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... Over the past two decades a growing body of science has debated the importance of natural capital and ecosystem services (ES) for human well-being and developed assessment methods on such issues (Bockstael et al., 2000;Balmford et al., 2002;de Groot et al., 2002;Howarth and Farber, 2002;Heal et al., 2005;Barbier, 2007;Boyd and Banzhaf, 2007;Wallace, 2007;Mäler et al., 2008;Tschirhart, 2009;Liu et al., 2010;Turner et al., 2010), laying the foundations for their incorporation into national accounting systems (Banzhaf and Boyd, 2012;Bartelmus, 2014Bartelmus, , 2015Dasgupta, 2009;Heal, 2007;Mäler et al., 2008;Obst et al., 2016;Remme et al., 2015;United Nations et al., 2014). ...
... We applied the so-called 'travel cost' method, as an alternative to other methods such as simulated exchange values (Caparrós et al., 2003, 2017) or resource rent (Remme et al., 2015). The 'travel cost' method has been extensively applied over the years. ...
... Among the available methods discussed in literature (see for example Kumar, 2005;Remme et al., 2015), we applied a market-based valuation known as "resource rent" (Badura et al., 2017). The resource rent value is defined as the difference between the benefit price and the unit costs of labour, produced assets and intermediate inputs. ...
Article
We present methods and results of country-based natural capital assessments for four ecosystem services (ES) in Italy. The spatial mapping and the assessment have been carried out in both physical and monetary terms for (i) crop pollination, (ii) outdoor recreation, (iii) flood regulation (iv) and water provision, using the ARIES (Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services) technology, which provides and integrates the necessary data and models. Extent, supply and use accounting tables have been developed for the same ecosystem services in line with the United Nations System of Environmental Economic Accounting (UN-SEEA) guidelines and Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (EEA) initiative. This work represents a first official and nationwide assessment of ecosystem services for the Italian Government in accomplishment of the Italian law n. 221/2015, applying a variety of different models and economic valuation methods to provide systematic and replicable information on natural capital through national accounting tables. We find that land management and maintenance of the countryside and forestland, which represent the typical Italian landscape, are fundamental. Our application also identifies several modelling challenges that need to be addressed before a methodological path for integrated ecosystem and economic accounting may be considered rigorous and reliable.
... The simultaneous application of the rEEA guidelines to the total product consumption of the different types of ecosystems that comprise the silvopastoral landscape at the national/regional scales, in which the refined SNA (rSNA for short) measurements are integrated, is still unusual in scientific literature. At the regional scale, applications by the authors of [21][22][23] have been some of the most notable exceptions in regard to forests, woodlands, and other agrarian landscapes. ...
... We have defined the environmental income in previous publications as the total contribution of nature to the total income of an economic activity in the period [2][3][4]32]. In regard to the measurement of these two ecosystem variables, here, we limited this aspect to the presentation of comparisons of the ecosystem service valuations and the changes in environmental assets by a small sample of authors, thus illustrating the similarities and differences in the valuations of woody products (timber, cork, and firewood) [3,4,8,33], carbon [3,27,33], free access recreational services [3,5,22,34], and the environmental income [27,29,30,[35][36][37]. ...
... Our estimations also differed from those of [22]. According to these authors, visitors are those who move in a radius of 15 km from a place where they spend at least one night in tourist accommodation in the region of Limburg, Netherlands, in an area near to or within the natural area visited. ...
