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In a three-wave, year-long, large-sample dataset (N = 755), 10 candidate "personality strengths" (Grit, Gratitude, Curiosity, Savoring, Control Beliefs, Meaning in Life-Presence, Strengths Use, and Engagement, Pleasure, and Meaning-Based Orientations Toward Happiness) were compared as predictors of 6-month increases in goal attainment, and as moderators of goal attainment effects upon boosted subjective well-being (SWB). Seeking internal replication, we tested our models twice, both during T1-T2 and during T2-T3. We also examined whether any Personality × Attainment moderator effects upon change in SWB at T2 still persisted at T3. Grit was the only candidate strength that predicted increased goal attainment from T1 to T2 and from T2 to T3, and Curiosity was the only candidate strength that moderated attainment effects on well-being from T1 to T2 and from T2 to T3. T2 Goal attainment effects on SWB were best sustained at T3 when Meaning Orientation increased from T1 to T2. Implications for identifying keystone constructs in personality (and positive) psychology are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

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... And yet, studies examining similar trait-goal individual differences support the need to investigate these relations. For instance, recent studies have examined the relation between grit and goal attainment or academic motivation (Piña-Watson et al., 2015;Sheldon, Jose, Kashdan, & Jarden, 2015). It has been shown that grit influences both goal attainment (Sheldon et al., 2015) and academic motivation (Piña-Watson et al., 2015). ...
... For instance, recent studies have examined the relation between grit and goal attainment or academic motivation (Piña-Watson et al., 2015;Sheldon, Jose, Kashdan, & Jarden, 2015). It has been shown that grit influences both goal attainment (Sheldon et al., 2015) and academic motivation (Piña-Watson et al., 2015). Specifically, Sheldon et al. (2015) examined the effects of personality strengths on goal attainment and subjective well-being (SWB) and found that, among the 10 candidates of personality strengths (e.g. ...
... It has been shown that grit influences both goal attainment (Sheldon et al., 2015) and academic motivation (Piña-Watson et al., 2015). Specifically, Sheldon et al. (2015) examined the effects of personality strengths on goal attainment and subjective well-being (SWB) and found that, among the 10 candidates of personality strengths (e.g. grit, gratitude, curiosity, control, meaning in life, obtaining happiness through engagement), only grit consistently predicted the subsequent increases of goal attainment overtime. ...
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Based on the hierarchical model of achievement motivation, this study examined how grit predicted achievement goals among two university student samples from American and Chinese cultures. Grit, as a personality trait, includes consistency of interest and perseverance of effort; achievement goals are represented by four types of goals, namely, mastery-approach, performance-approach, mastery-avoidance and performance-avoidance goals. Two hundred and seventy-two undergraduate students (158 Americans and 114 Chinese) were recruited and completed the survey online. Results showed that, though positively correlated, the two aspects of grit predicted achievement goals in very different ways. Specifically, consistency of interest negatively predicted performance-avoidance goals, whereas perseverance of effort positively predicted all four achievement goals (i.e. mastery-approach, performance-approach, mastery-avoidance, and performance-avoidance goals). Multi-group structural equation modelling revealed that this pattern was equivalent across the two cultural samples.
... Participants responded to 10 items (5 for each subscale) on a 5-point Likert scale from 1 = very slightly or not at all to 5 = extremely. Construct validity has been shown in prior studies assessing curiosity, goal-striving, and well-being (e.g., Sheldon, Jose, Kashdan, & Jarden, 2015). Reliability was acceptable for both subscales (as = 0.84 and 0.87). ...
... People endorsing greater dispositional curiosity experience a higher probability of pleasurable and meaningful moments in their life (Gallagher & Lopez, 2007 Seligman, 2007;Vittersø, 2003). A subset of these moments of well-being result from curious people expending greater effort toward exploration, discovery, and personally meaningful goal pursuits (e.g., Kaczmarek et al., 2013;Mussel, 2013b;Sheldon et al., 2015). The results in the current study offer nuances to prior work by showing that Joyous Exploration and Stress Tolerance appear to be the curiosity dimensions most relevant to well-being. ...
Article
Since the origins of psychology, curiosity has occupied a pivotal position in the study of motivation, emotion, and cognition; and disciplines as far-ranging as biology, economics, robotics, and leadership. Theorists have disagreed about the basic tenets of curiosity; some researchers contend that the rewards arise when resolving ambiguity and uncertainty whereas others argue that being curious is an intrinsically pleasurable experience. Three studies were conducted to consolidate competing theories and isolated bodies of research. Using data from a community survey of 508 adults (Study 1), 403 adults on MTurk (Study 2), and a nationally representative household survey of 3,000 adults (Study 3), we found evidence for five distinct factors: Joyous Exploration, Deprivation Sensitivity, Stress Tolerance, Social Curiosity, and Thrill Seeking - forming The Five-Dimensional Curiosity Scale (5DC). Each factor had substantive relations with a battery of personality, emotion, and well-being measures. Taking advantage of this multidimensional model, we found evidence for four distinct types of curious people in Study 3 referred to as The Fascinated (28% of sample), Problem Solvers (28%), Empathizers (25%), and Avoiders (19%). Subgroups differed in their passionate interests, areas of expertise, consumer behavior, and social media use; challenging an assumption that there is a homogenous population to be discriminated on a single dimension from incurious to very curious. With greater bandwidth and predictive power, the 5DC offers new opportunities for research on origins, consequences, life outcomes, and intervention strategies to enhance curiosity.
... As the blend of passion and perseverance for long-term goals, grit is deemed as one of the key character strengths that is essential for youth to succeed and flourish (Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, & Kelly, 2007;KIPP, 2017). Ample empirical evidence has affirmed the importance of grit for youth across various arenas (e.g., Datu, Yuen, & Chen, 2017;Schechtman, DeBarger, Dornsife, Rosier, & Yarnall, 2013;Sheldon, Jose, Kashdan, & Jarden, 2015). Thus, there is a consensus on the crucial importance of cultivating youth's grit, and parents are deemed to play an essential role on this aspect via their socialization processes with youth (e.g., Cui & Lan, 2020;Duckworth, 2016;Dunn, 2018;Howard, Nicholson, & Chesnut, 2019;Lin & Chang, 2017). ...
... Over and beyond cognitive (e.g., IQ) and personality (e.g., the Big Five traits) attributes, grit has been found to predict better academic outcomes, including higher GPA, better performance in competitions, and high school and college graduation (e.g., Duckworth et al., 2007;Eskreis-Winkler, Duckworth, Shulman, & Beal, 2014;Usher, Li, Butz, & Rojas, 2018;Wolters & Hussain, 2015). Moreover, grit has been found to predict desirable outcomes in diverse life domains, such as completion of military trainings (Eskreis-Winkler et al., 2014), effectiveness and persistence in teaching (Robertson-Kraft & Duckworth, 2014), treatment adherence (Peña et al., 2019), better sales performance (Dugan, Hochstein, Rouziou, & Britton, 2019), and goal attainment (Sheldon et al., 2015). According to Duckworth et al.'s (2007) conceptualization, grit consists of two components: consistency of interests, referring to the tendency to pursue the same goals or interests without frequently changing them, and perseverance of efforts, referring to the tendency to work hard toward long-term goals even in the face of setbacks. ...
Article
This research tested whether parents' academic socialization and psychological control interacted to predict the passion and perseverance component of grit among Chinese youth across different developmental phases. Participants were 4421 Chinese youths (M age = 13.90 years, SD = 2.57 years) in elementary, middle, and high schools, who reported on their grit and perceptions of parents' academic socialization and psychological control. In both elementary and middle schools, parents' academic socialization mainly predicted youth's greater perseverance of effort, whereas parents' psychological control mainly predicted youth's less consistency of interest and more perseverance of efforts. Importantly, only in high schools did parents' academic socialization interact with psychological control in predicting both grit components: Parents' academic socialization predicted less consistency of interests and perseverance of effort when parents were perceived as average or high as opposed to low in psychological control. Taken together, the findings highlight that both the quantity and quality of parents' academic socialization may have implications on youth's grit.
... -the tendency to sustain passion and perseverance for long-term goals-has emerged as an important predictor of overcoming challenges (Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, & Kelly, 2007;Eskreis-Winkler, Duckworth, Shulman, & Beal, 2014;Sheldon, Jose, Kashdan, & Jarden, 2015). Nonetheless, little is known about why some students are grittier than others. ...
... Grit is not positively associated with IQ, but it reliably predicts academic outcomes, including high school and college graduation (Duckworth et al., 2007;Eskreis-Winkler et al., 2014) and persistence at the United States Military Academy at West Point (Duckworth et al., 2007). Among adults, grit predicts goal attainment (Sheldon et al., 2015), persistence and effectiveness in teaching (Robertson-Kraft & Duckworth, 2014), lower turnover in sales (Eskreis-Winkler et al., 2014), and the attainment and successful completion of Special Forces military training (Eskreis-Winkler et al., 2014). ...
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Grit, the inclination to pursue long-term goals with passion and perseverance, predicts academic achievement and professional success, but how to encourage grit in students remains an open question. The goal of the current study was to understand how perceptions of school culture influence the development of grit in middle school students. We conducted a year-long, prospective, longitudinal study (N = 1277) examining grit, perceived goal structures (mastery vs. performance), and academic achievement. In cross-sectional analyses, we found that students who perceived their schools as more mastery goal-oriented were grittier and earned higher report card grades. In contrast, students who perceived their schools as more performance goal-oriented were less gritty and earned lower report card grades. In longitudinal analyses, changes in perceived mastery school goal structure predicted changes in grit over the school year, which in turn predicted changes in grades. Changes in perceived performance school goal structure, in contrast, did not reliably predict changes in grit. These findings suggest that school environments that emphasize the value of learning for learning's sake may encourage children to sustain interest in and effort toward long-term goals.
