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Child Ragpickers in India and Violation of Their Human Rights

Authors:
  • ICFAI University, Raipur

Abstract

Rag pickers play an important role in our society. We spread our garbage in the society and these rag pickers use to collect it and send it for recycling. We all know about Child trafficking, child labor and Sexual exploitation of child. Nevertheless, ever we tried to rescue any child who uses to collect these rags from dumping area. Such kind of work done by the children’s, amount to violation of their basic human rights. Even though if they were not force by anyone to do such kinds of work but still it will amount to violation of their basic human right. Poverty and illiteracy is one of most common reason behind any kind of violation of human right. In India, any kind of child labors is deal under Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986. Here, in this Act certain Occupation and Process are mentioned in the Schedule Part – A and Part - B which is hazardous for the children below 14 years and these includes "rag picking and scavenging" also. In M.C. Mehta Vs State of Tamil Nadu case, the Honorable Supreme Court of India has given certain directions regarding the manner in which children working in hazardous occupations should be shift from such working conditions and they should be rehabilitate. In addition, the conditions of the children who work in the non-hazardous occupations should be improved and regulated by proper law. For "Swach Bharat Abhiyan" not only we have to clean our society but for development of our country, we have to spread literacy also so that our future generation should literate one.
European Researcher, 2015, Vol.(91), Is. 2
155
Copyright © 2015 by Academic Publishing House Researcher
Published in the Russian Federation
European Researcher
Has been issued since 2010.
ISSN 2219-8229
E-ISSN 2224-0136
Vol. 91, Is. 2, pp. 155-162, 2015
DOI: 10.13187/er.2015.91.155
www.erjournal.ru
Legal sciences
Юридические науки
UDC 34
Child Ragpickers in India and Violation of Their Human Rights
Pyali Chatterjee
Disha Law College, Raipur, Chattisgarh, India
E-mail: pyali.chatterjee@gmail.com
Abstract
Rag pickers play an important role in our society. We spread our garbage in the society and
these rag pickers use to collect it and send it for recycling. We all know about Child trafficking,
child labor and Sexual exploitation of child. Nevertheless, ever we tried to rescue any child who
uses to collect these rags from dumping area. Such kind of work done by the children‘s, amount to
violation of their basic human rights. Even though if they were not force by anyone to do such
kinds of work but still it will amount to violation of their basic human right. Poverty and illiteracy is
one of most common reason behind any kind of violation of human right. In India, any kind of
child labors is deal under Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986. Here, in
this Act certain Occupation and Process are mentioned in the Schedule Part A and Part - B which
is hazardous for the children below 14 years and these includes "rag picking and scavenging" also.
In M.C. Mehta Vs State of Tamil Nadu case, the Honorable Supreme Court of India has given
certain directions regarding the manner in which children working in hazardous occupations
should be shift from such working conditions and they should be rehabilitate. In addition, the
conditions of the children who work in the non-hazardous occupations should be improved and
regulated by proper law. For "Swach Bharat Abhiyan" not only we have to clean our society but for
development of our country, we have to spread literacy also so that our future generation should
literate one.
Keywords: Child Labor; Rag pickers; Poverty; Illiteracy; Population; Human rights.
Introduction
According to Freelegal Dictionary*, Rag Pickers means, ―a person who picks up rags and
other waste material from the streets, refuse heaps, etc., for a livelihood‖.
International Labour Organization (ILO) in their recent study estimate that near about 215
millions children in the entire world were involved in some kind of child labor, and more than half
* http://www.thefreedictionary.com/ragpickers
Vinika Koul, Waste of a childhood - poverty stricken child rag pickers, TERRA URBAN
https://terraurban.wordpress.com/2012/06/13/waste-of-a-childhood-poverty-stricken-child-rag-pickers/
European Researcher, 2015, Vol.(91), Is. 2
156
of them are even found in their most terrible conditions. It was estimated, that India alone has
17 million child workers the highest child labor worker in the world. Moreover, UNICEF* in its
report mentioned that about 12 percent of children in India aged 5-14 are engaged in child labor
activities, including Rag Picking. Even in a recent study, it is found that in Raipur and Patna 20 %
of the rag pickers, belong from age group 5-14 years and in most of the dumping site of India
especially in Mumbai and New Delhi etc, children‘s use to work as rag pickers.
