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Bibliography of Research-Based Literature on Human Trafficking: 2008-2014.



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Georgetown University
February 2015
Bibliography of Research-Based Literature on
Human Trafcking: 2008-2014
By Elżbieta M. Goździak, PhD
Sarah Graveline, Whitney Skippings, and Minna Song
Preparation of bibliographies is an arduous and often thankless task, but it can also be rewarding and
can lead to new discoveries of unknown research and exciting authors. At the Institute for the Study
of International Migration (ISIM) we have undertaken preparation of bibliographies and analyses of
empirical research on human trafcking several times. The bibliography in front of you is our latest
attempt to compile research-based articles, reports, and books on various aspects of trafcking of per-
sons—adults and children—across international borders. We hope that you will nd it useful in design-
ing and conducting your own empirical studies on human trafcking.
We wish to thank warmly the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) that has been supporting ISIM’s re-
search on human trafcking since 2005. NIJ supported the preparation of the rst bibliography and
inspired us to continue updating the bibliography without additional funding.
We also wish to thank Fiona David of the Walk Free Foundation who shared with us her own literature
compilations. Many thanks Fiona!
Thank you to C. Timothy McKeown for cover photo photography.
About the Authors
Elżbieta M. Goździak is the Director of Research at the Institute
for the Study of International Migration (ISIM) and Editor of
International Migration. Formerly, she held a senior position with
the Ofce of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) and the Substance Abuse
and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the
US Department of Health and Human Services. She taught at the
Howard University’s School of Social Work in the Social Work with
Displaced Populations Program, and managed a program area on
admissions and resettlement of refugees in industrialized countries
for the Refugee Policy Group. Prior to immigrating to the US, she
was an Associate Professor of Anthropology at the Adam Mickiewicz
University in Poznań, Poland.
Dr. Goździak has managed several research activities related to issues of human trafcking for labor
and sexual exploitation. Currently, she directs a two-year project, funded by the National Institute
of Justice (NIJ), to present a prole of adult survivors of human trafcking assisted by the Ofce of
Refugee Resettlement’s (ORR) Anti-Trafcking Services Programs and to evaluate the effectiveness
of interventions to stabilize, rehabilitate, and integrate survivors into the wider society. With funding
from Humanity United, she evaluated an anti-trafcking program—Stop Girl Trafcking—in Nepal.
Under grants from NIJ, she conducted an assessment of research-based literature on human trafcking
according to its methodological merit and compiled a comprehensive annotated bibliography of existing
English-language publications on trafcking in persons, and an a study of children and youth trafcked
to the US to examine patterns of abuse, analyze challenges service providers face in assisting child
victims, and identify best practices and treatment modalities used to facilitate rehabilitation of child
victims of trafcking. Dr. Goździak has published several articles on research on human trafcking and
on child victimsof trafcking for labor and sexual exploitation. She also edited (with Frank Laczko)
a special issue of International Migration on Improving Data and Research on Human Trafcking.
Currently, she is working on a book manuscript on children trafcked to the United States.
Sarah Graveline is a Research Assistant at the Institute for the Study of
International Migration. Previously she studied Swahili and conducted
research in Kenya and Tanzania as a David L. Boren Fellow. She holds
an MA from Georgetown University and a BA from Emory University.
Whitney Skippings is a 2014 graduate of Georgetown University’s
Security Studies Program, with a concentration in international secu-
rity. During this time, she traveled to Uganda and Rwanda, to research
women’s post conict reintegration. Prior to attending Georgetown, she
graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Spelman College with degrees in Inter-
national Studies and Philosophy. While her family is from Cat Island,
Bahamas, Whitney was born and raised in Silver Spring, Maryland.
Minna Song is a Women’s and Gender Studies student at Georgetown
University. As a senior, she joined Dr. Gozdziak’s team at ISIM as a
research asssistant. She has also conducted research at the Lombardi
Comprehensive Cancer Center with Dr. Sheppard on racial breast can-
cer disparities. After Georgetown, she plans to pursue a Master’s in
Public Health.
Data and Research on Human Trafcking:
Bibliography of Research-Based Lite
Acknowledgements 2
About the Authors 2
Introduction 5
Bibliography of Researched-Based Literature 6
On Human Trafcking: 2008-2014
Books 6
Journal Articles 12
Reports 68
Table of Contents
Human trafcking continues to capture the imagination of the global public. Popular books about
trafcking, especially books on sex trafcking sell well in commercial and university bookstores alike.
Gut wrenching narratives about women kept as sexual slaves and children sold into domestic servitude
appear on front pages of major international newspapers and in academic journals. There are a lot of
writings about human trafcking, but there is signicantly less literature based on empirical research.
Critical observations about the state of research-based knowledge about human trafcking are of import
to policy discussions about trafcking in persons and to programming for trafcked victims. In order
to leave the empirical vacuum within which human trafcking is so often debated, we need solid and
systematic empirical studies. At the Institute for the Study of International Migration (ISIM), we have
periodically undertaken the task of compiling and evaluating existing literature on human trafcking.
