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"Ant'Phipoda", the biodiversity reference centre for Antarctic Amphipoda: A tool for developing and managing Antarctic marine biodiversitY information

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"Ant'Phipoda", the biodiversity reference centre for Antarctic Amphipoda: A tool for developing and managing Antarctic marine biodiversitY information

Abstract

Increasing our limited knowledge of the marine biodiversity and distributing efficiently the biodiversity information are presently high priorities in the cont€xt of global change and ..biodiversity crisis". In the fiamework of the scAR EASIZ programme, ANT'PHIPODA' a ..Reference Centre for Antarctic Marine Biodiversity" devoted to amphipod crustaceans is being established. It will be comprised of comprehensive databases on taxonomy, distribution and bio-ecology ofthe Antarctic amphipods and ofextensive reference collections and documentation. It is supportid by the .'Antarctic imphipodologist Network" engaged in the taxonomic revision of the antai.tic fauna and the production oi ne* conn.ntional and electronic identification guides. It will contribute to monitor biodiversity in selected EASIZ reference sites'
POLSKIE ARCHIWUM HYDROBIOLOGII
(Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol.) 47 3-44 657-669 2000
Tssrre,{
2ool
Claude
De Broyerl*, Paul-Andrd
Duchesnel, Charles
Vander
Frangoise
Van Roozendaell, Krzysztof
Ja2dzewski2**,
Jacek
Camille Jamarr, Gauthier
Chapellel, Patrick
Daubyr, Thierry
Fabienne
NYssenr,
Henri
Robertr
,l
LlnOen-,
Siciriski2,
Kuykenl,
"Ant'Phipoda", the biodiversity reference
centre for Antarctic
Amphipoda: A tool for developing and managing Antarctic
marine biodiversitY information
rLaboratoire
de Carcinotogie,
Institut
Royal
des Sciences
Naturelles
de
Belgique,
29 rue
Vautier,
B-l 000
Brussels,
Belgium'
'
*
debroyer@kbinirsnb'be
2Laboratory
ofPolar Biology and
oceanobiology,
University ofL6d2,12l16ul. S.
Banacha,
90-23'1
t-6d2, Poland,
2*
*
WiM@biol. uni.
lodz.Pl
Abstract
Increasing our limited knowledge of the marine biodiversity and distributing efficiently the
biodiversity information are presently high priorities in the cont€xt of global change and
..biodiversity crisis". In the fiamework of the scAR EASIZ programme, ANT'PHIPODA' a
..Reference Centre for Antarctic Marine Biodiversity" devoted to amphipod crustaceans
is being
established.
It will be comprised of comprehensive
databases
on taxonomy, distribution and
bio-ecology
ofthe Antarctic amphipods
and ofextensive reference
collections
and documentation.
It
is supportid by the .'Antarctic imphipodologist Network" engaged
in the taxonomic revision of the
antai.tic fauna and the production oi ne* conn.ntional and electronic identification guides. It will
contribute
to monitor
biodiversity
in selected
EASIZ reference
sites'
Key words: Amphipoda, biodiversity, taxonomic databases,
reference
collections, Antarctic
* The issue,
edired by: Krzysztof Ja2dZewski
(L6dz, Poland),
Adam Baldinger.(Cambridge'
MA, USA),
Charles
Oliver Coleman
(Berlin, Germany),
Claude
De Broyer (Brussels, Belgium), Michael F Gable
(Willit"*ti", Cl USA); Wanda Plaiti jiieraklion, Greece) publishes the._proceedings
of the Xth
intemational
Colloquium
on Amphipod4 Heraklion,
Crete,
Greece,
lG21 April 2000.
658 C.
DeBroyer
1. Introduction
Increasing our limited knowledge of the marine biodiversity and distributing efficiently the
biodiversity information are presently high priorities in the context of global climate change and
biodiversity erosion. Following the implementation
of the Convention on Biological Diversity,
important science initiatives have been taken at a global level to address these issues, in
particular the DIVERSITAS programme. This wide ranging umbrella programme aims at
providing accurate
scientific information and predictive models of the status of biodiversity and
sustainability of the use of the Earth's biotic resources,
and at building a world-wide capacity for
the science of biodiversity (Diversitas 1996; http://www.icsu.org/diversitas).
