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Abstract

This paper presents a naturalistic study of motorcyclists’ behaviours during their commutes in the Paris region. The study focuses on lane splitting, which consists of riding between two streams of slow or stopped vehicles that are proceeding in the same direction. This practice is frequent in dense traffic on French urban expressways and particularly in the Paris region but remains without detailed scientific analysis. In an ergonomic approach, 11 motorcyclists drove for a month with an instrumented vehicle with cameras. The video recordings enabled the description of the driving contexts and the conduct of self-confrontation interviews. The results concern firstly the description of the practice of lane splitting and its significance in their daily journeys. Secondly, the findings indicate the importance of perceptual activities in the participants’ riding behaviour. These perceptual activities are organized around two major processes: (1) an intensive search for information in the environment in order to foresee risky situations and (2) the detection of situations that systematically impair the visual conspicuity of the riders and taking steps to improve it. The findings are discussed with a view to gaining a better understanding of lane-splitting practices. At the time of writing, the results are also being used by the French authorities to improve the training curriculum and modify the legislation that deals with lane splitting.

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... Other field studies based on riders/drivers' verbal protocols provide evidence that motorcycle riders are able to anticipate a potential hazardous situation using specific objects as cues not employed by car drivers. For instance, Aupetit et al. (2015) identified a number of subtle cues that are used solely by riders, e.g., looking at cars' wheels, GPS screens, and license plates when riding between two streams of vehicles in the same direction (lane-splitting). In addition, the lexicological analyses of Salmon et al. (2013Salmon et al. ( , 2014 and Walker et al. (2011) suggest that both riders and drivers direct their overt visual allocation based on the semantic content of the situation, but their respective salient semantic content is markedly different. ...
... As such, it cannot be conceptualized as a sequence of discrete subtasks, each one with its fixed set of hazard precursors. The few real-world traffic studies that explore riders' semantic information seeking solely rely on riders' verbal protocols (Aupetit et al. 2015;Salmon et al. 2013Salmon et al. , 2014Walker et al. 2011). ...
... For the rest car-body parts, no specific comments were made by the riders. However, as it has been shown in a previous study (Aupetit et al. 2015), the rear/side window could inform the rider about driver in car sources of distraction (e.g., use of mobile phone or radio player; hand gestures to other passengers). ...
Article
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A naturalistic field observation study is presented, exploring the experienced riders’ eye fixations on specific traffic objects and their relative semantic content during lane-splitting manoeuvre in urban settings. Six experienced motorcyclists rode their own motorcycles equipped with an eye-tracking system. Data were extracted using manual video annotation and stimulated retrospective think-aloud methods. In total, 54 cases of lane-splitting (i.e., passing between a consecutive set of three moving cars) were analysed in terms of traffic objects and car-body parts fixated upon. Eye-fixation results on traffic objects show that all six riders tended to fixate less on the nearest target cars, allocating more fixations in monitoring the farthest target car and traffic ahead. In addition, all six riders fixated consistently on specific car-body parts of the target cars, namely, on the front body parts of the nearest target car (i.e. wing mirror, front side window, and front wing/tyre) and on the rear body parts of the farthest target car (i.e., rear light, rear quarter pillar, and rear wing/tyre). Riders’ commentaries revealed that the aforementioned fixations were intentionally made in search of (1) assessing the level of drivers’ attentiveness of the neighboring car(s), and (2) anticipating the possible path deviations of the neighboring car(s), for monitoring the upcoming contingencies in the traffic ahead rather than simply monitoring the actual movements of the target cars. Implications for developing specifications of riders’ and drivers’ assistance systems are discussed.
... For example, lane splitting is legal only in some regions of France. No matter what the rule says, most of the PTWs riders do lane splitting (Aupetit, Espié, and Bouaziz, 2015). Moreover, despite the advancement in the ITS technologies and the availability of remarkable amount of ITS solutions to create a safe and efficient traffic flow, PTWs are not integrated into most of the systems. ...
