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A Study of Service Desk Setup in Implementing IT Service Management in Enterprises

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Technology and Investment, 2013, 4, 190-196
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ti.2013.43022 Published Online August 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/ti)
A Study of Service Desk Setup in Implementing
IT Service Management in Enterprises
Xiaojun Tang1, Yuki Todo2
1Enterprise Key Account IT Service Department, Shanghai Wicresoft Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China
2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan
Email: tony_txj@hotmail.com, yktodo@se.kanazawa-u.ac.jp
Received May 13, 2013; revised June 13, 2013; accepted June 20, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Xiaojun Tang, Yuki Todo. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Li-
cense, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
ABSTRACT
Information Technology Service Management (ITSM) provides a framework to provide IT related services and the in-
teraction of IT staff with users, and is often related with the British Government’s Information Technology Infrastruc-
ture Library (ITIL). ITIL offers a set of “best practices” for managing IT services and is one of the most widely ac-
cepted approaches to IT service management in the world. Recently, more and more enterprises implemented a central-
ized IT service management model based on the ITIL framework. However, even by adopting ITIL, most of the enter-
prises didn’t improve their IT service management level. Some factors become the barriers to the success of ITIL and
ITSM implementation. In some cases, enterprises paid more attention to IT infrastructure setup and operation but ne-
glect the importance of Service Desk. In this study, we first review ITSM, ITIL and Service Desk. Second, we identify a
full function of new Service Desk and how to set up a good Service Desk. Enterprises should take proper measures in
building a mature Service Desk to ensure successful implementation of ITSM.
Keywords: Information Technology Service Management (ITSM); Information Technology Infrastructure Library
(ITIL); Service Desk
1. Introduction
In today’s demanding world, IT plays a pivotal role in
creating new opportunity and delivering competitive ad-
vantage to enterprises. Business focused approaches on
managing IT resources are highly valued in today’s en-
terprise. As IT departments and organizations transition
from technology to service based management models,
investing in a credible, best practice framework such as
Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is
becoming more important [1].
An important aspect of the new legislation is the re-
quirement for enterprises to have consistent and formal-
ized application controls as well as general controls across
all IT functions, including areas outsourced to external
partners. To achieve these goals, organizations are adopt-
ing ITIL to provide a framework and implement IT ser-
vice management in enterprise [2].
According to the previous research about the ITIL/
ITSM application status concluded in Taiwan, the major
challenges of implementing ITIL as listed in Table 1.
The top five challenges are culture, integration with cur-
rent process, ITIL/ITSM related knowledge, appropriate
management tool, and clear measurement target [3,4].
After reviewing the top five challenges, culture shift,
appropriate management tool and clear measurement tar-
get are all directly related to Service Desk. Also, Service
Desk, as the single point of contact, will be very useful
for culture shift and ITIL/ITSM related knowledge popu-
larize. Thus, a good Service Desk is very important in
successfully implementing ITIL/ITSM in enterprises [5].
Table 1. Major challenges of implementing ITIL (Source:
KPMG 2007).
Major challenges Percentage
Culture shift 17.2%
Integration with current process 15.5%
ITIL/ITSM related knowledge 13.8%
Appropriate management tool 10.3%
Clear measurement target 10.3%
Project within budget 8.6%
Insufficient internal professional staff 8.6%
Project on time 5.2%
Managing consultants 1.7%
Incapable and inexperienced consultants 1.7%
C
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X. J. TANG, Y. TODO 191
Usually, the Service Desk concentrates on incident
lifecycle management and performs the following pri-
mary functions [6]:
Customer Interface.
Business Support.
Incident Control.
Management Information.
Service Desk is the primary point of contact for all in-
ternal and/or external customers. It will be the function
which users are most easily perceived. Users’ impres-
sions of Service Desk impact the image of enterprises’ IT
service a lot. A good image of Service Desk can help IT
department obtain more support for senior management
board and business department, which will be very help-
ful to propel ITSM implementation and get higher cus-
tomer satisfaction.
In the past, the goal of a traditional Service Desk is
only to restore the service as quickly as possible, manage
the incident life-cycle (coordinating resolution) and gen-
erate reports, communicate and promote. It handles calls,
questions, requests, complaints and remarks [7]. But now,
enterprises need a Service Desk with more functions and
stronger capabilities. A good and integral Service Desk
will be very important in implementing ITSM. In this
article, we first offer a review of ITSM/ITIL, and the de-
finition of Service Desk, present the importance of Ser-
vice Desk, then, discuss the new functions of Service
Desk. Finally, some suggestions about how to set up a
good Service Desk via three different perspectives, proc-
ess, people and tool, are discussed.