... An alternative approach is to compare multiple strengths at once, clarifying which personality strengths relate to SWB and to what degree. In this way, researchers can identify which personality strengths most strongly or uniquely relate to important outcomes, a simultaneous approach that has been used elsewhere (Sheldon, Elliot, Kim, & Kasser, 2001;Sheldon, Jose, Kashdan, & Jarden, 2015). Although the personality strengths included in this study differ in important ways, they can be compared based on their effectiveness as resilience factors that promote adjustment following adversity. ...
... Conventional models of SWB (e.g., Diener et al., 1985) include positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction. As the IWBS did not contain measures of positive and negative affect, we followed prior research (e.g., Sheldon et al., 2015) and used happiness in place of positive affect, and depressive symptoms in place of negative affect. Both pairs show strong correlations with the other (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). ...
... Andere Studien untersuchten den Einfluss von Dimensionen wie Gewissenhaftigkeit, emotionale Stabilität, Entschlossenheit, Kontrolle sowie Optimismus auf wirtschaftlichen Erfolg, soziales und subjektives Wohlbefinden und Gesundheit bei älteren Erwachsenen (Steptoe & Wardle, 2017;Steptoe & Jackson, 2018). Sheldon und Kollegen (2015) hingegen erfassten Persönlichkeitsstärken mittels einer Kombination von Fragebögen, um Prädiktoren der Selbstwirksamkeit zu identifizieren (Sheldon et al., 2015). Im Kontext der Suchtprävention wurden Entscheidungsfindung, Problemlösung, kreatives Denken, kritisches Denken, effektive Kommunikation, Fähigkeiten zu zwischenmenschlichen Beziehungen, Selbstwahrnehmung, Einfühlungsvermögen sowie Umgang mit Emotionen und Stressbewältigung als Lebenskompetenzen benannt (WHO, 1994;. ...
... In Anlehnung an die oben genannten Aspekte wurden die entsprechenden Konstrukte wie folgt zugrunde gelegt: 1) Wohlbefinden, erfasst durch Fragen zum Glücksempfinden und einem angenehmen Lebensgefühl (Sheldon et al., 2015), 2) Selbstregulation, bestehend aus Items bezüglich der Ausgleichs-und Entspannungsfähigkeit, in-neren Stärke und Resilienz (WHO, 1994;, Wellensiek & Galuska. 2014, 3) Engagement und Aktivitäten (Seligman, 2002;2011), 4) Sinnerleben mit Fragen zu bewusstem Leben, Glaube, Religion und Werten (Belschner, 2003;Hampel et al., 2020), 5) Selbstwirksamkeit unter Berücksichtigung der Wahrnehmung von Selbstwirksamkeit (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995), sowie 6) Sozialkontakte mit unterstützenden, engen Kontakten und Zeit für diese Fragen (Ryff & Keyes, 1995;Seligman, 2011). ...
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Zusammenfassung. Lebenskompetenzen stellen Fähigkeiten dar, aus denen eine salutogene Lebensführung resultiert. Dadurch können sie sowohl als Basis als auch als wichtiger Indikator für den therapeutischen Prozess dienen. Hier wird ein Selbsteinschätzungsinstrument vorgestellt, welches an N = 2 054 Patientinnen und Patienten der stationären psychosomatischen Behandlung erhoben wurde und dessen Konstrukt in zweifacher Erhebung exploratorisch und konfirmatorisch validiert wurde. Der Fragebogen LK-18 umfasst 18 Items, die sich in 6 Faktoren mit je 3 Items gliedern lassen. Diese sind Wohlbefinden, Selbstregulation, Engagement, Sinnerleben, Selbstwirksamkeit, sowie Sozialkontakte. Die Werte für Cronbachs α liegen zwischen .74 und .85, im Gesamtwert bei .91. Die RMSEA von .062 deutet auf eine akzeptable Modellpassung hin. Als externe Korrelate zeigen psychosomatische Symptombelastungen nach dem ICD10-basierten Symptomrating (ISR) und posttraumatische Störungen meist mittlere negative Korrelationen im Bereich -.22 bis -.69 ( p < .001). Die Ergebnisse demonstrieren die Validität des Fragebogens und seine Veränderungssensitivität, wodurch der Einsatz in der psychosomatischen Diagnostik als geeignetes Zusatzinstrument als sinnvoll erachtet werden kann.
... Yet another definition of strengths is based in classic personality psychology (e.g., Allport, 1966), and refers to personality strengths as characteristics that promote adjustment to the environment (King & Trent, 2013;Sheldon, Jose, Kashdan, & Jarden, 2015). As adjustment is conditional on the environment, so are strengths: "whether a characteristic is a strength depends on its match to the person's context, suggesting that a strength in one situation may be a weakness in another" (King & Trent, 2013, p. 199). ...
... As adjustment is conditional on the environment, so are strengths: "whether a characteristic is a strength depends on its match to the person's context, suggesting that a strength in one situation may be a weakness in another" (King & Trent, 2013, p. 199). Drawing on this idea of situation dependence, the Big Five personality traits, narrower personality traits, self-regulatory capacities, capacities for resilience, and various goal system characteristics that are generally conceptualized as nonvalue laden can, depending on the situation, be considered personality strengths (Sheldon et al., 2015). A final strengths model defines personal strengths more broadly as "the characteristics of a person that allow them to perform well or at their personal best" (Wood, Linley, Maltby, Kashdan, & Hurling, 2011, p. 15). ...
Article
In this article, we review theory and research on strengths use in an organizational context. We identify important antecedents of strengths use, including personal initiative, organizational support for strengths use, autonomy, and opportunities for development. In addition, we position strengths use in Job Demands–Resources theory as one of the possible proactive behaviors that may foster the acquisition of personal and job resources, and indirectly promote work engagement and performance. Since strengths use has important ramifications for employee functioning, strengths use interventions seem an important next step in strengths use research. We outline important questions for future research, and discuss practical implications of our theoretical analysis. We conclude that organizations should encourage employees to use their strengths, because when employees capitalize on their strong points, they can be authentic, feel energized, and flourish.
... We focus here on three commonly used individual difference measures of goal-related cognition-hope, general self-efficacy, and grit. We focus on these three constructs, specifically, rather than on other common positive psychological constructs (e.g., optimism, self-esteem) because of their theoretical emphasis on (e.g., Bandura & Locke, 2003; 2 | Snyder et al., 2018) and empirical association with (e.g., Beattie et al., 2015;Feldman et al., 2009;Sheldon et al., 2015) goal-directed thoughts/behaviors rather than broad generalized positive future expectancies. ...
... Grit is conceptualized as a "passion and perseverance for long-term goals" (Duckworth et al., 2007), and some literature suggests a link between higher grit and academic achievement (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009) and goal attainment (Sheldon et al., 2015). Additionally, there is evidence linking higher grit to lower rates of mental health symptoms. ...
Article
Objective Symptoms of general psychological distress disrupt goal pursuit; however, not everyone is equally impacted by distress when pursuing goals. We tested whether hope, self‐efficacy, and/or grit buffered the impact of symptoms of general psychological distress on longitudinal goal progress. Method Undergraduate students reported on these constructs and, 2 months later, their progress toward five personal goals (N = 117). Results Although greater levels of baseline psychological distress predicted less goal progress, the impact of psychological distress on goal progress was moderated by hope, β = .20, SE = 0.07, p < .01. More specifically, at higher hope, participants reported similar goal progress regardless of baseline distress symptoms, while at lower hope, baseline distress was negatively associated with goal progress. Conclusion Hope may function as a buffer against the association between general psychological distress and impaired goal progress.
... As well as the construct of grit being associated with academic outcomes, some research has demonstrated an association between grit and certain personal outcomes. Grit has a significant relationship with higher life-course accomplishment (Abuhassàn and Bates, 2015); increased goal attainment (Sheldon et al., 2015); a diagnosis of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder (Griffin et al., 2016); employment status (Griffin et al., 2016); burn out (Halliday et al., 2016) and greater health care management skills . It is therefore worthwhile exploring the relationship that grit might have with student well-being and physical health. ...
... Indeed, nine of the 10 students clearly identified their short and long-term goals. This gains further support from previous research that indicates gritty people are more likely to have their long-term goals and future plans identified (Muenks et al., 2016;Sheldon et al., 2015;Duckworth, 2017). One student who directly expresses this stated: "I've got a long-term goal and a long-term vision in my mind. . . ...
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The present research looked at the importance of the concept of grit in University students based on a mixed-method approach. Study 1 comprised 440 University students. All were given the Grit Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, the short Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, the Office of National Statistics Well-being items and the Self-Control Scale. Levels of grit were significantly higher in female students, older students and postgraduates. Grit correlated highest with self-control. Study 2 looked at 340 University students. In addition to measuring self-control, mental well-being and grit, measures of resilience and mindsets were also added. A construct validity test of the Grit Scale showed that high grit scorers had significantly higher levels of self-control and mental well-being, were more resilient and were more likely to have a more growth oriented mindset. Grit varies with age and is most closely associated with the concept of self-control. The third study was a qualitative investigation with 10 successful graduates. Semi-structured interviews were coded using thematic analysis. Three broad themes emerged. The first, Passion and Perseverance, included themes of having short and long terms goals, resilience, dedication, and endurance. The second, Self-Control, included time management, self-awareness, prioritizing tasks and knowing strengths and weaknesses. The third theme identified was Positive Mindsets. This included having a positive attitude toward learning, the importance of feedback and constructive criticism and that success is not materialistic. The qualitative research has helped “unpack” concepts from the grit research and may enable University tutors to guide students better. Though these studies were only conducted in one English University, they have been stepping stones in our quest to discover what are the most important factors in determining student academic success? The development and piloting of our new Uni-Stride Scale, is the next step in this process.
