. The overall incidence of sexual function disorders, comprising decreased libido, ejaculation disorder and erectile dysfunction, was significantly greater in finasteride than placebo recipients (3.8 vs 2.1%). All sexual adverse events were reversed on discontinuation of therapy and many resolved in patients who continued therapy. No other drug-related events were reported with an incidence > or =1% in patients receiving finasteride. Most events were of mild to moderate severity. Oral finasteride is contraindicated in pregnant women because of the risk of hypospadias in male fetuses. Conclusions: Oral finasteride promotes scalp hair growth and prevents further hair loss in a significant proportion of men with male pattern hair loss. With its generally good tolerability profile, finasteride is a new approach to the management of this condition, for which treatment options are few. Its role relative to topical minoxidil has yet to be determined.