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Reading difference: Picture book retellings as contexts for exploring personal meanings of race and culture

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Abstract

In racially and culturally homogeneous school settings, opportunities for children to interact with those who are unlike themselves are not always available. Picture book retellings provide contexts within which students are exposed to racial and cultural differences by allowing them to engage in vicarious events with people they might not otherwise encounter. In this article, the authors explore two fourth graders' aided and unaided picture book retellings. They argue that retellings are dialogic literacy events that provide children with opportunities to explore difference through social imagination and develop empathetic response to a wide range of fictional others.

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... Isso ocorre porque um livro de ficção pode provocar sentimentos e identificações que vão desde tristezas, por conta de dificuldades vividas pelas personagens, até sorrisos, provocados pela superação de desafios antes instransponíveis (Guarisco & Freeman, 2015). Por essa razão, muitos teóricos têm proposto (n = 18; 85,7%), como demonstrado pela revisão, que a literatura ficcional estimula, desenvolve e aprofunda a capacidade de ser empático (Hibbin, 2016;Lysaker & Sedberry, 2015). Além para os estudantes, seguidos de intervenções (Guarisco & Freeman, 2015;McTigue et al., 2015) e, finalmente, pós-teste, com a repetição da bateria de investigação inicial, para aferir melhorias nos testes de leitura e de empatia em grupos de controle e grupos experimentais (Riquelme & Montero, 2013). ...
... Além para os estudantes, seguidos de intervenções (Guarisco & Freeman, 2015;McTigue et al., 2015) e, finalmente, pós-teste, com a repetição da bateria de investigação inicial, para aferir melhorias nos testes de leitura e de empatia em grupos de controle e grupos experimentais (Riquelme & Montero, 2013). Os estudos de caso envolveram, principalmente, observação (Venegas, 2019) e entrevistas (Lysaker & Sedberry, 2015) a partir de um trabalho com textos de ficção, incluindo, também, medidas de aferição da empatia (Parsons, 2013) e da leitura (Newstreet et al., 2018). Os estudos transversais correlacionais, em grande maioria, verificaram se a leitura de textos narrativos poderia predizer os níveis de empatia demonstrados pelos estudantes (Chisholm et al., 2017;Jensen et al., 2011). ...
... A experiência de ler leva o estudante a estabelecer inferências sobre os sentimentos e os pensamentos das personagens (McTigue et al., 2015). Além disso, o fato de o estudante precisar compreender os diferentes pontos de vista do narrador e das personagens principais e secundárias desenvolve a empatia cognitiva de forma acentuada (Guarisco & Freeman, 2015;Lysaker & Sedberry, 2015). ...
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O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer as principais investigações sobre as relações entre a leitura detextos ficcionais e a empatia em crianças e adolescentes. Por meio de uma revisão integrativa da lite-ratura científica nas bases SciELO, ERIC e PsycInfo, de 2009 a 2020, foram analisados, na íntegra, 21artigos. A análise realizada mostrou uma predominância de estudos de intervenção, seguidos por estu-dos de caso e estudos correlacionais. A amostra das investigações se constitui, predominantemente, deestudantes, apesar de algumas incluírem também a percepção do professor e dos pais e responsáveis.Foram verificadas diferentes facetas da relação entre leitura e empatia, sendo identificados tanto es-tudos que enfatizam a contribuição da leitura para o desenvolvimento da empatia como estudos quemostram a contribuição da empatia para a aprendizagem inicial e o desenvolvimento da compreensãoleitora. Grande parte das pesquisas foi realizada no contexto norte-americano, apontando uma lacunano cenário brasileiro.
... In recent years, researchers from the psychology and language fields have noted a significant association between fictional narratives and emotional experiences (Aram & Aviram, 2009;Brett, 2016;Karniol, 2012 (Hibbin, 2016;Lysaker & Sedberry, 2015). Additionally, the fact that the development of socioemotional skills was recently added to school curricula reinforces the importance of promoting empathy through literature (Schonert-Reichl et al., 2015), which is reported by some studies addressed here (n = 3; 14.3%). ...
