Scope and challenges of Internet of Things :An
Emerging Technological Innovation
KIIT School of Management
Pritish Kumar Sinha
First Year MBA Student
KIIT School of Management
Abstract — Internet of Things is creating an environment of
convergence in the society. This technology environment brings
a paradigm shift in our professional and personal life. As a
connected environment, IoT adds customer value and loyalty.
Today, IoT is being implemented everywhere which is of human
concern like smart city, smart environment, security, smart
business process, smart agriculture, home automation and
healthcare. This article discusses the evolution, advantages,
Architectural design choices, Internet and Mobile Applications
of Internet of Things(IoT). It is quite interesting and challenging
to develop and implement web applications using open sourcing
hardware and software. Authors discuss issues like invasion of
privacy, governance, security, regulatory issues, migration to
IPv6 and standardization Issues as barriers to adoption of IoTs.
Authors also highlighted future research directions of Internet of
Keywords- IoT, Architectural Design Choices, Internet and
Mobile Applications, IPv6, Standardization Issues, Invasion of
Privacy, Regulatory Issues, Standardization Issues
IoT is a concept where an object is assigned to an IP
address and through that IP address we make that device
identifiable on internet. A Team of International
Telecommunications Union defined IoT as a global
infrastructure for the information society, enabling advanced
services by interconnecting (physical and virtual) things based
on existing and evolving interoperable information and
communication technologies. The network can be a
combination of people-things, things-things and people-people.
It happens only because of the conjugation of various
technologies such as wireless communication, Micro
Electromechanical System that includes wireless sensor,
networks and control system. The most important elite
presence of cloud space on Internet is shaping the architecture
of IoT in a feasible and rational form. Certainly, what IoT
can do is beyond imagination. It connects plethora of
heterogeneous object .
Adoption of Internet as a technological innovation has
brought a revolution in our society. It was the time in late
1950s, USSR launched sputnik which is the first effort of
human civilization to step into outer space. Subsequently,
Advanced Research Project Agency(ARPA) was born in US
for carrying out missile and space research to complete with
USSR. Then National Aeronautics and Space Administration
was also established in USA. Activities of NASA reoriented
the focus of ARPA for computer science research and
information processing research in USA. ARPA connected
few Universities of USA through ARPANET which is a
multiple-site computer network. This ARPANET
subsequently developed as internet.
Internet can be classified as The Internet of Documents, The
Internet of Commerce, The Internet of Applications, The
Internet of People and The Internet of Things.
documents comprises e-libraries and document of
webpages.The Internet of Commerce deals with e-commerce-
banking and online tradings.Interent of Applications confine
to web 2.x and Internet of Things is associated with connected
devices and machines.
It was the year 1991, Mark Weiser of PARC published an
article on future of ubiquitous computing in Scientific
American. He explained through his article on the importance
of interconnection of wires, infra red and radio waves.
Further, the entire world was amazed when Bob Metcalfe's
article appeared in Communications Week. Quentin Stafford-
Fraser and Paul Jardetzky at the University of Cambridge used
a camera in Trojan Room lab and wrote a server program to
capture images of the pot every few seconds to monitor the
coffee level so that researchers would know when coffee was
available. Subsequently, Siemens developed a GSM data
module “M1” for machine to machine industry application.
During January,1999, founder of Sun Microsystems described
in a presentation at world economic forum “device-device
communications” as one the six webs that he envisions.
However, Kelvin Ashton, Co Founder of Auto-ID centre at
MIT, informed for the first time to the World Community
“Internet of Things” by
referring to the link between RFID
technology in supply chain of P&G and Internet. During the
last year of twentieth century, LG announced the introduction
of first internet connected refrigerator. Duing 2002, Chana R.
Schoenberger described in Forbes magazine as " Stores have
eyes. Now they’re getting brains. Soon tiny wireless chips
stuck on shampoo bottles and jeans will track all that you
wear and buy". Same year, a product “Ambient Orb” was
introduced which started displaying Dow Jones, personal
finance and weather information based on Internet data and
changes its color based on the dynamic parameters.