2. Literature Review
2.1. ITSM
IT service management (ITSM) refers to the implemen-
tation and management of quality IT services that meet
the needs of the business. IT service management is per-
formed by IT service providers through an appropriate
mix of people, process and information technology. The
following represents a characteristic statement from the
ITSM literature [8]:
“Providers of IT services can no longer afford to fo-
cus on technology and their internal organization; they
now have to consider the quality of the services they pro-
vide and focus on the relationship with customers.”
Therefore, the providers of IT services should shift
their focus on technology and internal organization to the
quality of services they provides and the customers’ sat-
isfaction. If the IT services providers cannot provide pro-
active and value-added service to client and end users,
we can say the IT service level is low, although the IT
services provider have a huge infrastructure with latest
technologies.
IT department must try to attain the proactive level of
IT service management process maturity (see Figure 1)
and successfully deploy these emerging ITSM technolo-
gies [9,10].
2.2. ITIL
The Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL),
which was developed by OGC (Office of Government
Figure 1. IT service management maturity model.
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X. J. TANG, Y. TODO
192
Commerce) of UK government, offers a detailed descrip-
tion of “best practices” for IT service management [11].
The goal of ITIL is to provide a framework of best prac-
tices that organizations can use as a guideline for man-
aging their IT organizations. Five core titles are included
in ITIL v3, which are:
Service Strategy.
Service Design.
Service Transition.
Service Operation.
Continual Service Improvement.
2.3. The Definition of Service Desk in ITIL
Service Desk is a primary IT service called for in IT ser-
vice management (ITSM) as defined by the Information
Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL). It is intended
to provide a Single Point of Contact (SPOC) to meet the
communication needs of both Users and IT employees,
but also to satisfy both Customer and IT Provider objec-
tives. Service desk handles incidents and service requests,
as well as providing an interface to users for other ITSM
activities such as:
Incident management.
Problem management.
Configuration management.
Change management.
Release management.
Service-level management.
Availability management.
Capacity management.
Financial management.
IT service continuity management.
Security management.
Mission of Service Desk is to be a central point of
contact between the User and IT Service Provider [11].
2.4. The Definition of Service Desk in COPC
In COPC’s view, the main responsibilities of IT Service
Desk are:
Accept customer request (via telephone, e-mail, fax
and etc.).
Record and track incident and users’ feedback.
Update users the current status and progress about
their request in a timely manner.
Primarily evaluating users’ request according to the
Service Level Agreement, try to resolve it or assign to
the related persons.
Monitor the implementation of policies according to
the Service Level Agreement, propose to revise poli-
cies if necessary.
Manage the life-cycle of each service request.
Communicate with users if Service Level Agree is
adjusted.
Coordinate 2nd tier and 3rd tier support team.
Provide management related information and sugges-
tion, improve service quality.
Discover the problem in IT Service operation from
users’ feedback.
Discover users’ requirement of training and educa-
tion.
Terminate incident and confirm resolution with users.
3. New Service Desk Functions
3.1. Benefit of New Service Desk
A traditional Service Desk only plays a contact point in
IT service organization, but enterprises expect it brings
more value and benefits. A good Service Desk provides
the following benefits to enterprises:
1) Direct Benefits
a) Reduced cost of incident resolution
b) Reduced self-inflicted incidents via integrated and
reliable change
c) Increased productivity of IT staff
d) Improved asset utilization, life cycle management
and accurate software licensing costs
e) Reduced service cycle times
f) End-to-end service cost optimization
2) Indirect Benefits
a) Reduced peer support
b) Standardization
c) Consolidation
d) Non-IT staff more productive
e) Improved availability
f) Managing appropriate expectations
g) Improved efficiency of security and business conti-
nuity planning processes
h) Improved IT governance
i) Drives continual improvement
Thus, when implementing ITSM in enterprise, the re-
sponsibilities and goals should be adjusted to realize the
above benefits.
3.2. New Service Desk Functions
With the development of technology and service require-
ment, the position of Service Desk is changed. It plays an
important role in Service Operation (see Figure 2).
Service Desk needs not only accept the service request
reactively, but also discover the problem proactively [12].
The suggested functions of new Service Desk are:
Filter and categorize service requests.
As the SPOC of IT service, Service Desk accepts all
the service requests from end users. Most of the service
requests are only to request related information or re-
solve easy problems. That’s to say, most of the service
request will be resolved and closed by Service Desk at
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X. J. TANG, Y. TODO 193
Figure 2. Position of service desk in organization.
the first contact. Usually, more than 60% service requests
are resolved by Service Desk directly, then they catego-
rize the rest requests and assign to the appropriate 2nd
tier or 3rd tier support team. Service Desk plays the most
important role in IT department, they handle most of the
requests from the end users, and also be the interface to
contact with the backend team [13].
In charge of Incident Management process
Incident management can be defined as an unplanned
interruption to an IT Service or a reduction in the Quality
of an IT Service. The objective of incident management
is to restore normal operations as quickly as possible
with the least possible impact on either the business or
the user, at a cost-effective price [7,8].
