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Antiobesity, antihyperlipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of the aqueous extract of Nigella Sativa seeds (Kalongi)


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Obesity is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia and type II Diabetes. The seeds of Nigella Sativa plant have been used to promote health and fight diseases for centuries especially in the Middle East and South Asia. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of aqueous extract of Nigella Sativa seeds on food intake, body weight and certain biochemical parameters. The aqueous extract of Nigella Sativa was administered to obese rats weighing (250-300g) for 6 weeks. Body weight, food intake and water intake were monitored weekly. At the end of the 6 th week the rats were decapitated and blood was stored for biochemical analysis. Statistical analysis showed that Nigella Sativa decreased body weight and food intake without decreasing water intake. Blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoproteins (LDL) were significantly decreased and high density lipoprotein HDL was significantly increased. On the basis of these results and the previous studies we can suggest the use of black seed for its role in weight reduction and holistic effects on health.
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Pak. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2009; 42(4): 136-140
Antiobesity, antihyperlipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of the aqueous extract of
Nigella Sativa seeds (Kalongi)
Farhat Bano1*, Maliha Wajeeh2, Nadeem Baig3, Hajra Naz2 and Naheed Akhtar1
1Biophysics Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Pakistan
2Neuropharmacology Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Pakistan
3Karachi Medical and Dental College, CDGK, Karachi, Pakistan
Abstract: Obesity is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia and type II Diabetes. The seeds of Nigella Sativa
plant have been used to promote health and fight diseases for centuries especially in the Middle East and South Asia. The aim of the
present study was to assess the effects of aqueous extract of Nigella Sativa seeds on food intake, body weight and certain biochemical
parameters. The aqueous extract of Nigella Sativa was administered to obese rats weighing (250-300g) for 6 weeks. Body weight, food
intake and water intake were monitored weekly. At the end of the 6th week the rats were decapitated and blood was stored for biochemical
analysis. Statistical analysis showed that Nigella Sativa decreased body weight and food intake without decreasing water intake. Blood
glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoproteins (LDL) were significantly decreased and high density lipoprotein
HDL was significantly increased. On the basis of these results and the previous studies we can suggest the use of black seed for its role in
weight reduction and holistic effects on health.
Keywords: Nigella Sativa, kalongi, hypophagic, obesity, hypoglycemia.
Received: September 17, 2009 Accepted: November 22, 2009
*Author Correspondence:
Obesity has been called the “disease of
diseases” because of the diversity of complications
it produces; insulin resistance, diabetes,
hypertension and dyslipidemia that ultimately
increase the risk of cardiovascular disease1-3. The
seed of Nigella Sativa commonly known as black
seed, black cumin or Habba Sawada in Arabic are
used in folk medicine all over the world for
treatment and prevention of diseases4,5. It is narrated
by Abu Hurairah, the Prophet Mohammad (Peace be
Upon Him) said:
“Use this Black seed; it has a cure for every
disease except death.” (Sahih Bukhari)
The seeds contain numerous esters of
structurally unusual unsaturated fatty acids with
terpene alcohols (7%); furthermore traces of
alkaloids are found which belong to different types:
isochinoline alkaloids are represented by nigellimin
and nigellimin-N-oxide, and pyrazol alkaloids
include nigellidin and nigellicin. In the essential oil
(average 0.5%, max 1.5%), thymoquinone was
identified as the main component (up to 50%).
Other terpene derivatives were found in trace
amount: Carvacrol, carvone, limonene, 4-terpineol
and citronellol. The Nigella Sativa seeds are a
source of calcium, iron and potassium6. Currently a
new acetylated triterpene saponin (penta hydroxyl
pentocyclic triterpene) has been isolated from
Nigella sativa7.
Nigella Sativa has been reported to be used in
Egyptian folk medicine as carminative8. The
ethanolic extract of Nigella Sativa was shown to
have outstanding in vitro antibacterial activity
against methicillin resistant and sensitive strains of
staphylococcus aureus9. The ether extract of the
seed and its active principle, thymoquinone
produced minimum inhibitory concentrations
(MICs) against 8 species of dermatophytes. This
supports its use in folk medicine for the treatment of
fungal infections10. Nigella sativa extract using CO2
as solvent11, as well as methanolic extract possess
anti-oxidant activity12.