Article
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The scientific debate over how to make visible the connections between the standard System of National Accounts (SNA) and its ongoing satellite Environmental Economic Ecosystem Accounting–Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA–EEA) is a challenge that is still pending. The literature on environmental accounting of agroforestry and silvopastoral landscapes rarely values the multiple ecosystem services of an area, an economic unit (e.g., farm), or a vegetation type (e.g., holm oak—Quercus ilex L.—open woodland). Generally, the literature presents the market value of the products consumed directly or a correction of the latter that reduces their exchange values in order to approximate them to their resource rents. In our previous publications, we have applied and compared our Agroforestry Accounting System (AAS) with the System of National Accounts (SNA), and we refined the latter to avoid the lag between income generation and its accounting in the period in which the product is extracted. These previous publications did not develop experimental applications of the SEEA–EEA with comparisons to the SNA and it being integrated into the AAS. The main novelty of this article is that, for the first time, we present detailed applications and comparisons of our developments of the refined SEEA–EEA and refined SNA with a simplified version of the AAS. The accounting frameworks applied take the production and capital accounts in the process of being updated by the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) at the scale of the holm oak open woodlands of Andalusia into account. In this study, we compare three environmental accounting approaches for ecosystem services and environmental income measurements at basic and social prices: our slightly refined standard System of National Accounts (rSNA); our refined, updated and ongoing satellite System of Environmental Economic Accounting–Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (rSEEA–EEA); and our simplified Agroforestry Accounting System (sAAS). We tested them for 15 economic activities in 1408 thousand hectares of the predominantly mixed holm oak open woodland (HOW) land use tiles in the region of Andalusia, Spain. We considered the government institutional sector to be the collective owner of public economic activities, which we incorporated in the rSNA and the sAAS approaches. We discuss consistencies in environmental incomes identified from the results of the three ecosystem accounting frameworks applied to the HOW. The discrepancies in the measurement of ecosystem services of the government institutional sector between the rSEEA–EEA and the sAAS were due to the omission in the former of the government manufactured costs incurred in the supply of freely consumed public final products. The most notable finding of our comparison is that the ecosystem services and the environmental income results for individual market products offered the same values, whichever the ecosystem accounting framework applied. This was not the case with the ecosystem services of public products without market prices, due to the fact that the rSNA estimates these products at production cost and the rSEEA–EEA did not consider the government manufactured production costs and ordinary manufactured net operating margin of government final public product consumption. We also found that, according to modeling of the scheduled management of future biological resources of the HOW, the environmental income shows biological sustainability of the individual nature-based total product consumption.
... This result is in line with other studies (Remme et al., 2015;Sunderland et al., 2018) which found that NBR represents more than 30 % of the annual monetary value of ecosystem services. The relative value of this ES remains one of highest, despite the different approaches to monetary valuation used. ...
... fertilisers, machinery). Most ecosystem services accounts carried out so far take SNA products (crop yield and timber) as proxy for ES flow (Office for National Statistics, 2018;Ouyang et al., 2016;Remme et al., 2015). We claim that considering the biomass growth derived from human inputs as ecosystem service is conceptually inappropriate, and leads to an overestimation of ES provisioning. ...
Article
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Ecosystem services accounts are a useful tool that provides relevant information on the role of ecosystems in delivering services, and the society benefiting from them. This paper presents the accounting workflow for ecosystem services at the European Union level adopted by the Knowledge Innovation Project on an Integrated system for Natural Capital and ecosystem services Accounting (KIP INCA) - a European Commission initiative. The workflow includes: 1) biophysical assessment of ecosystem services; 2) monetary valuation; and 3) compilation of accounting tables. Supply and use tables are presented for six ecosystem services assessed so far. The supply table shows woodland and forest, followed by wetlands, as the ecosystem types with the highest monetary value per unit area. Analyses of changes between 2000 and 2012 show an overall increase of the monetary value of ecosystem services, mainly due to an increase in demand for them. We also discuss advantages and disadvantages of adopting a fast-track approach, based on official statistics, in comparison to an accounting strategy based on spatial models. We propose a novel workflow for ecosystem services accounts, focused on assessment of the actual flow of ecosystem services, making a significant contribution to further development of the technical recommendations for ecosystem services accounts.