Service Desk should be the owner of Incident Man-
agement process, they are primary focus to ensure a
prompt recovery of the system, supervising and directing
the internal or external resources.
Knowledge Base Maintenance
Knowledge Base (KB) is a special kind of database for
knowledge management. A knowledge base is an infor-
mation repository that provides a means for information
to be collected, organized, shared, searched and utilized.
It can be either machine-readable or intended for human
use.
Service Desk is the key user of Knowledge Base. In
daily work, they can easily know which KB article is
useful, which one is out of date and which one has very
low resolve rate. With such information records, Service
Desk should proactively maintain KB. For example, they
can promote a KB article due to its high resolve rate,
propose to update or expire an article due to it is out of
date or quite low resolve rate. With a strong KB, Service
Desk can improve their work efficiency and resolve the
issue for end users more effective.
Initiative Problem Management process
Service Desk also should play an important role in
Problem Management process. Problem can be collected
from incidents. Service Desk should have the awareness
to define a problem in a timely manner. For example, if
Service Desk received a lot of incidents with similar
symptom, they should consult the senior technical staff to
conduct Root Cause Analysis (RCA) process as soon as
possible. Once a problem is defined timely, incidents can
be linked to the problem, and then, Service Desk can
inform end users timely about the resolution or work
around [7,8].
Coordinator of Change Management Process
The objective of change management is to ensure that
standardized methods and procedures are used for effi-
cient and prompt handling of all changes to control IT
infrastructure, in order to minimize the number and im-
pact of any related incidents upon service. Usually, change
requests need to be reviewed and approved by several
peoples for impact and risk analysis, roll back plan, CAB
confirm and etc. Urgent change request also has its dif-
ferent approval process [7-9].
From Service Desk view, they are not only responsible
to log the change request, but also need to track and push
on the progress, ensure the standardized methods and
procedures are used for efficient and prompt handling of
all changes.
Coordinate onsite service and VIP support
For that part of the incidents and service requests where
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the Service Desk is not able to execute the service re-
motely, On-site Support Services will be used to execute
the service onsite, such as hardware replacement. In this
case, Service Desk should still be the primary contact
point of end users. They are responsible for giving end
users an expectation about when the onsite staff will ar-
rive and when the issue can be fixed. Moreover, a lot of
enterprise has VIP support process to ensure the high
service level for VIP. Service Desk also needs to com-
municate with VIP timely for any information updated
and collects feedback.
Event Management (Proactive Monitoring Service)
Event Management is the process that monitors all
events that occur through the IT infrastructure. It allows
for normal operation and also detects and escalates ex-
ception conditions.
Service Desk cannot only accept request reactively,
another function for them is providing proactive moni-
toring service. Service Desk can choose appropriate tool
to monitor the status of servers, network devices, storage,
UPS and etc. If any alert is received, Service Desk gen-
erates an incident, problem or change timely and process
into the related ITSM process, fixes the potential issue
and ensures the IT infrastructure work in a healthy status
[9].
Responsible for Reporting Service
Reporting Service reflects the status in IT service op-
eration. An accurate and timely report is very important
for IT operation service review and forecast. A good Ser-
vice Desk is able to handle the reporting service, as they
handle almost all requests and know which need to be
emphasized [14]. They make sure the report reflect the
actual status and help to find the weakness to be im-
proved.
Customer Satisfaction Survey
Currently, most of the ITSM tool has the function to
conduct customer satisfaction survey automatically; this
did save time and improved efficiency. However, the same
questionnaire cannot collect the different voices from end
users, even not to mention how many end users will com-
plete the template survey carefully. Service Desk should
have a process to pick up some service requests and call
back the end users to learn their feedback. Such straight-
forward way is very useful to understand our customers’
real needs, which direct IT department to improve their
service [15].
4. Setup a Great Service Desk
Obviously, a traditional Service Desk cannot meet the
new requirements of enterprises. When implementing
ITSM, we should consider setup a Service Desk with full
functions. When setting up the new Service Desk, we can
consider from three different perspectives, process, peo-
ple and tool.
4.1. Process
Process is the most important part in Service Desk, this
ensure everyone work in the same guideline and using
the same language. When designing the process, we should
focus on the ability to efficiently provide clients and end
users with services that meet their expectations, also fo-
cuses on the mechanisms to quantitatively evaluate, main-
tain, and improve these processes to ensure they function
effectively and efficiently [16].
There are 14 key service desk processes including:
service desk dashboard, operate service desk process, com-
municating with customers, promote and market service
desk, managing costs and recovery process, preparing re-
ports process, monitoring process, optimize service desk
process, determining outsourcing requirements, optimiz-
ing staff levels process, optimizing staff skills process,
optimizing technology process and reviewing and opti-
mizing monitoring and reporting [11].