Subsequently, U.S. company BigBelly Solar made smart trash
cans that gets their power from the sun and communicate their
status over the Internet. Subsequently, G Lawton explained
through his article that M2M is based on the idea that a
machine has more value when it is networked and that the
network becomes more valuable as more machines are
During 2005,Wi-Fi enabled rabbit " Nabaztag" was created
that collects information from the Internet and alerts the user
verbally about important messages and news. Same year ,
UN's International Telecommunication Union also published a
report on Internet of Things. A global collaborative forum
IPSO Alliance was founded during 2008 which promoted the
use of IP in connected devices.Subequently during 2010,
ZigBee Alliance and IPv6 Forum form strategic partnership
with IPSO with an objective to increase the rate of adoption
of IP Networked smart objects. During 2011, Nest Labs
introduced a Nest Learning Thermostat which could use
sensor algorithms, machine learning and cloud computing to
understand the home owner's behaviours and preferences and
adjusts the temperature up or down accordingly. IPv6 and
Google glass were launched during 2012. IPv6 provides
virtually unlimited IP addresses for devices to connect to the
Internet. Google Glass is a pair of glasses with an optical
head-mounted display that displays information collected
wirelessly according to the user's specification. During
2013,AllSeen Alliance was formed by Qualcomm along with
other technology firms. Objective of the Alliance was to
develop an open framework to enable the Internet of
Things. Many technical news sites termed year 2013 as the
Year of "Big Data". Similarly, year 2014 is termed as year of
"Internet of Things" and year 2015 will be termed as "Internet
of Things That Matter". During 2014, Google Glass goes on
sale to the general public for 1500 Dollars. During same year,
Chip maker Intel and other high tech firms established “Open
Interconnect Consortium”. This consortium is a competing
group to AllSeen Alliance.
III. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN CHOICES
IOT-A project proposed an Architectural Reference
Model(ARM) that support design choices with a common
understanding. The project is popularly termed as European
Lighthouse Integrated Project which supports interoperability.
ARM also defines guidelines for designing protocols,
algorithms and interfaces.
B. Wireless Sensor Network
IP and non IP based technology solutions are used for
Wireless Sensor Networks.Zigbee,Z-wave,Insteon and
Wavevenis are non IP Based solution. IPv6 and 6LoWPAN
are IP based solutions of WSN. However, presence of
many proprietary and non proprietary Wireless network, it is
difficult for a cohesive integration of WSN with fast growing
Internet Technologies. In the current context, world is moving
towards IP based solutions which are based on open standard
like IPv6 and 6LoWPAN.
European Union project of SENSEI is an initiative during
2010 on IoT architecture and initiatives. The primary
objective of this project is to design a network of the future by
integrating the physical and digital world. This project deploy
and interconnect sensors, network nodes and actuators
everywhere. SENSEI does not differentiate physical object
and virtual object.
IV. INTERNET AND MOBILE APPLICATIONS IN IoT
Internet and web application in IoTs are generally facilitated
by open sourcing hardware and software. It is quite interesting
and challenging to develop and implement applications for
IoTs.One can easily develop applications using Python, html5,
C and Node.js. As communication in IoT is both ways, a
real time web through TCP/IP. IoT enabled applications can
control light,sensors and other electrical and electronics
appliances.Customers provide their feedback and input before
Mobile application development. Usually,a prototype is
prepared and tested in real time for IoT enabled mobile
applications. In the current context, competition is happening
between Android and iOS mobiles. Evothing Studio is a
popular tool for developping IOT enabled mobile application
development.This studio consists of a client,a workbench,
example applications and native plugins.This platform is
freely avaliable in Internet and open source based.
V. SCOPE AND BENEFITS OF IoT
It’s the technology of today which is touching and
transforming the every aspect of our real life. IOT has given a
concept of Machine to-Machine (M2M) communication.
