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L’image de la ville de Detroit à travers le People Mover : ville perçue ou ville pratiquée ?



Principale ville de l’Etat du Michigan, Detroit est fondee en 1701 et devient une ville portuaire importante. Des la fin du XIXe siecle, elle est la ville de l’industrie automobile americaine et connait une croissance fulgurante. Puis, tout au long du XXe siecle, la croissance demographique est en forme de pyramide : elle a autant progresse les cinquante premieres annees qu’elle a chute les cinquante suivantes. En 2007, Detroit est la onzieme ville des Etats-Unis avec 920 000 habitants mais d...
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Longtemps célébrée comme un vestige des temps passés, l’agriculture en ville s’impose aujourd’hui à l’agenda des politiques, qu’il s’agisse des documents d’urbanisme (schémas de cohérence territoriale (SCOT), schémas régionaux de cohérence écologique (SRCE), plans locaux d’urbanisme (PLU)) ou des contractualisations locales (voir, par exemple, le Schéma directeur de la région Île-de-France (SDRIF), voté le 25 octobre 2012 et qui soutient l’agriculture de proximité). Comme les y incitent les lois SRU (solidarité et renouvellement urbains) et les Grenelles de l’environnement, les collectivités territoriales expérimentent des dispositifs fonciers innovants en faveur de l’agriculture de proximité : zones agricoles protégées, périmètres de protection et de mise en valeur des espaces agricoles et naturels périurbains, îlots fonciers, chartes foncières ou projets agri-urbains. Dans le même temps, émergent des initiatives du tissu associatif ou des riverains, comme les réseaux Terres en villes, Terres de liens, ou PURPLE au niveau européen, dont l’objet est de favoriser une gestion concertée de l’agriculture et des espaces agricoles périurbains et d’encourager l’installation de paysans et d’activités agricoles à proximité des villes (Torre 2012a).
Urban Decline and Shrinking Cities : a critical assessment of approaches to urban regression Urban shrinkage as such is not a new phenomenon. It has been documented by an extensive literature analysing the social and economic issues that have led to flight of population, resulting in the worse cases in the eventual abandonment of blocks of housing and neighbourhoods. À number of studies have also been dedicated to the analysis of the cycles of urban changes : suburbanization, decline of central cities and regeneration. Up to the 1970s, urban decline was an almost exclusive feature of developing countries, whereas today the number of cities in decline is reaching more than a quarter of the overall number of cities of over 100000 inhabitants worldwide. While the contemporary globalization processes have been accompanied by new forms of de-industrialization and suburbanization, the period has also been one of profound demographic change in the developed countries, characterized by falls in fertility rates and the ageing of populations. This transformation obviously has repercussions on the development of cities. In this situation, it may be that urban growth should in no way be assumed, while urban decline, rather than being an exception or an aberration, could be analysed as a potentially global phenomenon. It is therefore worthwhile envisaging decline and urban shrinkage as durable, structural components of urban development. While urban decline is on the increase, placing the phenomenon in an increasingly global perspective, it seems opportune to review the paradigm behind the established views of urban growth and change.
Detroit, The Broken Dream On the 4th of November, the citizens of Detroit elected Barack Hussein Obama by 97%. They are expecting a lot from this election. In 2008, the city suffered from two economic crisis: the subprimes first and the automotive industry now. Poor, segregated and blight, Detroit has been completely abandoned by the Republicans since the end of the Empowerment Zone Program in 2004. Thus one can understand why Obama’s proposal to create an Office of Urban Policy that would be in charge of the coordination of federal urban policies, aroused enormous hope among the Detroiters. But Obama’s task will be very difficult. In Detroit, each and every urban policies have, until now, failed because they came up against the inequalitarian dynamic of capitalism, the metropolitan fragmentation and racism. In the city of the fight for civil rights and afrocentrism, the production of space is without any doubt founded on the fear of the Other.
This article draws on primary and secondary data to provide insight into the processes and conflicts over efforts to brand New Orleans as an entertainment destination from the 1990s to the present. The author identifies the key actors and organized interests involved in branding New Orleans, the rationale and logic of branding, and marketing strategies used to enhance place distinctiveness. The second half of the article describes the impact of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans's tourism sector and examines efforts to rebrand the city. The article points to the problems, contradictions, and unpredictabilities of urban branding. This analysis provides an important opportunity for theoretical development and offers a unique perspective for understanding urban branding as a contested and conflictual process of homogenization and diversification.
This essay explores new forms of tourism that have emerged in post-Katrina New Orleans. It begins by looking at the ways in which the city's long history of commodifying black culture for predominantly white tourists has enabled the existence of two parallel worlds. Though distinct, these worlds are defined by a necessarily precarious boundary which allows New Orleans's tourists to experience African American culture “up close.” The voyeurism of the post-hurricane disaster tourism works rather differently. The Katrina bus tours, which transport tourists to storm-devastated neighbourhoods, focus eyes on a landscape peculiarly devoid of human inhabitants; likewise, the IMAX feature Hurricane on the Bayou is driven by a de-politicized environmentalism that elides the human cost of the storm. Both offer a sense of closure by rendering the ongoing post-Katrina racial fallout all but invisible. The essay argues that this possibly indicates a new and deeper kind of disconnect between the two parallel cities that reside in New Orleans.
The economic geography of talent Annals of the association of American geographers
  • R Florida
Florida R., 2002. The economic geography of talent. Annals of the association of American geographers, vol. 92, n° 4, p. 743-755.