When designing the process, the following parts need
to be taken into consideration [17].
How to implementing new services, programs, clients,
and requirements
Process must design to ensure Service Desk imple-
ments new services, programs, clients, and requirements
efficiently meet client and end-user requirements and tar-
gets.
Process capability
Process must ensure Service Desk is capable of con-
sistently achieving targets. Process needs to be adjusted
if Service Desk failure to achieving targets in continuous
evaluation periods.
Corrective action and continuous improvement
Service Desk should use a structured approach for iden-
tifying and resolving the root cause of poor performance
or the performance metrics not consistently meeting re-
quirements and targets. The approaches should be re-
corded to track the effectiveness and for further usage.
Transaction monitoring
Service Desk must have an approach for monitoring
transactions that is designed to meet client, and end-user
requirements and targets. This approach must focus on
identify and correct program-level issues that cut across
multiple Service Desk agents at the process level [17].
Data collection, analysis and action
Service Desk must have a process to collect, analyze,
and use performance data to achieve its customer satis-
faction, service, quality, cost, and employee performance
targets, also the process must ensure that the data are col-
lected, usable, integrity, known by appropriate personnel
and also lead to actions if results fall below the targets.
End-user privacy
The process must protect end-user sensitive and pro-
prietary data and information.
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4.2. People
Meeting performance targets and improving performance
levels requires a workforce that is appropriately skilled
and motivated. Service Desk should have people man-
agement approaches that enable all staff to effectively
and efficiently deliver quality services. When managing
the Service Desk staffs, the following points can be taken
into consideration [18,19].
Defining jobs, recruiting and hiring
Service Desk must have clear, written definitions of
the minimum skills and knowledge required for Service
Desk jobs, job definition can refer to the Service Desk
functions, and those jobs that include training delivery
and monitoring transactions. Service Desk must acquire
staffs which have a high probability of successfully per-
forming their jobs.
Training and development
Service Desk must provide the training and develop-
ment that all staff performing jobs needs to acquire and
maintain the skills and knowledge required for their posi-
tions. Trainings need to be adjusted by considering dif-
ferent attendees’ level, positions and capabilities.
Verifying skills and knowledge
To ensure that all staff has maintained the necessary
skills to successfully perform their jobs, Service Desk
should verify the skills and knowledge of all staff on a
yearly basis. Only qualified staff can continue to serve
customers. This also should be included in performance
appraisal.
Staff performance management
Service Desk must have a performance evaluation sys-
tem to monitor and encourage staff. Analysis also should
be conducted in order to work out follow-up action items
to continuously improve performance [18,19].
Managing staff feedback
Service Desk must use a structured approach for pro-
actively soliciting, evaluating, and taking appropriate ac-
tion on feedback obtained from individuals.
4.3. Tool
The tools for Service Desk should be designed for col-
lecting consistent, time sensitive, and documented ser-
vice request report data. Currently, many of Service Desk
products include features to automate the approval proc-
ess of an incident report or case investigation. These
products should also have the ability to collect real time
incident information such as time and date data. Addi-
tionally the tool should automatically send notifications,
assign tasks and escalations to appropriate individuals
depending on the incident type, priority, time, status and
custom criteria. Currently, a lot of products provide the
ability for administrators to configure the report forms as
needed, create analysis reports and even set access con-
trols on the data.
For most of Service Desk functions requirement in en-
terprises, Remedy from BMC software is widely used. It
has been used by more than 90% of TOP500 companies.
It enables comprehensive, best practice based incident
management and problem management processes via in-
tuitive, easily adopted, enterprise scale technology.
As for the proactive monitoring service requirement in
Service Desk, Microsoft System Center is also widely
used in enterprises. System Center Operation Manager
(SCOM), as one of the most important component of
System Center, provides deep visibility into the health,
performance, and availability of IT infrastructure—across
applications, operating systems, hypervisors and hard-
ware—through a single interface. When choosing the
appropriate tool for monitoring purpose, it is highly re-
commended to choose a centralized system monitoring
platform that’s flexible and cost-effective, helps ensure
the predictable performance and availability of vital ap-
plications, and offers comprehensive monitoring for in-
frastructure.
General speaking, when implementing ITSM in enter-
prise, IT department needs to find the most suitable tool
according to the functions of Service Desk. The capabil-
ity of the selected tool must meet all the requirement of
Service Desk and another important thing is, easy to use.
4.4. Case Study
Here is a case study in Nanjing, China. Before 2010, the
service desk applied a traditional process and functions.
They received service requests reactively, and then cate-
gory the service requests into different genres and dis-
patch to the related team. However, the result is not good
due to the following reasons:
Service Desk engineers’ skill cannot be improved by
handling real tickets, which caused high attrition rate
and higher training cost.
2nd tier technical engineer spent a lot of time in re-
plying easy questions and inquiry, cannot focus on
the technical part, the work efficiency is low.