In today‘s world Child labor and Child trafficking has become one of the major social and
legal concerns in the entire world. Most of the children start working at a very young age and these
children were expose to various forms of exploitation and abuse. Many of these children were
engaged in various occupations and processes, which are not dangerous and hazardous for their
health but for their life also. Important point to be discussed here is that, it is not possible to
calculate the actual number of children working in such process and occupation, as many people
employed small children in illegal way, as we know that it is a punishable offence to employed
children below 18 years in such occupation and process. Under the Child Labour (Prohibition and
Regulation) Act 1986, Children are prohibited to work as rag picking, employed in the carpet
weaving, match and fireworks, glass and bangles, lock making, match, slate/pencils, diamond
cutting and polishing industries, abattoirs/slaughter houses etc.
It is also found that the main reason behind child labor is unemployment, poverty, illiteracy
and population growth. Above all, the one and only reason behind child labor is the poverty, which
is the only reason behind any form of exploitation as well as crime.
If we consider Charles Darwin theory, “Survival of the fittest", in cases of Child Rag pickers,
then we will find that rag picking becomes the source of earning for the poor children off course for
their survival. As money is an important thing to survive in this world.
Child ragpickers
Society has not only failed to protect the children from becoming child rag pickers also, they
were not treated well.
Most of the poor children, between five to eighteen years of age, earn their livelihood by
polishing shoes, washing cars, finding parking spaces, rag picking, etc and their average earnings
vary between Rs 15 to 20 per day depending on the nature of the works. And these children can be
found easily near bus stand, railway station, movie hall etc fighting for their survival.
Sometimes children were forced to become rag pickers by the rag purchaser and some time
the children choose to become rag pickers by themselves as independent. And from here the
journey of their exploitation, engagement with criminals, drug addiction began, which is neither
good for their development and nor for the society where they are living.
Any form of child labor should be abolished as these not only harm the children but its harm
the entire society. A country will develop only when its future generation will be safe and protected.
And for this purpose certain basic rights are granted to all children i.e. decent living; right to
education; right to protection against exploitation. But it has been found that there rights were
violated due to many reason. And only because of these reason Rag picking and Scavenging was
included in Part-B of the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986 as one of the
Prohibited processes for employment of children who have not completed 14 years of age to protect
children from exploitation.
Reason behind child rag picker
Many authors, researchers, NGO etc have done great work to find out the reason behind
children working as rag pickers. And the most common reason found by them behind it, is poverty.
The following are some work done by the researcher on the issue of Child rag pickers and their
findings-
Kamat, in his article ―Ragpickers of India‖ states that most of the Rag picking Children
are extremely poor, illiterate and belong to rural immigrant families and most of their families are
in need of extra income from these young children.
* Ibid.
http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/8069/7/07_chapter%202.pdf
European Researcher, 2015, Vol.(91), Is. 2
157
Again Tripathy and Pradhan* in their work ―Girl Child in India‖ explains the problem of
child labour which includes both male and female and their condition in a hazardous occupation of
rag picking in Berhampur town (Orissa). In their work they mentions about the family size of girl
child rag pickers. The girl child rag pickers family size is more than 6 persons.
Balkumar etal had done study on the family of child rag pickers of Nepal in their work
"Nepal -Situation of Child Rag pickers: A Rapid Assessment". The authors conducted a survey of
300 children ages between 5-17 years who worked as rag pickers in six major municipalities.
The average family size of child rag pickers is 5.4 members, which is slightly higher than the
national average of 5.1. The girl rag pickers usually come from larger families (6.3) than boys do
(5.2). This assessment shows that the large majority 60.3 % of children interviewed have both
parents (own or biological father or mother) only few are belonging to families with a step parent
or single parent or no parents. In their assessment, three indicators were chosen to determine the
economic background of the child rag pickers. Over 2/3 of respondents (68 %) indicated that their
family owned home. The majority of child rag pickers families (54.7 %) do not own farmland.
The main occupation among families of rag pickers is of a non-agricultural nature, which may
include small business, mechanical work etc and the money paid for it is also very low. And some of
the family members worked as rag picking.
Again in another study conducted by Mita Bhadrain "Girl Child in Indian Society" reveals
that most of the girl who worked as rag pickers belongs to very poor families and they are illiterate
also. Their parents are mostly landless labours or small land labours and most of them live in
slums. Most of the children are belonging to Schedule Caste and Schedule Tribes families.
Even Kshitij§ (A Project for the Child Rag pickers of Bhandewari Dumping Ground,
Nagpur) reveals that rag pickers are sizable proportion among the poorest workers in the urban
informal economy. The traditional beggars have opted for rag picking. Most of the rag pickers are
extremely poor, illiterate and belong to immigrant families. Their families need supplementary
income.