It comprises different
sub-programmes dealing with the inventory and description of biodiversity, in particular the
"Systematics
Agenda 2000: Charting the Biosphere"
programme,
a global initiative to discover,
describe and classify the world's species
(SA 2000 1994) or the "species 2000" programme,
creating an index of names of all known species
(http://www.sp2000.org).
A related initiative
especially focusing on marine biodiversity is the "Census of Marine Life", an intemational
research programme assessing and explaining the biodiversity, distribution and abundance
of marine organisms throughout the World's oceans (Oceanography 1999;
http://core.ssc.erc.msstate.edu/censhome).
In addition, the "Global Biodiversity Information
Facility" initiative was taken by OECD to become "an interoperable network of biodiversity
databases
and information technology tools that will enable users to navigate and put to use the
world's vast quantities of biodiversity information to produce national economic, environmental
and social benefits" (http://gbif.org).
In the Southern Ocean, the SCAR programme "Ecology of the Antarctic Sea-Ice Zone"
(EASIZ) focuses on the "Antarctic Coastal and Shelf Ecosystem" (ACSE), the most complex and
productive ecosystem, the richest in biodiversity and presumably
the most sensitive to global
environmental change. To improve our understanding of the structure and dynamics of the
ACSE, the EASIZ programme pays a particular attention to features that make the biology of
this ice-dominated ecosystem so distinctive, and to understanding seasonal, inter-annual, and
long-term changes (SCAR 1994). In this framework, to accurately assess the biodiversity of the
Southern Ocean and to investigate its role in the ACSE in the "Global Change" perspective, it
appears that more comprehensive
and more easily accessible biodiversity information on
Antarctic marine fauna is crucially needed,
as well as more taxonomical expertise and tools,
especially for highly diverse
and taxonomically
difficult groups.
The peracarid crustaceans
(Mysidacea, Amphipoda, Isopoda, Tanaidacea,
Cumacea) constitute
such a group, being by far the most speciose group in the Antarctic seas, and probably one of
the most diverse in terms of life styles, trophic types, habitats and size spectra
(De Broyer,
Ja2d2ewski 1996; Table I). Amphipods in particular,
with more than 850 spp., are ubiquitous in
the Southem Ocean and have successfully occupied very diverse niches among the benthos, the
water column and the undersurface of the sea ice, as well as various symbiotic habitats (De
Broyer et a/., in press; Dauby et al. 2001). On the other hand, they offer a main trophic
resource to a number of Antarctic bottom and demersal fishes, bottom invertebrates, squids and
seabirds
(e.g. Dearborn, 1977; Green, Burton, 1987; Ainley et al., 1992; Kock, 1992;
McClintock, 1994:
Cherel, Kooyman, 1998;
Ja?d|ewski, Konopacka, 1999;
Olaso et al,,
2000; Dauby er a/., in press).
Altough the high diversity of the Antarctic amphipods is well established, the level of
knowledge of their taxonomy, distribution and ecology is still insufficient in particular to develop
comprehensive identification tools and to allow accurate
studies of patterns, processes
and role of
biodiversity in ecological programmes related to global change.
On the other hand, as emphasised
by Russell and Lewis Smith (1993), collections
of
preserved organisms made since the earliest expeditions to the Antarctic and the sub-Antarctic
have been the basis of our understanding
of the biodiversity of individual areas as well as of
Antarctic amphipod
biodiversity
centre
ecosystems in general. Systematic studies of these collections have elucidated patterns of
evolution, dispersal and community structure in these southern polar biomes. These collections
continue to provide a basis for taxonomic validation of pure and applied research in Antarctica.
Reference collections are also becoming increasingly important as biological baselines to provide
a reference state against which subsequent changes, due to possible effects of global
"greenhouse" warming, ozone
depletion or global pollution, may be compared'
This whote context prompted the initiative to develop a "Reference Centre for Antarctic
Marine Biodiversity" devoted to amphipods combining databases and reference collections and to
undertake the taxonomic revision of the Antarctic amphipod fauna by an international group of
specialists:
the "Antarctic Amphipodologist
Network".