Companies like Microsoft and SAP are implementing strategy
to capitalize on the Internet of Things so that you can just stop
your business and start making it thrive. IOT is going to have
huge impact on home automation and building automation
system where every convenience will be taken care of by the
interconnected devices on IOT. It is also deployed on large
scale for example in Songdo , South Africa , the first of its
own kind fully equipped and wired smart city is near to
completion ( known as Ubiquitous City). With the personal
electronics good connected to Internet will enable us to
“author” our lives. In medical science field, IOT has given a
privilege to devices and system to sense for coming disease
and to prevent it ,for eg: It can make a person healthier with
wearables that can predict heart attack and cardiovascular
strokes. As per a report of Thesunsdaily, consumers will start
initiating the usage of IoT in a better way during 2015 and
onwards compared to past usage. It is expected that IoT
products with interoperable capability will dominate the
market. Awareness of IoT products is also vital for market
penetration along with security features. Even very few
Americans are aware of the usage of these products. As per a
study of Consumer Electronics Association and Parks
Associates found only 10% of the household in USA fully
understood the usage of these products. Many interesting IoT
products like automatic door locks, Wi-Fi connected ceiling
fans, light swirches,LED bulbs, smart watches,3-D printers
and smart clothes will be popular among consumers.MyBrain
Technology in France has developed "Melomind". This EEG
Headset can measure a human's brain waves and adjust music
in a Smartphone app as they change. This product can be used
as a digital meditation aid. A smart baby pacifier can measure
the temperature of a baby and transmit the same to the
Smartphone of parents.
IoT is proved to be an emerging technological innovation.
In the current context, it is now possible that an helmet of a
two wheeler can interact with a car for avoiding collision.
Connected toothbrush can now monitor and make one's
experience pleasurable .A three dimensional senor of the
electric brush can connect with Smartphone apps and provide
real time feedback to the person .
Many scopes will be created for technology companies to
release offerings as per the behaviour of consumers. It may so
happen that Netflix can know when a person is sad and alone
by monitoring the smart watch, smart thermostat and in-home
camera. Subsequently, Netflix may offer a movie to change
the mood. In a consumer electronics show in Los Vegas,
Samsung informed that the company would invest 100 million
dollar for progress of IoT. The company will also promote an
open technology ecosystem for facilitating the usage of IoT.
VI. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
IoT is not free from challenges. Issues of
providing power to billions of sensors and standardization
issues can slow down the progress of Internet of Things. Due
to absence of a generic governance, there are many confusions
and inconsistencies. Absence of a universal numbering
system is a bane for providing a true IoT environment. In the
current context, systems like EPC Global and ubiquitous ID
systems are used to address the issue of global ID systems.
There is a challenge of implementing common security
protocols. So, interoperability is an issue while interacting
among IoT objects developed by different manufacturers.
Lack of Support of the regulatory bodies, Government
agencies and ubiquitous connectivity are barriers to device
integration. Even quality and cost of receiving data from
multiple sources are still with issues. Companies like
IBM,Cisco, GE and Amazon have decided to add Swarm and
fog layers. This effort reduces the difficulty of connecting
IoT devices and also the cost of integrating these devices.
Though, Applications like home monitoring systems,
wearable devices along with consumer oriented products are
the centre of attention of Internet of Things domain,
Entreprise IT professionals are still with issues to apply these
concepts from the context of generating business values.