... Additional fees may be paid to MAAIF by owners of aquaculture cages, as these are placed in publicly owned ecosystem assets (lakes and rivers). This reflects the approach used by Remme et al., (2015) when valuing ecosystem services associated with hunting (which fishing is a form of) and is consistent with transaction based valuation approaches of the SEEA EEA (UN et al., 2018). The monetary value associated with sale of fish to consumers is reflected in the market price paid by the consumer at landing sites and should be recorded in Table 7. ...
... This value may also be used to impute the value of subsistence fish consumption in Table 7. 59. For aquaculture, the farm gate price should be recorded in the relevant boxes in Table 7. Following, Remme et al., (2015) the resource rent approach can be used to estimate the return on natural assets, such as farmland, fish ponds and cages. Under this approach, the value of the 'fish provisioning service' can be estimated from the landed price by subtracting all costs for capital and labour. ...
Method
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11. This technical note provides an overview of how to compile a set of Integrated Fisheries Accounts that can be used to inform policy, management and better valuation of the fisheries sector so it can be managed in a sustainable way that contributes to Uganda’s green growth ambitions. The purpose of the accounts is to organise information on ‘Stocks’ of fish and the ecosystems in which they are found and the ‘Flows’ of ecosystem services (i.e., fish provisioning) they provide to key economic units (government, households and businesses) in Uganda.
... damages associated with an incremental increase in carbon emissions in a given year) as estimated by the United States Government (2013) and converted to euros using August 2019 exchange rates. Due to the absence of a Dutch-specific social cost of carbon, this U.S.-based approach was also applied in a previous Dutch case study by Remme et al. (2015) resulting in a carbon price of €150 per metric ton. The variation in the carbon price between the two studies can largely be attributed to the changes in the dollar-euro exchange rates. ...
... In terms of estimating the value of carbon sequestration and storage from urban trees, i-Tree uses a U.S.derived carbon price ( Table 6) that likely represents a conservative estimate of the social costs of carbon emissions due to uncertainty regarding future impacts of climate change (Remme et al., 2015). The physical quantities of carbon sequestration and storage that i-Tree calculates however are considered to be robust since clear relationships have been defined between tree dimensions (i.e. ...
Thesis
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A growing number of tools have been developed and applied to measure the benefits that healthy and functioning ecosystems provide to human well-being. However, few of these tools have been specifically designed for urban environments, which could be a reason for their limited adoption by urban decisionmakers and spatial planners. This has resulted in widespread under-estimation of the potential and actual ecosystem services, and thus societal benefits, that nature-based solutions (NBS) can provide within cities. In order to facilitate the use of empirical evidence as a rationale for greater NBS implementation in cities, this study developed and applied a comprehensive and systematic methodology for selecting, comparing and scoring ecosystem services assessment tools according to scientific criteria and practical requirements. This evaluation was undertaken from the perspective of Witteveen+Bos, an engineering consultancy firm in the Netherlands that wishes to enhance its empirical knowledge base of the contributions of NBS to human well-being in cities. The scoring matrix presented in this study was aimed at assessing and ranking the suitability of open-access, quantitative assessment tools in capturing multiple ecosystem services across different urban landscape domains and societal contexts. Based on specific screening and evaluation criteria, i-Tree Eco was judged to be the best performing tool out of six tools and was subsequently applied to an urban case study (i.e. a large park in Amsterdam called Park Frankendael). The application of i-Tree Eco served to further test its effectiveness, feasibility and limitations under Dutch urban conditions. i-Tree Eco is the flagship software of a suite of tools developed to analyse ecosystem structure, function, services and values. The basis for i-Tree Eco suite is tree allometric relationships between biomass, volume and function using measurements such as diameter at breast height (DBH), crown size and tree height. The end product of this study was the creation of a value case for Park Frankendael which highlights key quantitative, qualitative, monetised and non-financial insights into the multiple ecosystem services that are currently being provided by the park to the city and its residents. Future applications of the i-Tree Eco tool in urban projects with natural ecosystem elements can further strengthen the value case for urban NBS and promote their inclusion into urban planning and decision-making.