... The IWBS was administered entirely online and participants were asked to complete follow-up assessments over a oneyear period. Full sampling and methodological details can be found elsewhere (Disabato, Goodman, Kashdan, Short, & Jarden, 2016;Sheldon, Jose, Kashdan, & Jarden, 2015). Each age group was well-represented (15-19 years old: n = 1312; 20-29 years old: n = 2342; 30-39 years old: n = 1597; 40-49: n = 1185; 50-59 years old: n = 781; 60-69 years old: n = 299; 70+ years old: n = 101). ...
... Some longitudinal data were available for Study 3 -multiple assessments of gratitude over a one-year period. However, there were not enough longitudinal data to provide a strong test of age moderation of gratitude changes over a oneyear period (Sheldon et al., 2015). a delicate balance of managing losses while maintaining optimal functioning (Baltes, 1997;Lachman, 2015). ...
Article
Gratitude has been described as an adaptive evolutionary mechanism that is relevant to healthy psychological and interpersonal outcomes. Questions remain as to whether the presence and benefits of gratitude are consistent from young adulthood to old age; prior research has yielded mixed evidence. We examined the magnitude and direction of age differences in gratitude in three samples (combined N = 31,206). We also examined whether gratitude was associated with greater/lesser well-being at different periods in the life course. We found that the experience of gratitude was greatest in older adults and least in middle aged and younger adults. Further, we found that the associations between gratitude and subjective well-being remained relatively constant across the lifespan. Findings are discussed from a developmental perspective.
... Duckworth & Quinn, 2009;Eskreis-Winkler et al., 2014), and work performance (Lechner et al., 2019, Suzuki et al., 2015. Additionally grit has been linked with specific positive outcomes including academic achievement (Crede et al., 2017), academic diligence (Galla et al., 2014) academic engagement (Datu et al., 2015;Datu et al., 2016), goal attainment (Sheldon et al., 2015), lower risk of depression (Datu et al., 2018;Salles et al., 2017), lower risk of burnout (Jumat et al., 2020), metacognitive awareness (Arslan et al., 2013); positive affect towards difficult tasks (Lucas et al., 2015), psychological well-being (Wyszynska et al., 2017), self-regulation (Wolters & Hussain, 2015), and resiliency to suicide (Kleiman et al., 2013). However, only a few studies to date have examined grit's relationship with foreign language learning (Giordano, 2019;Robins, 2019;Wei et al., 2019;Teimouri et al., 2020). ...
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Although research has ascribed a number of virtues to critical thinking, what critical thinking means is itself open to debate. This paper, as a part of a larger qualitative study on critical thinking practice in a Vietnamese EFL context, presents the findings about how Vietnamese EFL teachers and students in a university interpreted critical thinking. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews with eight teachers and 22 students in a Vietnamese tertiary EFL context to seek their understandings of critical thinking. A majority of the interviews (28) were conducted in Vietnamese, then transcribed in their entirety, and translated into English. Thematic analysis was used to make sense of the data. The participating teachers and students defined critical thinking as involving cognitive skills (e.g., analysing, synthesising, evaluating) and affective dispositions (e.g., inquisitiveness, open-mindedness). Their understandings were found to be limited to the first two domains of criticality in Barnett’s (1997) framework. That is, they understood critical thinking mainly within the domains of “knowledge”, less in “self”, barely at all in the domain of the “world”. The findings further revealed three characteristics distinctive in the participants’ conceptions of critical thinking: (i) expressing personal opinions as an indication of critical thinking, (ii) right/wrong dichotomy as the aim of critical thinking, and (iii) others’ rather than one’s own opinions or arguments as the subject of criticism. The findings imply that the participating teachers and students appeared to have quite a rudimentary grasp of critical thinking and that their understandings were influenced to some extent by the Vietnamese culture of teaching and learning, which has some implications for the application of critical thinking in an EFL context.
... The second dimension, expressed as the use of strengths, refers to an energising experience that enhances intrinsic motivation and drives an individual to experience positive emotional states. Self-reported strengths knowledge and use have been identified as major predictors of subjective wellbeing in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies among different age groups (e.g., Govindji & Linley, 2007;Proctor et al., 2011;Quinlan, Swain, Cameron, & Vella-Brodrick, 2015;Sheldon, Jose, Kashdan, & Jarden, 2015;Waters, 2015a;Wood, Linley, Maltby, Kashdan, & Hurling, 2011). Strength use was associated with hope and positive coping in child samples (Madden, Green, & Grant, 2011;Waters, 2015b), life satisfaction and self-esteem in adolescents (Proctor et al., 2011;Suldo, Savage, & Mercer, 2014;Waters, 2015a), subjective wellbeing, selfesteem, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction in college samples (Allan & Duffy, 2014;Douglass & Duffy, 2015;Proctor et al., 2011), and happiness in adult samples (Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects (via mental toughness) of strength-based parenting on adolescents' psychological distress and subjective happiness. Participants included 370 adolescents (M = 15.86 years, SD = 0.50, range = 14-18 years, 51.6% girls) attending public high schools in Turkey. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires that included measures of strength-based parenting, mental toughness, psychological distress, and subjective happiness. Findings provided evidence of both direct as well as indirect effects (via mental toughness) of strength-based parenting on adolescents' psychological outcomes. Specifically, results showed that strength-based parenting was negatively and directly related to psychological distress, and positively and directly related to subjective happiness. In addition, strength-based parenting was indirectly related to psychological distress and subjective happiness through mental toughness. The findings highlight the importance of strength-based parenting and mental toughness on psychological outcomes in adolescents.
... [32] Studies have shown that teaching goal management according to attribution styles improves self-efficacy in students, [33] and that type of goal affects individual's happiness. [34] This factor was able to explain 11.3% of overall variance of life skills construct. ...
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INTRODUCTION The importance of life skills and their application in promoting personal, family, and occupational health in military personnel is well recognized. It is, therefore, important to identify and assess life skills in military personnel with a valid and reliable tool. The present study aims to develop such a tool and evaluate its psychometric features in military personnel. MATERIALS AND METHODS As part of a mixed study, a qualitative concept analysis study was conducted using hybrid approach to redefine life skills in military personnel, and results obtained were used to form a pool of items. Next, in a methodological study, psychometric evaluation, qualitative and quantitative face validity, qualitative and quantitative content validity, and construct validity (exploratory factor analysis), and reliability (using test-retest and internal consistency) were performed on the inventory. RESULTS Initial pool of items was designed with 156 items, which were reduced to 93, following qualitative face validity, and further reduced to 80 after quantitative face validity (item impact score). No further reduction was implemented after qualitative and quantitative content validity (content validity ratio and content validity index ratio). Following construct validity (factor analysis), the remaining 80 items were summarized in 5 factors. Cronbach's alpha for the 5 factors was found 0.7, and correlation coefficient of test-retest results exceeded 0.9 and was significant at 0.01. CONCLUSION Given the acceptable results of psychometric features, this tool can be used as a valid and reliable tool for assessing life skills in military personnel.
... The third theme is the debate on whether curiosity and interest are identical, similar, or differentpsychological constructs (Ainley, 2019; Aschieri et al., 2020; Bougie & Ichise, 2020; Fayn et al., 2019; Murayama et al., 2019; Pekrun, 2019; Schmidt & Rotgans, 2020; Shin & Kim, 2019). The fourth theme deals with implications of curiosity in a learning context such as a classroom.This touches on three key elements: how learners respond to new knowledge, set learning goals and enjoy the process of learning while developing metacognitive strategies; the pushing of boundaries and exploration of novel experiences; and the response to uncertainties while using metacognitive strategies such as planning ahead(Baker et al., 2015; Beachboard & Dause, 2020;Fiamengo, 2013;Hulme et al., 2013;Jamie, 2020; Jirout & Klahr, 2012a, 2020 K.G et al., 2020; Kolb et al., 2014; Menning, 2019;Nadelson et al., 2019;Rossing & Long, 1981;Sakaki et al., 2018;Sheldon et al., 2015; von Stumm et al., 2011;Wagstaff et al.;Whitehouse et al., 2018). ...
... coach's personality and behavior, sponsor feedback and authority, stakeholder engagement and influence, client's goalstriving) form the lynchpin of the quantitative approaches to goal-attainment in coaching (e.g. Blackman & Carter, 2014a;Sheldon et al, 2015;Meyers et al, 2015;Smedley, 2007) and hence require consolidated attention in coaching outcome research if coaching were to aid the development of coaching effectiveness in the future. ...
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... or what is called a "small-to-medium" effect. Other authors like Sheldon et al. (2015) compared grit to nine other positive personality characteristics in a year-long study of goal attainment and found that grit was the most reliable predictor of achieving personally meaningful goals over that period. These findings suggest that grit is an important determinant of success, although not the only one. ...
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Given the recent relevance of non-cognitive skills for consequential outcomes in the educational, personal, and professional domains, the objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the quality of the evidences on grit as predictor and outcome of educational, professional, and personal success. A pre-specified systematic review protocol was designed and implemented to synthesize the qualitative finding. A systematic literature search was conducted across diverse platforms and databases. A narrative content analysis was adopted to analyze the results. The final sample of studies reviewed was 90. The following analytical themes were identified: grit as a predictor of educational, professional, and personal success, and grit as outcome of demographic, educational, professional, and personal success. The results suggest that the evidences of effectiveness of grit as a predictor are largely stronger than those of grit as outcome. Additionally, our findings unveil that research on this construct is off to a good start, even though higher-quality research is needed.