Anti-oxidants present in Nigella Sativa seeds
include Selenium, DL-α- and DL-γ-tocopherol, all-
trans retinol, thymoquinone and thymol13. The
aqueous and methanolic extracts of Nigella sativa
showed analgesic effect in mice as it produced
significant increases in reaction times in hot plates
and pressure tests14, 15. Both extracts also reduced
the normal body temperature15, the oil and seed
constituents of Nigella sativa showed anti-tumor
effects in vitro and in vivo16, 17. Studies have shown
that Nigella Sativa causes morphological
improvement in chronic toluene induced
neurodegenerative changes in the hippocampus,
frontal cortex and brain stem. Nigella sativa has
been shown to generate homogeneous cardiac
hypertrophy similar to that provoked by exercise
Since obesity is a risk factor leading to a
number of chronic and fatal diseases, many people
employ different methods to combat obesity and its
associated adverse effects. Although exercise is
regarded as one of the effective tools for weight
reduction and maintenance, but its compliance is
very low. People seemed to be more inclined to use
herbal medicines for reducing their weight which is
an easy approach in the busy lifestyles.
Therefore the present study was designed to
investigate the hypophagic, antiobese and
antihyperlipidemic effects of the widely used
Bano et al.
medicinal herb Nigella sativa in experimental
Locally bred male Albino Wistar rats weighing
250-300 g, purchased from Hussain Ebrahim Jamal
institute (HEJ) University of Karachi were used for
the experiment. The rats were housed individually in
transparent cages with saw dust-covered floor, in
quiet room, with free access to standard diet and tap
water for one week before starting the experiment
for the purpose of acclimatization.
The seeds of the Nigella Sativa were purchased
from local herb store and authenticated by the
botanist “Saleem Shahzad” of Agriculture
department, University of Karachi.
Preparation of Nigella Sativa extract
Seeds of Nigella Sativa were washed and dried
and 25g of seeds were crushed in a grinder
according to the traditional mode of preparation19.
The powder was soaked in 50 ml distilled water and
left at room temperature for 24 hours. The filtered
extract was stored at 4 °C until use.
Experimental design
Fourteen male Albino Wistar rats were
randomly divided into two groups control and test, 7
in each. Both control and test animals were given
tap water to drink. 2 ml of extract of Nigella Sativa
was administered orally to the test animals with
feeding tubes at 10:30 a.m. daily. Body weights of
the test and control were recorded before starting the
experiment which served as pre-treatment body
weights. Body weights, food intake and water
intake were monitored after completion of every one
week. The experiment lasted for six weeks, at the
end of the sixth week animals were decapitated and
their blood was collected from cervical region.
Serum was extracted and stored at -70 °C which was
used for Biochemical analysis.
The biochemical analyses were done with the
help of the chemical analyzer. The kit for glucose
was supplied by Merck Qualitrol (R) and the kit for
cholesterol and triglycerides was supplied by
Elitech. Statistical analysis was done using t-test.
Differences between control and test animals were
considered statistically significant when P<0.05 and
when P<0.01.
Figure 1 shows the effects of Nigella Sativa on
weekly food intake in rats. The data statistically
analyzed by t-test revealed that administration of
Nigella Sativa significantly increased food intake in
first week (P<0.01), the increases were not
significant in the second, third and fifth week
(P>0.05) and decreased it in fourth week (P<0.05)
and sixth week (P<0.01) as compared to control
Figure 1: Effects of Nigella Sativa on weekly food intake (g) in
rats. Values are means ±S.D (n=7). Significant differences by t-
test (*P<0.05) and (**P<0.01) from respective water treated rats.
Figure 2: Effects of Nigella Sativa on weekly body weight (g) in
rats. Values are means ±S.D (n=7). Significant differences by t-
test (*P<0.05) and (**P<0.01) from respective water treated rats.
Figure 3: Effects of Nigella Sativa on weekly water intake (g) in
rats. Values are means ±S.D (n=7). Differences by t-test were
not significant.
Figure 2 shows the effects of Nigella Sativa on
weekly body weight in rats. The data statistically
analyzed by t-test revealed that administration of
Nigella Sativa significantly decreased body weight
in the first week (P<0.05), fifth week (P<0.01) and
sixth week (P<0.01) as compared to the control
animals. The decreases in body weights were not
significant in the second, third and fourth week
Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of Nigella Sativa
Figure 4: Percentage decreases in food intake and body weight
after six weeks of Nigella Sativa administration. Values are
means ±S.D (n=7) from initial weeks food intake and initial day's
body weight. Decreases are shown in terms of percentage.
