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Views of undergraduate students on packet ice cream consumption

Authors:
  • Gazi University Faculty of Health Science
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L. Ozgen. Views of undergraduate students on packet ice cream consumption. International Journal of Academic Research Part
A; 2014; 6(2), 91-96. DOI: 10.7813/2075-4124.2014/6-2/A.15
Library of Congress Class ification: L7-991, TX341-641
VIEWS OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS ON
PACKET ICE CREAM CONSUMPTION
Assist. Prof. Dr. Leyla Ozgen
Gazi University, Department of Food and Nutrition Education, Ankara (TURKEY)
leylaozgen@gmail.com
DOI: 10.7813/2075-4124.2014/6-2/A.15
Received: 10 Nov, 2013
Accepted: 23 Mar, 2014
ABSTRACT
This study is conducted to determine undergraduate students’ consumption of packet ice cream. The study
is performed on randomly selected 283 undergraduate students aged between 19 and 24, who are educated in
public and privately owned universities in Ankara, capital of Turkey. Undergraduate students mostly prefer diet,
vanilla flavored, plain, Maras, fruit and chocolate flavored packet ice cream. When they asked where they prefer
to buy packet ice cream it is determined that females prefer to but packet ice cream from supermarket or grocery
store wherever is closest to their homes (p<.05). It is also determined that sale under ideal hygienic conditions are
important for both females and males for their preferred purchase place (p<.05). Statement regarding
preservation of coldness of ice cream on the package (cold chain) is number one priority for females (p>.05).
Nutritional value information that they want to be included on the label of normal and light ice cream are energy,
cholesterol, group B vitamins and fats. The values that they want least to be included in the label are iron and
calcium content. The reasons that they prefer packet ice cream are hygiene, informative labelling, preservation of
nutritional values and having barcode. Undergraduate students should be informed through public service
announcements on mass media, especially through TVs that they should not refreeze the melted ice cream, the
most preferred diary product in summer and winter.
Key words: Packet Ice Cream, Ice Cream Consumption and Nutrition Label, Undergraduate Students
1. INTRODUCTION
The consumer’s nutritional knowledge and use of food labeling are considered important tools for providing
information and encouraging dietary patterns to shift towards healthy attitudes about food consumption (1). It is
mentioned that most consumers consider nutrition labeling important but many do not use the label information in
their product choice (2). They find that a smaller proportion of consumers use label information than use nutrition
claims, especially for fibre/vitamins and fat content, and these label-using consumers are different from the larger
group. Consumer science allows information to be obtained about consumer attitudes toward diet and
understanding the link between food and health (3, 4). Healthy eating knowledge is commonly acquired from the
family or gained through experience (5). However, the development of new food products turns out to be
increasingly challenging, as it has to fulfill the consumer's expectancy for products that are simultaneously relish
and healthy (6).
The awareness of consumers for healthier food has led to the introduction in ice cream manufacture with
fat replacers and high intensity sweeteners. Although, ice cream is a highly complex food matrix containing
proteins, fat, sugars, air, minerals and countless interfaces between the different constituents (7). Thus, any
modifications in the fat and sugar composition and contents, besides modifications in the non-fatty lacteous
solids, can result in changes to the flavor and texture, which are key factors for the success of the ice cream on
the market (8, 9). Currently, food packaging labels have become a major instrument for providing information to
consumers about nutritional aspects such as the product’s energy value, fat, protein, and carbohydrate content
(10, 11, 12). Especially, The awareness of consumer for healthier ice cream has lead to consider the frequency of
reading of nutritional labeling, the results again showed a direct relationship with the consumers’ nutritional
knowledge (13).
Ice-cream is a frozen mixture of a combination of components, such as milk, sweeteners, stabilizers,
emulsifiers and flavoring agents (14, 6). This category includes several related products, such as plain ice-cream,
reduced fat, low fat, nonfat, fruit, and nut ice-creams, puddings, variegated, mousse, sherbet, frozen yoghurt,
besides other frozen products (15). Freezing involves vigorously agitating to incorporate air, thus conferring the
desirable smoothness and softness of the frozen product (14). Ice-cream is highly accepted product by children,
adolescents, and adults, as well as by the elderly public. Due to its rather refreshing features, it is more consumed
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in the summer, but some people have the habit of consuming it throughout the year. In that reason, this study is
planned to determine the views of undergraduate students on consumption of packet ice cream.