In 2005, Dr. Elzbieta M. Gozdziak (with Frank Laczko of the International Organization for Migration)
edited a special issue of International Migration on Improving Data and Research on Human Trafck-
ing. Two years later, with funding from the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Dr. Gozdziak and Micah
N. Bump compiled a comprehensive bibliography of English language research-based literature on
human trafcking using EndNote, an electronic bibliographic management program, developed a tax-
onomy to categorize the identied references according to a set of criteria devised in consultation with
the NIJ, and analyzed the compiled bibliography to assess the state of the English language research
literature on trafcking in persons. The report resulting from this exercise—Data and Research on Hu-
man Trafcking: Bibliography of Research-Based Literature—is available for download at http://issuu.
The present bibliography builds on the earlier effort. It includes a listing of journal articles, reports,
and books on various aspects of human trafcking, based on empirical research and published between
the years of 2008 and 2014. The bibliography covers international cross-border trafcking of adults
and children. It does not include readings on domestic minor sex trafcking (DMST). As scholars of
international migration we focus on mobility across international borders.
The bibliography is based on an interactive EndNote database that includes all the journal articles and
reports listed here.
Bibliography of Research-Based Literature on Human Trafcking:
Ahmad, Ali Nobil. Masculinity, Sexuality, and Illegal Migration: Human Smuggling from Pakistan
to Europe. Studies in Migration and Diaspora. Farnham, Surrey ; Burlington, VT: Ashgate,
Allain, Jean. Slavery in International Law: Of Human Exploitation and Trafcking. Leiden : Boston:
Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2013.
Arhin, Antonela, Ato Quayson, eds. Labour Migration, Human Trafcking and Multinational Corpo-
rations: The Commodication of Illicit Flows. New York: Routledge, 2012.
Andrees, Beate, and Patrick Belser. Forced Labor: Coercion and Exploitation in the Private Econo-
my. Boulder, Colo: Lynne Rienner Pub, 2009.
Aoyama, Kaoru. Thai Migrant Sexworkers: From Modernisation to Globalisation. New York: Pal-
grave Macmillan, 2009.
Aronowitz, Alexis A. Human Trafcking, Human Misery: The Global Trade in Human Beings. Global
Crime and Justice. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 2009.
Bang, Brandy. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children. Springerbriefs in Psychology, Behavioral
Criminology. New York: Springer, 2014.
Batstone, David. Not for Sale. HarperCollins e-books, 2009.
Beate, Andrees and Patrick Belser Boulder, eds. Forced Labor: Coercion and Exploitation in the Pri-
vate Economy. Colo: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2009.
Behnke, Alison Marie. Up for Sale: Human Trafcking and Modern Slavery. Minneapolis: 21st Cen-
tury Books, 2014.
Bolkovac, Kathryn, and Cari Lynn. The Whistleblower: Sex Trafcking, Military Contractors, and
One Woman’s Fight for Justice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Trade, 2011.
Bokhari, Farhat, and Emma Kelly London, eds. Safeguarding Children from Abroad: Refugee, Asylum
Seeking and Trafcked Children in the UK. Best Practice in Working with Children. Philadel-
phia: Jessica Kingsley, 2012.
Bowley, Mary Frances. The White Umbrella: Walking with Survivors of Sex Trafcking. Moody Pub-
lishers, 2012.
Brennan, Denise. Life Interrupted: Trafcking into Forced Labor in the United States. Durham: Duke
University Press, 2014.
Burke, Mary C. Human Trafcking: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. New York, NY: Routledge, 2013.
Cameron, Sally, and Edward Newman. Trafcking in Humans: Social, Cultural, and Political Di-
mensions. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2008.
Chandran, Parosha, ed. Human Trafcking Handbook: Recognising Trafcking and Modern-Day
Slavery in the UK. London: LexisNexis, 2011.
Chin, Ko-lin. Selling Sex Overseas: Chinese Women and the Realities of Prostitution and Global Sex
Trafcking. New York: New York University Press, 2012.
Clayton, Ellen Wright, Richard D. Krugman, and Patti Simon, eds. Confronting Commercial Sexual
Exploitation and Sex Trafcking of Minors in the United States. Washington, D.C: National
Academies Press, 2013.
Cullen-DuPont, Kathryn. Human Trafcking. Global Issues. New York, NY: Facts On File, 2009.
Dalla Lanham, Rochelle L., ed. Global Perspectives on Prostitution and Sex Trafcking: Africa, Asia,
Middle East and Oceania. Md: Lexington Books, 2011.
Davies, Jennifer. Sex Slaves: Human Trafcking. RW Press, 2013.
De Chesnay, Mary, ed. Sex Trafcking: A Clinical Guide for Nurses. New York: Springer, 2013.
DeStefano, Anthony. The War on Human Trafcking: U.S. Policy Assessed. New Brunswick, N.J.:
Rutgers University Press, 2008.
Di Nicola, Andrea, Andrea Cauduro, Marco Lombardi, and Paolo Ruspini. Prostitution and Human
Trafcking: Focus on Clients. New York: Springer, 2008.
Ebbe, Obi N.I. , and Dilip K. Das. Global Trafcking in Women and Children Boca Raton: Taylor and
Francis, 2008.
Enloe, Cynthia Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics. 2nd
ed. Berkeley: University of California Press., 2014. 2000.
Falls, Abraham. Human Trafcking: A Global Perspective of Modern Day Human Trafcking and Sex
Slavery. 2014.
Fisanick, Christina, ed. Human Trafcking: Current Controversies. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2010.