... There are also different rules about when and how PTWs are allowed to do lane-sharing. An experimental study done in Paris (Aupetit, Espié, and Bouaziz, 2015) reports that PTWs ride between traffic on average for 72% of their riding time or 77 % of the traveled distance. PTWs use the spaces between traffic, which are not accessible by other vehicles, to overtake. ...
... That is, the rate of lane-sharing increases with traffic volume (Ouellet, 2012). The width of the free spaces between vehicles and the traffic volume (or the speed of traffic) are the determinant factors for PTWs riders to engage in lane sharing or not (Aupetit, Espié, and Bouaziz, 2015). On the other hand, the width of the gaps between vehicles or between vehicles and road border has a direct relation with the total lane width. ...
Thesis
This dissertation models and analyzes heterogeneous traffic flow, with a particular focus on mixed traffic flow consisting of cars and two-wheelers. The increase in traffic congestion induces commuters to switch to powered two wheelers (PTWs), i.e. motorcycle, mopeds and scooters, because of their high maneuverability and space efficiency. The growth in number of PTWs, combined with their unique mobility features, results in complex traffic characteristics which are difficult to recreate with the existing modeling approaches. We develop an analytical model that can accurately reproduce the traffic features in a mixed flow of cars and PTWs. The traffic stream is decomposed into two vehicle classes, PTWs and cars. The fundamental properties are derived by employing a porous flow approach. It is assumed that the speed of a vehicle class is dictated by the physical and motion properties of the vehicle class, and the distribution of free spaces on the road. We propose an approximation method to derive the free-space distribution. In order to explore broader aspects of the traffic flow characteristics, notably required by intelligent transport system (ITS) applications, we formulate the model in the Lagrangian and the Eulerian frameworks. Further, we provide a numerical method for the discretization of the mathematical model. We analyze the flow characteristics of mixed PTWs and cars traffic and identify important properties, which give insights for future ITS solutions and traffic policy makers. The applicability of the model for different ITS applications is illustrated. Finally, the developed model is validated using a microsimulation tool.
... Indeed, this can be seen in the study by Burge et al. (2007), which found that the ability to filter through traffic was a significant factor in motorcycle ownership and commuting. Although the practice of filtering is illegal in most countries around the world, it may, in certain highly congested areas, account for a significant share of trips (Aupetit et al. 2015;Mulvihill et al. 2013). Aupetit et al. (2015), for example, demonstrated that it accounts on average for 72% of travel time and 77% of the distances travelled by motorcycle commuters in the Paris region. ...
... Although the practice of filtering is illegal in most countries around the world, it may, in certain highly congested areas, account for a significant share of trips (Aupetit et al. 2015;Mulvihill et al. 2013). Aupetit et al. (2015), for example, demonstrated that it accounts on average for 72% of travel time and 77% of the distances travelled by motorcycle commuters in the Paris region. Yet this practice is considered risky by PTW users, as well as by car drivers (Beanland et al. 2015;Hidalgo et al. 2015;Huth et al. 2014). ...
Article
Objective: The objective of this study is to estimate the crash risk per kilometer travelled by powered two wheeler riders filtering through traffic on urban roads. Methods: Using the traffic injury crashes recorded by the police over a period of three years on fourteen sections of urban roads in the city of Marseille, France and a campaign of observations of powered two-wheelers, the crash risk per kilometer travelled by powered two-wheelers filtering was estimated and compared to the risk of powered two-wheelers that did not filter. Results: The results show that the risk of powered two-wheeler riders being involved in injury crashes while filtering is significantly higher than the risk for riders who do not filter. For the fourteen sections studied, it is 3.94 times greater (95% CI: 2.63; 5.89). This excess risk occurred for all powered two-wheeler categories. Furthermore, no space appears to be safer than the others for filtering. Riders filtering forward along the axis of the carriageway, along bus lanes or between traffic lanes (lane-splitting) all have a crash risk greater than the risk of those who do not filter. Conclusions: All measures limiting the practice of filtering by powered two-wheelers on urban roads would probably contribute to improving the safety of their users.