... Self-control enables us to navigate conflicts between any of our goals and innumerable "hourly temptations," as Galton (1869Galton ( /2006 put it. Grit, in contrast, is particularly relevant to enduring goals of superordinate personal significance (Sheldon, Jose, Kashdan, & Jarden, 2015). Some extremely disciplined individuals lack the single-minded, sustained commitment that is signature to grit, and some individuals who doggedly pursue a lifelong calling are not especially well-regulated in other domains of life. ...
Article
In 2002, we discovered that self-control “outdoes” talent in predicting academic success during adolescence. Since then, a surfeit of longitudinal evidence has affirmed the importance of self-control to achieving everyday goals that conflict with momentary temptations. In parallel, research that has “lumped” self-control with other facets of Big Five conscientiousness has shown the superior predictive power of this broad family of individual differences for diverse life outcomes. Self-control can also be “split” from related traits that in certain contexts demonstrate superior predictive power for achievement. Most important, both the “lumping” and “splitting” traditions have enhanced our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and antecedents of self-control. Collectively, progress over the past decade and a half suggests a bright future for the science and practice of self-control.
... Strengths can be broadly defined as skills and behaviors that feel natural and enjoyable to an individual, and allow them to perform at their best (Govindji and Linley 2007;Quinlan and Swain 2012;Sheldon et al. 2015;Wood et al. 2011). Waters (2015a previously defined SBP as an approach to parenting that seeks to deliberately identify and cultivate strengths (positive states, processes, and qualities) in one's children. ...
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Although strength-based interventions have been employed with general and targeted adult samples, to date, no published research has examined the effect of strength-based interventions for parents. Given that parenting can trigger both ill-being and wellbeing outcomes, more research is needed to examine how to help parents thrive and to meet Seligman’s (Am Psychol, 54(8), 559–562, 1999) early calls for the application of positive psychology in families. The current study (N = 137) measured the effect of a three-week strength-based parenting intervention on parental self-efficacy and positive emotions using a quasi-experimental, waitlist comparison group design. Parents were shown how to identify and cultivate strengths in themselves and their children. Compared to parents in the comparison group, parents who undertook the strength-based intervention showed gains in self-efficacy (i.e., greater confidence and perceived ability to successfully raise their children) and positive emotions when thinking about their children. These results suggest that strength-based approaches could help boost parental wellbeing. Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.
... Strengths are defined as capacities, characteristics, and processes that are energising and authentic (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi 2000;Sheldon and King 2001), and are manifested through patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviour (Govindji and Linley 2007;Quinlan et al. 2015). Strengths can be considered moral virtues such as honesty, talents such as creative writing ability, or Big Five personality traits such as conscientiousness (King and Trent 2013;Peterson and Seligman 2004;Rath 2007;Sheldon et al. 2015). They are stable over time like a trait, but also dynamic and alterable by environmental influences and effort (Biswas-Diener et al. 2011;Peterson 2006). ...
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Recent research suggests that strength-based parenting—the tendency for parents to see and encourage children to use their strengths—relates to lower stress and higher life satisfaction in adolescents. The current study tests whether strength-based parenting, in conjunction with a teenager’s strengths use, influences the teenager’s subjective wellbeing, and whether a growth mindset moderates the relationship between strength-based parenting and strengths use. Three hundred and sixty three adolescents (Mage = 13.74, 51% female) completed questionnaire measures of strength-based parenting, strengths use, subjective wellbeing (life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect), Extraversion, Neuroticism, and two aspects of growth mindset. A hierarchical regression using latent variables found that strengths use and strength-based parenting were both significant independent predictors of subjective wellbeing, over and above the effects of extraversion and neuroticism. A mediation analysis found that strengths use partially mediated the relationship between strength-based parenting and subjective wellbeing. Finally, a novel measure of strengths mindset significantly moderated the relationship between strength-based parenting and strengths use. These results suggest that adolescents who see their parents as strength-based report greater strengths use (especially when they have a growth mindset about their strengths) and greater subjective wellbeing.
... Goal conflict hinders the ability to pursue goals because the pursuit of one goal comes at the expense of another goal. Inhibited goal progress in turn is associated with decreased psychological well-being (Sheldon, Jose, Kashdan, & Jarden, 2015). Previous research has found that higher levels of goal conflict are associated with increased rumination about goals, more inhibited goal pursuit, and decreased goal progress (Boudreaux & Ozer, 2013;Cantor, Acker, & Cook-Flannagan, 1992;Kleiman & Hassin, 2011). ...
Article
Goal conflict has long been an important aspect of motivation theories, but the results of research on the relationship between goal conflict and psychological well-being have been inconsistent. A meta-analytic review of the literature (k = 54) was conducted to examine this association. Higher levels of goal conflict are related to lower levels of positive psychological outcomes and greater psychological distress, though this relationship is stronger for distress outcomes. Other moderators that produced significant differences in effect sizes were whether a goal matrix was used to assess goal conflict, whether unipolar or bipolar assessment of goal conflict was used, and whether adult or student samples were studied. This meta-analysis provides evidence that goal conflict has a negative association with psychological well-being.
... All the developmental changes occurring in adolescence can make coping with stressors a tumultuous task and, thus, an individual's wellbeing can suffer. The pursuit and achievement of personal goals in adolescents such as high academic performance, successful career and outstanding sport performance can lead to a psychologically fulfilling life as this provides structure and meaning to one's activities and identity (Gray, Ozer & Rosenthal, 2017).However, inhibited goal progress and conflict are associated with decrease psychological wellbeing in adolescents(Sheldon, Jose, Kashdan, & Jarden, 2015). The Harvard Raising Teens Project identified www.scholink.org/ojs/index.php/jpbr ...
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Psychological wellbeing consists of two philosophical perspectives: hedonic and eudaimonic viewpoints. These paradigms are developed and changes overtime across life span subject to life course experiences influenced by the individual’s live experience. More importantly early years’ experience moderate individuals’ psychological wellbeing as being positive or negative with attendant consequences. Understanding psychological wellbeing across developmental life course provides useful insights for life adjustment as individual, families and groups to navigate life turbulence.
... En definitiva, las fortalezas del carácter acá estudiadas pueden actuar como vías para el cultivo del bienestar en el personal educativo. En efecto, la bibliogrsfía científica especializada refiere que las fortalezas de la gratitud, amor, conocimiento, esperanza y autocontrol son las que más pueden llegar a predecir el bienestar psicológico Castro y Cosentino, 2016;Park et al., 2004;Sheldon, Jose, Kashdan y Jarden, 2015;Proyer, Gander, Wyss y Ruch, 2011;. ...
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En el marco de la promoción del bienestar psicológico en contextos educativos se presenta la siguiente experiencia de investigación con los objetivos de: a) determinar el efecto del programa basado en psicología positiva sobre el bienestar psicológico de personas actoras educativas antes de la intervención basada en fortalezas del carácter y después de esta, b) analizar las relaciones entre bienestar psicológico y las fortalezas del carácter luego de la aplicación del programa. A nivel metodológico corresponde a un diseño cuasi experimental pre y post, además de correlacional. De ahí que se llevó a cabo con dos grupos independientes de varios individuos actores educativos del sistema educativo uruguayo con una muestra en dos grupos: A de 34 sujetos y B de 26 sujetos, la técnica de recolección de datos fue a través de la escala de bienestar psicológico BIEPS-A de Casullo (2002) y sub escalas de fortalezas del carácter de la versión adaptada y validada por Rojas y Feldman (2010), ambas con adecuadas evidencias de confiabilidad y validez, se emplearon pruebas de contrastes de hipótesis no paramétricas para el análisis de datos. A modo de resultados, se obtuvo que hubo cambios estadísticamente significativos en bienestar psicológico antes y después de realizado el programa de psicología positiva, tanto en el grupo A (Z = -4,31, p <0.05) como en el grupo B (Z = -3,49, p <0.05). De igual manera, se encontraron correlaciones estadísticamente significativas entre el bienestar psicológico y las fortalezas del carácter luego de la aplicación del programa psicología positiva aplicada a la educación. De modo que se recomienda la profundización en estudios dedicados a examinar el efecto de intervenciones orientadas a la promoción del bienestar psicológico en contextos educativos.
... Without this awareness of totality, we cannot claim to fully understand coaching. We advocate that the interrelatedness of client factors and contextual factors as introduced in the Integrative Relationship Model (IRM) form the linchpin of future quantitative approaches to coaching outcome research (Sheldon et al., 2015). On the other hand, we argue that IRM indicates a shift from coaching as merely a linear input-output practice for enhancing performance towards adopting dynamic system perspectives in social psychology that reflect the multi-faceted nature of coaching practice and research (Cavanagh, 2013). ...
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Context-sensitivity appears to be a key factor in developing the knowledge base of coaching as a change process. As an alternative perspective to the more widely held cause–effect explanations on coaching, this view puts the focus on clients and their contexts as integral to understanding how coaching might work and why it is effective. In response to general limitations of quantitative and mixed-method approaches to understanding the contribution of client factors and contextual factors in coaching effectiveness, our systematic meta-synthesis of 110 peer-reviewed qualitative studies identifies the client factors and contextual conditions that have been proposed to affect when and how clients engage in effective coaching. In mapping clients’ intrapersonal and interpersonal dynamics in coaching, the Integrative Relationship Model introduced in this meta-synthesis interprets the possible influence of these dynamics on clients’ change process through the uniquely integrative lens of qualitative studies. This integrative perspective appears necessary to give quantitative researchers future directions in how to investigate coaching effectiveness.
... Grit, defined as the long-term pursuit of higher-order goals in the face of obstacles or setbacks, is one resource that has been associated with long-term goal striving and holds considerable relevance for goal attainment (Duckworth et al., 2007). Past research has shown that strong initial grit is essential for effective goal striving (Sheldon et al., 2015). Thus, identifying factors that contribute to grit could have important practical implications in achievement contexts where goal striving is prevalent. ...