Fox, Carron, and Ofce International Labour. Investigating Forced Labour and Trafcking: Do They
Exist in Zambia? Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Ofce, Special Action Pro-
gramme to Combat Forced Labour, 2008.
Gallagher, Anne T. The International Law of Human Trafcking. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge
University Press, 2012.
Gebreegziabher, Shewit. Modern Slavery in African Land. Hamburg: Diplomica Verlag, 2014.
Gould, Chandre, and Nicole Fick. Selling Sex in Cape Town: Sex Work and Human Trafcking in a
South African City. Institute for Security Studies, 2008.
Goździak, Elżbieta M. “Empirical Vacuum: In Search of Research on Human Trafcking.” In
Gartner, Rosemary, and William McCarthy (eds.), The Oxford Handbook on Sex, Gender, and
Crime. Oxford University Press, 2014.
Haker, Hille, Lisa Sowle Cahill, and Elaine Mary Wainwright, eds. Human Trafcking. Concilium.
London: SCM Press, 2011.
Heil, Erin C. Sex Slaves and Serfs: The Dynamics of Human Trafcking in a Small Florida Town.
Boulder, Colo: FirstForumPress, 2012.
Hepburn, Stephanie. Human Trafcking around the World: Hidden in Plain Sight. New York: Colum-
bia University Press, 2013.
Hoang, Kimberly Kay. Human Traffcking Reconsidered: Rethinking the Problem, Envisoning New
Solutions. New York ; London: International Debate Education Association, 2014.
Jonsson, Anna, ed. Human Trafcking and Human Security. Routledge Transnational Crime and Cor-
ruption Series. New York: Routledge, 2009.
Kara, Siddharth Ashok. Sex Trafcking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery. New York: Columbia
University Press, 2009.
Kempadoo, Kamala, Jyoti Sanghera, and Bandana Pattanaik. Trafcking and Prostitution Reconsid-
ered, Second Edition: New Perspectives on Migration, Sex Work, and Human Rights. Boul-
der, Colo: Paradigm Publishers, 2011.
Kendall, Virginia M. Child Exploitation and Trafcking: Examining the Global Challenges and U.S.
Responses. Lanham: Rowman & Littleeld, 2012
Keo, Chenda. Human Trafcking in Cambodia. Routledge Contemporary Southeast Asia Series. Lon-
don ; New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2014.
Kneebone, Susan , and Julie Debeljak. Transnational Crime and Human Rights: Responses to Hu-
man Trafcking in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Vol. 20, New York: Routledge, 2012.
Kyle, David and Rey Koslowski, eds. Global Human Smuggling: Comparative Perspectives. Balti-
more: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011.
Lawrence, Benjamin N., and Richard L. Roberts, eds. Trafcking in Slavery’s Wake: Law and the
Experience of Women and Children. New African Histories Series. Athens: Ohio University
Press, 2012.
Lee, Maggy. Trafcking and Global Crime Control. London: SAGE, 2010.
Liu, Min. Migration, Prostitution, and Human Trafcking: The Voice of Chinese Women. New Bruns-
wick, N.J: Transaction Publishers, 2011.
Mahdavi, Pardis. Gridlock: Labor, Migration, and Human Trafcking in Dubai. Stanford University
Press, 2011.
———. From Trafcking to Terror: Constructing a Global Social Problem. New York: Routledge,
Malarek, Victor. The Natashas: The Horric inside Story of Slavery, Rape, and Murder in the Global
Sex Trade. Arcade Publishing, 2011.
Malekian, Farhad. Prohibition of Sexual Exploitation of Children Constituting Obligation Erga
Omnes. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013.
Mallia, Patricia. Migrant Smuggling by Sea: Combating a Current Threat to Maritime Security
through the Creation of a Cooperative Framework. Publications on Ocean Development.
Leiden ; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2010.
Melrose, Margaret, Jenny J. Pearce Houndmills, eds. Critical Perspectives on Child Sexual Exploita-
tion and Related Trafcking. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
Mishra, Veerendra. Human Trafcking: The Stakeholders’ Perspective. Los Angeles: SAGE Publica-
tions Pvt. Ltd, 2013.
Nato Advanced Research Workshop on: The Role of Transnational Criminal Organisations in the
Management of Illegal Immigration, Human Smuggling, and Europe Trafcking in. Human
Trafcking, Smuggling and Illegal Immigration International Management by Criminal Or-
ganizations. Nato Science for Peace and Security Series E: Human and Societal Dynamics.
edited by Myrianne Coen Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2014.
Newton, Harold J., ed. Human Trafcking: Scope and Response Efforts. Law, Crime and Law En-
forcement. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2012.
O’Brien, Erin. The Politics of Sex Trafcking: A Moral Geography. Critical Criminological Perspec-
tives. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
Parruca, Etion. Eu and Member States Facing Modern-Day Slavery in Children: Positive Efforts and
Gaps Existing in Selected Eu Member States after the Entry into Force of the Un Palermo
Protocol. Saarbrücken: LAP, Lambert Academic Publishing, 2011.
Parvulescu, Anca. The Trafc in Women’s Work East European Migration and the Making of Europe.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014.
Penttinen, Elina. Globalization, Prostitution and Sex Trafcking: Corporeal Politics London ; New
York: Routledge, 2008.