... The fact that pedestrians are inclined to look at the wheels of cars appears to be a novel finding in the literature. Exceptions are Aupetit, Espié, and Bouaziz (2015), who noted that motorcyclists look at the front wheels of cars to infer their intended lateral movement, and Vlakveld (2014; see also De Winter, Eisma, Cabrall, Hancock, & Stanton, 2019), who used turned front wheels as a hazard precursor in a hazard perception study. ...
Preprint
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We examined what pedestrians look at when walking through a parking garage. Thirty-six participants walked a short route in a floor of a parking garage while their eye movements and head rotations were recorded with a Tobii Pro Glasses 2 eye-tracker. The participants’ fixations were then classified into 14 areas of interest. The results showed that pedestrians often looked at the back (20.0%), side (7.5%), and front (4.2%) of parked cars, and at approaching cars (8.8%). Much attention was also paid to the ground (20.1%). The wheels of cars (6.8%) and the driver in approaching cars (3.2%) received attention as well. In conclusion, this study showed that eye movements are largely functional in the sense that they appear to assist in safe navigation through the parking garage. Pedestrians look at a variety of sides and features of the car, suggesting that displays on future automated cars should be omnidirectionally visible.
... This methodological consideration can help structure the naturalistic riding data automatically and facilitate the analyses leading to the identification of the factors contributing to accidents or near crash scenarios. In another NRS in France, the lane splitting behavior of motorcycle riders (Aupetit et al., 2015) was investigated. A total of N = 11 motorcyclists were monitored between three and six weeks each, thereby generating a data set corresponding to a total travel distance of 9662 km on two instrumented motorbikes (Honda CBF 1000 and Honda VFR 800). ...
Article
In recent decades, methods to realize naturalistic driving studies have been established to investigate the driver behavior under realistic conditions. Compared to the research on passenger cars, the naturalistic behavior of motorcycle riders is still rather unclear from a scientific point of view. However, understanding this behavior can contribute to the development of accident countermeasures. To this end, naturalistic driving methods can be applied to motorcycling. The objective of this study was to present a methodological approach to conduct a naturalistic riding investigation. The methodological considerations were supported by sample results on the rider profile assessment by using g-g diagrams (combination of longitudinal and lateral accelerations). The focus was on observable and measurable vehicle dynamics as a result of the rider input. A three-step approach was adopted, consisting of a pilot study, controlled main study, and naturalistic riding study. The first phase aimed at defining a measurement setup and investigating the general feasibility of using g-g diagrams for rider profile detection. The second phase involved experimental techniques. A heterogenous rider panel was observed in a quasi-controlled setup to better interpret the variations in data patterns resulting from the individual rider behavior opposed to, e.g., road type. The third phase involved the conduct of the naturalistic riding study. Three rider profiles were identified by considering the combinations of lateral and longitudinal accelerations. As a relevant indicator, the qualitatively assessed shape of the g-g diagrams developed rapidly and remained stable over time.
... This finding becomes explicit by comparison of the numerical metric of this SF (0.14) with regard to the preceding ones (scored 0.74 and greater than 1.32). To support this result, we can highlight the practice of lane-splitting commonly observed in dense traffic (Aupetit et al. 2015). ...