There is no a centralize method to manage and update
knowledge, the resolve rate mostly depended on ex-
perience.
Service desk didn’t have the awareness to be involved
in the Problem/Change management process.
VIPs’ requests cannot be addressed timely.
Cannot proactively find the potential issues
To improve the service level of service desk, the ser-
vice desk was restructured in 2010. The major change
was responsibilities. Besides Incident Management proc-
ess, the new service desk was assigned to be involved into
more of ITIL process, such as: Problem Management,
Change Management, Event Management, Service Level
Management and etc. With about 6 months’ efforts, the
restructured was completed successfully. After 2 years
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Table 2. Service Desk KPI Improved.
KPI 2009 2011
Customer satisfaction %71 %81
VIP satisfaction %60 %90
Average handle time 15 min 12 min
Call abandon rate %10 %3
SD help resolve rate A/N %60
Staff attrition rate %20 %8
Problem identify 4 7
Knowledge base usage %30 %80
Change execute time 8 days 5 days
operations, the KPI (Key Performance Indicators) had
been improved apparently (Table 2).
5. Conclusions
As several key successful factors to succeeding in ITSM
implementation, we suggest that enterprise attach impor-
tance to Service Desk. Service Desk can be implemented
in many different ways [3]; however by following the
best practices outlined in ITIL, it should meet the most
important need of the end user and enterprise. In addition,
by following the best practices, the Service Desk will
enable the enterprise to have a foundation for the IT de-
partment not only to meet the increasing needs of the end
user, but for the IT department to link into strategic areas
within the company [6].
A good Service Desk allows enterprise to be less de-
pendent on specific technology and enables them to eas-
ily connect with business partners by switching the ITSM
implementation focus on the infrastructure delivers value
adding to the corporate users and customers. A good Ser-
vice Desk improves a company’s customer satisfaction
by allowing the company to implement their ITSM even
business plan. A good Service Desk communicates effec-
tively and efficiently with each end user. There are many
more things which a good Service Desk can do well, so
let’s pay more attention on Service Desk when imple-
menting ITSM.
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1, 2003, pp. 100-112. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.88.1.100
... References Resistance to change [6], , [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19] Lack of top management [6], [7], [8], [10], [11], [14], [17], [19] , [20] Lack of training on ITIL for IT staff [6], [10], [11], [12], [18] Different priority between process [8], [11], [14], [16] No integration with current process [8], [10], [12], [18] Inappropriate management tool [8], [12], [18] Clear measurement target [11], [12], [18] Not assigning process owners [6], [17], [20] Lack of resources dedicated to implement ITIL [6], [8], [11] Managing consultants expertise [12], [15], [19] Implement all at once [9] Difficulties in implementation [15] For each challenge, we list the works that cited it. ...
... References Resistance to change [6], , [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19] Lack of top management [6], [7], [8], [10], [11], [14], [17], [19] , [20] Lack of training on ITIL for IT staff [6], [10], [11], [12], [18] Different priority between process [8], [11], [14], [16] No integration with current process [8], [10], [12], [18] Inappropriate management tool [8], [12], [18] Clear measurement target [11], [12], [18] Not assigning process owners [6], [17], [20] Lack of resources dedicated to implement ITIL [6], [8], [11] Managing consultants expertise [12], [15], [19] Implement all at once [9] Difficulties in implementation [15] For each challenge, we list the works that cited it. ...
... References Resistance to change [6], , [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19] Lack of top management [6], [7], [8], [10], [11], [14], [17], [19] , [20] Lack of training on ITIL for IT staff [6], [10], [11], [12], [18] Different priority between process [8], [11], [14], [16] No integration with current process [8], [10], [12], [18] Inappropriate management tool [8], [12], [18] Clear measurement target [11], [12], [18] Not assigning process owners [6], [17], [20] Lack of resources dedicated to implement ITIL [6], [8], [11] Managing consultants expertise [12], [15], [19] Implement all at once [9] Difficulties in implementation [15] For each challenge, we list the works that cited it. ...
Presentation
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ITIL (Information technology infrastructure library) is a guide for service providers on the delivery of quality information technology (IT) services, processes, functions and other capabilities needed to support them. It contains a wealth of documented knowledge; however in practice we observe many typical challenges of ITIL implementations approaches. The purpose of this paper is to examine some previous studies about the challenges of ITIL implementation approaches in order to select the most important among them.
... For detailed references, the advantages and challenges of using data-driven service assurance in an organization have already been explored in the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) framework of best practices for delivering IT services (see [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]). Moreover, the positive influence of ticketing services on the implementation of the incident management process is stressed in [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. ...
... For detailed references, the advantages and challenges of using data-driven service assurance in an organization have already been explored in the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) framework of best practices for delivering IT services (see [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]). Moreover, the positive influence of ticketing services on the implementation of the incident management process is stressed in [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. Indeed, being able to automate several key activities such as identification, prioritization, assignment, diagnosis and closure of technical tickets plays a relevant role in enhancing the said process. ...