Perrin, Benjamin. Invisible Chains: Canada’s Underground World of Human Trafcking. New York:
Viking Canada, 2010.
Perrin, Benjamin, Philip L. Reichel, and John Winterdyk, eds. Human Trafcking: Exploring the In-
ternational Nature, Concerns, and Complexities. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2012.
Quayson, Ato, and Antonela Arhin. Labour Migration, Human Trafcking and Multinational Corpo-
rations: The Commodication of Illicit Flows. Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY: Routledge,
Rao, Sunil Salankey. Trafcking of Children for Sexual Exploitation: Public International Law 1864-
1950. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2013.
Raymond, Janice G. Not a Choice, Not a Job. Potomac Books Inc., 2013.
Reisen, Mirjam van. Human Trafcking in the Sinai: Refugees between Life and Death. Oisterwijk:
Wolf Legal Publishers, 2012.
Samarasinghe, Vidyamali, and Barbara Burton. Female Sex Trafcking in Asia: The Resilience of
Patriarchy in a Changing World New York: Routledge, 2008.
Schrover, Marlou, Joanne Van Der Leun, Leo Lucassen, & Chris Quispel, ed. Illegal Migration and
Gender in a Global and Historical Perspective. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press,
Shelley, Louise. Human Trafcking: A Global Perspective. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Shelley, Louise I., and Shirō Ōkubo Milton Park, eds. Human Security, Transnational Crime and Hu-
man Trafcking: Asian and Western Perspectives. Routledge Transnational Crime and Corrup-
tion Series. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon; New York: Routledge, 2011.
Skinner, E. Benjamin. A Crime So Monstrous: Face-to-Face with Modern-Day Slavery. Free Press,
Smith, Holly Austin. Walking Prey: How America’s Youth Are Vulnerable to Sex Slavery. New York,
NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
Soderlund, Gretchen. Sex Trafcking, Scandal, and the Transformation of Journalism, 1885-1917.
Chicago ; London: The University of Chicago Press, 2013.
Taylor, Caroline S., Daniel Joseph Torpy, and Dilip K. Das Boca Raton, eds. Policing Global Move-
ment Tourism, Migration, Human Trafcking, and Terrorism. International Police Executive
Symposium Co-Publications. Das Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press, 2013.
Territo, Leonard. Criminal Investigation of Sex Trafcking in America. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis,
Territo, Leonard, and George Kirkham. International Sex Trafcking of Women & Children. Flush-
ing, NY: Looseleaf Law Publications, Inc, 2009.
Tiano, Susan, Moira Murphy-Aguilar, and Brianne Bigej Farnham, eds. Borderline Slavery: Mexico,
United States, and the Human Trade. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2012.
Triandafyllidou, Anna. Migrant Smuggling: Irregular Migration from Asia and Africa to Europe.
Migration, Diasporas and Citizenship. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire ; New York:
Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.
Ventrella, Matilde. The Control of People Smuggling and Trafcking in the EU: Experiences from the
UK and Italy. Law and Migration. Farnham, Surrey ; Burlington, Vt: Ashgate Pub, 2010.
V. Higgins, Jeff, and Christopher M. Brady Hauppauge, eds. Child Sex Trafcking in the United
States. Children’s Issues, Laws and Programs. N.Y: Nova Science Publishers, 2012.
Winckelmann, Thom. Human Trafcking. Man’s Inhumanities. Yankton, S.D: Erickson Press, 2009.
Winterdyk, John, Benjamin Perrin, and Philip Reichel. Human Trafcking: Exploring the Internation-
al Nature, Concerns, and Complexities. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2011.
Wylie, Gillian, and Penny McRedmond. Human Trafcking in Europe: Character, Causes and Conse-
quences. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
Yea, Sallie, ed. Human Trafcking in Asia: Forcing Issues. New York: Routledge, 2014.
Zhao, Linda. Financing Illegal Migration: Chinese Underground Banks and Human Smuggling in
New York City. Transnational Crime, Crime Control and Security. Houndmills, Basingstoke,
Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
Zimmerman, Yvonne C. Other Dreams of Freedom: Religion, Sex, and Human Trafcking. Academy
Series. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.
Journal Articles:
Abas, Melanie, Nicolae V. Ostrovschi, Martin Prince, Viorel I. Gorceag, Carolina Trigub, and Sia¢n
Oram. «Risk Factors for Mental Disorders in Women Survivors of Human Trafcking: A
Historical Cohort Study.» BMC psychiatry 13, no. 1 (2013): 204-04.
Abdul, Mohammad, Munim Joarder, and Paul W. Miller. “The Experiences of Migrants Trafcked
from Bangladesh.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 653
Abdulraheem, S., and A. R. Oladipo. “Trafcking in Women and Children: A Hidden Health and
Social Problem in Nigeria.” International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 2, no. 3
(2010): 34-39.
Abunimah, Ali, and Sarah Blower. “The Circumstances and Needs of Separated Children Seeking
Asylum in Ireland.” Child Care in Practice 16, no. 2 (2010): 129-46.
Acharya, Arun Kumar. “Sexual Violence and Proximate Risks: A Study on Trafcked Women in
Mexico City.” Gender, Technology and Development 12, no. 1 (2008): 77-99.
———. “Forced Labour, Gender Violence and Trafcking of Women in Mexico: A Study from
Monterrey.” Acta Geograca 6, no. 13 (2012): 7-19.