Table I. Species richness of peracarid Crustacea
compared to other highly speciose
macrobenthic
groups in the Southern
Ocean
(updated
from De Broyer, Ja2d2ewski 1996) (B = benthic and
benthopelagic
species;
P = pelagic species)
2. Material and methods
Database development
The conception of the relational database
was divided into four steps. The first step was the
definition of the database
objectives l.e. to integrate all relevant information on the biodiversity
of the Southern Ocean amphipods. The analysis of the logical database structure was the second
step. It aimed at identif,ing the different kinds of data that could be included in the objectives
defined at the first step and at building a model, a logical scheme, that fits, as closely as
possible,
to the real investigations
undertaken.
This model also includes the relationships between
the different aspects
of the investigations.
The third step consisted in designing the forms, the queries and the reports that help the
database users to encode, visualize and treat the data. Behind the design of these three main
objects, the point was to identify precisely all the programming processes
and procedures that
answer to the flows of actions the application could encounter.
659
Southern Ocean Antarctic region
nnlv Sources
Porifera 300 Barthel,
in Sieg,
Wagele,1990
Bryozoa 3s0 Ristedt,
in Sieg, Wiigele,1990
Mollusca 870 ,Hain,
in Sieg, Wiieele,1990
Polychaeta ss8
(800?)
"+650
"' "'Knox,
Lowryj977
'" Paiva. Wlisele
in Sies,
Waeele,l996
Crustacea Peracarida 1528+ 1049
Mysidacea 59 37 Brandt et al. 1998
Amphipoda 828
(B+P)
1).fi (R\ 539
(B+P)
d70 rB'l De Broyer,
Rauschert,
1999
Isopoda 427+ 365 Brandt.l
999
Tanaidacea L27 {t schmidt,
1999
Blazewicz-Paszkowvcz.
unpubl.
Cumacea 87 56 Miihlenhardt-Siegel,
1999
660 C.
De
Broyer
The final step consisted in the technical and practical construction of what was designed in
the previous steps.
To perform'the analyses
and relational schemes
two case tools were used: the software
DBMain developed
by the Computer Science
Institute of the University of Namur (Anonymous'
l99g) (http://www.infJo.fundp.ac.be/-dbm/informations.html)
and the software Msio 5@
(from the
Visio Corporation;
http://www.microsoft
.com).
The ionceptual framework for this application came from several sources, in particular
Fortuner (1993) and
the following:
. a giitish comprehensive
model of biodiversity database,
called "Recorder2000"
(Copp.
l9e8).
. The itudy of the Committee on Computerization and Netlvorking from the Association of
Systematics
Collections
(ASC, 1992).
. T-he
project .,Data
Faune
Flore" from the University of Mons (Barbier, 1998).
. The Global Biodiversity Assessment
recommendations
(olivieri et al., 1995).
. The Systematics
Agenda
2000 recommendations
(SA2000' 1994)'
. The BIOTA program (Colwell, 1996).
. The Platypus program (http://www.ento.csiro'au/platypus/platypus'html)'
. The ..Information
Model for Biological collections" (Berendsohn et al. 1996)'
Developed in MS-Access 97, the databases
should move in the future to a Oracle data server
and should be made accessible
through the Internet for querying or for encoding by authorized
contributors
as well.
Collections and documentation
The bulk of the collections came from the Belgica Antarctic Expedition and other Belgian
Antarctic expeditions or Belgian participation in diverse Antarctic campaigns' Important
additional material was provided by several national or international Antarctic programmes and
by the specialists involved in the "Antarctic Amphipodologist Network". The documents
collection was based
on the rich holdings of the IRScNB central library and the reprints library
of the Laboratory of Carcinology supplemented
by the documentation accumulated by the
Belgian National Committee on Antarctic Research.
3. Results and discussion: the "ANT'PHIPODA" reference centre
In the framework of the Belgian National Research Programme on the
Antarctic, ANT'PHIPODA, a 'iReference Centre for Antarctic Marine
Biodiversity" devoted to amphipod crustaceans, is being developed at the
Institut Royal des Sciences
Naturelles de Belgique (IRScNB) in Brussels.
ANT'pHIpODA is comprised on one hand of an integrated bioinformatics
application including comprehensive databases
on taxonomy, distribution and
bio-ecology of Anta;ctic amphipod species and on the other hand of extensive
reference collections and specialised
documentation.