Article
Objective: Motorcycle riders are involved in significantly more crashes per kilometer driven than passenger car drivers. Nonetheless, the development and implementation of motorcycle safety systems lags far behind that of passenger cars. This research addresses the identification of the most effective motorcycle safety solutions in the context of different countries. Methods: A Knowledge-Based system of Motorcycle Safety (KBMS) was developed to assess the potential for various safety solutions to mitigate or avoid motorcycle crashes. First, a set of 26 common crash scenarios was identified from the analysis of multiple crash databases. Second, the relative effectiveness of 10 safety solutions was assessed for the 26 crash scenarios by a panel of experts. Third, relevant information about crashes was used to weigh the importance of each crash scenario in the region studied. The KBMS method was applied with an Italian database, totalizing more than one million motorcycle crashes in the period 2000-2012. Results: When applied to the Italian context, the KBMS suggested that automatic systems designed to compensate for riders' or drivers' errors of commission or omission are the potentially most effective safety solution. The KBMS method showed an effective way to compare the potential of various safety solutions, through a scored list with the expected effectiveness of each safety solution for the region to which the crash data belong. A comparison of our results with a previous study that attempted a systematic prioritization of safety systems for motorcycles (PISa project) showed an encouraging agreement. Conclusions: Current results revealed that automatic systems have the greatest potential to improve motorcycle safety. Accumulating and encoding expertise in crash analysis from a range of disciplines into a scalable and re-usable analytical tool, as proposed with the use of KBMS, has the potential to guide research and development of effective safety systems. As the expert assessment of the crash scenarios is decoupled from the regional crash database, the expert assessment may be re-utilized, thereby allowing rapid re-analysis when new crash data becomes available. In addition, the KBMS methodology has potential application to injury forecasting, driver/rider training strategies, and redesign of existing road infrastructure.
... There exists, however, a large body of works that investigate pros and cons of it. Aupetit et al. [7] find that lane splitting is a systematic practice in the Paris region. ...
Article
Full-text available
Seepage is an important yet rarely modeled or quantified phenomenon in mixed traffic streams. It describes situations where smaller vehicles do not line up but rather “seep” through a queue of stationary or almost stationary vehicles. This contribution introduces seepage into an agent-based transport simulation model. In order to allow vehicles to seep, the traditional first-in-first-out queue model is modified such that in the free flow regime, faster vehicles can overtake slower vehicles and in the congested regime, slower vehicles can overtake faster vehicles. The model is validated with the help of fundamental diagrams. Its sensitivity is investigated by comparing the impact of different shares of smaller vehicles on the speed-density relation in the mixed traffic streams. A case study of the evacuation of Patna, India under mixed traffic conditions with seepage demonstrates the overall approach. Full paper -- http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40890-016-0014-9
... There exists, however, a large body of works that investigate pros and cons of it. Aupetit et al. [7] find that lane splitting is a systematic practice in the Paris region. On the practical implementation side, from July 2014, lane filtering is legally approved in New South Wales, Australia under the Road Transport Legislation Amendment (Lane Use by Motor Bikes) Regulation 2014 [8]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Seepage is an important yet rarely modeled or quantified phenomenon in mixed traffic streams. It describes situations where smaller vehicles do not line up but rather " seep " through a queue of stationary or almost stationary vehicles. This contribution introduces seepage into an agent-based transport simulation model. In order to allow vehicles to seep, the traditional first-in-first-out queue model is modified such that in the free flow regime, faster vehicle can overtake slower vehicles and in the congested regime, slower vehicles can overtake faster vehicles. The model is validated with the help of fundamental diagrams. Its sensitivity is investigated by comparing the impact of different shares of smaller vehicles on the speed-density relation in mixed traffic streams. A case study of the evacuation of Patna, India under mixed traffic conditions with seepage demonstrates the overall approach.
... In a study in the Paris region, lane splitting is found to be a systematic practice. 2 Findings are derived by monitoring trips made by 11 motorbike riders for about a month on entire Paris network accounting for 9662 km cumulative distance. Recently in New South Wales, under the Road Transport Legislation Amendment (Lane Use by Motor Bikes) Regulation 2014, lane filtering is allowed legally 4 starting from July 1, 2014. ...
Article
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In the direction of complex heterogeneous traffic modeling, the present study proposes a model to simulate the behavior of smaller vehicles in the congested regime called seepage action. As the name suggests, in congested part of links, smaller vehicles like motorbikes and bikes do not stop at the end of queue. Instead, they move continuously across the gaps between the stationary congested vehicles and come in front. This behavior is rarely modeled and quantified even though it is common praxis in most of the developing nations. In order to facilitate this behavior, a state of the art queue model is modified to allow for seepage in congested regime. Furthermore, the concept of backward traveling holes is introduced. Thus, the congested branch of the fundamental diagram is modeled more realistic.