... Indeed, being able to automate several key activities such as identification, prioritization, assignment, diagnosis and closure of technical tickets plays a relevant role in enhancing the said process. In addition, data-driven service assurance (see [4][5][6]) facilitates the measurement and improvement of several important KPIs for the IT business processes, such as the percentage of incidents detected and solved in the first attempt, the mean number of incidents that occurred per day and the average lifetime of an incident. In particular, in [8], it is clearly stated that automatic incident classification proves to be extremely effective at minimizing ticket resolution time. ...
Article
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The paper proposes a data-driven approach based on machine learning for predicting technical ticket reopening in customer service platforms of telecommunications companies providing 5G fiber optic networks, namely with respect to ensuring that, between end user and service provider, the Service Level Agreement in terms of perceived Quality of Service is satisfied. The activity was carried out within the framework of an extensive joint research initiative on Next Generation Networks between ELIS Innovation Hub and a major network service provider in Italy over the years 2018–2021. The authors compare the performance of different approaches to classification—ranging from decision trees to Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines—and establish that a Bayesian network classifier is the most accurate at predicting whether a monitored ticket will be reopened or not. In addition, the authors propose a suitable dimensionality reduction strategy that proves to be successful at increasing the computational efficiency by reducing the size of the relevant training dataset by two orders of magnitude with respect to the original dataset. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, proving it can be a very useful tool for service providers in order to identify the customers that are most at risk of reopening a ticket due to an unsolved technical issue.
... References Resistance to change [6], , [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19] Lack of top management [6], [7], [8], [10], [11], [14], [17], [19] , [20] Lack of training on ITIL for IT staff [6], [10], [11], [12], [18] Different priority between process [8], [11], [14], [16] No integration with current process [8], [10], [12], [18] Inappropriate management tool [8], [12], [18] Clear measurement target [11], [12], [18] Not assigning process owners [6], [17], [20] Lack of resources dedicated to implement ITIL [6], [8], [11] Managing consultants expertise [12], [15], [19] Implement all at once [9] Difficulties in implementation [15] For each challenge, we list the works that cited it. ...
... References Resistance to change [6], , [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19] Lack of top management [6], [7], [8], [10], [11], [14], [17], [19] , [20] Lack of training on ITIL for IT staff [6], [10], [11], [12], [18] Different priority between process [8], [11], [14], [16] No integration with current process [8], [10], [12], [18] Inappropriate management tool [8], [12], [18] Clear measurement target [11], [12], [18] Not assigning process owners [6], [17], [20] Lack of resources dedicated to implement ITIL [6], [8], [11] Managing consultants expertise [12], [15], [19] Implement all at once [9] Difficulties in implementation [15] For each challenge, we list the works that cited it. ...
... References Resistance to change [6], , [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19] Lack of top management [6], [7], [8], [10], [11], [14], [17], [19] , [20] Lack of training on ITIL for IT staff [6], [10], [11], [12], [18] Different priority between process [8], [11], [14], [16] No integration with current process [8], [10], [12], [18] Inappropriate management tool [8], [12], [18] Clear measurement target [11], [12], [18] Not assigning process owners [6], [17], [20] Lack of resources dedicated to implement ITIL [6], [8], [11] Managing consultants expertise [12], [15], [19] Implement all at once [9] Difficulties in implementation [15] For each challenge, we list the works that cited it. ...
Conference Paper
ITIL (Information technology infrastructure library) is a guide for service providers on the delivery of quality information technology (IT) services, processes, functions and other capabilities needed to support them. It contains a wealth of documented knowledge; however in practice we observe many typical challenges of ITIL implementations approaches. The purpose of this paper is to examine some previous studies about the challenges of ITIL implementation approaches in order to select the most important among them.
... Given that the use of Information Technology (IT) has been significantly enhanced over the last years, currently, the IT service providers industry is one of the most important industries. Increasingly more, organizations request more efficient technological services, and IT service providers need to focus on improving the quality of the services they provide and the relations with their customers [1,2]. IT Service Management (ITSM) is a process-oriented approach aimed to define, manage and deliver properly IT services to achieve business objectives [3] and ensure IT service quality to satisfy the service levels agreed with the customers [4,5]. ...