It will operate
with the collaboration of a network of contributing specialist-s,
the "Antarciic Amphipodologist Network", and will in retum assist the "AAN"
in the taxonomicaf rwision -of the Antarctic amphipod fauna, the analysis and
synthesis of its geographical and bathymetrical distribution and bio-ecological
tiaits and to thJ development of highly needed identification guides and an
expert system for identification.
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Objectives
The precise objectives of the ANT'PHIPODA project are:
. To develop new synthetic tools for describing and analyzing the
biodiversity of Southern Ocean crustaceans
and its spatial and temporal
variability.
. To develop operational reference collections.
. To exploit these tools in order
to:
. assess
the species
and taxonomic diversity of amphipods.
. facilitate the revision of the Antarctic amphipod fauna and contribute
to the preparation of identification guides and an expert system for
identification.
. allow analysis and synthesis of patterns of geographic and bathymetric
distribution and develop GIS for mapping distribution.
. allow analysis and synthesis of patterns of selected bio-ecological
traits.
. To contribute to monitoring Antarctic marine biodiversity in selected
reference sites in the Global Change perspective.
. To promote international collaboration and cooperative work in Antarctic
marine biodiversity studies.
. To stimulate the creation of a "SCAR Information Network on Marine
Biodiversity" by the SCAR EASIZ programme.
. To conffibute to the relevant worldwide biodiversity programmes
(Diversitas,
SA 2000, GBIF initiative,...).
Organisation
The ANT'PHIPODA databases
The biodiversity information on Antarctic amphipods is widely scattered
among many different data sources. To try "to orgarize the biodiversity
information in the most efficient way to face the needs of science and society"
(SA 2000, 1994), comprehensive databases
are developed to manage relevant
taxonomic, distributional, ecological and biological data. To cover the different
types of information, the databases
are logically organised in six different
modules linked together: the bibliography module, the field data module, the
collections module, the taxonomic module, the distribution module and the
bio-ecologic
al data
module.
l. the bibliography database contains more than 10 000 references
about: 1.
taxonomy, ecology, biology, distribution, biogeography, ethology, collecting
techniques, of amphipod crustaceans, other peracarid crustaceans and
benthos in general; 2. ecology and biodiversity of Antarctic benthos; 3.
Antarctic marine biology and biodiversity.
The bibliography database
(BibCarcino) is structured in a way to allow four
main uses:
. an edit mode for encoding references:
Antarctic amphipod biodiversity centre 663
. a search mode for looking for references through an extensive set of
specific queries;
. in impoit mode for importing digitized references from diverse sources
(such as the Zoological Record);
. i code mode lis$nf a[ the keylvords (or "bibcodes") used to organise the
information.
Integration of the BibCarcino database, initially developed independently,
into thi general ANT'PHIPODA database is in progress. Connection of the
bibliograp-hy module to other library databases
via the local intranet or via
InternEt to itto* update, queries and importation is under study.
The five othei modules (field dita, collections, taxonomy, distribution,
bio-ecology) are integrated in the 'Mista 2" database
within ANT'PHIPODA'
Mista 2 ii-an i"tegptea tool to manage
data about collecting trips and expedifions,
geographic localitIes, collecting staiions, related environmental characteristics,
Ioft""tiog gears, catches,
collections, species
names and identification status,
taxa
and taxonomy, persons
and institutions,
and related
images
(Fig' 2)'
Z. the ni6^ data module gathers all available information about collecting
stations arid collected bulk material and specimens
from all IRSoNB missions in
the Southern Ocean or provided by foreign expeditions and the Antarctic
Amphipodologist Network researchers.
ior'ur "*[ndftio, the related following items can be.
encoded:
the expedition
category (".L. bV region: Antarctic and sub-Antarctic, Deep Sea, ...);_ th9
co[Jctors ' iirvolved; - the geographical zones investigated, the related
documentation (expedition reporti, itation lists, resulting publications' " '); the
categories
of collected material.
F"or
a catch the following items are encoded:
the collecting gear; the precise
location (with latitude, l6ngitude and depth); the. collectors; the catch
quantitativl daa; the 'enviro-nmental characleristics (e.g. bottom type an{
structure, bottom algae, detailed sediment analysis); the gross material
(taxonomic groups) collected.