Chapter
Government authorities of Delhi define transit-oriented development (TOD) as a micro- or macro-development around transit nodes, which can be served by people through walking over private transport. As metro rail transit (MRT) network expands, planning agencies are interested in facilitating TOD along existing and future transit corridors. However, the proposed definition lacks clear motivation, and there is less agreement among stakeholders on which criterion to focus, what levels are existing, why TOD is important, and what TOD should accomplish. A comprehensive TOD measurement tool is necessary to answer these questions at policy level, which enables standards for TOD planning and implementation. The present study fills this gap by proposing a TOD scoring tool based on personal interviews with stakeholders and suitable analytical analysis. Despite different perspectives of experts in decision making, there appeared to be a consensus among experts in believing that TOD planning in Delhi must focus on accessibility to jobs, proximity to transit, pedestrian and cycling facilities, and travel demand management. Besides, application of TOD scoring tool on 48 potential neighborhoods in Delhi showed that Uttam Nagar (0.77) has the highest TOD score, and Chanakyapuri (0.13) scored least. This scoring tool will guide stakeholders in future TOD policy, planning, and implementation. Establishing and understanding this TOD measurement framework can help stakeholders of other Indian cities to implement TOD, more strategically. Conclusively, this study recommended action plans through a set of strategies that help fortify TOD planning in neighborhoods of Delhi.KeywordsTOD planningNeighborhoodsPriority criterionTOD score
Chapter
In developing countries, different class of vehicles makes use of same facility leading to the complex heterogeneous traffic condition. It is practically significant to determine the traffic flow of the intersection because the capacity of intersection affects the efficiency of the road network system directly. In this study, an attempt was done to analyze the traffic condition of an intersection, traffic congestion and waiting time of vehicles. Seepage of small sized vehicles (two-wheelers, three-wheelers, etc.) is an important phenomenon observed at intersection where voids are formed, when different category of vehicles forms a queue of intersection in mixed traffic stream. This create a situation where smaller vehicles do not line up but rather ‘seep’ through a queue of stationary or almost stationary vehicles and advances to the intersection stop line. This seepage action of small sized vehicles affects the flow of other vehicles considerably. The acceleration of the vehicle in the queue is also affected by this action. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the influence of queue discharge and delay caused to the vehicles due to seepage behaviour of two-wheeler and three-wheeler.KeywordsSeepage behaviourQueue dischargeAccelerationLane occupancy
Article
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Malaysia has a high percentage of motorcycles. Due to lane-splitting, travel times of motorcycles are less than passenger cars at congestion. Because of this, collecting travel times using the media access control (MAC) address is not straightforward. Many outlier filtering algorithms for travel time datasets have not been evaluated for their capability to filter lane-splitting observations. This study aims to identify the best travel time filtering algorithms for the data containing lane-splitting observations and how to use the best algorithm. Two stages were adopted to achieve the objective of the study. The first stage validates the performance of the previous algorithms, and the second stage checks the sensitivity of the algorithm parameters for different days. The analysis uses the travel time data for three routes in Kuala Lumpur collected by Wi-Fi detectors in May 2018. The results show that the Jang algorithm has the best performance for two of the three routes, and the TransGuide algorithm is the best algorithm for one route. However, the parameters of Jang and TransGuide algorithms are sensitive for different days, and the parameters require daily calibration to obtain acceptable results. Using proper calibration of the algorithm parameters, the Jang and TransGuide algorithms produced the most accurate filtered travel time datasets compared to other algorithms
Article
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We examined what pedestrians look at when walking through a parking garage. Thirty-six participants walked a short route in a floor of a parking garage while their eye movements and head rotations were recorded with a Tobii Pro Glasses 2 eye-tracker. The participants’ fixations were then classified into 14 areas of interest. The results showed that pedestrians often looked at the back (20.0%), side (7.5%), and front (4.2%) of parked cars, and at approaching cars (8.8%). Much attention was also paid to the ground (20.1%). The wheels of cars (6.8%) and the driver in approaching cars (3.2%) received attention as well. In conclusion, this study showed that eye movements are largely functional in the sense that they appear to assist in safe navigation through the parking garage. Pedestrians look at a variety of sides and features of the car, suggesting that displays on future automated cars should be omnidirectionally visible. Practioner summary: This study measured where pedestrians look when walking through a parking garage. It was found that the back, side, and wheels of cars attract considerable attention. This knowledge may be important for the development of automated cars that feature so-called external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs).