Rag pickers**: Scavengers at a Different Graveyard, A Documentary on The Rag pickers of
Mumbai explore the life of rag pickers and found that majority of them are below the poverty line
and socio-economic strata and live a difficult life.
Rai†† in his work "Child Labour: A Reality" done research on the family of rag pickers
children and found that most of the children lived in urban areas and they are mostly street
children and work in the streets. And most of them had no relation with their families.
Again in another survey conducted by a NGO‡‡ in 1990 "Agape, Bangalore" found that rag
pickers come from violent and broken homes, perhaps second marriages where the mother has
been burnt to death with kerosene, the father demanding further dowry from the wife's family to
feed his drunkenness. The children from the first marriage not wanted, beating, starvation and
deprivation of security and love are daily occurrences. Some are forced from a very young age to
work and earn money, a few are influenced by peer pressure, and some are orphans fighting a daily
battle to survive. Boys unable to tolerate the daily beatings and dysfunctional family life run away
and become street children. Girls are forced to look after younger family members even have to beg
for their own survival and that of the younger child. They are treated as slaves in the home and
many are forced into prostitution at a very early age.
Again Singh§§ in his book "Child Labour" has broadly categorized Rag pickers into
3 groups, based on their contact with their families: i) Children who will be living with their
families. Whether it be on the street, in slums, or waste land or abandoned building etc. but would
be spending a lot of time working or hanging about on the streets. It has been estimated that this
will be the largest of the three categories. ii) Children who would be living and working on the
* Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
§ Ibid.
** Ibid.
†† Ibid.
‡‡ Ibid.
§§ Ibid.
European Researcher, 2015, Vol.(91), Is. 2
158
street with occasional family contacts. These children, sometimes, send money to their families.
They consider the streets as their homes. iii) Children who would be having no family contact what
so ever. These children will be either orphaned abandoned or neglected by, or strange from their
families. Psychologically, they are deprived of love, affection and sympathy of a family.
Again Rita Pannikka* in her Study conduct on Street Girls in the Union Territory of Delhi
mentioned about her case study of street girl children. In that case study she found that, the
youngest of four daughters of a family in which the father work as a rag picker and his girl too picks
up rags and adds family income. Due to their family circumstances she is forced to do work which
she does not personally like. From a favorite child she has become a working child without any
protest, toiling for nearly 16-18 hours a day. Recently she has been engaged to an illiterate farmer
boy and expects that her future husband would help her in her sorrows. She wishes to have a house
of her own with good environments where she would not see rags. She also wants to learn tailoring
to wear new clothes of her liking.
Thus, from the above discussion we found that large family, neglected children, poverty, low
income of family etc are the main reason for the small children to work as rag pickers, whether
willingly or not it does not matter.
As it is, clear now that Poverty is the root cause of child labour, and education is the only
fundamental to overcome the poverty trap. As Oxfam states, ―Education is the best escape route
from a life of poverty. Education brings with it improved health, the chance of prosperity, and hope
for the future. It opens the door to a life of dignity and independence.‖ It is important for the
parents to understand the importance of primary education which is the only way to break the cycle
of poverty. And only because of this reason free primary education was included under Article 26 of
the Universal declaration of Human Rights. Even Principle 7 of the UN Declaration on the Rights
of the Child, and Article 28 and 29 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, states that
primary education should be universal and free for all.
Guidelines of supreme court
In the M.C. Mehta Vs State of Tamil Nadu AIR 1991 S.C. 417, the Honorable
Supreme Court of India has given certain directions regarding the manner in which children
working in hazardous occupations should be shift from such working conditions and they should
be rehabilitate. In addition, the conditions of the children who work in the non-hazardous
occupations should be improved and regulated by proper law. The following are the direction:
1. Withdrawal of children working in hazardous industries and ensuring their education in
appropriate institutions;
2. Contribution of Rs 20,000 per child to be paid by the offending employers of children to a
welfare fund to be established for this purpose;
3. Employment to one adult member of the family of the child so withdrawn from work, and
if that is not possible, a contribution of Rs 5,000 to the welfare fund to be made by the State
Government;
4. Financial assistance to the families of the children so withdrawn to be paid out of the
interest earnings on the corpus of Rs 20,000/25,000 deposited in the welfare fund, as long as the
child is actually sent to school;
5. Regulating hours of work for children working in non-hazardous occupations so that their
working hours do not exceed six hours per day, and education for at least two hours is ensured.