3. the ci1eciio,ns module deals with the inventory of crustacean
and benthos
specimens
and unidentified lots from the Southem ocean kept at IRScNB. It stores
the taxa identifications for each catch at the species or higher level (and keeps
record of each identification step), and the information about the type of storage,
preservative,
slides,
bottles,
container,...or
aquarium
for living individuals'
4. the taxonomic module has the role of taxonomic and nomenclatural
reference. It contains a comprehensive and critical list of all benthic,
supralitoral and pelagic amphipods of the Southern ocean (Gammaridea,
Caprellidea and ftypeiiidea), -with, per species, fu11 synonymy and the most
,.complete" possibll- bibliography (updated
from Lowry, Bullock 1976 and
De Broyei, Juzdz"*ski-1t93). If also contains the hierarchical systematic
classificaiion
used, based
for the Gammaridea
on Barnard, Karaman (1991)
and subsequent
revisions, for the Caprellidea
on Laubitz (1993) and for the
Hyperiidea
on Vinogradov et al' (1996).
664 C. DeBroyer
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Antarctic amphipod biodiversity centre 665
5. the distribution module manages
spatial information. It contarns:
. the published
or unpublished
species
collecting
records;
. the names (valid or variants) of the main geographic and bathymetric
features or localities with geographic coordinates.
Names and coordinates
are imported from relevant geographical gazetteers, in particular the
. the localities hierarchy
(e.g.
sea,
etc...);
. the list of "geocodes" (i.e. a coded
distributions of taxa by three digit
Southem
Ocean
(Fig. 3)
. the "biogeographical codes" according to the
scheme
of Hedgpeth (1969; 1970).
Linked to this distribution module, interactive
biogeography, ecology or conservation purposes
relevant GIS tools and mapping programmes.
SCAR Composite
(http
://www.pnra.
iVSCAR-
features are imported;
Gazetteer of Antarctica
GAZE), from which all marine and coastal
inlet in bay, bay in island or coast, island in
geographic system that rePorts
numbers) devised by Barnard,
widely accepted zonation
mapping applications for
will be developed
using
Barnard (1983)
and
revised
by De Broyer, Ja2dZewski
(1993) for the
Fig. 3. Map of the Southern
Ocean
"geocodes"
areas
(modified from Barnard, Barnard 1983)
C.
De Broyer
6. the bio-ecology module.
This module will record as far as
ecological and biological information,
history traits, size or trophic type.
possible for each species,
the relevant
like life style, habitat, mobility, life
Reference
collections
Collections comprise the first ever organisms collected on Antarctic bottoms
by the historical Belgica Antarctic Expedition in 1897-1899 (De Broyer, Kuyken,
in press). First hand amphipod material from the Southern Ocean was also
collected through the IRSoNB participation in diverse Antarctic and sub-Antarctic
campaigns in Queen Maud Land, the Eastern
Weddell Sea, King George Island
(souttr Shetland
Islands),
Kerguelen Islands and the Magellanic region.
Material for study or depository was provided by colleagues from the
Antarctic Amphipodologist Network and from several Antarctic programmes or
institutions from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, France, Germany, The Netherlands,
New Zealand, Poland, Russia, UK and US. The Smithsonian Institution
(Washington) in particular contributed by providing to the AAN extensive study
material of amphipods from numerous
US Antarctic campaigns.
Relying on IRScNB curating experience
and facilities within the Department
of Inverte6rates"
the Reference Centre hosts about 400 000 specimens of Antarctic
Crustacea,
mostly Amphipoda.
Only about 20% of the material is well studied and fully catalogued at the
speciej level. The bulk of the material is sorted and catalogued
to family level.
Sorting, identification and digitization proceed. Ready usefulness of the
collection was already shown for instance
by some recent revision work on the
family Stegocephalidae
(Berge et al. 2000;
Berge,
in press a, b).
Collection iatalogue and related biodiversity information on amphipod
species
will be made accessible
in the future via the Web.
Specialized
documentation
In addition to the specimen collection, a specialised library comprising a
large part of the documents registered in the bibliographical database and an
extensive Antarctic map collection are developed with the co-operation of the
Belgian National Committee on Antarctic Research.