Figure 5: Effects of Nigella Sativa on blood glucose,
triglyceride, LDL, HDL and cholesterol levels. Values are means
±S.D (n=7). Significant differences by t-test (*P<0.05) and
(**P<0.01) from respective water treated rats.
Figure 3 shows the effects of Nigella Sativa on
weekly water intake in rats. Administration of herb
produced no significant effect in water intake
(P>0.05). Figure 4 shows the percentage decreases
in food intake and body weight after six weeks of
Nigella Sativa administration. The percentage
decrease in food intake in Nigella Sativa treated rats
was 44.93% and the percentage decrease in body
weight in Nigella Sativa treated rats was (17.31%).
Figure 5 shows the effects of Nigella Sativa on
different Biochemical parameters in rats.
The data statistically analyzed by t-test revealed
that administration of Nigella Sativa significantly
decreased blood glucose level (P<0.05),
triglycerides (P<0.01), LDL (P<0.01), cholesterol
(P<0.01) and increased HDL (P<0.01), as compared
to control animals.
The present study was designed to investigate
and evaluate the weight reducing effects of the herb
Nigella Sativa (Black cumin) in experimental
animals. A number of studies have assessed the
effectiveness of other weight loss herbal
supplements from rigorous clinical trials. A number
of herbs such as Aloe vera20, Dandelion21, Guarana22
are used for weight reduction. Anorectic effects of
Nigella Sativa of the present study are consistent
with the reports of Le and his co-workers23.
The findings in the present study strengthen the
notion that Nigella Sativa could be used as an anti-
diabetic remedy as present study reveals that
administration of Nigella Sativa decreased blood
glucose levels in animals. Black cumin or Black
seeds have been found to rank high among the anti-
diabetic plants most recommended by traditional
practitioners24. Previous reports have shown that
crude aqueous extract of Nigella Sativa restores
glucose homeostasis23. Nigella Sativa was shown to
enhance liver cell insulin sensitivity23. The ethanolic
extract of Nigella Sativa has shown to exhibit
insulin like activities25. Thus we can suggest that
Nigella Sativa in the present study could have
decreased blood glucose levels either or by restoring
glucose homeostasis or by enhancing liver cells
insulin sensitivity.
Our reports are in agreement with the previous
authors26, 27 that supplementation of Nigella Sativa
seeds in the diet had a favorable effect on the lipid
profile by decreasing TG, total cholesterol and LDL
cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol as
compared to controls. Previous authors have
reported that hypotriglyceridaemic effects of Nigella
Sativa are possibly due to its cholerectic activity28.
In the present study cholesterol lowering effect of
Nigella Sativa could be due to cholerectic functions.
Cholerectic functions could be explained in terms of
reduced synthesis of cholesterol by hepatocytes or
by decreased fractional re absorption from small
intestine28. Reduction in LDL cholesterol consistent
with the previous study29 could be due to increased
production of LDL receptors.
Currently available anti-obesity medications
attack the body fat dilemma in three different ways.
They can stimulate metabolism for e.g.: Ephedra30,
Slimax31; impede digestion of fat for e.g.:
Pomegranate leaf32, Oolong tea33; or suppress
appetite for e.g.: tree-peony34. On the basis of the
current data we can suggest that Nigella Sativa
decrease body weight by suppression of appetite.
Suppression of appetite could be associated to the
neural circuits that regulate catecholaminergic,
serotonergic and peptidergic system or via
circulating leptin hormone signaling the brains
Bano et al.
satiety centre to produce hypophagic effects35 which
is translated into weight loss in the experimental
animals. However, none of the above mentioned
were monitored in the present study but detailed
study of these mechanisms would provide us a
detailed insight into the anorectic mechanism of
Nigella Sativa.
We are thankful to the Dean, University of
Karachi for the grant.
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... There is evidence that NS may reduce BW through the mechanism of appetite suppression. The suppression of appetite might be associated with the neuronal circuits responsible for regulating the catecholaminergic, serotonergic and peptidergic systems [69]. Furthermore, the effect could be mediated via the signalling of the hormone leptin in the satiety centre of the brain, leading to hypophagic effects and subsequent weight loss in experimental animals [70]. ...
... In another study, obese rats that received an extract of NS black cumin for six weeks had significantly lower blood glucose, serum cholesterol, TG and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and significantly higher levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) compared to controls [69]. It is plausible that NS may have contributed to lower blood glucose levels via two potential mechanisms: restoration of glucose homeostasis and improvement of insulin sensitivity of liver cells [67]. ...
