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... (Caccavari 2002). And other pollen flora studies present descriptions of some species of the mimosoid clade: Salgado-Labouriau (1973), Melhem et al. (2003), Moura et al. (2004), Sánchez-Dzib et al. (2009, Cassino and Meyer (2011), Mora et al. (2013), Matos et al. (2014), Silva et al. (2014), Lorente et al. (2017) and Ybert et al. (2017). By these studies, it is possible to observe the great diversity of pollen types in relation to the pollen unit and its morphology among pollen grains of species belonging to the mimosoid clade, demonstrating the importance of studies involving pollen description. ...
... The Senegalia species studied confirm the pollen morphology observed and described for the genus by Jiménez-Bulla (1996), Moura et al. (2004), Du Bocage et al. (2008, Silva et al. (2014) and Lorente et al. (2017), mainly in relation to the number of pollen grains that constitute the polyads and their conformation; however, regarding exine ornamentation, we can observe divergence between the studies cited and the species studied here. The polyads of Senegalia polyphylla are described by Moura et al. (2004) andDu Bocage et al. (2008) as calymmate (vs. ...
... The polyads of Senegalia polyphylla are described by Moura et al. (2004) andDu Bocage et al. (2008) as calymmate (vs. acalymmate in this study), since the other pollen characteristics observed here for the species corroborate the descriptions made by Moura et al. (2004), Du Bocage et al. (2008, Silva et al. (2014) and Lorente et al. (2017). ...
Article
The pollen morphology of 17 species and three varieties of the native mimosoid clade of forest fragments of the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) was studied in order to expand the knowledge on the morphology of genera and species of this group, in particular on the morphology of polyads, as well as add information to pollen studies for species of Caesalpinioideae occurring in the area. The pollen grains were acetolysed, measured, described qualitatively and illustrated under light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (not acetolysed pollen grains). Pollen metric data were examined by descriptive and multivariate analysis. The studied species showed differences on the pollen units (monads or polyads) and variations in number and distribution of pollen grains in the polyads. Three pollen types were observed: type I, pollen grains in monads (Plathymenia reticulata); type II, polyads with one tapered end (drop shape – Calliandra parviflora); type III, polyads with uniform ends with asymmetrically distributed pollen grains (Stryphnodendron species); or symmetrically (with 16 or 20 pollen grains in Acacia plumosa, Albizia niopoides, Anadenanthera species, Inga marginata, Inga vera and Senegalia species and more than 20 pollen grains in Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Inga edulis and Inga sessilis). The qualitative differences and the measuremets of the diameters of the polyads, made it possible to distinguish the taxa and to confirm the eurypalynous character of the mimosoid clade (Caesalpinioideae, Fabaceae).
... However, studies in pollen morphology of Anacardiaceae are deficient and scarce. A small number of taxa in the family has been palynologically analysed, mainly works on palynological flora (Erdtman 1943(Erdtman , 1952Salgado-Labouriau 1973;Miranda & Andrade 1990;Roubik & Moreno 1991;Anzótegui 1992Anzótegui , 2001Martinez-Hernandez et al. 1993;Gonçalves-Esteves & Ferreira 1994;Barros et al. 1999;Takeda et al. 2000;Melhem et al. 2003;Willard et al. 2004;Leal & Lorscheitter 2006;Macedo et al. 2009;Sánchez-Dzib et al. 2009;Garcia et al. 2011;Evaldt et al. 2013;Pereira ASS et al. 2014;Silva et al. 2014Silva et al. , 2016Ybert et al. 2016;Luz et al. 2018). ...
... Palynologically, this genus stands out for presenting pollen grains with a striatomicroreticulate exine, confirming the taxonomical affinities existing between their species. The palynological descriptions here presented for the species of Anacardium agree with the literature in terms of size, except for Silva et al. (2014), which documented large pollen grains for the species A. occidentale. ...