———. “Sexual Exploitation and Trafcking of Women and Girls in Mexico: An Analysis on Impact
of Violence on Health Status.” Journal of Intercultural Studies 35, no. 2 (2014): 182-95.
Acharya, Arun Kumar, and Jennifer Bryson Clark. “The Health Consequences of Trafcking in Wom-
en in Mexico: Findings from Monterrey City.” International Review of Sociology 20, no. 3
(2010): 415-26.
Adams, Cherish. “Re-Trafcked Victims: How a Human Rights Approach Can Stop the Cycle of
Re-Victimization of Sex Trafcking Victims.” The George Washington International Law
Review 43, no. 1 (2011): 201.
Adelson, Wendi J. “Child Prostitute or Victim of Trafcking.” University of St. Thomas Law Journal
6, no. 1 (2008): 96-128.
Adeyanju, Florence B. “Human Trafcking and Smuggling in Sports: Challenges and the Way For-
ward.” British Journal of Sports Medicine 44, no. S1 (2010): 80-80.
Aggarwal, Ujju, Donna Nevel, and Lori Falchi. “Esol Curriculum: Human Trafcking.” Adult Basic
Education & Literacy Journal 3, no. 2 (2009): 125-26.
Ahmad, Ali Nobil. “The Labour Market Consequences of Human Smuggling: ‘Illegal’ Employment
in London’s Migrant Economy.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36, no. 6 (2010): 21.
Ahmed, Aziza, and Meena Seshu. “”We Have the Right Not to Be ‘Rescued’...” When Anti-Trafck-
ing Programmes Undermine the Health and Well-Being of Sex Workers.” Anti - Trafcking
Review, no. 1 (2012): 149-65.
Akcapar, Sebnem Koser. “Re-Thinking Migrants’ Networks and Social Capital: A Case Study of Ira-
nians in Turkey.” International Migration 48, no. 2 (2010).
Al Jabal, Ali. “Human Trafcking: The Bahrain Experience.” Juridical Current 13, no. 4 (2010): 46-
Albonetti, Celesta A. “Changes in Federal Sentencing for Forced Labor Trafcking and for Sex Traf-
cking: A Ten Year Assessment.” Crime, Law and Social Change 61, no. 2 (2014): 179-204.
Alexandre, Kelly, Cynthia Sha, John C. Pollock, Kelsey Baier, and Jessica Johnson. “Cross-Nation-
al Coverage of Human Trafcking: A Community Structure Approach.” Atlantic Journal of
Communication 22, no. 3/4 (2014): 160-74.
Allain, Jean. “Trafcking of Persons for the Removal of Organs and the Admission of Guilt of a
South African Hospital.” Medical Law Review 19, no. 1 (2011 2011): 117-22.
Allain, Jean, and Robin Hickey. “Property and the Denition of Slavery.” International & Compara-
tive Law Quarterly 61, no. 4 (2012): 915-38.
Allais, Carol. “Human Trafcking: Some Research Challenges for South Africa.” Mensehandel: en-
kele uitdagings vir navorsing in Suid-Afrika. 45, no. 3 (2012): 268-90.
———. “The Prole Less Considered: The Trafcking of Men in South Africa.” South African Re-
view of Sociology 44, no. 1 (2013): 40-54.
Allen, Elizabeth D., and Patricia B. Strait. “Natural Disasters as a Magnet for Forced Labor: The
United States and Japan Case Studies.” Global Studies Journal 5, no. 2 (2013): 115-25.
Alvarez, Maria Beatriz, and Edward J. Alessi. “Human Trafcking Is More Than Sex Trafcking and
Prostitution: Implications for Social Work.” Aflia: Journal of Women & Social Work 27, no.
2 (2012): 142-52.
Amahazion, FikreJesus. “Global Anti-Sex Trafcking: State Variance in Implementation of Protec-
tionist Policies.” Human Rights Quarterly 36, no. 1 (2014): 176-209.
Amar, Paul. “Operation Princess in Rio De Janeiro: Policing ‘Sex Trafcking’, Strengthening Worker
Citizenship, and the Urban Geopolitics of Security in Brazil.” Security Dialogue 40, no. 4-5
(2009): 513-41.
Ambagtsheer, Frederike, Damian Zaitch, and Willem Weimar. “Battle for Human Organs: Organ Traf-
cking and Transplant Tourism in a Global Context.” Global Crime 14, no. 1 (2013): 1-26.
Anderson, Bridget. “Where’s the Harm in That? Immigration Enforcement, Trafcking, and the Pro-
tection of Migrants’ Rights.” American Behavioral Scientist 56, no. 9 (2012): 1241-57.
Anderson, Bridget, and Blanka Hancilova. “Migrant Labour in Kazakhstan: A Cause for Concern?”
Journal of Ethnic & Migration Studies 37, no. 3 (2011): 467-83.
Andrijasevic, Rutvica, and Bridget Anderson. “Anti-Trafcking Campaigns: Decent? Honest? Truth-
ful?” Feminist Review, no. 92 (2009): 151-55.
Androff, David K. “The Problem of Contemporary Slavery: An International Human Rights Chal-
lenge for Social Work.” International Social Work 54, no. 2 (2010): 209-22.