... Additionally, the methods, procedures, and instruments used show that the interventions were organized with pretests and reading tests (McTigue et al., 2015) and empathy scales (Schonert-Reichl et al., 2015) applied to students, followed by interventions (Guarisco & Freeman, 2015;McTigue et al., 2015), and, finally, post-tests repeating the set of tests applied in the initial investigation to measure differences in reading tests and empathy for the control and experimental groups (Riquelme & Montero, 2013). The case studies primarily involved observations (Venegas, 2019) and interviews (Lysaker & Sedberry, 2015) based on fiction texts, including empathy (Parsons, 2013) and reading measures (Newstreet et al., 2018). Most correlational cross-sectional studies verified whether the reading of narrative texts predicted levels of empathy among students (Chisholm et al., 2017;Jensen et al., 2011). ...
... Hence, the journey initiated with reading narrative texts transforms students, as it incites various processes, including emotional involvement with the story and identification with characters (Hibbin, 2016;Lysaker & Sedberry, 2015;McTigue et al., 2015). Jensen et al. (2011) found that reading for pleasure leads students to seek fictional books more frequently and influences their emotional engagement with reading. ...
Article
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This study seeks to know the main investigations on the relationship between reading fiction texts and empathy in children and adolescents. Through an integrative review of the scientific literature from the Scientific Electronic Library Online (Scielo), Education Resources Information Center (Eric), and PsycInfo databases between 2009 and 2020, 21 articles were analyzed in detail, showing a predominance of intervention studies, followed by case and correlational studies. The research samples are predominantly made up of students, although some also include the perception of teachers, parents, and guardians. Different aspects of the relationship between reading and empathy were identified, both studies that emphasize the contribution of reading to the development of empathy and studies that show the contribution of empathy to initial learning and the development of reading comprehension were observed. Most of the research was conducted in the North American context, pointing out a gap in the Brazilian scenario.
... 31). Social imagination (Johnston, 1993;Lysaker & Sedberry, 2015) and cultural imagination (Enciso & Shanahan, 1993;Spencer, 2002) appear as research terms across decades, showing researchers and practitioners have recognized ways literacy and imagination contribute to understanding of self and others. ...
... 428). Lysaker & Sedberry (2015) attempted to measure children's social imagination, studying the reactions and responses of two boys in fourth grade. The researchers provided picture books in which the text was not explicit, allowing room for readers' interpretations. ...
... response is reasonable or unreasonable in relation to the text. Lysaker & Sedberry (2015). ...
Article
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Through content analysis of research conducted during the last 25 years, this paper identifies five vital uses of imagination within literacy instruction. First, readers use imagination to comprehend text. Second, readers use imagination to engage in the world depicted through the text. Third, readers use imagination to make sense of both narrative and expository texts. Fourth, readers use imagination to learn about self and others. Finally, readers benefit from instruction regarding the use of imagination to enhance reading. A compilation of instructional methods are presented. This analysis establishes the need for classroom instruction connecting imagination and literacy.
... The use of culturally representative literature in dialogic reading can also help children from culturally diverse backgrounds deeply connect with the text and engage in the learning process (Daunic et al., 2013). By incorporating culturally relevant text into dialogic reading, children benefit from engaging in familiar or unfamiliar social worlds by expressing their thoughts and feelings, while adopting and acting from the perspectives of others (Lysaker & Sedberry, 2015). Graphic images are also an important consideration when implementing dialogic reading in counseling. ...
... As children read text and view images in books, they can actively connect and identify with characters who are similar to or distinct from themselves. This process leads to new ways of thinking about themselves and others and invites children to factor issues of power and fairness into their shared reading experience (Lysaker & Sedberry, 2015). ...