Indian law for the protection of child rights
To protect children below 18 years from exploitation and child labor, the Indian
Government has formed many constitutional provisions for their protection as well
as for their development. The following are the constitutional provisions:
* Ibid.
Eve Naftalin, Report For Span On The Human Rights‘ Violations Of The Ragpicker Children,
http://www.streetchildrenresources.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/human-rights-violations-
ragpickers.pdf
Jyoti Angrish, CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA-PRESENT SCENARIO, Legal India
http://www.legalindia.in/child-labour-in-india-present-scenario/
European Researcher, 2015, Vol.(91), Is. 2
159
1. According Article 24*, of Indian Constitution, “No child below the age of 14 years shall be
employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment‖.
2. Again under Article 39( e) of Indian Constitution, ―The State shall in particular, directs its
policy towards securing- that the health and strength of workers, men and women and the tender
age of the children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter
vocations unsuited to their age or strength”.
3. Again under Article 39(f) of Indian Constitution, ―The State shall in particular, directs its
policy towards securing- that Children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a
healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are
protected against exploitations and against moral and material abandon.
4. Again under Article 45§ of Indian Constitution, ―The state shall endeavor to provide, early
childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of 6 years”.
5. Again under Article 21 A** of Indian Constitution, “The state shall provide free and
compulsory education to all children between the ages of six to 14 years in such a manner as the
state may by law determine.”
6. Again under Article 51 A (k)†† of Indian Constitution, “Who is a parent or guardian to
provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, ward between the age of
six and14years”.
Apart from the above constitutional provision, the following are the other laws framed for the
development and protection of the children in India‡‡:-
1. The Apprentices Act, 1861
2. The Child Labour Act, 1986
3. The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929
4. The Children (pledging of labour) Act, 1929
5. Children Act, 1960
6. The Guardian and Wards Act, 1890
7. The Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 1956
8. The Hindu Adoption and Maintence Act, 1956
9. The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956
10. Juvenile Justice Act, 1986
11. The Orphanages and other charitable Homes (supervision and control) Act, 1960
12. Probation of offenders Act, 1958
13. Reformatory schools Act, 1857
14. The women‘s and children‘s institutions (licensing) Act, 1956
15. The young persons (Harmful publications) Act, 1956
When these small children unable to avail their basic rights granted by Indian Constitution as
well as in The Universal Declaration of Human, will amount to be a violation of their Human
rights.
Gurupad swamy committee§§
The Government of India in the year 1979 formed the first committee called Gurupad Swamy
Committee to study the issue of child labor and to suggest measures to handel it. The Committee
examined the problem in detail and made some recommendations. It observed that as long as
poverty continued, it would be difficult to eliminate child labor and hence, any attempt to abolish it
through legal recourse would not be a practical solution. The Committee felt that in such
circumstances, the only alternative left was to ban child labor in hazardous areas, to regulate, and
to improve the conditions of work in such areas. It recommended that a multiple policy approach
* O.P. RAI, THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA,40 (Orient Publishing Company, 2nd ed. 2014)
Ibid. at 49-50
Ibid.
§ Ibid. at 50
** Ibid. 37
†† Ibid at 52
‡‡ Supra note. 15
§§ Supra note. 15
European Researcher, 2015, Vol.(91), Is. 2
160
was required in dealing with the problems of working children. Based on the recommendations of
Gurupad Swamy Committee, The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 was passed.
And after this Act, employment of children below the age of 14 was prohibited in factories, mines
and in other forms of hazardous employment, and regulates the working conditions of children in
other employment. Sec.3 of this Act imposes prohibition on employment of children in dhabas,
restaurants, hotels, motels, tea shops, resorts, spas or other recreational centre‘s etc. Recently,
child labour is totally banned by the government with free education and other facilities to the child
upto the age of 14.
International law on child labour*
Article 25 (2) Of UN declaration of Human Rights, says that children required special care
and assistance. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights under Articles 23 and 24
and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights under Article 10 made
provisions for the care and protection of the child. However, the International Labour Organization
(ILO) provides universal standards and guidelines. The ILO, is a specialized agency of the UN, aims
to provide guidance and standards for labour practices around the world. The International
Convention and other international instruments, which deal with the subject of child labour are as
follows:
1. Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989
2. Worst Form of Child Labour Convention, 1999; and
3. Worst Form of Child Labour Recommendation
The International Program on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) is a global program
launched by the International Labour Organization in December 1991. India was the first country
to join it in 1992 when it signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with ILO. The MOU that
expired on 31.12.1996 has been extended from time to time and has recently been extended till 31st
December, 2006. The long-term objective of IPEC is to contribute to the effective abolition of child
labour. IPEC-India has, during the period 1992-2002, supported over 165 Action Programs.