Full-text available
Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic and its prevalence continues to increase at an alarming rate. It is considered a major risk factor for the development of several comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes, stroke, other cardiovascular diseases and even cancer. Conventional treatments for obesity, such as dietary interventions, exercise and pharmacotherapy, have proven to have limited effectiveness and are often associated with undesirable side effects. Therefore, there is a growing interest in exploring alternative therapeutic approaches. Nigella sativa (NS), a medicinal plant with multiple pharmacological properties, has gained attention due to its potential role in the treatment of obesity and its associated complications. The aim of this review is therefore to assess the effects of NS on obesity and its complications and to provide insights into the underlying mechanisms. From this review, NS appears to play a complementary or supportive role in the treatment of obesity and its complications. However, future studies are needed to verify the efficacy of NS in the treatment of obesity and its complications and to prove its safety so that it can be introduced in patients with obesity.
... The antiadipose activity of NS which caused the weight loss is related to the decrease of serum lipids and glucose levels. Previous study revealed that methanolic extract and the commercial oil of NS displayed appetite-reducing components inducing the loss of weight 40 . Previous study reported that NS reduced plasma lipids concentrations 41 . ...
... The authors have no conflicts of interest. Tex Heart Inst J,40(1), 2013, 17-29. 13. ...
Full-text available
Background: Frequent consumption saturated fatty acids and fructose increase risk of metabolic syndrome (MS). Features of MS include dyslipidemia, visceral obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension. In this study we investigate the role of Nigella sativa and ginger in ameliorating features of MS. Methods: High‐fructose high‐fat fed diet was used for induction MS which was certain after 8 weeks. Four group animals were used: normal control, MS control group given saline, MS groups given Nigella sativa (4ml/kg) and ginger (500mg/kg) daily for 4 weeks. Markers chosen for assessment included effect on body weight gain, insulin, glucose, adiponectin levels and lipid profile. Also peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor‐gamma (PPARγ) protein expressions and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) content were estimated. In addition, Blood pressure, heart rate, LDH and CK-MB were estimated. Also renal function test and antioxidant activity were evaluated. In addition, to CRP and fibrinogen determined. Results: Nigella sativa and ginger caused decrease in both MS‐induced increase in body weight and glucose. The drugs used increased adiponectin and decreased insulin level and resistance, with correction of MS‐induced hyperlipidemia. There is an increase in PPARγ protein expression and GLUT4 compared with MS control group. Furthermore, both drugs caused decrease in both MS‐induced increase in heart rate and blood pressure. They reduced albumin, creatinine, BUN, uric acid and MDA with increased SOD and GSH. Drugs also decreased fibrinogen and CRP compared with MS control group. Conclusion: Nigella sativa and ginger ameliorate cardiac and renal complication of MS via their antioxidant activity and increase in GLUT4 and PPARγ expression.
... However, the weight gain in the NS mice was signi cantly lower and in fact the least when compared to other groups. This is similarly explained by the feed consumption rate which was lower in the NS group than observed in all other groups .Reduced weight gain as recorded in this study, is a phenomenon that has been previously characterised to Nigella sativa exposure, in line with the ndings of Bano et al. (2009) and Le et al. (2004), such that its signi cantly repressive effect on weight gain is obvious. This weight limiting effect of Nigella sativa was thus seen on the NS + MPTP mice which had a signi cantly lesser MBW than the MPTP group but higher than the NS group. ...
Full-text available
Background Parkinsonism is a neurological disease characterised by dopaminergic neuron degeneration in the substantial nigra and dopamine deficiency in the brain, with motor and psycho-cognitive implications, while limitations masked the efficacy of the available drugs, thus the need to find alternatives with less side effects are essential. Nigella sativa is a multi-potent plant with therapeutic potentials in the brain and other body organs. This study investigated the effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on the cognitive and other Parkinsonism endophenotypes elicited by MPTP in the BALB/c strain mice. Materials and Methods Body weights, brain-body ratios, recognition memory (through novel object recognition test), as well as fronto-cortical, striatal and cerebellar dopamine and neuronal density were assayed in thirty-two (32) male BALB/c mice (18 g − 25 g). They were randomized into four groups exposed to; normal feed, 18 mg/kg MPTP i.p, 1 ml/kgbw NSO p.o., and NSO + MPTP respectively, for 5 consecutive days. Behaviours were analysed 24 hours after the last exposure, subsequently euthanized, the brains removed and processed for biomarkers analysis and histochemistry. Results Parkinsonism-like traits such as mild tremor, down-regulation of striatal and fronto-cortical dopamine and neurons were recorded in the BALB/c mice administered with MPTP only. However, significant increase (p < 0.05) in appetite, body weight, brain-body weight ratio, and recognition memory was also recorded in the MPTP-administered mice, though Nigella sativa was significantly prophylactic against the negative Parkinsonic features, and ‘moderative’ of the up-regulations induced by MPTP. Conclusion While this suggests selective MPTP sensitivity and resistance in BALB/c strains, this study recommends the investigation of possible (though ironic) beneficial potentials of MPTP.