Annitto, Megan. “Consent, Coercion, and Compassion: Emerging Legal Responses to the Commer-
cial Sexual Exploitation of Minors.” Yale Law & Policy Review 30, no. 1 (2011): 1-70.
Antic Gaber, Milica, Irena Selisnik, Iztok Sori, and Sara Rozman. “Policies and Gender-Based Vi-
olence: An Analysis of Legislative Changes in Eu Candidate Countries in 2004.” Teorija in
Praksa 47, no. 4 (2010): 749-64.
Aronowitz, Alexis A. “The Smuggling -- Trafcking Nexus and the Myths Surrounding Human Traf-
cking.” Sociology of Crime, Law, and Deviance 13 (2009): 107-28.
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... The past two decades have seen multi-million dollar investment in counter-trafficking and a pronounced increase in policy-making, legislation, research and practical interventions worldwide (e.g. [37,42,62,84]). Yet, for all this activity there has been remarkably little robust data-driven research on human trafficking and how best to tackle it [12,50,71,81,85]. Other longstanding criticisms of the trafficking literature include its limited scope, spurious statistics, methodological opacity and weaknesses, dubious assumptions and exaggerated and ill-substantiated claims [12,35,37,50,71,85]. ...
... Yet, for all this activity there has been remarkably little robust data-driven research on human trafficking and how best to tackle it [12,50,71,81,85]. Other longstanding criticisms of the trafficking literature include its limited scope, spurious statistics, methodological opacity and weaknesses, dubious assumptions and exaggerated and ill-substantiated claims [12,35,37,50,71,85]. One of the most enduring, pronounced and widely recognised skews in the literature is its overwhelming focus on sex trafficking at the expense of other types, such as trafficking for domestic servitude and other forms of labour exploitation [1,12,37,47,50,67]. ...
... Other longstanding criticisms of the trafficking literature include its limited scope, spurious statistics, methodological opacity and weaknesses, dubious assumptions and exaggerated and ill-substantiated claims [12,35,37,50,71,85]. One of the most enduring, pronounced and widely recognised skews in the literature is its overwhelming focus on sex trafficking at the expense of other types, such as trafficking for domestic servitude and other forms of labour exploitation [1,12,37,47,50,67]. ...
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Combatting trafficking in human beings is a well-established social policy and crime prevention priority for the twenty-first Century. Human trafficking, as defined in international law, can occur for diverse exploitative purposes. Yet, different forms of trafficking are routinely conflated in research, policy and interventions. Most of the attention to date has been on sex trafficking of women and girls, leaving male victims and other trafficking types comparatively overlooked. In this study, we disentangle differences between key trafficking types using rare individual-level data from the United Kingdom’s central system for identifying trafficking victims. For a sample of 2630 confirmed victims, we compare those trafficked for sex, domestic servitude and other labour across variables relating to victim demographics, the trafficking process and official responses. Having established significant and substantial differences at bivariate level, we use multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of trafficking type. Overall, our results underline the complexity and diversity of human trafficking and warn against conflating different types. Within a holistic counter-trafficking framework, a more disaggregated and nuanced approach to analysis and intervention is vital in ensuring more finely-targeted responses. This original study has clear lessons for research, policy and practice.
... H uman trafficking research has increased over the last 20 years; however, until recently, the use of empiricism and theory within this field was largely absent (Gozdziak, 2011). This omission has garnered some harsh criticism regarding the legitimacy and rigor of trafficking studies ( Fedina, 2014). ...
... In early empirical human trafficking research studies, scholars often applied economic theories, such as rational choice models (Wheaton, Schauer, & Galli, 2010), conflict theories (Androff, 2011), and feminist theories, particularly oppression paradigms (Gozdziak, 2011;Weitzer, 2012) to human trafficking inquiry. Of late, a surge in theoretically driven human trafficking research has broadened theoretical applications to international migration theories, human rights perspectives, and various forms of feminist thought including radical feminism, liberal feminism, transnational feminism, and intersectionality. ...
Human trafficking research has increased over the last 20 years; however, the limited use of empiricism and theory in human trafficking research fuels criticism that extant human trafficking research lacks rigor and legitimacy. This deficit complicates researchers' ability to limit bias and employ measurable variables, ultimately hampering the creation of knowledge and evidence-based interventions for practitioners engaged in work on micro- and macrolevels. In an effort to address these liabilities in research, the authors propose an intersectional standpoint methodology (ISM) for human trafficking scholarship. At its foundation, the proposed qualitative methodology maintains that (a) the individual's standpoint is critical to understanding oppression, (b) structural obstacles in political and social systems lead to further oppression, (c) oppressed persons' storytelling and lived experiences are critical, and (d) any knowledge about oppressed groups obtained through qualitative inquiry ought to be applied to macrosystems to create change. This proposed methodology identifies measurable variables by which to explore the trafficking experience and is positioned to enhance scholarly activities with survivors through community-based participatory research.
... The present research was thus undertaken precisely to address THB victims' assistance and protection from a quantitative perspective, predominantly descriptive, given that the scholarly literature has criticised the lack of robustness of the quantitative data on THB in general (Cockbain & Bowers, 2019;Cockbain et al., 2018;Gozdziak & Bump, 2008) so that approaches could also be compared depending on the type of THB in question. The main objective is to analyse from a quantitative perspective the institutional approach to protection of THB victims in Spain as a case study of what may be happening in other neighbour countries with deficient approaches to this reality. ...