The Govt. of India and the US Department of Labour have also initiated a US$ 40 million
project aimed at eliminating child labour in 10 hazardous sectors across 21 districts in five States
namely, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and NCT of Delhi. This project
was popularly known as INDUS and was implemented by ILO. An estimate of 80,000 children will
be withdrawn and rehabilitated through this project. Also Support activities will be provided to
10,000 families of former child workers. On 20 November 2009, the global community celebrates
the 20th anniversary of the adoption by the United Nations General Assembly of the Convention on
the Rights of the Child, the unique document that sets international standards for the care,
treatment and protection of all individuals below age 18.
Health issue related to child rag pickers
From the above discussion we have find that most of the rag pickers belongs to poor society.
And they were also illiterate. It is found that while collecting rags sometimes they are subjected to
chemical poisons and infections. The rag pickers are very prone to diseases like tuberculosis and
cancer due to their exposure to hazardous materials. The children sometime while collecting rags
from the garbage dumps comes in contact with rags which are toxic, corrosive, flammable,
explosive, etc. And these substances are hazardous in nature. Bio- Medical waste, such as needles,
syringes, old medicines and soiled bandages etc are very dangerous to the children who pick them
up from the garbage dumps and can cause HEPATITIS A and B, Skin Diseases etc. And some of
hazardous waste is so poisonous, that even by touching them it can get into the body and cause
cancer or other diseases e.g. rat poison and pesticides. But this kind of waste generally contain
picture of a skull on the container which is a sign of danger, but children due to their illiteracy fail
to understand the meaning of such danger sign in the container suffered serious health issue while
collecting rags from such areas.
* Ibid.
K.L.Kamat, Rag Pickers of India,
http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/people/rag_pickers/
European Researcher, 2015, Vol.(91), Is. 2
161
Here one thing which is necessary to mention here that Right to health is a basic human
right. But what about the rights of this children, who works as rag pickers.
Suggestion
Government of India has already framed so many laws for the protection of the Child that no
other new law is required. But what is required is the implication of the existing laws in strict ways
for the benefit of the poor children. Following are some suggestion:
NGO can play an important role by rehabiliting the street children who work as rag picker.
And also by spreading awareness of the various Government scheme for the poor children like mid-
day meal in school etc.
Government should establish more shelter home for the poor children so that they can be
prevented from becoming child labour and also from any other crime, which will harm their moral
and over all development.
Media can also spread messages through various shows about the government scheme for
the poor families.
Growing Population is also one of the main causes for the increase of the poverty.
So population growth is also to be checked by explaining the advantages of family planning
methods.
Government should bring more employment scheme for the families belonging from the
backward classes.
Even NGO can spread awareness among the child rag pickers about the various impact of
hazardous rags to their health by educating them and also making them aware by defining the
meaning of various symbols drawn in the plastics bags, container e.g. Biomedical Hazards
Symbols.
Government can provide employment opportunity by promoting small scale industries etc
in villages.
Government should try to improve the Government Schools condition of the villages.
Government should provide vocational training to street children for their betterment.
Free medical camp should be organized for the street children's and children who are living
in slums areas for their regular check up.
Families living in slum areas should be informed about the various schemes of the
government relating to their development as well as for their children with the help of the NGO and
media.
Government should formed strong machinery to promote and facilitate all the government
polices to the poor people and the children.
And lastly but not the least anybody who find any children working as a child labour should
immediately call the child help line number 1098 for the protection of the children.
IF I TRY, THEN ONLY OTHERS WILL TRY TO SAVE THE FUTURE GENERATION OF
INDIA
Conclusion
The development of the country depends on the development of the future generation i.e.
children. If the children did not develop physically and mentally in that case the growth of the
country will also decrease. Government should try to bring new schemes for the development of the
inferior part of the society. So that, no children will become rag pickers or become the victim of
trafficking etc. Once the poverty from the society erased, then automatically all problems related to
this will be finished. So, for the benefit of the country, poverty should be eradicated first. As this is
one of the major causes behind any crime, exploitation etc. And then only the Country will
progress.