... Water supply and water regulation were a large part in many of those publications where conceptual and methodological issues related to monetary valuation were also discussed. We highlight two cases studies that directly quantify water supply and are representative cases on economic valuation of water and related ecosystem services (see for example Viscusi et al., 2008, Young 2010, Wilson and Carpenter, 1999, Chaikumbung et al., 2016 In a case study in Limburg province (Netherlands), monetary accounting for groundwater extraction and drinking water provision was implemented (Remme et al. 2015). The study used a "replacement cost" method with a least-cost alternative instead of a "resource rent" because of the strongly regulated drinking water market. ...
Article
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The SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (EEA) framework, defines ecosystem services as the contributions of ecosystems to benefits used in economic and other human activities (UN et al., 2014). The existing SEEA-Water framework (UN, 2012) provides a detailed guidance for water accounting from the environment, i.e., upstream basins, aquifers and water bodies. However, it falls short of including the role of terrestrial ecosystems that contribute to the water exchanges between water resources within and outside upstream basin by regulating water quality, flows and storage. In this paper we demonstrate how the SEEA EEA approach extends the SEEA-Water framework to account for freshwater ecosystem services that are essential for reliable water supply as the final service to a range of economic sectors including households.
... The approach taken in the Netherlands differs somewhat from that taken in the UK. The Netherlands SEEA EEA accounts were implemented in an integrated mannercovering all ecosystemsat the national scale, following a pilot in the province of Limburg conducted in 2010(Remme et al., 2014Remme et al., 2015;de Jong et al., 2016;. Hence, the Netherlands accounts are therefore the first accounts on a national scale that involve the complete testing of all six main accounts of the SEEA EEA. ...
Article
In 2012, the Netherlands started the testing and production of high resolution, national scale ecosystem accounts following the methodology of the System of Environmental Economic Accounting – Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA EEA), in short ‘ecosystem accounting’. The SEEA is endorsed by the United Nations Statistical Commission as a comprehensive system for analysing and recording physical and monetary information on ecosystems and human dependencies on ecosystems. Many other countries have been developing natural capital accounts following the SEEA EEA, but the Netherlands work was novel in the sense that a comprehensive set of accounts has been developed for the whole country, including high resolution maps and accounting tables of ecosystem type, condition, services, assets, carbon and biodiversity. The work involved over 10 man-years of work, and was carried out in a collaboration by the Netherlands Statistical Office (CBS) and Wageningen University. This paper presents the methodologies followed and results obtained, and reflects on the policy applications of the accounts. Some further testing and development of the SEEA EEA is needed and also the Netherlands accounts are not yet complete. Nevertheless, the lessons learned in the Netherlands are relevant for other accounting efforts world-wide.
... Ogilvy et al. (2018)) incorporate the government among the institutional sectors in their integrated valuation of ecosystem services. Other authors have applied the SEEA-EEA to individual goods and services, but they do not integrate ecosystem services and environmental assets of the ecosystems in the production and capital accounts (EFTEC, 2015; Eigenraam and Obst, 2018;Keith et al, 2017;La Notte et al., 2019aOgilvy et al. 2018;Remme et al, 2015;Sumarga et al, 2015). The Knowledge Innovation Project on an integrated system of natural Capital and ecosystem services Accounting (KIP INCA) aims to contribute to the future design of the European Union SEEA-EA (European Commission, 2016). ...