Article
Social-emotional learning (SEL) and literacy skills are key components of child development. School counselors are charged with supporting children’s holistic development to prepare them for adulthood by implementing counseling curricula that focus on both academic and social-emotional growth. School counselors can promote academic and literacy learning by engaging children in counseling techniques that employ shared reading. Through reading and discussing socially and culturally meaningful texts, children make personal connections with characters in stories, thereby strengthening a love for reading. Creating personal connections to stories also helps develop children’s SEL. This article describes using dialogic reading as a culturally relevant counseling practice to promote SEL and support literacy development for kindergarten through third grade children. Dialogic reading is a shared reading strategy that positions children as active participants in adult-guided book reading and builds literacy and social-emotional skills. The dialogic reading curriculum described in this article is designed for school counselors given their unique skill set in promoting children’s SEL and academic development. There are limited interventions available for school counselors that combine SEL and literacy skill development through culturally responsive practices. Implications of infusing culturally relevant dialogic reading in counseling to promote SEL and literacy learning are described.
... These narrative tasks are particularly useful with younger or illiterate children (Fiestas and Pena 2004). Analyses of picture book tasks have included audio recording children's retelling of narratives and analyzing transcripts for themes (e.g., Lysaker and Sedberry 2015). ...
Article
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Children's ethnoecological knowledge and behaviors related to the environment, health, and food can differ significantly from those of the adults around them. It can be difficult to design studies to capture these differences because standard ethnographic methods do not necessarily translate well to fieldwork with children. We review and evaluate the range of tools useful for eliciting children's (birth to age 12) cultural knowledge and behavior across the domains of health, food, and the environment, identifying the characteristics of different methods (e.g., what type of data they produce, their fit with types of research questions, ages with which they have been used, analytical tools, advantages, and disadvantages). Methods examined include systematic observation in situ (time scans or spot observations), focal follows, photo and video elicitation, artwork, photovoice, video diaries, scrapbooking, oral semi-structured interviews, focus groups, written surveys and diaries, object identification and sorting, attribution tasks, and narrative picture book tasks. We find several opportunities to strengthen ethnoecological research with children. These include regularly disclosing and discussing the challenges and details of using informed consent and conducting new research to understand the impacts of integrating technologies with other methods to collect ethnoecological data with children. Careful consideration of methods is important for rigorous research and this article serves as a tool for researchers working with or considering working with children, to expand the body of research engaging with and analyzing children's unique cultures.
... Literature may offer opportunities for students to explore social differences such as gender (Lysaker & Sedberry, 2015), but interpretations of such stories are always a product of students' intimate transactions with texts. Because textual transactions are grounded in the personal, varied interpretations of the same story may arise across readers (Brooks & Browne, 2012). ...
Article
How might literature be shared with students for transformative purposes? Literature has the power to shape students’ worldviews through the exploration of diverse human experiences, but how students engage with diverse characters is important to reaching transformative goals. The author identified teachers’ pedagogical moves within a preschool conversation on gender around the picture book My Princess Boy by Cheryl Kilodavis. Noticing how gender normativity manifested in the classroom, teachers used the book to open the conversation on gender, honor students’ sensemaking, and complicate gender norms through responsive listening. Using examples of teacher–student interactions across the preschool book conversation, practical suggestions are provided for teachers to facilitate transformative dialogue when sharing diverse texts with young students.
... More critical concerns deal with what children learn from what picture books construct as normal, from who is included or excluded, and from the representations of "sanitized ideal worlds" (McDaniel, 2004). The more critical picture books embrace gender stereotyping of female characters (Evans, 1998;Hamilton, Anderson, Broaddus, & Young, 2006), archetypes of masculinity (Zambo, 2007), and the relative absence of marginalized ethnic, racial, and cultural groups (Lysaker & Sedberry, 2015;Meier, 2015). There is also a body of work that shows how picture books support children's writing (Hager, 2015), children's vocabulary and language development (Wasik & Bond, 2001), and sense of narrative and voice (Carter, 1993). ...
Article
Although the literature on picture books is extensive, very little work focuses on how they are integrated into teacher education curricula. We contend that effective use of these resources requires an understanding of the relationship between preservice teachers’ conceptions of children and of picture books. Second-year South African undergraduate preservice teachers were asked to review 12 picture books of their own choosing, discuss some of these books with children, and write reflections on what they learnt from the children’s responses. Two hundred and thirty picture-book reviews and 62 reflections were analyzed. The data show that preservice teachers’ criteria for choosing books were disrupted by children’s views. We conclude by considering our own assumptions about our students and the implications for teacher education curriculum design.