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Trafficking in human beings is closely related to the cross-border movements of people and smuggling of migrants. However, the victim-centred regulatory approach to this reality internationally adopted places the protection of victims’ human rights at the centre and demands an institutional response focused on their detection and protection. In order to determine whether this type of approach is being adopted in Spain, an online survey was conducted of 150 bodies, units and organisations that may have come into contact with such victims. The research results make it possible to determine how cases of trafficking are brought to light and which bodies are most effective at detecting them. They also offer information about the type of assistance offered to victims and the protection measures provided for under immigration law that are used depending on the type of trafficking suffered. These findings confirm that the institutional response to trafficking in human beings in Spain remains too focused on the trafficking of foreign women for sexual exploitation. Alternatives are proposed to overcome this highly biased response to the phenomenon.
... A literature review of 1500 diverse publications found that less than a third of the studies contained empirical studies and that studies are often based on convenience samples, samples that cannot be identified, or, it is unclear on which data and methods the studies are based. The studies that were based on some form of data collection, relied heavily on anecdotal stories and interviews with 'key stakeholders' [6]. ...
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Female offenders are seldom studied by criminological scholars. This is certainly the case regarding offenses like human trafficking and sexual exploitation. However, the number of women suspected of being a perpetrator of human trafficking should not be underestimated. In this paper we present the results of a study on female perpetrators of human trafficking. We have analyzed the court-files of 150 women who have been convicted for human trafficking. We present results on the prevalence of female offenders of human trafficking and the forms of exploitation they have been convicted for. After this we present the sanctions that were imposed on the women and the offender, offense and victim characteristics. This paper concludes by discussing implications for criminal justice authorities, policy and research.
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Human trafficking occurs within the context of widespread objectification and commodification of persons as "products" in economies in which they have little power and sometimes few options for self-determination and self-sufficiency. In both labor and sex trafficking, there is a power imbalance where the trafficker possesses the economic power to treat the trafficked as a commodity and also takes control of all the profits. In the transaction, it is obvious that there is no element of consent, voluntariness, pleasure, or personal desire of the victim. This explains why trafficking in human beings is a ruthless, cynical, and multi-layered form of exploitation where traffickers profits by victimization and make turnover from the adversities, distress, and vulnerability of the trafficked persons. This unscrupulous business practice is such an intricate problem embedded majorly in poverty, marginalization, and ideas of subordination. Human trafficking has legitimized a brand-new element into capitalism which has supplemented slavery, status inequality, and disrespect to human dignity.
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Global discourse and action on human trafficking clearly depict it as being incompatible with the dignity and worth of the human person. This is premised on the fact that conditions that permit human trafficking also condone labour and sexual exploitation, tolerate unregulated and unscrupulous business practices, and maintain status inequalities and marginalization against persons being trafficked. Human trafficking is today characterized by the exploitation of vulnerable people and is a violation of their basic human right to autonomy and freedom. This lends credence to why human trafficking has been referred to as "modern slavery." The existence of human trafficking in contemporary societies underscores society's ongoing struggle to secure equality and human rights for all its members. Drawing upon an extensive seminal and contemporary research as well as existing literature on human trafficking, this chapter examines the phenomenon visa -vis the logic of economic gain devoid of respect for human dignity using Biderman's theory of coercion.
Using a pragmatic exploratory sequential mixed methods design in data collection and analysis (QUAL quan), this study analyzes 223 child sex trafficking investigations, arrests, and/or prosecutions within the United States (U.S.) higher education workforce. Despite growing awareness of the crime, research on child sexual exploitation material (CSEM) is surprisingly scant with a near total absence of perpetrator data. This is the first examination of the crime in U.S. tertiary education. Policy recommendations, guided by the research results, contribute to progress in the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on anti-trafficking: Gender Equality (SDG 5.2) and Peace, Justice & Strong Institutions (SDG 16.2).
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There is relatively little empirical research into the geographies of human trafficking, despite its inherent spatiality and the clear benefits of geographical perspectives. An emerging but vibrant body of qualitative work explores different aspects of trafficking's spatiality and spatio-temporality in depth and nuance, but equivalent quantitative analyses are notably lacking. What exists is largely limited to crude maps and broad-brushed assessments of patterns and trends. Yet, rigorous quantitative work is also vital in advancing understanding, informing responses and increasing accountability. In this paper, we present a novel, empirically-substantiated examination of methodological challenges in mapping trafficking. We draw on analysis of data extracted from the case files of 450 formally identified labour trafficking victims (accessed via the UK's National Crime Agency). We identify and illustrate five characteristics of the data creating particular challenges for geospatial analysis: data integrity (regarding completeness, accuracy and consistency); geographical uncertainty (regarding spatial accuracy and specificity); managing multiple geographies (trafficking is a complex process with various stages, each potentially involving numerous locations); diversity and disaggregation (important geographical variations can be masked in aggregated analysis); and unclear journeys (analysing trafficking routes proved particularly complicated). We also consider possible solutions and explore implications for future research, policy and practice.