On the other hand. as an aid to identification and as a sourc€ material for future
digitalization a large iconographic card file (4000 cards) comprising
illisfations and desiriptions of all Antarctic and sub-Antarctic species and species
belonging.to the genera
occurring in the Southem Ocean has been developed.
Network of contributing
specialists
The reference centre will on one hand assist and on the other hand benefit
from contributions from a network of specialists: the "Antarctic
Antarctic
amphipod
biodiversity
centre 667
Amphipodologist Network" including H.G. aA.1d1es (Hamburg),
D, 'Beilan-Sairtini
(Marseille), J. Berge (Tromsoe), C.O.Coleman
(Berlin),
K. Conlan (ottawa), c, De Broyer (Brussels),
coordinator,
E. Hendrycks
(Ottawa), K. JaZdZewski
(t-6d|), T. Krapp-Schickel
(Bonn), J'K' Lowry
iSydneyl, M. Rauschert
(Berlin), I. Takeuchi (Matsuyama),
M.H. Thurston
(Southampton).
The group'is involved
in the taxonomical
revision
of the Antarctic
amphipod
fauna, Ihe 'synthesis of its bio-ecological traits and geographical and
bathymetrical
distribution.
Identification tools
The "Antarctic Amphipodologist Network" is engaged,
with the support of
the Reference Centre, in -the elaboration of new, highly needed, identification
guides of the Antarctic amphipod fauna, either conventional (i.e. the Amphipod
iolumes in the series "synopses of the Antarctic Benthos") or elecffonic i.e. a
CD-ROM and Web based interactive identification system with integration of
digitized imagery.
-Regularly updated information can be seen on the ANT'PHIPODA Website:
http ://www.
naturalsciences.
neVgeneral/s
ections/amphi
Acknowledgments
The ANT'pHIPODA
project
is supported
by the Belgian
Federal
Offrce
for Scientific,
Technical
and Cultural
Affairs under
the Belgian
Scientific
Research
Programme
on the
Antarctic, Phase
IV and also partly sponsored
by the Polish State Committee
for Scientific
Research (in 1998/99)
within the framework
of Polish-Belgian
scientific cooperation
(Project
no. 0064).
4. References
Ainley, D.G.,
Ribic, C.A.,
Fraser,
W.R. 1992. Does
prey
preference affect
habitat
choice
in
Antarctic
seabirds?
Mar Ecol.
Prog. Ser,90'207-221.
Anonymous 1998. Analyse de I'information et conception
de bases
de donndes,
Sdminaires
DB-MAIN et DB-MAIN/Objectif
l. FUNDR
Namur,
200
pp.
ASC 1992. An information
model
for Biological
Collections
(Draft) [The
ASC Model].
Report
of
the Biological Collections.
Data Standards
Workshop,
August 18-24, 1992. Association
of
Systematic Collections, Committee on Computerization and Networking'
gopher://kaw.keil.ukans.edu:70ll
I /standards/asc.
garbier,
Y. 1998. Nouvelles
mdthodes
de gestion des
donndes
biogdographiques
avec application
aux Hymdnoptdres
sphdcides
de France,
de Belgique
et des
rdgions limitrophes
(Hymenoptera,
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Chapter
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The accurate assessment of Antarctic biodiversity, the understanding of its ecofunctional role and the requirements for its conservation are recognized current priorities in the context of global environmental change and accelerating loss of biodiversity. Fauna and flora inventories, taxonomy and classification, processes driving the origin, maintenance and change of biodiversity, roles of biodiversity in ecosystem functioning, conservation, restoration, sustainable use and monitoring of biodiversity are on the biodiversity research agenda over the world. On this background, a review of some recent developments in marine biodiversity research in the Antarctic is made using the Crustacea as a model group. Emphasis is put on some general patterns of biodiversity and biogeography. The up-to-date coverage of surveys of the Antarctic marine fauna is tentatively assessed as well as the needs in taxonomic expertise and tools, information technology resources and expanding exploratory surveys.