... The antiadipose activity of NS Weight loss is related to the decrease of serum lipids and glucose levels. Previous study revealed that methanolic extract and the commercial oil of NS displayed appetite-reducing components inducing the loss of weight [29]. ...
... Thus N. sativa may indicate its usefulness as a potential treatment on neurodegeneration after chronic toluene exposure in rats. [115,116] conclusIon Nigella Sativa is a miraculous herb. Of the traditional remedies, prescriptions of Nigella sativa for the treatment of various diseases are well known since prehistoric era. ...
Full-text available
Nigella sativa L. (Family: Ranunculaceae; commonly known as black cumin) is an annual herb. N. sativa is cultivated and distributed all over India especially in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Gangetic plains, Bihar, Bengal, Assam and Maharashtra. Among the traditional remedies, prescriptions of Nigella sativa for the treatment of various diseases are well-known since prehistoric era. Therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa are thought to be due to nigellone and thymoquinone contents. The reported pharmacological properties include protection against disease and chemical induced renal and hepatic toxicity, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-microbial and antineoplastic activities. The oil decreases blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose and increases respiration, haemoglobin and packed cell volume. In traditional system of medicine, black cumin seeds are effective against cough, bronchitis, asthma, chronic headache, migraine, dizziness, chest congestion, dysmenorrheal, obesity, diabetes, paralysis, hemiplegia, back pain, infection, inflammation, rheumatism, hypertension and gastrointestinal problems such as dyspepsia, flatulence, dysentery, and diarrhea. In this review, we will elaborate about this wonder herb having miraculous effects.
... Decrease in fasting blood glucose (FBG) Improvement in glucose tolerance Insulinomimetic and/or insulin releasing properties Raman and Lau (1996) Olea europaea Improvement in body weight and in metabolic markers level/ increase in insulin level Guex et al. (2019) Nigella sativa Lowering body weight, food intake, glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels HDL level improvement Bano et al. (2009) Cucurbita pepo Antiobesity activity: decrease in body mass index Nderitu, Mwenda, Macharia, Barasa, and Ngugi (2017) Brassica oleracea Decrease in body weight, water and food intake, and blood glucose Shah, Sarker, and Gousuddin (2016) Sonchus oleraceus Blood sugar modulation through the downregulation of AMPK/Akt/ GSK-3β pathway Chen et al. (2020) Hamelia patens Regulation of blood glucose Tian et al. (2017) Coccinia indica Hypoglycemic effect Improvement of the metabolic enzymes activity Venkateswaran and Pari (2002) Ocimum sanctum Lowering blood sugar and cortisol level Improvement in insulin release Marcocci, Packer, Droy-Lefaix, Sekaki, and Gardes-Albert (1994) and Chattopadhyay (1993) Silybum marianum Anti-α-amylase activity Glucose level reduction Shakeel and Yar (2014) and Abu-zaiton (2013) (2014) Mitochondrial dysfunctions ...
Metabolic disorders, whether inherited or acquired, are currently considered as global health concerns that are in desperate need of rapid and efficient therapeutic solutions. Despite the tremendous progress of modern medicine in diagnosing and treating many metabolic diseases, a considerable number of illnesses are still hard to manage. The economic and health burden of these disorders is increasing progressively due to multiple factors encompassing genetic transmission, unbalanced diets, and unhealthy modern lifestyles. Through the history of stubborn diseases, whenever the conventional medicine resources seem insufficient to deal with a health problem, traditional medicine has always a valuable thing to offer. The majority of traditional medicine systems, namely, Chinese, Indian, and Greco-Arab old medicine, recognized the symptoms of many metabolic disorders mainly obesity and diabetes. Ancient physicians used mainly medicinal plants and herbal formulas to treat patients or to alleviate the symptoms of certain metabolic disorders. The encouraging reported testimonies inspired the researchers to unravel the compositions of many of the prescribed plants using analytical techniques and also to test their effects in vitro. Depending on the obtained results, some of these plant extracts were investigated using animal models. However, only a few number of plant extracts and/or compounds were administrated to human subjects in randomized clinical trials, where most of the gathered results appear to be conflicting yet promising. The aims of this chapter are to give an overview of the ancient use of traditional medicine in the treatment of metabolic diseases and to discuss the findings obtained from in vitro, preclinical and clinical trials, in an attempt to provide a realistic perspective on the contemporary medical role of medicinal plants and their phytochemicals in the field of metabolic disorders.