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Despite considerable concern about how human trafficking offenders may use the Internet to recruit their victims, arrange logistics or advertise services, the Internet-trafficking nexus remains unclear. This study explored the prevalence and correlates of a set of commonly-used indicators of labour trafficking in online job advertisements. Taking a case study approach, we focused on a major Lithuanian website aimed at people seeking work abroad. We examined a snapshot of job advertisements (n = 430), assessing both their general characteristics (e.g. industry, destination country) and the presence of trafficking indicators. The vast majority (98.4%) contained at least one indicator, suggesting certain "indicators" may in fact be commonplace characteristics of this labour market. Inferential statistical tests revealed significant but weak relationships between the advertisements’ characteristics and the number and nature of indicators present. While there may be value in screening job advertisements to identify potential labour trafficking and exploitation, additional information is needed to ascertain actual labour trafficking. We conclude with an outlook on automated approaches to identifying cases of possible trafficking and a discussion of the benefits and ethical concerns of a data science-driven approach.
This chapter sets the stage of the research by providing an overview of the contemporary theoretical debate on prostitution and human trafficking for sexual purposes. On the one hand, abolitionists view prostitution as gender-based violence since, in this view, women never engage in prostitution out of free choice. On the other hand, pro-sex-work scholars emphasize women’s right to self-determination and to earn money in the sex industry. The two dominant perspectives on prostitution are discussed not as two opposing views on reality, but rather as two instrumental discourses aimed at achieving different goals. This analysis seeks to contribute to a better understanding of the hegemonic discourse on prostitution.
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The article revisited the Philippine’s anti-trafficking law in light of the complicated and multi-layered trafficking systems that trafficking syndicates use at present time. It further proposes to establish disputable presumptions to prove the element of exploitation. The article was published in Vol. 57, No. 2 of the Ateneo Law Journal (2012).
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Child trafficking, under the guise of intercountry adoption, is a form of human trafficking that is often misunderstood by policy makers, governments, the media, and nongovernmental organizations. The aim of this analysis is to bring awareness and attention to child trafficking disguised as inter-country adoption, to provide an analysis of current policies that address human trafficking and inter-country adoption, and to suggest that in order to support more ethical child welfare practices, social workers and NASW, in particular, should take a more aggressive role in the development of sound approaches to international child welfare and the protection of children, especially during humanitarian emergencies. We use the 2010 abduction attempt of Haitian children by American missionaries as a case to demonstrate how existing policies are insufficient to provide protection to victims and to prosecute perpetrators of this form of child trafficking. We conduct an analysis of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 and provide an application of the Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000.
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Each month hundreds of men, women, and children flee Eritrea as a result of grave violations of human rights committed by the Eritrean government. Travelling across borders, an estimated 36,000 Eritreans have been smuggled to Israel over the past seven years. For 31 per cent of those interviewed for this research, their migration involved abduction and forced movement for extortion among other abuses. Migrants have been abducted in Eastern Sudan near the border with Eritrea and then sold to criminal gangs along the Sudan-Egypt border. The gangs forcibly hold the migrants captive in the Northern Sinai desert. Many who made the journey reported being held hostage and subjected to brutal treatment in Eastern Sudan and the Northern Sinai desert, including gang rape of men and women, whipping, and various other methods of physical and psychological torture. Although not a traditional trafficking scenario, this paper explores the phenomenon in relation to borders. Intricate trafficking networks have exploited refugee outflows from Eritrea, turning the area around the Sudanese side of the Eritrea-Sudan border into a breeding ground for abductions, aggravated smuggling, and trafficking. While crossing borders to claim asylum may facilitate some protection from abuses perpetrated by the Eritrean government, it has created a new set of challenges for Eritrean migrants who now must find protection and safety from kidnappers. While refugees must cross borders to find safety, those same borders create the circumstances for trafficking networks to operate. Unless the dynamics of those involved changes, human rights abuses such as extortion, torture and human trafficking in Eastern Sudan and Sinai are expected to continue.
In April 2010, the Australian Government added and amended child sex tourism offences in the Criminal Code (Cth). These offences employ extraterritorial jurisdiction to criminalise a range of sexual activities with children by Australians, where that activity occurs outside Australia. These offences broaden the scope of activity that is criminalised, as well as making definitional changes that affect the onus of proof. This article explores how effective these offences are likely to be in combating child sex tourism committed by Australians. It also discusses the impact on individual liberties and the potential for injustice that the offences involve.
Since the late 1990s, the European Union has increased significantly its efforts against human trafficking. These efforts have, however, been fraught with contradictions, misconstrued as part of other policy debates (e.g. security, migration and enlargement) and generally ineffective in their ability to fight this global phenomenon. In practice, the EU has built a response to trafficking that privileges certain coercive practices (i.e. stronger borders, internal law enforcement and external state ‘capacity-building’) over comprehensive measures able to redress trafficking (i.e. prevention, prosecution and protection). It is the neglect of the latter that accounts, in part, for the transformation and persistence of the trafficking industry. The EU needs to address path dependencies that have led to the pursuit of a coercive and ineffective counter-trafficking governance system, paying particular attention both to the interaction between external and internal policy and to the unintended effects that this system has had on the practice of human trafficking.
This article provides an analysis of people smuggling prosecutions in Australia from 2008 to 2011. Based on the available case law, the article develops a profile of ‘typical’ people smuggling offenders, examines sentencing trends, and analyses the role of smuggled migrants. The article concludes that current prosecutorial and sentencing practice have had no success in deterring people smuggling and develops a number of recommendations for law reform and policy change.