... While self-activity within relational domains appears to enhance meaningfulness of reading and writing for adolescents, further research and new methodologies are needed to document meaningfulness in young children's comprehending and composing. Finally, self-activity within relational domains inspires a sense of moral agency, care, and sensitivity to issues of social justice (Ivey & Johnston, 2013Lysaker & Sedberry, 2015;Lysaker et al., 2011) constituting inside-out preparation for engagement in social action. ...
Article
In this article, I consider expanding meaningfulness in literacy research by exploring the possibilities offered by a relational perspective on literacy and its study. An interdisciplinary relational perspective is outlined and used to rethink what happens when we engage in reading and writing. Questions guiding this exploration include: What makes literate activity meaningful, and how might a relational perspective enhance meaningfulness in studying this activity? What does a relational perspective look like as a theoretical frame for literacy research, and why might such a perspective be needed now? A synthesis of literacy research representing a relational perspective will be presented and examples of methodological applications offered. I conclude with the consequences of a relational perspective including implications for student well-being, assessment practices, and capacities for social justice work.
... Children's wordless picturebook reading has been studied on various fronts (Jett-Simpson, 1976;Lysaker & Sedberry, 2015;Mantei & Kervin, 2015;Pantaleo, 2013;Serafini, 2014). Research findings indicate that children often respond actively and playfully, both bodily and verbally, to wordless picturebooks as they construct meaning (Crawford & Hade, 2000;Flint, 2010). ...
Article
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This qualitative study describes the ways that first-grade children make meaning with wordless picturebooks through play as reader response.
... Picture books can also serve as platforms for students to explore systemic factors surrounding inequity; one example is The Can Man by Laura E. Williams, in which a man's homelessness is connected to the closing of his local business. Additionally, picture books can provide opportunities for students to empathize with characters from diverse backgrounds (Lysaker & Sedberry, 2015). Feelings of desire may be relatable to students as they read A Bike Like Sergio's by Maribeth Boelts, about a boy who struggles with the decision to purchase a bicycle while recognizing how his family and community members are financially strapped. ...
Article
A significant percentage of students have families from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds, yet the experiences and practices of such students are often not reflected in the curriculum. To create more equitable literacy learning environments, students need opportunities to explore economic diversity and to challenge harmful discourses about people experiencing economic hardship. The authors discuss how picture books can be used in elementary classrooms to reflect economic diversity and to facilitate critical classroom conversations on economic hardship. The authors also discuss the importance of teachers attending to students’ economic backgrounds, highlight promising trends in contemporary picture books on economic hardship, and provide critical considerations for teachers when planning for student dialogue on economic inequity.
... Dengan menggunakan buku bergambar tanpa kata memiliki karakteristik unik yang mengundang pembaca untuk terlibat secara dialogis dalam dunia cerita (Judith T., L & Zaira A., A., 2016). Selama membaca buku tanpa kata, anak-anak mengatur pembuatan makna di seluruh mode ketika mereka memutuskan gambar mana yang harus diperhatikan, memilih di antara banyak makna, dan mewakili pembuatan makna berbasis gambar mereka dalam narasi lisan dengan cara linguistik (Lysaker & Sedberry, 2015). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to know the knowledge about the language development of preschoolers, especially in the ability to storytelling. The study involved 60 children consisting of 32 boys and 28 girls ranging in age from 5-6 years and there were 4 teachers. The method used is experiment with pretest-postest control group design. Qualitative descriptive data were obtained from teacher interviews. Quantitative data obtained from the observation sheet of storytelling ability. Children do story-telling activities using a wordless picture book for the experimental group and a picture book with text for the control group. This research reveals that with a wordless picture book is more effective to improve the ability to tell the story of preschoolers than the story books in general. Children are more adept at choice of words and gestures through the images they see.