... This suggests the appetite boosting potentials of Nigella sativa which in contrast to an earlier report. [15] This also suggests the inverse proportionality between the weight limiting effect and the appetite boosting tendency of Nigella sativa. Even though harmaline was administered in the right route and dosage, a tremor was not elicited in the mice so exposed unlike in earlier reports. ...
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Background: Harmaline is a tremorgenic beta-carboline, reported to induce acute postural and kinetic tremor. Essential Tremor (ET) is an idiopathic slowly neurodegenerative tremor disorder which also compromises olfactory acuity. Nigella sativa (NS) is a therapeutic agent widely used in the treatment of various ailments. Objective: To determine the effect of NSon olfactory functions of mice treated with harmaline. Methods: Seventy-five BALB/c male mice weighing 20g-25g, were equally divided into five groups, namely CNTRL (received only Normal saline), NS (received NS oil1ml/kg), HML(received Harmaline 20mg/kg), HNS (received Harmaline and Nigella sativa concurrently), and NSH (received NSfollowed by Harmaline). Olfactory sensitivity and discrimination were assayed through buried food test. The olfactory bulb was assayed neurochemically for glutamate and dopamine, and histologically for neuronal architecture using haematoxylin and eosin stain. Differences in neurochemical and histological data, body weight, appetite, relative brain weight, sensitivity and discrimination indices were statistically analysed. Results: NS was significantly protective against the negative effects of Harmaline. It also effected quick olfactory discrimination, increased dopamine level, decrease in weight difference and increased food consumption in the animals. However, Harmaline increased relative brain weight and GPX levels. The concurrent administration aided in the reduction of neuronal density while neuronal average size reduced on pre-treatment with NS. Conclusion: Harmaline did not induce tremor in the animals, though it resulted in histological and neurochemical deficits. However, it resulted in olfactory insensitivity and indiscrimination, both of which were prevented and ameliorated by Nigella sativa oil.
... This indicates the medicinal advantages of Nigella sativa on diet and body weight, although this differs from the reports of Bano et al, which suggests that direct administration of Nigella sativa decreases body weight via the suppression of appetite. [21] This seems to identify a difference between the weight limiting effects exhibited by Nigella sativa upon direct exposure and its weight enhancing effects in pups of pre-gestationally exposed dams. In line with the bodyweight analysis from the present study as well as earlier reports, [19] maternal ethanol consumption is further corroborated as deleterious to cellular development and body weight/growth. ...
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Background: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with pre-fronto-cortical (PFC) cognitive dysfunctions. Ethanol is a psychoactive agent and its foetal exposure is employed in the modelling of ADHD. Objective: To determine the curative roles of Nigella sativa in the PFC functions of mice induced with ADHD-like symptoms. Method: Twelve BALB/c mice pups each from four groups of dams were studied. Normal saline was administered to the control (CTRL) dams, ethanol to the ETH dams, Nigella Sativa to the NS dams, and Nigella sativa followed with ethanol to the NSE dams. Novel object recognition test was used to assess recognition memory in the pups 15 days after weaning. Histological illustration of PFC was conducted using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain. Results: ETH mice exhibited the least recognition memory while Nigella sativa prevented this deficit in NSE mice by eliciting much higher recognition memory. This indicates the neuroprotective role of Nigella sativa despite prenatal exposure. NS pups also had the highest weight gain, as well as the glutamate and Glutathione, peroxidase (GPX) levels, while raising these levels in the ETH-exposed mice which had the lowest levels, indicating a neurochemical potentiation. The results of the histological analysis showed the protective roles of Nigella sativa on the PFC neuronal densities. Conclusion: This study suggests the protective effects of Nigella sativa on the prefronto-cortical functions in mice ADHD model following maternal exposure to ethanol.