Article
Long-term goal striving has been recognized as an important stage in goal achievement. Compared with the development of measurements of goal setting, researchers tended to measure goal striving in different manners. This study examined the conceptual structure of goal striving and validated a new scale to operationalize the construct within academic learning contexts. A 25-item scale was validated with 522 Chinese university students to assess its factor structure, reliability, gender invariance, criterion-related validity, and incremental validity. Confirmatory factor analysis results supported both the first-order and second-order model. Overall, the scale showed good reliability, validity, and invariance across gender. We suggested that this new scale could be used as an effective measure to assess the level of goal striving among university students in a Chinese context.
... These dispositional tendencies and experiential correlates can also translate into more general well-being effects. The positive relation between trait curiosity and happiness/well-being is well-established [23,27,28]. It is explained by a higher probability of pleasurable and meaningful moments in life [23] and higher openness to things that are unknown or difficult to understand-for instance, when viewing art [29], acquiring reading and math competence [30], engaging with contradictory political information [31], or dealing with rejection [32]. ...
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Curiosity is evoked when people experience an information-gap between what they know and what they do not (yet) know. Curious people are motivated to find the information they are missing. This motivation has different components: People want to reduce the uncertainty of not knowing something (deprivation motive) and they want to discover new information to expand their knowledge (discovery motive). We discuss recent research that shows that the affective experience of curiosity is the result of the relative strength of the deprivation and discovery motives. This, in turn, is contingent on individual differences, anticipated features of the actual target, and features of the information-gap.
... At the same time, researchers have posited that the demarcation between curiosity and openness to experience is due to the autocatalytic nature of curiosity (Baehr, 2013;Gruber et al., 2014;Sheldon et al., 2015). That is, the states of curiosity transform the passivity of openness of experience into cognitive, emotional, and behavioral exploratory action (Kashdan et al., 2018). ...
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Anxiety, stress, dissatisfaction, and disengagement at work have continued to rise in the United States, due partly to global conditions of volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. The persistent cadence of associated change requires individuals to develop an embodied integration of sophisticated cognitive, emotional, social, and meaning-making dexterity. In effect, in such conditions, individuals need curiosity. This phenomenological study examined the lived experience of curiosity of an individual within the context of receiving humanistic coaching based on a sample of nine executives. The resulting data revealed a biopsychosocial, multi-componential process associated with curiosity. Contextualizing state curiosity in this way may encourage researchers and practitioners to forgo the perspective that curiosity occurs in relatively discrete intervals and, instead, embrace the concept that curiosity states encompass experiential variability across the mind-body dimensions (e.g., cognitive activation, emotional intensity, somatic sensation) associated with distinct stages within a state curiosity framework. This multi-componential process view also suggests that the stages of state curiosity may involve a mechanism of linking separate states, thereby, influencing the intensity, sustainability and/or frequency of episodic curiosity. Finally, framing state curiosity as a multi-componential process may also help to bring a humanistic texturization, which could contribute to our intersubjective understanding of how individuals are curious.
... Grit has positive correlations with established psychological attributes which implies thriving such as happiness and life satisfaction (Singh and Jha 2008), conscientiousness (Duckworth et al. 2007, Datu et al. 2017, growth mindset (Duckworth et al. 2007, Hochanadel andFinamore 2015), self-esteem (Weisskirch 2018), self-efficacy (Muenks et al. 2017) and resilience (Blalock et al. 2015, Calo et al. 2019). More prominently, grit has been shown to achieve better outcomes above and beyond intelligence and conscientiousness, which includes higher education attainment, lesser career changes and marital stability (Eskreis-Winkler et al. 2014), academic performance (Duckworth and Seligman 2005), well-being outcomes (Sheldon et al. 2015) and inversely related to psychological distress (Datu et al. 2017) and depression (Jin and Kim 2017). Grit has evidence of being an important element when it comes to holding on and following through, which eventually leads to success. ...
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A growing interest in grit, which is defined as passionate perseverance for long-term goals, has included interest in quantifying it. Grit is typically measured via a self-report questionnaire, either with the Original Grit Scale (Grit-O) or the Short Grit Scale (Grit-S). However, there is a paucity of systematic evidence of the psychometrics of translated and adapted, or transadapted, versions of the grit measures across settings. This study systematically reviewed the literature on the psychometric properties of grit measures available and used across cultures. We searched the PsycINFO, Scopus, ScienceDirect and ProQuest electronic databases for articles published in English up to October 2019. This review was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. A total of 20 studies met the inclusion criteria, which included eight studies on newly developed grit measures and 12 studies which transadapted the existing Grit-O and the GritS to various languages and contexts. In the first category, despite being newly developed, the grit measures included items that were derived from the Grit-O or the GritS. These measures show promise, however, remain to be tested outside of the initial conception setting, thus limiting generalization. In the latter category, transadapted versions of the Grit-O and GritS returned with acceptable reliability and validity indexes, indicating for the measures to purportedly measure grit. However, factor analyses showed varying factor structures, suggesting grit manifestations to be non-universal and may be explained by cultural differences between individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Further validation studies, as well as the development of culture-specific grit measures, are implored.
... Selain konstruksi grit yang dikaitkan dengan hasil akademik, beberapa penelitian telah menunjukkan hubungan antara grit dan hasil pribadi tertentu. Grit memiliki hubungan yang signifikan dengan pencapaian kehidupan yang lebih tinggi (Abuhassàn & Bates, 2015); peningkatan pencapaian tujuan (Sheldon et al., 2015); diagnosis gangguan kejiwaan yang terjadi bersamaan (Griffin et al., 2016); status pekerjaan (Griffin et al., 2016); terbakar (Halliday et al., 2016) dan keterampilan manajemen perawatan kesehatan yang lebih besar (Sharkey et al., 2017). Telah ditunjukkan juga dalam beberapa penelitian bahwa bahwa grit berkorelasi positif dengan growth mindset (mindset berkembang) (Duckworth et al., 2007;Hochanadel & Finamore, 2015); kesehatan mental yang lebih tinggi (Sharkey et al., 2017); dan stabilitas emosional selama peristiwa kehidupan yang penuh tekanan atau negatif (Blalock et al., 2015). ...
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Grit or persistence is an individual effort exerted to achieve a long-term effort with a sustainable spirit and to develop this grittiness, a growth mindset is needed by that individual in order to believe or appreciate these abilities. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between grit and mindset among nursing students at Universitas Klabat, using a correlative method and consecutive sampling technique, consented by 226 students. Data analysis employing percentage, frequency, mean, standard deviation, and Spearman’s Correlation test. It is found that the grit of the participants averaged in 3.43 (SD= 0.531) signifying that the students were “quite gritty”. While for mindset the students were at the “intermediate mindset” level (M= 2.460; SD=0.676). Moreover, Spearman’s correlation revealed p=0.002 (<0.01) and r=-0.201 indicating a negative weak correlation between grit and mindset, signifying that the more gritty the student, the more fixed their mindset. It is recommended to conduct similar research to other students or study program and that the information about grit and mindset could be passed along throughout Universitas Klabat or other schools, and that also experimental study is suggested in the area of grit and mindset. For the institution, it is recommended that grit and mindset seminars, training, or workshops could be conducted for the students that they may aware of their situation and improve to be better and eventually achieve a successful learning experience. Keywords: grit, mindset, nursing, students Abstrak Grit atau ketekunan adalah usaha seseorang untuk mencapai tujuan jangka panjang dengan semangat yang berkelanjutan, dan untuk mengembangkan grit diperlukan growth mindset agar seseorang percaya akan kemampuan diri dan menghargai kemampuan tersebut. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui apakah ada hubungan yang signifikan antara grit dan mindset pada mahasiswa Keperawatan Universitas Klabat. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah deskriptif korelasi dengan teknik consecutive sampling diikuti oleh 226 mahasiswa yang setuju berpartisipasi. Analisa data menggunakan persentase, frekuensi, serta uji statistik Spearman’s Correlation menemukan rata-rata grit dari seluruh partisipan adalah M=3.43 (SD= 0.531) yang berarti partisipan berada pada skala “agak gritty”. Sedangkan rata-rata mindset dari partisipan berada pada nilai M= 2.460 (SD=0.676) yang berarti skala rata-rata “intermediate mindset” dan hasil uji Spearman’s correlation menunjukkan nilai p=0.002 (<0.01) dengan nilai r=-0.201 yang artinya ada hubungan negatif yang signifikan namun lemah antara grit dan mindset pada mahasiswa Keperawatan Universitas Klabat, yang artinya semakin gritty seorang mahasiswa, mereka berada pada mindset yang semakin fixed. Rekomendasi bagi peneliti selanjutnya agar dapat melakukan penelitian dengan menambah jumlah sampel dan memperluas penelitian ke fakultas lain agar informasi mengenai grit dan mindset juga dapat disalurkan kepada semua mahasiswa di Universitas Klabat bahkan di Universitas dan sekolah lain, serta dapat melakukan penelitian eksperimental pada area grit dan mindset. Bagi institusi, kiranya dapat mempelajari grit dan mindset, serta memberikan seminar, training atau workshop mengenai hal ini, sehingga mahasiswa boleh aware mengenai keadaan mereka. Kata kunci: grit, mindset, mahasiswa, perawat
... This research convinces us of the importance of grit as a crucial variable with a meaningful role in interpreting the relationship between PsyCap and GE. Grit has been demonstrated to have a significant positive impact across diverse settings, in particular higher goal attainment (Sheldon et al., 2015); academic achievement (Bowman et al., 2015); persistence in challenging tasks (Lucas et al., 2015); and remaining employed (Robertson-Kraft & Duckworth, 2014). Research on grit has also examined its impact on academic performance and achievement among students, across various settings (Lee & Sohn, 2017;Park & Cho, 2019). ...