... Studies vary in the topics they explore (via the choice of picture books) and in their aims for children's learning, some privileging 'literary understanding' (Sipe, 2008a) or 'aesthetic development' (Doonan, 1993) and others including aims such as critical thinking and visual analysis (see, for example, Callow, 2017, Roche, 2015. Many studies emphasise the importance of talk in children's engagement with picture books, highlighting the need for teachers to support children jointly exploring picture books (Arizpe et al., 2014, Evans, 2009, Lysaker and Sedberry, 2015. In our project, we drew in particular on Roche's (2015) "critical thinking and book talk", an approach that supports children's critical engagement with picture books through teacher-facilitated but child-focused classroom talk. ...
Article
This paper presents findings from a collaborative project on critical visual literacy in primary schools. In the project, we (a researcher and a teacher) implemented a series of picture book discussions with children in years 5 and 6. Our first aim was to develop the children's ability to analyse the visual images in picture books and how authors/illustrators use these, together with writing, to communicate specific ideas. The second aim was to promote a dialogic lesson in which the children would lead the talk. In the paper, I discuss the challenges we faced in reaching our aims. My data include observation notes and audio recordings of the sessions and of discussions with the children. In the analysis, I examine the roles we took on, for example, as extenders and clarifiers of the children's talk. However, unbeknown to us at the start, our two project aims turned out to be in conflict with each other. While the children enjoyed looking closely at the pictures and discussing the books' possible meanings, without repeated questions and prompts, they focused on the book as story not on how it was constructed by the author and illustrator. This required a more teacher‐focused approach than what we had planned.
... Wordless picture book reading can be the context for exploring children's comprehension strategies [10]. With this media, the children train to make meaning and decide which images to choose among multiple meanings and represent their image-based meaning in oral narration by their linguistic competence [11]. ...
... Dengan menggunakan buku bergambar tanpa kata memiliki karakteristik unik yang mengundang pembaca untuk terlibat secara dialogis dalam dunia cerita (Judith T., L & Zaira A., A., 2016). Selama membaca buku tanpa kata, anak-anak mengatur pembuatan makna di seluruh mode ketika mereka memutuskan gambar mana yang harus diperhatikan, memilih di antara banyak makna, dan mewakili pembuatan makna berbasis gambar mereka dalam narasi lisan dengan cara linguistik (Lysaker & Sedberry, 2015). ...
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Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui pengetahuan tentang perkembangan bahasa anak prasekolah terutama dalam kemampuan bercerita. Penelitian ini melibatkan 60 anak yang terdiri dari 32 anak laki-laki dan 28 anak perempuan yang berkisar usia 5-6 tahun dan terdapat 4 guru. Metode yang digunakan yaitu eksperimen dengan desain control group pretest-posttet. Data deskriptive kualitatif didapat dari wawancara guru. Data kuantitatif didapat dari lembar observasi kemampuan bercerita. Anak-anak melakukan kegiatan bercerita menggunakan wordless picture book untuk kelompok eksperimen dan buku bergambar yang terdapat teksnya untuk kelompok kontrol. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa dengan wordless picture book lebih efektif untuk meningkatkan kemampuan bercerita pada anak prasekolah dibandingkan buku cerita pada umumnya. Anak-anak lebih mahir dalam pilihan kata dan gestur melalui gambar yang dilihat. Kata Kunci: wordless picture book, prasekolah, kemampuan bercerita
... There is also a growing body of evidence supporting the use of DR as an application to support culturally responsive SEL. When we select texts that are culturally relevant, children have the opportunity for literacy gains, in addition to opportunities for understanding, connecting to, and adopting the perspectives of characters similar and different from themselves, thus opening the door for conversation and reflection on issues including diversity, equity, and power (Lysaker & Sedberry, 2015). Research also indicates that culturally responsive DR has demonstrated efficacy for children at risk of factors connected to poverty including developmental delays and expressive language issues. ...