... Unlike the method proposed in [P01], the conceptual framework presented in [P02] can be applied in the context of any ITSM process. The main activities of the conceptual framework are the next three: (1) to define the organization's process, (2) to build a process simulation model and (3) to gamify the simulation model experimentation, for which a methodology is also proposed [P02]. The authors used both ITIL recommendations and the gamification procedure proposed by Werbach and Hunter [32] as a guideline to design their framework. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the benefits of adopting IT Service Management (ITSM) reference models, such initiatives do not always produce the expected results. The research literature in this area concludes that motivation, engagement, skills, experience, performance and willingness to change of the personnel involved are among the critical factors for an effective ITSM implementation. Gamification has the capability to improve people’s motivation and engagement and to drive people’s behavior to meet the objectives set. Besides, gamification is widely used in learning systems for increasing students’ skills and competences. In the last years, many researchers have added gamification to their process improvement initiatives to increase the motivation and engagement of process participants and to address their behavior throughout the process. Thus, we consider that adopting gamification in ITSM processes can be an interesting area of study. In this paper, we conducted a systematic mapping study to analyze the actual state of research in the field of ITSM gamification and identify the key challenges that justify future research. The results of our study highlight the positive impact of adopting gamification in ITSM processes and that ITSM gamification is a novel an attractive research area with many action possibilities.
... ITSM menyediakan kerangka kerja (framework) yang menyajikan pengelolaan layanan TI [2]. Salah satu kerangka kerja yang telah mendukungnya adalah ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library). ...
Article
INTISASILaboratorium merupakan fasilitas pendukung yang sifatnya wajib pada setiap perguruan tinggi di Indonesia. Secara umum laboratorium ditujukan untuk mendukung kegiatan Tri Darma Perguruan Tinggi, yang meliputi pendidikan dan pengajaran, penelitian, serta pengabdian masyarakat. Proses layanan laboratorium di perguruan tinggi perlu adanya strategi yang tepat agar dapat mencapai tujuan tersebut dengan baik. Layanan laboratorium berbasis Teknologi Informasi (TI) bagi seluruh civitas akademika pasti akan memunculkan banyak sekali masalah. Oleh sebab itu, keadaan ini membutuhkan pendekatan yang menyeluruh terhadap pengelolaan layanan laboratorium. Pendekatan ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) adalah metode menyeluruh yang dapat digunakan untuk menyajikan pengelolaan layanan TI yang baik. Pada penelitian ini pendekatan ITSM diintegrasikan dengan 2 teknik analisis, yaitu analisis SWOT dan kerangka kerja ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library). Hasil dari penelitian ini berupa rancangan strategi layanan laboratorium jangka panjang untuk laboratorium di Universitas XYZ Yogyakarta. Aktifitas penelitian diawali dengan mengidentifikasi kekuatan, kelemahan, peluang, dan ancaman dengan analisis SWOT. Selanjutnya, hasil analisis SWOT tersebut akan menjadi dasar untuk perancangan strategi layanan laboratorium berdasarkan kerangka kerja ITIL.Kata kunci— ITSM, SWOT, ITIL, laboratorium, perguruan tinggi. ABSTRACTLaboratory is a support facility compulsory at every university in Indonesia. In general, the laboratory is support Tri Darma Perguruan Tinggi activities, which include education and teaching, research, and community service. The process of laboratory services in universities need a proper strategy in order to achieve goals. Information Technology (IT) based laboratory services for all academicians will surely bring a lot of problems. Therefore, this situation requires a thorough approach to the management of laboratory services. ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) approach is a method that can be used to present a good IT service management. In this research, the ITSM approach is integrated with two analytical techniques, namely SWOT analysis and ITIL framework (Information Technology Infrastructure Library). The result of this research is a long-term laboratory service strategy design for laboratory at XYZ University . Research activities begin by identifying strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats with a SWOT analysis. Furthermore, the results of the SWOT analysis will be the basis for the design of laboratory service strategies based on the ITIL framework.Kata kunci— ITSM, SWOT, ITIL, laboratory, university.
... For example, frameworks rightly advocate solving the root problems of identified technical issues, but workarounds are much faster and easier for teams to implement [72]. Frameworks also only offer high-level guidance, resulting in a variety of smaller implementation decisions between organizations [68,91,92]. With differences in implementation, IT infrastructure's performance is evaluated based on numerous indicators such as customer feedback, internal business processes, and the learning achieved [64]. ...
... Based on the concepts of IT service management using ITIL, Tang and Todo (2013), in their work entitled "A Study of Service Desk Setup in Implementing IT Service Management in Enterprises," analyzed the definition and the importance of a Service Desk from the perspective of ITIL best practices, offering suggestions on how to set up a good Service Desk through three different views: people, processes, and technology. A case study was presented in which a Service Desk achieved results improvement after the identification of problematic processes and the respective corrective actions taken along 2 years. ...