IoT Consortium conducted a research on the adoption of
IoT during 2015.As per the study, there is a concern for
security and privacy. Though IoT is moving towards mass
adoption, the manufacturers should provide cost effective,
intuitive and simple solutions for connected Home. Major
attack on IoT may also be possible on IoT devices which were
not connected before. IoTs  will derive optimum
satisfaction from the customers once the firm's policies to
capture and usage of personal data is quite clear and
accountability is there in case of violation of policies. At the
same time, customers should be provided with user friendly
data management tools for easy management and viewing of
A real change can happen if we can develop a system to
evaluate the massive data generated in IoT Environment and
acts on these data in real time.IoT is now in early stage of
adoption. Primary obstacles to adoption are awareness of
IoTs among consumers, features and benefits of these
ETSI has formed an internal M2M taskforce for M2M
systems and sensor networks. Objective of this taskforce is to
develop and maintain end-to-end archiecture, integration of
sensor network, enhancement of security, quality of service
and to strengthen interface of hardware devices. Similarly,
IPv6, 6LoWPANs and ROLL networks are evolved for
standardization. CASAGARAS model is evolved for
standards, regulations, and global coding systems of Radio
Frequency Identification. The group is also putting effort in
development of ubiquitous computing, Networks and usage of
RFID network in socio economic components. This model is
quite open and facilitates RFID to interface with physical
world with ease. W3C model is facilitating coordination
among machines, solves security and privacy issues and
resolves different addressing schemes in Peer to Peer
Networks. The network technologies like WiFi, WiMAX,
Bluetooth, ZigBee, Cellular Packet Radios are evolving
rapidly. W3C is trying to mix these technologies for adding
network effect. ANEC and BUEC models are concerned for
Openness, Interoperability, Trust, Security, safety, reliability,
protection of fundamental rights and respect for European
values. ANEC and BUEC are European consumer groups.
Once a generic standard is developed, it will be quite easy to
locate and trace IoT Objects .The standardization will also
facilitate interoperability among IoT objects.
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
The ongoing research in the field of IoT and its
implementation in full or partial manner will definitely
improve the quality of life of human civilization .Today IOT
is being implemented everywhere which is of human
concern like Smart city, smart environment, security and
emergencies, smart business process, smart agriculture,
domestic and home automation and healthcare. Search engine
giant Google has already taken initiatives to mark its
presence in the field of IoT. It is trying to transform the IoT by
putting their enthral concept of making the physical URL as
future of IoT instead of apps which we commonly use. In this
process, the browser will display a beacon style broadcast in
which the nearby object will appear which will be present in
the near proximity and can be communicated directly with the
help of URL’s according to the preference of users and signal
strength of the smart object. On the other hand IBM and
Libelium has launched 6LoWPAN development platform for
IoT which will enable every single sensor and devices to
connect directly to the Internet using the new IPv6 protocols.
China and many European countries are investing high
amount of their GDP in making smart architectural
infrastructure for e.g. Smart Roads and Bridges for the safety
of people. In this smart bridges if corrosion or if any
malfunction happens it will communicate directly so that
repair work can be done at the proper time. Smart agriculture
is also in research, Waspmote has taken this initiative for
optimum productivity using the sensor networks to maintain
monitoring capacity of crop cultivation throughout the
production cycle. For example, depending on soil humidity
Waspmote can send a message (through the ZigBee network
or by SMS) to automatically switch off watering or to change
water supply, thus contributing towards efficient water
Over 50 million sensors and smart watches, smart meters and
smart phones, washing machines, fridges, wearable devices
and many more things will be connected over internet by 2020.
The Internet of Things, Industrial Internet and Internet of
Everything in 2015 will morph into the Internet of
Anything.IoA will input all data in an unified way with a
common software "ecosystem". Though many IT companies
are now busy in addressing interoperability issues and the
challenge of controlling hardware devices through software,
the world community is now moving towards creating
opportunity to live in a "connected life" environment.
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About the Authors
Prof Jyotiranjan Hota is a BE in Computer Science and Engg from
NIT Rourkela and holds a PGDBM degree from Xavier Institute of
Management, Bhubaneswar.Currently,He is working as an Associate
Professor and Area Chairperson of IT and TOM wing at KIIT
School of Management Bhubaneswar. His research interest lies in
Technology Adoption,Analytics,ERP and Banking Technology. He
has discharged the role of Advisory Board Member, Technical
Committee member, Program Committee member, Publicity Chair,
Session Chair and Reviewers of International Conferences in India
Pritish Kumar Sinha is a BTech in Information Technology from
Punjab Technical University and a first year MBA Student of KIIT
School of Management,Bhubaneswar.His area of interest lies in
Artificial Intelligence, Web Technology, e-commerce and Enterprise