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The construct of graduate employability (GE) has received considerable attention from researchers and practitioners because of its crucial role in national economic agendas. Previous research is mixed in terms of the association between psychological capital (PsyCap) and GE. This represents a significant theoretical gap in the literature. To address this knowledge gap and better understand the relationship, we proposed grit as the potential "moderator" between PsyCap and GE. By incorporating grit as moderator, this paper aims to contribute to concept and theory development in the field of educational management. The paper provides valuable insights that support the notion that PsyCap and grit acquisition enhance GE.
... Asimismo, la persistencia, prudencia y esperanza se han asociado a conducta positiva en clase y logros en educación primaria y secundaria (Wagner & Ruch, 2015). Incluso, la persistencia y curiosidad predijeron incrementos en la obtención de logros a través del tiempo (Sheldon et al., 2015). ...
Thesis
Good character is a principal area in Positive Psychology. The current thesis assesses character strengths with mixed method: quantitative though factor analysis and qualitative using content analysis. Main purpose is evaluate and analyze the character strengths factors in participants from Ecuador, Peru and Paraguay to identify whether international findings are replicated; and verify replication in each country independently. A non probabilistic intentional sample was used: 854 university students (273 Ecuadorians, 277 Peruvians and 304 Paraguayan). Participants completed Inventario de Virtudes y Fortalezas del Carácter IVyF (Cosentino & Castro Solano, 2012) and Protocolo de Cualidades Positivas (Castro Solano & Cosentino, 2013). Main results show three character strengths factors: moderation, progress and fraternity. Secondly, this three factor model is the most parsimonious and replicable despite some differences. Finally, dimensional structure has intercultural differences because each countries have specific relations. Main conclusion show three factors of character strengths and intercultural differences in dimensional structure of each country. Data has limitations: used sample could not be an average citizen of each culture and countries were considered as national culture. Future studies should research intracultural differences in character strengths, identify causes of intercultural differences in each population and analyze character strengths in others Latin-American countries.
... Furthermore, grit reduced burnout and lowered the risk of attrition for medical residents (Burkhart et al., 2014;Dam et al., 2019;Salles et al., 2014Salles et al., , 2017Walker et al., 2016). Higher levels of grit were also linked to retention in college, work and marriage (Eskreis-Winkler et al., 2014;Robertson-Kraft & Duckworth, 2014;Saunders-Scott et al., 2018) and increased goal attainment (Sheldon et al., 2015). Suzuki et al. (2015) suggested that grittier people perform better in both work and academic settings due to higher engagement. ...
Article
The concept of grit, defined as having passion and perseverance for long-term goals, has gained significant recognition in recent years. The idea that being gritty is ultimately more important than innate talent to achieve goals has widespread appeal. This review examined the concept of grit to clarify relationships between constructs and identify future opportunities for research. A systematic search across five databases including CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science yielded 422 records. After screening and assessment for eligibility, 42 articles were retained and reviewed using the Walker and Avant method for concept analysis. Results provided support for passion, perseverance and long-term goals as defining attributes of grit, along with an extensive nomological network of antecedents, consequences, and mediating and moderating variables. Positive thoughts, behaviours and habits appear to play a key preparatory role in achieving long-term goals. Grit was associated with reduced burnout and depression, improved performance and well-being. Further research is needed to understand the best practice approaches for developing grit at both an individual and collective level.
Chapter
This chapter summarizes the benefits of well&;#x02010;being at work, and the case for well&;#x02010;being assessments and the use of positive psychological assessment measures is made. It discusses current workplace well&;#x02010;being assessment practices, drawing on various related literature. The chapter outlines a new framework for conceptually evaluating organizational well&;#x02010;being research, which is also a practically useful framework when obtaining commitment for workplace well&;#x02010;being programs (WWPs) and implementing them within organizations. Workplace stress is a chronic and pressing issue for organizations. To maximize the potential of positive psychological assessment for workplace well&;#x02010;being and health promotion, various avenues of research are suggested. More research is needed in order to fully understand the scale and scope of current well&;#x02010;being assessments in organizations and to establish firmer baseline usage and characteristics as a basis for change. The chapter ends with some suggestions for further research and conclusions.
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Background: Happiness is a phenomenon that relates to better mental and physical health and even longevity. There has been an increase in surveys assessing subjective well-being as well as happiness, one of the well-being components that reflect one's feelings or moods. Happiness is mostly measured in adult samples. There is a lack of an overview of the tools used to evaluate adolescent happiness, so this paper aimed to review them. Methods: A literature search was performed in the PubMed and PsycArticles databases (2010-2019). In total, 133 papers met the eligibility criteria for this systematic review. Results: The results are grouped according to the type of measure, single or multiple items, that was used in a study. Almost half of the studies (64 of 133) evaluated subjective happiness using single-item measures. The most commonly used scales were the 4-item Subjective Happiness Scale and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. Among the 133 articles analyzed, 18 reported some validation procedures related to happiness. However, in the majority of cases (14 studies), happiness was not the central phenomenon of validation, which suggests a lack of happiness validation studies. Conclusions: Finally, recommendations for future research and for the choice of happiness assessment tools are presented.
Chapter
This chapter offers a brief overview of various personality traits and models that were found to be linked with happiness and positive functioning. Among these, Cloninger’s psychobiological model and Peterson and Seligman’s character’s strengths model are described, underlying their specificities, as well as their commonalities. A particular emphasis is given to the importance of evaluating and considering positive personality traits together with personality disorders (and their mutual relationships) in the clinical practice. Individuals may present different combinations of strengths and vulnerabilities, and a balanced expressions of positive traits could be considered a manifestation of positive human functioning.
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Although temporal conceptualizations of motivational processes have not held center stage in motivation science, the situation is currently changing. Drawing on work in the subfield of language learning motivation, where the motivational endurance needed to master a second language has been a major concern, the aim of this article is to contribute to the body of work currently exploring motivational persistence. After outlining the broader academic context of motivation and time, and describing the disciplinary trajectory of research into language learning motivation, we present two interrelated and multifaceted frameworks that seek to explain long-term motivation and motivational persistence: (a) the notion of a “directed motivational current,” which refers to a period of intense, enduring, and self-sustaining engagement within an activity-sequence, and which is phenomenologically akin to an extended flow experience, and (b) a multicomponent framework of long-term motivation that offers a general account of sustained effort in learning. This framework integrates diverse components, such as self-concordant vision, habitual actions, progress checks, and affirmative feedback, and references a motivational process that is characterized by positive emotional loading and passion, and is supported by self-control capacity and self-regulatory skills.
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Two studies were conducted to further the understanding of daily experiences of perseverance and passion and the influences of personality traits (e.g., grit and conscientiousness) and contextual factors. Study 1 applied the experience sampling method (n = 116; observations = 5,187) and found that perseverance of effort (PE) predicted passion when controlling for conscientiousness. Study 2 used the day reconstruction method (n = 468; observations = 1,872) and found that both PE and consistency of interest (CI) had effects, although CI was a stronger predictor than PE. In both studies, PE was moderated only by instrumentality of the activity, whereas CI was moderated only by perceived difficulty. We also found mediating effects of instrumentality, (lower) perceived difficulty, and (fewer) intrusive thoughts on the pathways between traits and perseverance and passion. These results deepen our knowledge on why and how perseverance-related traits impact daily experiences of perseverance and passion.
Article
Introduction: GRIT, defined as passion and perseverance for long-term goals, is a personality trait that is key to academic success and career achievement. Doctors face significant challenges and exposure to stressful situations throughout their career and require high levels of grit and perseverance to achieve success and avoid burn-out. This study aimed to measure overall levels of grit among hospital doctors and medical students and to compare levels of Grit across specialties and career grades. Method: ology: A cross-sectional survey was used to measure GRIT levels using the validated Short Grit Scale (GRIT-S). Hospital doctors and medical students at University Hospital Galway were asked to complete the questionnaire. Gender, age, grade, education, and speciality were recorded. Analysis was conducted using STATA V12.1™ and SPSS 25™. Results: 378 questionnaires were completed with a participation rate of 75.6% eligible for analysis. The female: male ratio was 1.2:1, with a mean age of 29.6 ± 8.3 years. The mean Grit score of participants was 3.56 ± 0.55. Grit trait was independent of gender and increased with age and grade. Consultants had significantly higher mean Grit score (3.86 ± 0.59, p = 0.004). There was no difference between medical specialities, nor between graduate-entry and undergraduate medical students. Conclusion: our results show that medical students and NCHDs alike have high levels of Grit compared to the general population, and the levels increase with career advancement, with the highest scores observed in consultants. This suggests that Grit might be of benefit as an adjunct in the selection process of applicants for training schemes and jobs that require high levels of resilience, as well as an adjunct to monitoring progress in training from a personality and mental health perspective.
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Development occurs through the process of setting and working toward goals, in which individuals are often working toward multiple goals that are likely to conflict with one another. Although motivation theories hold that goal conflict is a kind of potential stress that may damage individuals’ mental health and wellbeing, the empirical research results on the relationship between goal conflict and wellbeing are quite different. There may be unknown factors affecting the relationship between the two. Against this background, we conducted the exploration of the relationship between goal conflict and life satisfaction, mainly by analyzing the moderated mediating effect of mixed emotions and construal level. The results showed that the goal conflict did not directly affect life satisfaction (β = −0.01, p > 0.5) but indirectly influenced life satisfaction through mixed emotions (β = −0.17, p < 0.001). The construal level moderated the relationship between mixed emotions and life satisfaction (β = −0.08, p < 0.01), and the higher construal level will predict higher life satisfaction especially when mixed emotions were low (M − SD) or medium (M). Therefore, the hypothesis of moderated mediating effect is verified, and we can draw the following conclusions: (1) Goal conflict does not necessarily impair life satisfaction. (2) Goal conflict impairs life satisfaction conditional on the fact that it triggers mixed emotions. Since mixed emotions are often accompanied by feelings of ambivalence and discomfort, they reduce the individual’s evaluation of life satisfaction. (3) In the path of goal conflict reducing life satisfaction through mixed emotions, the higher construal level mitigates the adverse effects of mixed emotions to some extent.