Article
Context The increase in the use of powered two-wheelers (PTW) in large urban areas adds to the public debate on the question of legalizing the practice of filtering when traffic is congested. In recent years, filtering by PTW riders has been authorized in cities in several Australian States. In France, this practice has been authorized on an experimental basis since 1st February 2016 on urban expressways, but for now it remains forbidden in city centers. Legalization and generalization of this practice in cities could, however, have a detrimental effect on pedestrian safety. The objective of the research presented in this paper is to estimate the risk for PTW riders of hitting and injuring a pedestrian per kilometer travelled while filtering and to compare this risk with that run while not filtering. Method Based on the detailed study of police reports recorded on 14 sections of urban arterials roads located in the city center of Marseille (France) and a campaign of periodical observations of powered two-wheeler practices, a relative risk and its 95 % confidence interval are estimated. Results The results show that the practice of filtering is associated with a significantly higher risk of collision with a pedestrian compared to normal driving in the traffic flow. On the sections studied, the risk is 5.30 higher (95% confidence interval [2.97; 9.43]). The main crash configurations are presented. Conclusions In cities, filtering practices by PTW have a deleterious effect on pedestrian safety. Countermeasures concerning the road layout or enforcement seem possible to mitigate this deleterious effect.
Thesis
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https://depositonce.tu-berlin.de/handle/11303/6266
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The average worker in Britain spends 139 h/year commuting—the equivalent of 19 standard working days. While the average distance and time taken for journeys to work has been steadily increasing, the average number of journeys has been decreasing at a similar rate. The aggregate picture inevitably masks an array of underlying trends. This paper offers a multi‐perspective examination of commuting drawing upon the literature in transport, planning, geography, economics, psychology, sociology and medicine. It examines statistical evidence on trends in commuting travel behaviour and finds that one in 25 commuters now travels to work in excess of 100 km (both ways) and one in ten commuters now spends over 2 h/day travelling to and from work. It explores the different impacts (economic, health and social) that commuting has on the individuals who conduct it and seeks to understand better the role of commuting for individuals in today’s society. The paper finishes its examination by reviewing the commute experience itself, including attitudes towards it and the use of time during the journey. It concludes by highlighting a dilemma facing transport planning and policy. There are social, economic and financial benefits from an improved travel experience for people with long commute journeys, yet improving the travel experience may itself contribute to the trend towards long‐distance commuting.
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Hazard perception is the ability to read the road and is closely related to involvement in traffic accidents. It consists of both cognitive and behavioral components. Within the cognitive component, visual attention is an important function of driving whereas driving behavior, which represents the behavioral component, can affect the hazard perception of the driver. Motorcycle riders are the most vulnerable types of road user. The primary purpose of this study was to deepen our understanding of the correlation of different subtypes of visual attention and driving violation behaviors and their effect on hazard perception between accident-free and accident-involved motorcycle riders. Sixty-three accident-free and 46 accident-involved motorcycle riders undertook four neuropsychological tests of attention (Digit Vigilance Test, Color Trails Test-1, Color Trails Test-2, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test), filled out the Chinese Motorcycle Rider Driving Violation (CMRDV) Questionnaire, and viewed a road-user-based hazard situation with an eye-tracking system to record the response latencies to potentially dangerous traffic situations. The results showed that both the divided and selective attention of accident-involved motorcycle riders were significantly inferior to those of accident-free motorcycle riders, and that accident-involved riders exhibited significantly higher driving violation behaviors and took longer to identify hazardous situations compared to their accident-free counterparts. However, the results of the regression analysis showed that aggressive driving violation CMRDV score significantly predicted hazard perception and accident involvement of motorcycle riders. Given that all participants were mature and experienced motorcycle riders, the most plausible explanation for the differences between them is their driving style (influenced by an undesirable driving attitude), rather than skill deficits per se. The present study points to the importance of conceptualizing the influence of different driving behaviors so as to enrich our understanding of the role of human factors in road accidents and consequently develop effective countermeasures to prevent traffic accidents involving motorcycles.