Chapter
Implementing a curriculum that supports students' social-emotional development alongside academics is essential. Social-emotional learning (SEL) promotes positive outcomes across social and emotional skills, attitudes towards self and others, positive social behavior, conduct problems, emotional distress, and academic performance. In spite of what research tells us and what we as educators know intuitively through our practice, social and emotional development has long been known to many as a missing link in U.S. public schools. Teachers' concerns include whether they have the time, resources, and access to professional learning necessary to implement high quality SEL instruction, particularly in light of academic content instruction pressures. This chapter discusses the application of mixed reality simulations as a next generation digital tool that offers active learning opportunities in social-emotional learning in conjunction with dialogic reading sessions to foster social-emotional competencies and literacy.
... Böylece çocuklar ve gençler bu hassas konuyla ilgili bir bakış açısı kazanabilmektedir (Bulut, 2018). Resimli çocuk kitapları öğrencilere farklı geçmişlerden gelen karakterlerle empati kurma fırsatı sağlayabilmektedir (Lysaker ve Sedberry, 2015). Çocuklar görsel imgeler dünyasında sürekli iletişim kurarlar. ...
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In this study, it is aimed to reveal the reactions of students in multicultural classroom environments towards the causes, process and consequences of migration by reading children's picture books on migration with interactive reading method. In this direction, one of the qualitative research methods, case study was adopted. In the study, with the participation of nine students, children's picture books on migration were read and discussed weekly by interactive reading method. After the implementation process was completed, a focus group meeting was held with the students and the data obtained were analyzed with the descriptive analysis method. The data obtained showed that, during the interactive reading activities, the picture books were physically examined, listened to and talked about their contents. It has been revealed that the books read cover topics such as travel, migration, escape, war, different cultures, separation from family and environment. It has been stated that such reading activities have not been done before. It was observed that the students were able to talk about the difficulties faced by the people affected by migration and the assistance they could provide for them. It has been revealed that the children's picture books that are read tell about habitable events. It was observed that the awareness of the students about their migration situation increased, they felt sorry about the events and their willingness to help increased. The obtained findings were discussed in line with the relevant literature and suggestions were made for future research.
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The authors searched for picture books that are useful for intercultural education and for discovering students’ perceptions about the values and intercultural experiences conveyed through the books. To do so, the authors selected two books by following established criteria and analyzed students’ responses through semistructured interviews. The data were obtained after reading the books aloud to 30 fifth‐grade students in a school located in the south of Spain and reflecting on the books’ contents. As a main conclusion, the authors found that students’ answers revealed the presence of some positive values, such as helpfulness, friendship, and empathy, through questions about the experiences of characters in the books. Thus, prejudices were dismantled and positive intercultural experiences in school were fostered.
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Abstract A picture book about disability can improve understanding and disability awareness for regular students in inclusive schools. This study attempts to use a picture book 'Kita Beragam Kita Berteman' in the inclusive classroom to explore disabilities. This study aims to determine the interest, understanding and impression of students after reading the picture book. This study is a survey research. The participants are 61 regular students in 3 inclusive primary schools. The study used questionnaires. The result of this study is the majority of the students liked 'Kita Beragam Kita Berteman' book. Generally, students understand the terms of disability and the moral value to make friends with students with special needs and accepting diversity in the inclusive school. We suggest to using picture book with discussion to improve disability awareness in inclusive school. Keywords: Student, Primary School, Picture Book.
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Abstract Building on Kelly Wissman's (2019) work, the article describes and analyzes artifacts from the author's college children's literature class, during which students read radiantly: in ways that may take them outside of themselves, their realities, and points of view, "like rays emitting from the sun, to seek out alternative perspectives, new directions, and unique pathways" (p. 16). The analysis of these collected student artifacts is guided by Wissman's understanding of the social imagination as the capacity of a reader to imagine "the thoughts, feelings, and experiences of others" as well as "to invent visions of what should be and what might be" (p. 15). It also builds on the theoretical framework developed by Kathy Short (2019) in relation to the social responsibility that needs to be practiced and cultivated by those involved in the creating, teaching, and reading of global children's literature. Nurturing reading as an act of creativity and fostering dialogic inquiry around global picturebooks is shown to be quite effective in engaging college students' social imagination. The author brings evidence from the prompts and artifacts that supports this effectiveness, demonstrating the different ways in which students were able to read Two White Rabbits (2015) and The Arrival (2007) radiantly. The prompts were successful mainly because, by design, they required readers to use their imagination and creativity as well as pay close attention to the picturebooks' visual aesthetics in order to fill in the gaps.