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Objective. To evaluate the construct validity, discriminant and internal consistency of the six Psychological Well-Being Scales (PWBS) of Ryff in young adults in Bogotá and Tunja. Method. This was an instrumental study of psychometric nature in which 727 participants selected by non-probabilistic sampling (age: M = 22.5, SD = 5.49) completed the PWBS of 39 items available in Spanish. The construct validity was evaluated by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), McDonald’s Omega reliability (Ω), and discriminant validity using means contrast tests for independent groups. Results. The CFA showed similar adjustment indices with either six dimensions (X2 = 1649.40, df = 362, p = 0.00, CFI = 0.95; AGFI = 0.95; RMSEA = 0.066, CI90%, 0.062 - 0.069; SRMR = 0.077) as dimensions six and a second-order factor, called well-being. Ω yielded values between 0.60 and 0.84. The reduced version of 29 items has a better fit and acceptable levels of reliability. The PWBS discriminates according to educational level, sex and socioeconomic status in several of the six dimensions. Conclusion. The PWBS is appropriate for the evaluation of psychological well-being in the population of young Colombian adults.
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Resumen Objetivo. Evaluar la confi abilidad y la validez de constructo y discriminante, de las seis Escalas de Bienestar Psicológico de Ryff (EBP) en adultos jóvenes de Bogotá y Tunja. Método. Estudio instrumental en el que 727 participantes seleccionados por muestreos no probabilísticos (M edad = 22.5, DE = 5.49) diligenciaron la EBP de 39 ítems. La validez de constructo fue evaluada por medio del análisis factorial confi rmatorio (AFC), la confi abilidad mediante omega de McDonald (Ω) y la validez discriminante a través de pruebas de contraste de medias para grupos independientes. Resultados. El AFC arrojó índices de ajuste similares tanto con seis dimensiones (X 2 = 1649.40, gl = 362, p = 0.00; CFI = 0.95; AGFI = 0.95; RMSEA = 0.066, IC90%, 0.062-0.069; SRMR = 0.077) como con seis dimensiones y un factor de segundo orden, denominado bienestar. El omega arrojó valores entre 0.60 y 0.84, aunque la versión reducida de 29 ítems presentó un mejor ajuste y aceptables niveles de confi abilidad. Conclusión. La EBP es apropiada para la evaluación del bienestar psicológico en población de adultos jóvenes colombianos, en particular, al discriminar por nivel educativo, sexo y estatus socioeconómico en varias de las seis dimensiones. Palabras clave. Bienestar psicológico, estudios de validación, adultos jóvenes.
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Previous research finds a robust positive relationship between self-concept clarity and well-being. However, the causal direction and mechanism of this relationship remains ambiguous. I propose that self-concept clarity may foster well-being by facilitating successful self-regulation and goal pursuit. This chapter outlines the role of the self-concept in several prominent theories of self-regulation, and details how, given these mechanistic roles, an unclear sense of self might undermine self-regulation and goal pursuit. Focusing on self-regulation may help to differentiate self-concept clarity from its close correlate, self-esteem, as low self-esteem and low self-concept clarity are associated with unique predictions in the domain of goal pursuit. I argue that thinking about the mechanisms linking self-concept clarity to positive outcomes can help us to better understand self-concept clarity more generally.
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Objective. To evaluate the construct validity, discriminant and internal consistency of the six Psychological Well-Being Scales (PWBS) of Ryff in young adults in Bogotá and Tunja. Method. This was an instrumental study of psychometric nature in which 727 participants selected by non-probabilistic sampling (age: M = 22.5, SD = 5.49) completed the PWBS of 39 items available in Spanish. The construct validity was evaluated by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), McDonald's Omega reliability (Ω), and discriminant validity using means contrast tests for independent groups. Results. The CFA showed similar adjustment indices with either six dimensions (X2 = 1649.40, df = 362, p = 0.00, CFI = 0.95; AGFI = 0.95; RMSEA = 0.066, CI90%, 0.062 -0.069; SRMR = 0.077) as dimensions six and a second-order factor, called well-being. Ω yielded values between 0.60 and 0.84. The reduced version of 29 items has a better fit and acceptable levels of reliability. The PWBS discriminates according to educational level, sex and socioeconomic status in several of the six dimensions. Conclusion. The PWBS is appropriate for the evaluation of psychological well-being in the population of young Colombian adults.
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Grit, which is originally conceptualized as passion and perseverance for long-term goals, has been associated with optimal performance. Although previous meta-analytic and systematic reviews summarized how grit relates to performance outcomes, they possess considerable shortcomings like: (a) absence of summary on the association of grit with well-being outcomes; (b) absence of discussion on social, psychological, and emotional mechanisms linking grit to well-being; and (c) lack of elaboration on how alternative models can resolve fundamental problems in the grit construct. This integrative review provides a comprehensive summary on the link of grit to performance and well-being outcomes. Importantly, it elaborates how alternative models can potentially address flaws in the existing grit theory. Future research directions are discussed on how to move forward the science of grit.
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This chapter critiques the concept of “eudaemonic well-being,” arguing that the term has confused and misled the field by collapsing two different conceptual categories into one. Eudaemonia is a way of acting within the world, involving the selection and enactment of behavior and values. Well-being is an evaluation-based feeling, involving biologically based emotions and abstract satisfaction judgments. Aristotelian philosophy also emphasizes this distinction, by separating virtuous (aka eudaimonic) activity from the happiness that typically results from such activity, but which is not the primary reason for the activity. On the other hand, combining eudaimonia and well-being into a single concept, as in the title of this book, is dangerous because it conflates causes with outcomes, motivations with emotions, and intentions with feelings. It also threatens to infinitely multiply the number of types of well-being researchers need to consider, to deprive the field of one of the best potential ways of identifying truly eudaimonic values and activities (namely, by whether they bring well-being as an outcome, or not), and to lead to undesirable situation in which the term “eudaimonic well-being” merely means “random positive psychology construct.”
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In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study I revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being, prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies I and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity. Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
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The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
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Positive psychology has flourished in the last 5 years. The authors review recent developments in the field, including books, meetings, courses, and conferences. They also discuss the newly created classification of character strengths and virtues, a positive complement to the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (e. g., American Psychiatric Association, 1994), and present some cross-cultural findings that suggest a surprising ubiquity of strengths and virtues. Finally, the authors focus on psychological interventions that increase individual happiness. In a 6-group, random-assignment, placebo-controlled Internet study, the authors tested 5 purported happiness interventions and 1 plausible control exercise. They found that 3 of the interventions lastingly increased happiness and decreased depressive symptoms. Positive interventions can supplement traditional interventions that relieve suffering and may someday be the practical legacy of positive psychology.
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The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
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In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study 1 revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies 1 and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity, Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
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Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes. (21/2 p ref)
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The right to "pursue happiness" is one of the dominant themes of western culture, and understanding the causes of happiness is one of the primary goals of the positive psychology movement. However, before the causality question can even be considered, a more basic question must be addressed: CAN happiness change? Reasons for skepticism include the notion of a "genetic set point" for happiness, i.e. a stable personal baseline of happiness to which individuals will always return, no matter how much their lives change for the better; the life-span stability of happiness-related traits such as neuroticism and extraversion; and the powerful processes of hedonic adaptation, which erode the positive effects of any fortuitous life change. This book investigates prominent theories on happiness with the research evidence to discuss when and how happiness changes and for how long. • Identifies all major theories of happiness • Reviews empirical results on happiness longevity/stability • Discusses mitigating factors in what influences happiness longevity.
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This chapter considers four possible meanings of the "positive" in positive psychology: that positive psychology involves doing "positive science" (basic and applied research aimed at improving human life); that it involves assuming that human nature is inherently "good" as a theoretical tenet; that it involves merely appreciating formerly unappreciated but admirable aspects of human nature; and that it involves studying the positive rather than the negative extreme of particular topics (i.e. forgiveness, not revenge; elation, not depression). It suggests that positive psychology focus on "personality on up"; only there does the term "positive" make sense, because positive has meaning with reference to human experience. In contrast, positive physics, positive chemistry, or positive neuroscience make less sense as fields of study, except insofar as they benefit human experience and life. The chapter defends positive psychology against the individualistic bias critique by pointing out that truly positive individuality is also connected individuality, and that only the less admirable forms of Western individualism (materialism, narcissism, egocentrism) work against positive functioning at the relational and cultural levels.
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Defining hope as a cognitive set that is composed of a reciprocally derived sense of successful (1) agency (goal-directed determination) and (2) pathways (planning of ways to meet goals), an individual-differences measure is developed. Studies with college students and patients demonstrate acceptable internal consistency and test–retest reliability, and the factor structure identifies the agency and pathways components of the Hope Scale. Convergent and discriminant validity are documented, along with evidence suggesting that Hope Scale scores augmented the prediction of goal-related activities and coping strategies beyond other self-report measures. Construct validational support is provided in regard to predicted goal-setting behaviors; moreover, the hypothesized goal appraisal processes that accompany the various levels of hope are corroborated.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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Prior research on intrinsic versus extrinsic values has focused on the comparative importance subjects assign to the two types of values, showing that relative intrinsic versus extrinsic value orientation (RIEVO) predicts higher or increased well-being. In two studies, we show that rated action taken regarding the two types of values is just as essential to study. Support was found for four hypotheses: (1) there was a significant behavior/importance gap, such that participants “walked” (acted on values) less than they “talked” (endorsed those values); (2) this was especially true for intrinsic values, an interaction suggesting that the intrinsic ideals of personal growth, community, and connection often receive only lip service; (3) the “walk” (behavior ratings) measure of RIEVO subsumed the “talk” (importance ratings) RIEVO measure’s effects on well-being outcomes, suggesting that researchers interested in predicting well-being from values should perhaps focus on rated value enactment, not value importance; and (4) participants with higher meaning in life, lower search for meaning, more self-concordance at work, and greater chronological age evidenced more consistency between their talking and their walking.