Conference Paper
Motorcyclists' visual behavior was examined and compared with that of drivers' by an eye-marker method. The results are as follows. (1) The proportion of the road surface which was recorded on film through an eye-marker is much larger in riding motor-cycles than in driving a automobile. (2) From the result of distribution of fixation points, it is suggested that motorcyclists are mainly acquiring information from distant foreground. (3) In riding motorcycles, the vertical variance of visual field and fixation points is larger. (4) Mean fixation duration of motorcyclists is shorter than that of automobile drivers.
Article
This article presents an integrated approach including a designed tools set and methodologies dedicated to the study of motorcyclist's behaviour in real context : (1) an instrumentation in sensors and a data logger embedded in a motorbike, (2) a set of cameras in order to collect audiovisual recordings of motorcyclists' behaviour, (3) self-confrontation interviews used after riding session. This approach, derived from Cognitive Ergonomics, is detailed and adapted to the investigation of motorcycle riding. The combination of these tools provides different levels of data to understand riders' behaviour, their decision-making process and underlined motives, in a road safety perspective. Examples offered by this new approach, extracted form a recent project which concerns the study of novice's rider activity, are presented and discussed.
Article
This paper presents work, undertaken for the UK Department for Transport, to help determine how policy could affect motorcycle usage. There are two important choices that determine potential motorcycle use: the decision to own a motorcycle and, contingent on that, the decision to use a motorcycle for a particular trip. This research has addressed both of these, and this paper describes the development of models that represent these decision processes. The motorcycle ownership model predicts the number of motorcycles that a person owns and the engine sizes of these motorcycles, depending on the characteristics of the person and the average purchase cost. The structure of the ownership model is a disaggregate nested logit model, with structural parameters used to measure the sensitivity of the choice of engine size relative to motorcycle ownership. Existing travel surveys contained insufficient information with which to model the mode choice decisions of motorcycle owners. Therefore, new surveys that incorporated stated preference discrete choice experiments were designed. This also allowed the collection of data to examine how motorcycle usage may change as a result of policy and the impacts of other important influences, such as weather. The data were used to develop nested logit models of mode choice. These models also give some insight into how the ability to interlane filter influences mode choice. This is the first study from the United Kingdom that models both motorcycle ownership and mode choice. It provides useful insights for policy makers and illustrates the potential for the modeling of motorcycles within the same framework used other transport modes.
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The notion of error, when applied to an activity or the result of an activity, implies the notion of task: it expresses the deviation between the activity and the task being considered from an angle which is judged to be relevant. The task and the activity are the object of representations for the analyst (or specialist) and for the driver. Four representations are dealt with in this paper: the task and the activity for the specialist and the task and the activity for the driver. An interpretation is proposed for these tasks, and they are illustrated using some of the work already carried out in this field. The signification of deviations between these representations is then discussed, together with the advantage of studying these deviations in order to clarify error-producing mechanisms. Analysis in terms of task and activity raises methodological and practical problems which are touched upon; it does not exclude referring to psychological theoretical frameworks to which it is worthwhile linking it. This perspective raises questions which make it possible to enhance the study of errors: it could be completed at a later date by extending it to include other representation categories.