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Amphipod crustaceans constituted 30% of the food biomass from the stomachs of Antarctic tern (Sternavittata) captured at King George Island in three consecutive seasons. Five species of lysianassoid amphipods occurred in the material: Abyssorchomeneplebs,Cheirimedonfemoratus,Hippomedonkergueleni,Waldeckiaobesa and Orchomenellarotundifrons. All these amphipods are known as necrophages inhabiting the upper and middle sublittoral of western Antarctic. They are commonly caught in masses in baited traps, but never occur in the littoral zone or in tidal pools. It is suggested that the source of the amphipod diet of S.vittata are seal or penguin carcasses and dead fish brought by waves to the tidal zone, serving as a bait for necrophagous amphipod crustaceans when submerged in water before stranding on the beach.
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Cumacea (Crustacea) were collected during the 'Joint Magellan' expedition in November 1994, by means of an epibenthic sledge from RV 'Victor Hensen'. The cumaceans were well represented, the second abundant order after the amphipods, among the other Peracarida in depth ranges between 25 and 665 m. Twenty-five species were found in the samples mainly from the Beagle Channel, nine of them were already known for this region. 14 species were recorded for the first time for this region, 2 of them were known from the northern Argentinian coast and one from Antarctica. The most important in terms of species richness and abundance were the families Diastylidae, Nannastacidae and Leuconidae. In the Beagle Channel an almost completely different cumacean fauna was found compared to the Subantarctic Islands, the Antarctic Peninsula and eastern Antarctic (Prydz Bay) regions. Comparison of published data and the present results show moderate overlap in the cumacean fauna at the species level between the periantarctic South Georgian shelf/Antarctic Peninsula (48%). Little correspondence at the species level was found between Antarctica/Subantarctica Kerguelen (14%), South Georgia/Kerguelen (13%) and Magellan/Antarctica (11%). Interestingly, the Magellan region and South Georgia show very little species overlap (5%). It is concluded that the Antarctic shelf regions were not colonized from the Magellan region via the Scotia Arc.
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Antarctic echinoderms appear to be adapted to a benthic environment characterized by long-term low availability of food resources. As predicted for a low-energy system, most echinoderms appear to expend little energy on feeding. Moreover, they are primarily generalists which opportunistically display scavenging or necrophagous feeding habits. Others exploit detrital material, or ingest microorganisms from the benthos and plankton. Those echinoderms which are feeding specialists exploit prey which are low in energy content yet extremely abundant, such as sponges. Even though individuals may have a low energy intake, it is likely that echinoderms play a significant role in energy transfer in antarctic benthos, as they are among the most abundant of epibenthic macroinvertebrate groups in shallow antarctic seas.
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Detailed study of the mouthparts and general body morphology shows that the Caprellidea can be subdivided into eight taxa, herein considered families, with common unique or uniquely combined characters. Basic differences between the two evolutionary lines within the suborder indicate that Caprellidea is probably polyphyletic, with the caprogammarid line descended from a corphioidean ancestor and the paracercopid line possibly related to the Leucothoidea.
Distribution of selected 35'S latitude
  • J W Hedgpeth
Hedgpeth, J.W. 1969. Distribution of selected 35'S latitude. Antarctic Map Folio Series, Geographical Society.
Marine biogeography of the Antarctic regions
  • J W Hedgpeth
Hedgpeth, J.W. 1970. Marine biogeography of the Antarctic regions. Antarctic Ecologt, 1,97-104, New York, Academic Press. In: Holdgate, M.W. [Ed.]
Necrophagous lysianassoid Amphipoda in the diet of Antarctic tem at King George Island, Antarctica' Antarctic Sci., I l' 316121' A comparison between the Southem Ocean and the North Polar Ocean with special reference to the Amphipoda and Polychaeta
  • K Jazdzewski
  • Konopacka
  • G A Knox
  • J K Lowry
JaZdZewski, K., Konopacka A. 1999. Necrophagous lysianassoid Amphipoda in the diet of Antarctic tem at King George Island, Antarctica' Antarctic Sci., I l' 316121' Knox, G.A., Lowry, J.K. 1977. A comparison between the Southem Ocean and the North Polar Ocean with special reference to the Amphipoda and Polychaeta. Proceedings SCOMSCAR Polar Oceans Conference, Montreal, 1974: 423462' Kock, K.H. 1992. Antarcticfish andfisheries. Cantbtidge, University Press.