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Nigella sativa L. is a therapeutic natural herb that cures several serious ailments, so can be considered a Golden remedy. It has been used for centuries and has a long history in different cultures. This review article has surveyed nearly all the relevant literature on Nigella sativa L. from 1960-2020, offering a broad range of data including the origin, taxonomy, botany, history of traditional uses in different regions then passing through their phytochemistry, pharmacology, and consumed natural pharmaceutical preparations till recent findings and their possible use in COVID-19 therapy. The main aim of this review is to focus on the importance of Nigella sativa L. as a medicinal herb used widely in therapy and to correlate its phytochemical constituents with their pharmacological effects. The biological importance was attributed to Thymoquinone in the first-place present in the volatile oil of the seeds and other classes such as sterols, triterpenes, tannins, flavonoids, and cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, saponins, coumarins, volatile bases, glucosinolates, and anthraquinones. Moreover, several studies confirmed its benefits in Alzheimer’s disease, as a potent antioxidant, cytotoxic, antiallergic, antimicrobial, etc. In addition to other studies which documented the use of this plant mainly the seeds and the extracted essential oil, in the production of cosmeceutical preparations, and its role as a nutritive spice in the food industry due to its very low toxicity, besides their use as fodder for farm animals. Keywords: Black cumin, essential oil, immuno-stimulant, Nigella sativa L., Ranunculaceae, Thymoquinone.
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Background: Bisphenol-A [BPA, 2, 2-bis (hydroxyphenyl) propane] is widely used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic, water bottles, feeders , baby bottles, epoxy resins and inside coating in metallic food cans. Black seed oil (BSO) (Nigella sativa) commonly known as black cumin, reported to be beneficial in function of various systems in the body. The study was carried out to investigate the effect of BPA and BSO on body weight, lipid profile and serum glucose in male and female mice. Methods : A total of thirty (15 male and 15 female) Swiss Albino mice (Mus musculus), aged 25-28 days with an average body weight of 27.4±1g were randomly divided into 3 groups consisting 5 mice in each for each sex. Group A served as vehicle control. Group B was administered BPA @ 50 mg/kg bw daily, while group C received both BPA @ 50 mg/kg/day and BSO @ 1ml/kg/day respectively. Results: Data revealed that BPA treated mice showed slight increase in body weight gain while BSO controlled the weight gain in BPA treated mice. Cholesterol and LDL values were significantly (p<0.01) increased and Triglycerides value was significantly (p<0.01) decreased in BPA-treated mice without significant alterations in HDL value. BPA & BSO treated female mice showed significant (p<0.01) decreased in cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL values. BPA reduced the blood glucose level and addition of BSO had synergistic effects of glucose utilization. Conclusions: It can be concluded that BPA is one of the potential risk factors for hyperlipidemia and obesity. These harmful effects could be alleviated by the ingestion of black seed oil.
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The seeds of Nigella sativa. L. (NS), a plant of the Runanculaceae family, are used in traditional medicine in North Africa and the Middle East for the treatment of diabetes. Despite widespread use and a number of scientific studies, the target tissues and cellular mechanisms of action of this plant product are not well understood. This study evaluated the effects of NS seed crude ethanol extract on insulin secretion in INS832/13 and β TC-tet lines of pancreatic β-cells and on glucose disposal by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. An 18-h treatment with NS amplified glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by more than 35% without affecting sensitivity to glucose. NS treatment also accelerated β-cell proliferation. An 18-h treatment with NS increased basal glucose uptake by 55% (equivalent to approximately two-fold the effect of 100 nM insulin) in muscle cells and approximately by 400% (equal to the effect of 100 nM insulin) in adipocytes; this effect was perfectly additive to that of insulin in adipocytes. Finally, NS treatment of pre-adipocytes undergoing differentiation accelerated triglyceride accumulation comparably with treatment with 10 μ M rosiglitazone. It is concluded that the well-documented in vivo. antihyperglycemic effects of NS seed extract are attributable to a combination of therapeutically relevant insulinotropic and insulin-like properties.