2. METHODS
2.1. Participants
This pilot study is conducted on randomly selected, 283 volunteered undergraduate students, who are
packet ice creams consumers, educated in public and privately owned undergraduate universities in Ankara,
capital of Turkey. Especially, 50.5 % of the undergraduate students are females while 49.5 % of them are males.
Age average is 21.35 while undergraduate students are aged between 19 and 24 years old.
2.2. Measurement Tools
Survey form, used as a data collection tool in the study, consists of two parts. In the first part there are
questions about students’ packet ice cream consumption status while there are questions regarding personal
information about undergraduate students in the second part. Types of ice creams that undergraduate students
prefer to consume are evaluated by a 5 points Likert type scale rated from 1= Definitely agree to 5= Definetely
disagree. The higher scores obtained through this survey refers the ice cream type that undergraduate students
consume fondly while lower scores advise the opposite.
2.3. Procedure
Permissions are granted from deanships of public and privately owned universities in order to perform the
survey forms on the students. Survey forms are performed on the undergraduate students by the researcher in
face to face method without time limitation.
2.4. Analysis
In group comparisons independent samples t-test and chi square test are used. Nutritional value
information that undergraduate students want it to be included on the packet of the ice cream and their reasons of
packet ice cream preference distribution is stated. Statistical significance level is accepted as p<.05.
3. RESULTS
Findings on the undergraduate students’ packet ice cream preferences are listed in Table 1-5.
Table1. Means, standard deviation and t–test values of ice cream types
that undergraduate students prefer to consume according to sex
Ice Cream Types Sex n Ms SD t p
Plain Female
Male
116 3.52 1.37 1.787 .075
89 3.20 1.14
Vanilla Female 94 3.59 1.33 1.109 .269
Male 74 3.37 1.16
Chocolate Female 114 3.12 1.24 -1.061 .290
Male 87 3.31 1.23
Fruit Female 148 3.45 1.30 -1.069 .286
Male 120 3.62 1.20
Diet Female 82 4.67 0.72 .753 .453
Male 41 4.56 0.83
Maras* Female 105 3.51 1.21 .563 .574
Male 90 3.41 1.33
*The packet ice cream of Maras style: This ice cream is made from gout milk.
It is determined that there is not a statistically significant difference between the types of ice creams that
undergraduate students prefer to consume according to sex (p>.05). Mean score of females (Ms=4.67, SD=.72)
that prefer diet ice cream more is higher than the mean score of males (Ms=4.56, SD=.83). However it is
determined that there is not a statistically significant difference between mean scores according to sex (p.>05),
(Table, 1).
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Table 2. Chi square results of the time that undergraduate students
prefer to but packet ice cream according to sex
Time to buy packet
ice cream
Female
Male
Total
x2 p SD
n % n % n %
I buy packet ice
cream at the end of
the shopping
50
33.3
30
22.6
80
28.3
I buy packet ice
cream the nearest
from supermarket or/
and grocery store to
home
43
28.7
33
24.8
76
26.9
8.189
.042
3
I consume packet ice
cream immediately
after buying
34
22.7
34
25.6
68
24.0
I consume packet ice
cream within half an
hour after buying
23
15.3
36
27.1
59
20.8
*p<.05
It is showed that in order to avoid melting 33.2 % of females and 22.6 % of males buy packet ice cream at
the end of the shopping. Similarly 28.7 % of females and 24.8 % of males buy ice cream from the closest
supermarket or grocery store to home. According to sex, it is determined that the difference between the time that
they buy packet ice cream is statistically significant (p<.05), (Table, 2).