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Pursuing personal goals is an important way that people organize their behavior and mature as individuals. However, because people are typically unaware of their own implicit motivations and potentials, they may pick goals that do not serve them well. This article suggests that "self-concordant" goal selection is a difficult self-perceptual skill, with important ramifications for thriving. Various means of conceptualizing and measuring goal self-concordance are considered. Then, relevant literature is reviewed to show that goal self-concordance, as assessed by a self-determination theory methodology, is predicted by goal/motive fit; that goal self-concordance in turn predicts more persistent goal effort and, thus, better goal attainment over time; and that self-concordant goal selection is enhanced by personality variables and interpersonal contexts that promote accurate self-insight and personal autonomy. Implications for the nature of the self, the causes of personality thriving and growth, and the free will question are considered.
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Although some theory suggests that it is impossible to increase one's subjective well-being (SWB), our ‘sustainable happiness model’ (Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, & Schkade, 2005) specifies conditions under which this may be accomplished. To illustrate the three classes of predictor in the model, we first review research on the demographic/circumstantial, temperament/personality, and intentional/experiential correlates of SWB. We then introduce the sustainable happiness model, which suggests that changing one's goals and activities in life is the best route to sustainable new SWB. However, the goals and activities must be of certain positive types, must fit one's personality and needs, must be practiced diligently and successfully, must be varied in their timing and enactment, and must provide a continued stream of fresh positive experiences. Research supporting the model is reviewed, including new research suggesting that happiness intervention effects are not just placebo effects.
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Although goal theorists have speculated about the causes and consequences of making progress at personal goals, little longitudinal research has examined these issues. In the current prospective study, participants with stronger social and self-regulatory skills made more progress in their goals over the course of a semester. In turn, goal progress predicted increases in psychological well-being, both in short-term (5-day) increments and across the whole semester; At both short- and long-term levels of analysis, however, the amount that well-being increased depended on the "organismic congruence" of participants' goals. That is, participants benefited most from goal attainment when the goals that they pursued were consistent with inherent psychological needs. We conclude that a fuller understanding of the relations between goals, performance, and psychological well-being requires recourse to both cybernetic and organismic theories of motivation.
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The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate test- retest repeatability. Validity was established by pat terns of correlations with other self-report measures, by correlations with clinical ratings of depression, and by relationships with other variables which support its construct validity. Reliability, validity, and factor structure were similar across a wide variety of demographic characteristics in the general population samples tested. The scale should be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of de pression.
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Despite a variety of interventions to increase well-being, little is known about who is interested in and initiates exercises on their own. We explored individual differences that predict who is most likely to participate in a voluntary gratitude intervention. College students (n = 229) completed measures of curiosity, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and intentions to change their lifestyle. Afterwards, participants received a personalized invitation to take part in a web-based intervention to enhance their well-being (anonymous and strictly voluntary). Results suggested that 11.5% of participants started the gratitude intervention. Individuals endorsing strong intentions to change their lifestyle (+1 SD above mean) were 2.2 times more likely than their peers to start the gratitude intervention. People with greater trait curiosity endorsed greater intentions to start this intervention; people with greater depressive symptoms endorsed weaker intentions. Both curiosity and depressive symptoms indirectly influenced initiation of the gratitude intervention via intentions. These findings provide support for particular paths that lead to the initial behavioral effort towards healthy change. We discuss the implications for attempting to increase and sustain people’s well-being.
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An emphasis of the coaching psychology and positive psychology movements has been strengths and well- being. This study examined two generic aspects of strengths - strengths knowledge and strengths use, together with organismic valuing, and their relations with subjective well-being, psychological well-being, and subjective vitality. Theory suggests that people who know their strengths, use their strengths, and follow the directions that are right for them (i.e. organismically valuing) will be happier. Participants (N=214) completed measures of these variables, as well as measures of self-esteem and self-efficacy. Analyses showed that strengths knowledge, strengths use, and organismic valuing were all significantly associated with well- being and vitality. Regression analyses showed that self-esteem, organismic valuing, and strengths use all predicted unique variance in subjective well-being and psychological well-being, but only self-esteem significantly predicted unique variance in subjective vitality. The discussion locates the findings in relation to strengths coaching, and suggests directions for future research and coaching psychology applications.
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Hope is defined as the perceived capability to derive pathways to desired goals, and motivate oneself via agency thinking to use those pathways. The adult and child hope scales that are derived from hope theory are described. Hope theory is compared to theories of learned optimism, optimism, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Higher hope consistently is related to better outcomes in academics, athletics, physical health, psychological adjustment, and psychotherapy. Processes that lessen hope in children and adults are reviewed. Using the hope theory definition, no evidence is found for "false" hope. Future research is encouraged in regard to accurately enhancing hope in medical feedback and helping people to pursue those goals for which they are best suited.
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The pursuit of happiness is an important goal for many people. However, surprisingly little scientific research has focused on the question of how happiness can be increased and then sustained, probably because of pessimism engendered by the concepts of genetic determinism and hedonic adaptation. Nevertheless, emerging sources of optimism exist regarding the possibility of permanent increases in happiness. Drawing on the past well-being literature, the authors propose that a person's chronic happiness level is governed by 3 major factors: a genetically determined set point for happiness, happiness-relevant circumstantial factors, and happiness-relevant activities and practices. The authors then consider adaptation and dynamic processes to show why the activity category offers the best opportunities for sustainably increasing happiness. Finally, existing research is discussed in support of the model, including 2 preliminary happiness-increasing interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Control and efficacy are ideally suited as "bridges" or linking constructs for social scientists working at different levels of analysis. Control and efficacy depend on the fit between individuals and the social systems in which they are embedded, and control and efficacy have measurable effects on neurotransmitter levels and endocrine responses. This article presents an interdisciplinary perspective on control and efficacy. The authors survey the history of control-related constructs in psychology, from their roots in animal learning to the present cognitive focus on beliefs about control. They then point out connections "up" to the sociological level and "down" to the physiological level. They propose a taxonomy of 6 useful constructs organized into 3 perspectives: motivational, cognitive, and systemic. Such a multilevel, multidisciplinary approach may be particularly useful for approaching large real-world problems such as improving schools or neighborhoods. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Different orientations to happiness and their association with life satisfaction were investigated with 845 adults responding to Internet surveys. We measured life satisfaction and the endorsement of three different ways to be happy through pleasure, through engagement, and through meaning. Each of these three orientations individually predicted life satisfaction. People simultaneously low on all three orientations reported especially low life satisfaction. These findings point the way toward a distinction between the full life and the empty life.
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Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We discuss the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories, emphasizing that needs specify the necessary conditions for psychological growth, integrity, and well-being. This concept of needs leads to the hypotheses that different regulatory processes underlying goal pursuits are differentially associated with effective functioning and well-being and also that different goal contents have different relations to the quality of behavior and mental health, specifically because different regulatory processes and different goal contents are associated with differing degrees of need satisfaction. Social contexts and individual differences that support satisfaction of the basic needs facilitate natural growth processes including intrinsically motivated behavior and integration of extrinsic motivations, whereas those that forestall autonomy, competence, or relatedness are associated with poorer motivation, performance, and well-being. We also discuss the relation of the psychological needs to cultural values, evolutionary processes, and other contemporary motivation theories.
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Curious people seek knowledge and new experiences. In 3 studies, we examined whether, when, and how curiosity contributes to positive social outcomes between unacquainted strangers. Study 1 (98 college students) showed that curious people expect to generate closeness during intimate conversations but not during small talk; less curious people anticipated poor outcomes in both situations. We hypothesized that curious people underestimate their ability to bond with unacquainted strangers during mundane conversations. Studies 2 (90 college students) and 3 (106 college students) showed that curious people felt close to partners during intimate and small-talk conversations; less curious people only felt close when the situation offered relationship-building exercises. Surprise at the pleasure felt during this novel, uncertain situation partially mediated the benefits linked to curiosity. We found evidence of slight asymmetry between self and partner reactions. Results could not be attributed to physical attraction or positive affect. Collectively, results suggest that positive social interactions benefit from an open and curious mind-set.
Article
Given curiosity's fundamental role in motivation, learning, and well-being, we sought to refine the measurement of trait curiosity with an improved version of the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (CEI; Kashdan, Rose, & Fincham, 2004). A preliminary pool of 36 items was administered to 311 undergraduate students, who also completed measures of emotion, emotion regulation, personality, and well-being. Factor analyses indicated a two factor model-motivation to seek out knowledge and new experiences (Stretching; 5 items) and a willingness to embrace the novel, uncertain, and unpredictable nature of everyday life (Embracing; 5 items). In two additional samples (ns = 150 and 119), we cross-validated this factor structure and provided initial evidence for construct validity. This includes positive correlations with personal growth, openness to experience, autonomy, purpose in life, self-acceptance, psychological flexibility, positive affect, and positive social relations, among others. Applying item response theory (IRT) to these samples (n = 578), we showed that the items have good discrimination and a desirable breadth of difficulty. The item information functions and test information function were centered near zero, indicating that the scale assesses the mid-range of the latent curiosity trait most reliably. The findings thus far provide good evidence for the psychometric properties of the 10-item CEI-II.