... The shape of the pollen grains of the species of Anacardium here analysed agrees with the results by Silva et al. (2014) and Pereira ASS et al. (2014), for the species A. occidentale. However, it disagrees with those presented by Miranda & Andrade (1990), who described the pollen grains as suboblate; and Silva et al. (2016) as oblate spheroidal, for the same species. ...
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In the present work, the pollen morphology of 22 species of Anacardiaceae was analysed, occurring in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The palynological material was obtained from specimens deposited in herbaria. The pollen grains were acetolysed, measured, illustrated and described under light and scanning electron microscopies. The quantitative data were statistically analysed according to sample size. The analysed species presented pollen grains in monads, small to medium sized, isopolar, amb circular to subtriangular, with shapes varying from oblate-spheroidal to prolate, 3-colporate, with fastigium in some species. The exine ornamentation was characterized as psilate, striate, microreticulate-striate, striato-perforate, suprastriato-infra(micro)reticulate. The pollen morphology variation confirms the eurypalynous character of the family. The attributes of the apertures and exine may collaborate in the taxonomic circumscription and provide a clarification of the phylogenetic relationships of the group.
... Then the sediment was boiled for 2 min in 10% potassium hydroxide solution in a water bath, washed in distilled water, sieved through a 0.3 mm mesh sieve to remove large particles, and remained in glacial acetic acid until acetolysis (Erdtman, 1952). Acetolysis consisted of the oxidation of the obtained sediment in a 9:1 mixture of acetic anhydride and concentrated sulfuric acid in a water bath until reaching 80 • C, which was kept for about 3 min (Silva et al., 2014). Then, the pollen was stained with 50% glycerin jelly for at least 24 h. ...
... Then, the pollen was stained with 50% glycerin jelly for at least 24 h. After homogenization by manual stirring, a small portion was fixed with Kisser's gelatin, spread onto three optical microscope slides, and sealed with coverslips over paraffin (Silva et al., 2014). The slides for microscopy are deposited in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Instrumental Analysis of the Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo. ...
Article
Identify the botanical origins of a certain type of propolis may be challenging and time demanding, since it involves bee's behavior observation, plant resins collection and chemical analysis. Thus, this study aimed to determine the plant genetic materials in propolis from southern Brazil using the DNA barcoding to investigate their botanical origins, as well as to compare it with the phytochemical composition determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) and with the pollinic profile. As principal results, non-native Populus carolinensis Moench (Salicaceae) was almost the only DNA source in some propolis samples, which coincided with the presence of flavonoids typical from poplar exudates. Conversely, other propolis samples had DNA material coming mainly from native plant species, most of them characterized to the species level, although no specific chemical markers from those plants could be identified by UHPLC-HRMS. However, pollen from several plants identified by the DNA barcoding were extracted from some propolis samples. Despite the identification of typical diterpenes, DNA material from Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze (Araucariaceae), which have been indicated as a major resin source for propolis from preservation areas in southern Brazil, was found in very small abundancies, likely because bees do not drag tissue material containing DNA when collecting resin from this native species. In conclusion, DNA barcoding analysis successfully provided information about the provenance of propolis, although, depending on the plant resin sources, this information is likely to come from pollen.
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Há poucos estudos polínicos de méis de abelha mandaçaia (Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lepeletier) no Brasil e, principalmente, no Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Os dados melissopalinológicos são necessários para se conhecer interações das abelhas com a biota vegetal e trazer fidedignidade aos produtos de origem apícola e meliponícola. Visando avaliar as fontes florais de abelha mandaçaia ao longo de um ano e meio no RS, coletaram-se 46 amostras de méis em duas áreas da região leste do estado (26 amostras do município de Canoas e 20 amostras de Cachoeirinha). A análise polínica foi realizada com a metodologia melissopalinológica (material a fresco) sem uso de acetólise. Foram identificados 34 tipos polínicos, sobretudo de plantas arbóreas nativas. As amostras foram reunidas em cinco grupos pelo CONISS, denominadas Manda-1, Manda-2, Manda-3, Manda-4 e Manda-5. Os principais tipos polínicos com altas porcentagens nas amostras foram: tipo Myrcia, Eucalyptus sp., Mimosa bimucronata, Schinus terebenthifolia e Solanum sisymbriifolium. A porcentagem polínica das plantas variou entre os meses e estações do ano. A ocorrência de plantas nativas, especialmente arbóreas, próximo aos meliponários é importante, já que o pólen delas predominou nos espectros polínicos dos méis de mandaçaia na região leste do Rio Grande do Sul.