Table3. Chi square results of undergraduate students’ shop
selection for buying packet ice cream according to sex
Shop selection Primary Prefer Secondary Prefer
for buying packet ice cream Female
n %
Male
n %
Female
n %
Male
n % X2 p SD
Close to home 112 74.7 98 73.7 38 25.3 35 26.3 0.036 .850 1
Low price 81 54.0 86 64.7 69 46.0 47 35.3 3.313 .069 1
Sale under hygienic conditions 134 89.3 108 81.2 16 10.7 25 18.8 3.761 .038 1
Employees caution against
equipment hygiene
131 87.3 106 79.7 19 12.7 27 20.3 3.018 .058 1
Wide product range
102 68.0 85 63.9 48 32.0 48 36.1 0.526 .274 1
Caution about cleanness of
packet or avoid dirt to infect to
product
133
88.7
112
84.2
17
11.3
21
15.8
1.204
.178 1
Procurement of packet that
ensure the preservation of
coldness of ice cream (cold
chain)
117
78.0
99
74.4
33
22.0
34
25.6
0.496
.286 1
*p<.05
It is stated that sale under hygienic conditions is the primary preference for 89.3 % of females and 81.2 %
of males and it is the secondary preference for 18.8 % of males and 10.7 % of females in shop selection for
buying packet ice cream (p<.05). However employees caution against equipment hygiene is primary prefer for
87.3 % of females and 79.7 % of males while it is secondary preference for 20.3 % of males and 12.7 % of
females. Procurement of packet that ensure the preservation of coldness of ice cream (cold chain) is primary
prefer for 78.0 % of females and 74.4 % of males and it is secondary preference for 25.6 % of males and 22.0 %
of females. It is determined that there is no statistically significant difference on the factors affecting the selection
of shop for buying packet ice cream according to sex (p>.05).
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Table 4. Distribution of nutritional value information that undergraduate
students want it to be on the ice cream packet
Ice cream Light ice cream
Nutritional value information yes yes
n % n %
Energy 272 96.1 220 77.7
Energy from fats 110 38.8 99 34.9
Fats 143 50.5 123 43.4
Saturated fats 122 43.1 106 37.4
Cholesterol 227 80.2 185 65.3
Carbohydrate 129 45.5 98 34.6
Protein 150 53.0 106 37.4
Vitamin A 139 49.1 107 37.8
Vitamin C 258 91.1 199 70.3
Calcium 95 33.5 72 25.4
Iron 64 22.6 44 15.5
Vitamin group B 155 54.7 118 41.6
*Multiple options are selected.
It is found that the nutritional values that undergraduate students want it to be on the label are as follows;
96.1 % of the students energy, 91.1 % vitamin C, 80.2 % cholesterol, 54.7 % vitamins and 50.5 % fats. It is also
found that 22.6 % iron and 33.5 % calcium minerals are the nutritional values that undergraduate students want
them to be on the label at least.
The nutritional value information that they want it to be on the label of light packet ice cream is 77.7 %
energy, 70.3 % vitamin C, 63.3 % cholesterol, 43.4 % fats and 41.6 % group B vitamins. The nutritional
information that they least want it to be on the label of the light ice cream are 15.5 % iron and 25.4 % calcium
minerals (Table 4).
Table 5. Distribution of undergraduate students’ packet ice cream preference based on their reasons
Reasons of preference n %
Hygienic conditions 283 100.0
Informative labeling
163
57.6
Nutritional value content 154 54.4
Having a trademark
98 34.6
TSE product 95 33.5
Having a barcode 48 16.9
n: Multiple options are selected.
It is found when reasons of undergraduate students to prefer packet ice cream that 100 % of
undergraduate students prefer packet ice cream since it is hygienic conditions, 57.6 % of them prefer it since it
has an informative labelling and 54.4 % of them prefer packet ice cream because of the preservation of nutritional
value content (Table 5).
4. DISCUSSION
It is found that undergraduate students consume diet, vanilla, plain, Maras (traditional), fruit and chocolate
flavored packet ice cream especially (p>.05). In a study by (16), it is determined that 24.48 % of female university
students and 32.99 % of male university students consume plain ice cream and 30.07 % of female university
students and 18.71 % of male university students consume cacao ice cream. According to this study although
undergraduate students consume all kinds of packet ice creams fondly, it is conjured up that females’ fear of
gaining weight may be the reason to consume diet ice cream mostly. In a study by (17) it is determined that
female students prefer to consume light food and beverages by comparison with male students.