Article
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Brazilian Federal Institutes of Education, Science and Technology (FIs) have expanded through multicampi structure, which has led to profound changes in their administrative and academic organization. As consequence of this expansion, the demand for services, systems, and information technology (IT) solutions has increased; and the support service’s provision has become much more relevant. However, a diagnosis of the quality of the IT support services, performed with the FI’s CIOs, has shown that the service’s provision in these institutions is below required. There are several problems encountered, such as political and cultural issues, lack of stakeholder involvement, insufficient staff, resistance to change, lack of priorities, excessive demands, lack of knowledge of best practices, and the use of inappropriate tools. So, there is a clear need to develop a proposal to help the FIs to improve their IT support services. The Service Desk is an alternative, since it implements a unique interface between users and the IT sector, however, with a broader role than just the technical support, as it embraces processes, people, and technologies geared to IT management. This work aimed to develop a framework, with a practical approach on “how to do,” which guides the implementation and/or the improvement of Service Desks of the Federal Institutes. The proposal sought incorporates several practices related to Service Desk, identified in ITIL, ISO 20000, CMMI-SVC, and MR-MPS-SV models, creating a deployment and/or improvement approach through a life cycle framework, based on the IDEAL model, and a process toolbox, structured according to the seven dimensions of the EPMF. The research is relevant due to the lack of guidelines for the implementation and/or improvement of Service Desks from a practical point of view, since the main models found focus on “what has to be done,” and little on “how to do.” The IT support service’s current situation diagnosis in the IFs showed that the service provisioning was less than expected. The need to develop a proposal to help the FIs to improve the IT support service became evident, and the QoS-IT framework emerged. After the framework’s development, it was evaluated by IFs specialists and, posteriorly, it was used and evaluated in the context of a specific Federal Institute. Finally, a gap analysis was done between user satisfaction surveys, comparing the results obtained before and after the Service Desk deployment at the Federal Institute, which presented evidences of a positive impact on the service provision after using the framework.
Thesis
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For many organizations, even today, there is a large gap between the needs of the business and the technology services used to support it. The lack of professional tools, as well as their access, has hampered the achievement of the effective implementation desired by top management. Therefore, companies seek to solve many technical problems by adopting guides to good practice that have proven to be effective. The Transition of Services has been, within the organizational context, a constant challenge to be overcome. Guides such as ITIL, are well-known and used for this purpose but have also undermined the implementation of good practice because it offers a lot of information and presents many suggestions in a confusing way, without providing step-by-step guides that show how a company can institutionalize it. The confusing way in which the guide is written complicates the understanding for those who wish to use it. To confront this reality, the present study aimed to develop a textit Framework that presents a clear means of implementation of the Transition of IT Services based on the aforementioned guide. With the results obtained, the feasibility of the research application was verified. From these results and following the proposal of the GAIA Service Transition Framework we have developed a model that uses the main maturity and capacity programs presented by CMMI and MPS.BR and the PRINCE2 and PMBOK guides and provides a clear and incremental way to implement IT Service Transition practices.
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The paper examines ITSM (IT Service Management) which is based on the internationally accepted ITIL standard (IT Infrastructure Library). Within the domain of ITSM special attention is given to constant improvements in IS/IT services. The aim of the paper is to identify and characterise ITSM metrics and metrics models among which ITSM Maturity Models play an important role. Standard methods of scientific work such as analysis, synthesis, comparison and selection are used for the paper. The main findings are based on the analysis of literature proving the importance of effective IS/IT service management in supporting the business goals of enterprises and organisations. Several authors criticised the extent and detailed character of ITIL.They suggested solving the problems of SME sector by simplifying the processes of ITSM implementation. This is closely related to the proposed system of ITSM metrics and metrics models. The paper provides a detailed elaboration of complex metrics models together with a derived, reduced model with 8 main metrics and other often used tools for IS/IT services measurement, namely ITSM Maturity Models. They are applicable for both a diagnosis of the level of IS/IT services in the companies and eventual correction of plans and for benchmarking the enterprises within their specific branch.
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J.N.Warfield identified and classified the mindbugs (cognitive barriers), and put forward the process-based work program of complexity, and argued that the complexity could be managed through design. The eleven kinds of common mindbugs are figured out among the twenty five kinds of mindbugs with questionnaire. The relationship between the six root risk factors of implementation of the information technology service management (ITSM) project and these common mindbugs are also identified. It is found that the influence of mindbugs of habit is most serious in the ITSM project because the implementation of ITSM project would change the original work habits and methods of people. Finally, some recommendations are put forward to mitigate the root risk factors.
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Though analyzing the IT service management framework and associated processes of KM company, this paper determines various indicators of IT service management process. The weights of each indicator are calculated with analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and the evaluation was executed in KM company. And the suggestions are proposed with consideration of both the evaluation results and the real situation of KM company’s IT service management. The case is deeply considered in the views of IT service management objectives and misunderstandings, customer satisfaction model of IT service management, knowledge supporting structure of IT service management. It is concluded that if the organization wishes to successfully implement IT service management’s customer satisfaction model, it should eliminate the misunderstandings of IT service objectives first, while the adoption of knowledge supporting structure of IT service management can play a multiplier effect.
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Chapter
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