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Essa obra trata de um grande esforço sobre as plantas da Caatinga usadas pelas abelhas Apis mellifera. Além de protocolos de como preparar material para fazer análise palinológica (estudo do grão de pólen) à fresco...que permite essas análises sem uso produtos químicos laboratoriais, como é o caso da acetólise. Catálogo contempla 100 plantas da Caatinga.
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Adequações à legislação ambiental vigente e o maior reconhecimento da importância das áreas com mata nativa têm contribuído para o reflorestamento no estado de São Paulo. A possibilidade de se explorar economicamente essas áreas pelo produtor rural pode contribuir para a manutenção da cobertura vegetal e sua expansão. A sinergia existente entre as abelhas e as florestas nativas garante o equilíbrio dos ecossistemas pelos serviços ambientais realizados por esses importantes agentes polinizadores. Sendo assim, o cultivo de colônias de abelhas em áreas com florestas nativas estabelecidas ou recém implantadas pode contribuir com a conservação do meio ambiente, com a vantagem de ter baixo custo de implantação. Considerando-se o momento de definição das espécies que irão compor a flora de uma área a ser reflorestada, é importante utilizar espécies que forneçam matéria prima em abundância para que as abelhas possam elaborar os produtos apícolas. Com grande abundância e diversidade de plantas apícolas é possível produzir variados produtos ao longo dos 12 meses do ano. Para que isso ocorra, é fundamental conhecer o potencial apícola da flora, visando definir o número de colmeias a serem instaladas e o tipo de manejo a ser adotado. O presente capítulo tem como objetivo estimular a geração de renda em áreas reflorestadas em São Paulo, a partir da exploração racional de colmeias de abelhas, com destaque para as espécies vegetais que podem ser utilizadas em projetos de reflorestamento.
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A análise polínica de produtos da colmeia é uma das linhas de atuação do Grupo de Pesquisa Insecta desde o ano 2000, com resultados promissores e inserindo na pesquisa científica relacionada à melissopalinologia alunos de iniciação científica, mestrado e doutorado, além de pós-doutorandos. O grupo conta com publicação em periódicos nacionais e internacionais, onde são divulgados resultados de estudos de fontes poliníferas e nectaríferas exploradas por abelhas sociais como Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 e Meliponini (Melipona spp.), sendo a identificação da flora explorada por estas abelhas, realizada em sua maioria por meio de estudos palinológico dos produtos da colmeia. O livro “Atlas polínico de plantas de interesse apícola/meliponícola para o Recôncavo Baiano” é resultado de um amplo espectro de estudos relacionados à análise polínica de produtos da colmeia de abelhas sociais realizado pelos autores, especialmente os projetos de iniciação cientifica e mestrado desenvolvidos no período de 2005 a 2009, que contribuíram de forma expressiva para coleção de referências de grãos de pólen (palinoteca) de plantas de interesse apícola e meliponícola do Núcleo de Estudo dos Insetos da Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia. A apresentação da descrição polínica de táxons das principais famílias apontadas como potenciais para apicultura e meliponicultura na região do Recôncavo Baiano, contribuirá na identificação de tipos polínicos em produtos da colmeia em estudos futuros. Comumente, estudos relacionados à identificação da flora visitada pela abelha a partir de seus produtos (mel, pólen apícola, samburá, própolis e geoprópolis) utilizam a análise polínica. Porém, a identificação dos tipos polínicos (conjunto de grãos pólen) é um trabalho que requer treinamento, conhecimento e dedicação, sendo necessário consultas a palinoteca (coleção de grão pólen de referências), atlas e catálogos polínicos, bem como outras publicações pertinentes. Nesse sentido, este livro apresenta um conteúdo relevante e que pode auxiliar muitos trabalhos de pesquisa, contribuindo para identificação da flora visitada por abelhas sociais, especialmente no Recôncavo Baiano.10.35587/brj.ed.0000891