When the times that undergraduate students prefer to buy packet ice cream to avoid melting is examined it
is determined that females place more emphasis on the statement that buy from market or grocery store closest
to home than males (p<.05). Moreover it is also determined that male prefer to bring sliced ice cream to home
within half an hour because of the quick freezing when compared with females. According to (18), consuming ice
cream after refreezing it in a refrigerator following melting bears health risks. It state that using contaminated raw
milk in ice cream, faulty pasteurization or contamination occurred after process (refreezing after melting, etc.) are
potential risk for Listeria contamination (19). It is indicated that E.coli isolation rate (10%) increases up to 18 %
during consuming for unpacked ice creams. Researchers conclude that this contamination may cause health
problems like food poisoning, etc. because of refreezing ice cream after melting. It can be said that undergraduate
students are more sensitive about consuming packet ice cream prepared with milk before it melts down (20).
It is determined that number one preference for both females and males is sale under hygienic conditions
when their shop selection for packet ice cream is examined (p<.05). However it is also found that secondary
preference that employees caution against equipment hygiene is more important for females than males. It is
determined that there is no statistically significant difference according to sex (p>.05). Procurement of a package
that preserves the coldness of ice cream (cold chain) is the first preference of more females when compared with
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males. However this is not statistically significant (p>.05). In this study it can be considered that they consume
packet ice cream right after buying without bringing it to home since they are young not because of the
importance of cold chain for them.
Nutritional value information that undergraduate students want it to be on the label of the packet ice cream
includes energy, vitamin C, group B vitamins and fats. Nutritional value information that they want least to be
included on the label of the packet ice cream is iron and calcium values. It may suggest that they are not aware of
the importance of calcium minerals in terms of nutrition, since they are young.
When they are asked the nutritional value information that they want it to be on the label of light packet ice
cream it is found that energy, vitamin C and cholesterol, fats and group B vitamins that they want to see on the
label. Nutritional value information that they want least to be on the label of light ice cream is iron and calcium.
Accordingly they state that they want to see the nutritional value information energy, cholesterol and vitamin C
values to be on the label as in normal and light ice cream. Fruits that are rich in terms of vitamin C such as
strawberry and kiwi which can preserve the vitamin 6 to 8 month after freezing may lead undergraduate students
to think in this way.
Another substantial finding of the study is the reason that they prefer packet ice cream since it is hygienic
and includes labelling information, preserves nutritional content and has a barcode. It can be referred as packet
ice cream is preferred by students because it preserves nutritional content and meets the hygiene conditions. In a
study by (21), it is determined that the students place importance on hygiene 79.0 %, expiry date 66.33 %, brand
70.67 %, and general outlook 35.0 %.
5. CONCLUSION
This research is planned to determine the views of students on packet ice cream consumption. When ice
cream consumption frequency is examined it is found that they consume all kinds of ice cream fondly and in
addition to this diet and cocoa ice cream consumption is more common among females than males. It is
determined that females pay more attention to buy packet ice cream from supermarket or grocery store closest to
home when compared to males in order to avoid melting. Employees caution against equipment hygiene
statement is secondary preference for males with regards to females. However procurement of package that
preserves the coldness of ice cream (cold chain) is first preference for males when compared with females. It is
determined that energy, vitamin C, cholesterol, group B vitamins and fats are the nutritional value information that
student want it to be on the label of normal and light ice cream. It is found that the nutritional value information
that they want least to be on the label is iron and calcium values.
As a result undergraduate students, public service announcements on mass media, especially TVs can be
used to inform children and all of the consumers that they should not refreeze the melted ice cream, the most
preferred diary product in summer and winter.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The author declared no conflict of interest with respect to the authorship and/ or the publication of this
article.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank for their valuable contribution and suggestions I.Simsek. I am also grateful to all
undergraduate students participated in this investigation and the deanship of their faculty.
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