References
1. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/ragpickers
2. Vinika Koul, Waste of a childhood- poverty stricken child rag pickers, TERRA URBAN
https://terraurban.wordpress.com/2012/06/13/waste-of-a-childhood-poverty-stricken-child-
rag-pickers/
3. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/8069/7/07_chapter%202.pdf
European Researcher, 2015, Vol.(91), Is. 2
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a. Eve Naftalin, Report For Span On The Human Rights’ Violations Of The Ragpicker
Children,http://www.streetchildrenresources.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/human- rights-
violations-ragpickers.pdf Jyoti Angrish, CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA-PRESENT SCENARIO, Legal
India http://www.legalindia.in/child-labour-in-india-present-scenario/ O.P. RAI, THE
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA, 40 (Orient Publishing Company, 2nd ed. 2014) K.L.Kamat, Rag
Pickers of India, http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/people/rag_pickers/
4. Mamta Rao (2013). Constitutional Law 268-269. Abhinandan Malik, 1st ed.
5. V.N.Shukla, ‖Constitution of India‖, (Lucknow: Eastern law Company, 2006)
6. RAG PICKERS IN INDIA: NOT PAINTING A GOOD PICTURE, Millennium India
Education Foundation, http://mief.in/rag-pickers-in-india-not-painting-a-good-picture/
7. Michael Simon, INDIA’S SLUMDOG RAGPICKERS, July 6, 2010
8. http://1800recycling.com/
9. PRIMARY EDUCATION FOR RAGPICKER`S CHILDREN, IPCA http://www.
ipcaworld. co.in /pages.aspx?pYkq5e%2FuIrDbfyyJw2LK2w%3D%3D
10. A FAMILY'S LIFE RAG-PICKING IN NEW DELHI: 'I DO NOT WANT MY CHILDREN
TO DIE IN THIS TRASH', Fox News, December 01, 2014
11. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2014/12/01/family-life-rag-picking-in-new-delhi-do-
not-want-my-children-to-die-in-this/
12. The problems of street children, i.india
13. http://www.i-indiaonline.com/sc_crisis_theproblem.htm
14. Shishir Srivastava, RAGPICKERS IN MODERN DAY INDIA, merinews, June 2, 2008
15. http://www.merinews.com/article/rag-pickers-in-modern-day-india/135059.shtml
... Moreover, even less research is directed towards informal workers who work under dealers and wholesalers: they earn admittedly more and more stable incomes than pickers ($5-6 a day), but still work in hazardous environments, live in urban slums, and remain in abject poverty. Nonetheless, despite the overall limitations of literature, scholarly interest in both health hazards of waste picking and child labor within recycling has sustained over time, producing numerous descriptive studies of lives of child pickers as well as pickers' health outcomes in major cities like Pune, Mumbai, and Bangalore (Hunt 1996, Dalal & Rahman & Jansson 2008, Chatterjee 2015. ...
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The Rag Pickers are an integral part of our society. They are coming under the bottom line of the informal worker's category in the 93% workforce in our Country. The Rag Pickers' work and life experiences are a snapshot of the economy of the Informal sector. In this migrant Rag pickers, a micro-level study in Chennai Metropolitan City mainly traverses the working and living conditions of selected sample respondents. One of the interesting observations of this present work is the sample respondent of migrant rag pickers are not having savings as well as investment on any one economic thing. This work identified and concentrated the nature of working areas and their livelihood opportunities of Rag Pickers in and around Chennai region and also an extensive and intensive piece of work with regard to poverty affected group of workers, in order to overcome this societal problem the present work has been enlightened to attract of the interest of planners and policymakers to promulgate the suitable strategies for the uplift their life.
  • Vinika Koul
Vinika Koul, Waste of a childhood-poverty stricken child rag pickers, TERRA URBAN https://terraurban.wordpress.com/2012/06/13/waste-of-a-childhood-poverty-stricken-childrag-pickers/ 3. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/8069/7/07_chapter%202.pdf a. Eve Naftalin, Report For Span On The Human Rights' Violations Of The Ragpicker Children,http://www.streetchildrenresources.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/human-rightsviolations-ragpickers.pdf Jyoti Angrish, CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA-PRESENT SCENARIO, Legal India http://www.legalindia.in/child-labour-in-india-present-scenario/ O.P. RAI, THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA, 40 (Orient Publishing Company, 2 nd ed. 2014) K.L.Kamat, Rag Pickers of India, http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/people/rag_pickers/ 4. Mamta Rao (2013). Constitutional Law 268-269. Abhinandan Malik, 1st ed.
  • V N Shukla
V.N.Shukla, ‖Constitution of India‖, (Lucknow: Eastern law Company, 2006)