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This chapter reviews contemporary research that explores critical literacy as a framework for foundational skills necessary for the processes of teaching and learning about cultural, historical, and sociopolitical phenomenon. The capacity to critically read, analyze, and interpret informational sources aligns with disciplinary literacies in the social studies. A critical literacy framework provides a key theoretical lens for integrating literacy as a core pillar of the social studies curriculum with an emphasis on participation and practice in the discipline to prepare educated and engaged citizens. The authors propose recommendations emanating from interdisciplinary perspectives to inform promising practices and future research in the social studies.
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Twenty-two second and third grade children experiencing difficulties with social relationships and reading comprehension participated in small group Relationally Oriented Reading Instruction for eight weeks. Developmental and literacy assessments done before and after the reading intervention showed statistically significant improvements in the understanding of text and in social imagination. Analysis of writing samples resulted in a typology of relationally oriented response. Together these data provide initial evidence linking the understanding of texts to the development of other relational capacities like social imagination, and indicate that purposeful use of picture books within relationally oriented reading instruction may enhance this development.
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The authors examined the sociocultural representations of black children in picture books. Three critical perspectives were used to examine 23 picture books containing black characters. Questions used in this critical analysis were derived from sociocultural implications of implicit messages within texts, critical literacy, and cultural and social reader response theories. Our aim was to determine what stories are being told and how two adults, one black and one white, interpret these stories. We also considered the importance of analyzing these picture books when using them in elementary classrooms. We found that our different cultural and racial backgrounds influenced our response to a number of the books, clearly pointing to the advantage of discussing children's books with colleagues of different races.
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Paper presented at the Conference on Reading and Writing Connections, University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign, Oct. 19-21, 1986. Includes bibliographical references (leaf 15) Funded by the United States Department of Education through grant no. OERI-G-86-0004
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Thesis--University of Washington. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 138-143). Microfilm.
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In his latest book, Marshall Gregory begins with the premise that our lives are saturated with stories, ranging from magazines, books, films, television, and blogs to the words spoken by politicians, pastors, and teachers. He then explores the ethical implication of this nearly universal human obsession with narratives. Through careful readings of Katherine Anne Porter's "The Grave," Thurber's "The Catbird Seat," as well as David Copperfield and Wuthering Heights, Gregory asks (and answers) the question: How do the stories we absorb in our daily lives influence the kinds of persons we turn out to be? Shaped by Stories is accessible to anyone interested in ethics, popular culture, and education. It will encourage students and teachers to become more thoughtful and perceptive readers of stories.
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Children's picture books have an increasingly significant place in early childhood classrooms. Picture books that depict the variety of ethnic, racial, and cultural groups within U.S. society (known generally as multicultural picture books) allow young children opportunities to develop their understanding of others, while affirming children of diverse backgrounds. This paper discusses the possibilities and the pitfalls involved in the selection of multicultural literature for use with young children, examines two books featuring Mexican American protagonists to illuminate issues and problems in the images the books present of Mexican Americans, discusses some contemporary theories on race as ways of understanding such issues and problems, and considers possible actions for early childhood educators and teacher education programs to take.
Story as world making. Language Arts
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SHORT, K. (2012). Story as world making. Language Arts, 90(1), p. 9-17.
Talking Beyond the Page: Reading and Responding to Picturebooks
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Critical Literacy: A Collection of Articles from the Australian Literacy Educators' Association
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Shaped by Stories: The Ethical Power of Narratives Seeing blindness in children's picturebooks
GREGORY, M. (2009). Shaped by Stories: The Ethical Power of Narratives. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press HUGHES, C. (2012). Seeing blindness in children's picturebooks. Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies 6(1), 35-51.