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This paper analyses motorcycle educational content in a number of French motorcycle schools on the basis of a naturalistic study of riders' and trainers' behaviour. The aim is to specify the situations delivered in motorcycle schools and to study the rider's activity in these situations. The methodology includes ethnographic observation within the motorcycle schools and the longitudinal monitoring of 14 trainee motorcyclists during their initial training. The training situations were described by the combination of audio-visual recordings and interviews data (i.e. concomitant or interruptive verbalization, and self-confrontation data). The results permit to (1) compare the "real" and "official" durations of track and on-road training, (2) characterize the real training situations, (3) describe the preferred forms of instruction, and (4) conduct an in-depth analysis of the situations used during training in traffic. The discussion show, in first, the poverty of the training situations which are based on the repetition of the exercises in the test, and, in second, disparities between the riding situations encountered during training and the demands made by riding in natural traffic. The usefulness and the applications of this type of approach - based on the integration of the rider's point of view notably by self-confrontation interview - for understanding real riding behaviours and how such approaches could supplement vehicle-based data are discussed in a large conclusion.
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A sample of 516 persons who had taken the Motorcycle Safety Foundation's motorcycle rider course within the prior three years and a control group who had not taken the course completed a questionnaire about their riding exposure, violations and accidents, as a means of evaluating the effects of the course. The major findings were: (a) when controlling for age and years licensed, those who took the course did not have a lower accident rate than the control group; (b) there were no differences in the violation rates between the groups; (c) the cost of damage to the motorcycles per million miles was not less for those who took the course; and (d) the estimated cost of medical treatment of injuries per million miles was not significantly less for the group which took the course; but, (e) the mean cost of damage to the motorcycles was less for those who took the course; and (f) the mean medical cost per accident was less among those who took the course than the control group. The latter may be attributable to the finding that (g) those who took the course made more use of protective clothing, such as helmets, than the control group, and to other exposure factors affecting the severity of the accidents.
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The design and implementation of new technologies dedicated to driver support and information management systems is the crucial transformation that has taken place in the field of automotive environment. While the development of these new systems has found a variety of sound and effective solutions, a number of fundamental questions and issues remain to be tackled and solved with respect to the consequences that such new technologies have on driver activity. In particular, a major concern is on “behavioural adaptation” and on the possible impact that this may play on the driving performance and ultimately on overall road safety. Within the European Project Adaptive Integrated Driver-vehicle InterfacE (AIDE), a specific research activity is dedicated (1) to the identification of crucial behavioural adaptation aspects associated with the use of new driver support systems and (2) of the specification of most relevant parameters that can be implemented in models for supporting design and safety assessment processes. This paper describes the results of a set of experiments carried out on a number of specific driving support systems and their results in terms of observed behavioural adaptation. These results will be imbedded in modelling architecture that enables to predict driver-vehicle-environment interactions in different dynamic conditions. Such model is also described in some details for what concerns the model characteristics and main parameters.
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The current study compares hazard perception (HP) performance of 50 male drivers with and without a motorcycle license in order to generalize results. A video-based HP test, measuring reaction times to traffic scenes, was administered to these two groups of drivers. Participants with a motorcycle license performed better than participants without a motorcycle license. ANOVA indicated that learning improved linearly for participants with a motorcycle license but not for participants without a motorcycle license. No evidence that HP was predicted by age was found. HP scores for drivers who reported previous involvement in an accident were lower than for those who reported not being involved in an accident. The results are discussed in the context of sensitivity and response bias models.
Article
Hazard perception is a critical skill for road users. In this study, an open-loop motorcycle simulator was used to examine the effects of motorcycle riding and car driving experience on hazard perception and visual scanning patterns. Three groups of participants were tested: experienced motorcycle riders who were experienced drivers (EM-ED), inexperienced riders/experienced drivers (IM-ED), and inexperienced riders/inexperienced drivers (IM-ID). Participants were asked to search for hazards in simulated scenarios, and click a response button when a hazard was identified. The results revealed a significant monotonic decrease in hazard response times as experience increased from IM-ID to IM-ED to EM-ED. Compared to the IM-ID group, both the EM-ED and IM-ED groups exhibited more flexible visual scanning patterns that were sensitive to the presence of hazards. These results point to the potential benefit of training hazard perception and visual scanning in motorcycle riders, as has been successfully demonstrated in previous studies with car drivers.
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