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Cumin is one of the commonly used spices in food preparations. It is also used in traditional medicine as a stimulant, a carminative and an astringent. In this study, we characterized the antioxidant activity of three commercially available cumin varieties, viz., cumin (Cuminum cyminum), black cumin (Nigella sativa) and bitter cumin (C. nigrum). The antioxidant capacity of cumin varieties was tested on Fe2+ ascorbate induced rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation, soybean lipoxygenase dependent lipid peroxidation and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging methods. The total phenolic content of methanolic extracts of cumin varieties ranged from 4.1 to 53.6mgg–1 dry weight. Methanolic extracts of all the three varieties of cumin showed higher antioxidant activity compared with that of the aqueous extract. Among the cumin varieties, bitter cumin showed the highest antioxidant activity followed by cumin and black cumin in different antioxidant systems. IC50 values of the methanolic extract of bitter cumin were found to be 0.32, 0.1 and 0.07mg dry weight of cumin seeds on the lipoxygenase dependent lipid peroxidation system, the DPPH radical scavenging system and the rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation system, respectively. The data also show that cumin is a potent antioxidant capable of scavenging hydroxy, peroxy and DPPH free radicals and thus inhibits radical-mediated lipid peroxidation. The high antioxidant activity of bitter cumin can be correlated to the high phenolic content among the three cumin varieties. Thus, bitter cumin with a high phenolic content and good antioxidant activity can be supplemented for both nutritional purposes and preservation of foods.
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Nigella sativa (N. sativa) has a long history of use in folk medicine. In a current study performed in this laboratory, two-month dietary supplementation with N. sativa extract to normal rats has shown a homogenous cardiac hypertrophy and enhanced cardiac contractility at baseline conditions. In the present study, shorter (one-month) duration of oral N. sativa administration was adopted to detect possible earlier cardiac responses. In addition, in vitro cardiac stress by the beta adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol was used to assess the intrinsic cardiac reserve mechanisms. The hearts of Nigella-treated rats developed a moderate but significant hypertrophy that was evident by an increase in the heart weight to body weight ratio. The observed Nigella-induced cardiac hypertrophy was associated with an increase in the baseline cardiac inotropic properties as well as the maximal peak tension generation upon progressive cardiac stress by isoproterenol infusion. The demonstrated selective enhancement of the inotropic reserve favours the physiological nature of Nigella-induced cardiac hypertrophy, similar to that provoked by exercise training.
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A new glycosylated triterpene 1 was identified as 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-11-methoxy-16-hydroxy-17-acetoxy hederagenin from an ethanolic extract of seeds of Nigella sativa Linn. Identification of the naturally acetylated saponin was based on chemical and spectroscopic analyses including FABMS, (1)H, (13)C, and 2D NMR and DEPT. The saponin was a penta hydroxy pentacyclic triterpene, in which one hydroxyl group was acetylated and other one was methylated naturally.
A simple, precise and accurate high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been established for the determination of rutin in the whole plant powder of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. Rutin has been reported to have anti-diabetic, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activity. A methanol extract of the whole plant powder was used for the experimental work. The concentration of rutin in the whole plant powder was found to be 0.15%. Separation was performed on silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates with ethyl acetate:formic acid:methanol:distilled water in the proportion 10:0.9:1.1:1.7 (v/v), as mobile phase. The determination was carried out using the densitometric absorbance mode at 363nm. Rutin response was linear over the range 10–60μg mL−1. The HPTLC method was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, accuracy, precision and reproducibility.
The seeds of Nigella sativa are used commonly in the Middle East as a traditional medicine to treat a variety of health conditions. This paper examines the levels of selenium, dl-α-tocopherol, dl-γ-tocopherol, all-trans-retinol, thymoquinone and thymol in different brands of N. sativa seeds purchased from local markets in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Selenium was determined by the inductively coupled plasma spectrometry coupled with the hydride system. dl-α-tocopherol, dl-γ-tocopherol, all-trans-retinol, thymoquinone and thymol were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The average mean concentrations (mg/kg fresh weight) of selenium, dl-α-tocopherol, dl-γ-tocopherol, all-trans-retinol, thymoquinone and thymol in all tested seeds were 0.17±0.10, 9.02±4.84, 5.42±3.96, 0.27±0.27, 2224.49±1629.50 and 169.35±100.12, respectively. The concentrations of these analytes were significantly affected by the country of origin of the N. sativa. It is concluded that N. sativa provides an important source of antioxidants.
A phytochemical preparation known as "Slimax" was administered orally to human volunteers for a six week period, using a double-blind experimental method. This preparation is an aqueous extract of the Chinese medicinal plants Hordeum vulgare , Polygonatum multiflorum , Dimocarpus longan , Ligusticum sinense , Lilium brownii and Zingiber officinale . Treatment with Slimax resulted in a significant decrease in parameters such as body weight, waist and hip circumference, and Body Mass Index (BMI), in all subjects tested. The basis of action was shown to be through modification of lipid metabolism, with significant effects on both the accumulation and the release of lipid from adipose tissue. The experimental results indicate a great potential for the use of this herbal preparation in treatment of human obesity.