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In Brazil, Sapindales is represented by six families Anacardiaceae, Burseraceae, Meliaceae, Rutaceae, Sapindaceae, and Simaroubaceae. Palynological studies on its members are varied, including few detailed descriptions as well as palynotaxonomic analyses or brief diagnoses in floras or ecological, paleopalynological, or melissopalynological investigations. This study aimed to compile the main pollen characters of Sapindales families occurring in Brazil through a thorough review of the literature including national or foreign taxa and to present new information on the palynology of representatives of the families. Acetolyzed pollen grains from representatives of the six families were also analyzed, measured, and illustrated under light microscope. Unacetolyzed pollen grains were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. An evolutionary approach to pollen morphology in Sapindales was carried out by mapping and reconstructing the ancestral states of the pollen grains attributes on the existing phylogenetic proposal. Phylogenetic trees were generated by parsimony analysis and used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of each character state of the analyzed taxa. This study represents a first attempt to establish the phylogeny of the order Sapindales using pollen data. Future palynological studies should focus on species not included in the current phylogenetic tree as well as phylogenetic relationships within the nine Sapindales families.
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Poor pollination is a common cause of low fruit set in cherry orchards, and a high population of pollinators is therefore required. Osmia lignaria, the blue orchard bee, has been used successfully in Utah as an alternative to honey bees.
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Apis dorsata is one of the important honeybee species in tropical and subtropical regions that forage on various plants including herbs, grasses, forest trees and plantation trees. However, information on the favored bee plants in terms of identity and quantity is lacking. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the pollen sources of Apis dorsata and (2) to develop a pollen atlas for selected plants foraged by Apis dorsata. Pollen cell samples from twenty one different colonies of Apis dorsata combs were collected, identified and quantified based on several reference materials. A total of twelve different pollen sources were identified in the samples. Pollen sizes were 8-9x38-40 jam, comprising five different shape classes. Inaperturate granulum pollen grains were observed in Ceiba pentandra and Garcinia hombroniana while rugulate grains were found in Mangifera indica. Pantoporate, syncolpate and pericolpate pollen grains with reticulum to microreticulate exine patterns occurred in Acacia auriculiformis, Melaleuca cajuputi and Ixora congesta. Elaeis guineensis showed trichotomosulcate pollen grains with a microreticulate sexine. Pantocolpate areola pollen was found mMimosa pudica while granulum pollen was observed in Cocos nucifera. Anacardium occidentale showed a disulcate grain with a striate sexine pattern. Pollen grains of Averrhoa carambola and Dimocarpus longan were tricolpate and fossulate perforate to striate perforate. This work shows that Elaeis guineensis and Mimosa pudica were the most commonly found pollen sources. A pollen atlas of selected plants foraged by Apis dorsata in the tropical rainforest ofMarang, Terengganu was developed.
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Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colony collapse disorder (CCD) that appeared in 2005/2006 still lingers in many parts of the world. Here we show that sub-lethal exposure of neonicotinoids, imidacloprid or clothianidin, affected the winterization of healthy colonies that subsequently leads to CCD. We found honey bees in both control and neonicotinoid-treated groups progressed almost identically through the summer and fall seasons and observed no acute morbidity or mortality in either group until the end of winter. Bees from six of the twelve neonicotinoid-treated colonies had abandoned their hives, and were eventually dead with symptoms resembling CCD. However, we observed a complete opposite phenomenon in the control colonies in which instead of abandonment, they were re-populated quickly with new emerging bees. Only one of the six control colonies was lost due to Nosema-like infection. The observations from this study may help to elucidate the mechanisms by which sub-lethal neonicotinoids exposure caused honey bees to vanish from their hives.