Article
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In this research, our objectives are twofold: firstly to conceptualize and compare the ecosystem services and environmental incomes of individual activities at producer, basic and social prices using the extended accounts (Agroforestry Accounting System) and the refined standard accounts (a slightly refined standard System of National Accounts), and secondly, to apply both methodologies at a scale of 4,095 land-cover tiles predominately occupied by cork oak open woodlands (COW), which cover 248,015 ha in Andalusia, Spain. This analysis considers spatial-explicit characteristics of COW across Andalusia. The 15 COW economic activities valued in 2010 include: timber, cork, firewood, nuts, grazing, conservation forestry, residential services, private amenity, fire services, water supply, mushroom, carbon, free access recreation, landscape conservation services and threatened wild biodiversity preservation services. In this research, the ecosystem service is defined as an economic indicator that provides information on the contribution of nature to product consumption by humans in the period, but with an uncertain meaning of ecological sustainability. We show that environmental income is the maximum economic value in the period of sustainable ecosystem service with both ecological and economic significance only if the future sustainable biophysical silvicultural management scenarios are accounted for. To measure environmental incomes, we model the future sustainable silviculture while considering all the management practices required to maintain cork oak woodlands in perpetuity. We use farm-level data to estimate voluntary opportunity costs incurred by land and livestock owners associated with hunting and livestock activities of the farmer as well as their subsequent scaling up to COW land-cover tiles in order to estimate environmental incomes at social prices for each individual activity. In this study, we measure the ecosystem services and incomes of the COW private amenity and public landscape activities at social prices, that is, their basic prices less own compensated and auto-consumed non-commercial intermediate consumption of services used by the private amenity and public landscape activities. The ecosystem services and environmental incomes of cork oak open woodlands measured by the extended accounts at basic prices in 2010 were 1.1 and 1.2 times higher, respectively, than those estimated at social prices. The ecosystem services and environmental incomes measured at basic prices by the refined standard accounts were 0.3 and 0.2 times, respectively, those estimated by the extended accounts at social prices.
... ESV assessment can either be done by primary valuation such as market-based methods, revealed preference methods, and stated preference methods, or benefit transfer methodologies (Schägner et al., 2013). The application of model-based approach combined with primary valuation usually requires many input parameters and contains complex calculating processes, thus is often performed on the small spatial scale (Remme et al., 2014(Remme et al., , 2015 or a single service of a single ecosystem (La Notte et al., 2017). In comparison, the combination of LU,LC proxy and benefit transfer is more convenient for comprehensive assessment on the spatiotemporal distribution of ESV including multiple services of different ecosystems at regional, national and global scales. ...
Article
As a highly valuable region that provides multiple important ecosystem services, the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is vulnerable to climate change and human activities, which have induced significant land cover changes from 1990 to 2015. However, the impact of these changes on the ecosystem service values in the 25 years remains unknown. In this study, we used the combined approach of land cover proxy and unit value transfer method to assess changes in ecosystem service values. The results showed that total ecosystem service values including provisioning, regulating, habitat and cultural services has increased from ca. 1.77 trillion in 1990 to ca. 1.81 trillion US dollars in 2015, mainly due to the considerable expansion of rivers and lakes and a decrease of bare lands and glacier and snow. Although the elasticity analysis found that the response of ESV changes is not that elastic to LULC changes in three periods, 1990–2000, 2000–2010 and 2010–2015, it can still be used as a detector to locate unusual changes in different regions and to indicate urgent need for specific ecosystem management.
...  Opportunities of National Parks Numerous opportunities exist for the national parks that can exploited for socio-economic if conversation goals are linked the mutual benefits local community. National park rich biodiversity provides enormous economic potentials for recreation and ecotourism and opportunity for employment and generating income (Remme et al., 2015; Demeke and Verma, 2013). Ngoka, 2013Aruonye et al, 2017.Educating the local community to on need to participation and practiced community base conservation is key to unlock these opportunities. ...
Research
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National parks are storehouse for wildlife and habitat and endowed with potentials. Although local community participation and tourism development can enhance the potentials of national park, identifying the significant factors influencing outcomes of maximizing opportunity of the Gashaka Gumti National Parks is important. Based on the backwards selection method of community support for tourism development, help to local community, tourism development bring job opportunity and community conservation initiative significantly contributes to the likelihood of maximizing opportunity of Gashaka Gumti National in conserving biodiversity. Thus it can be concluded that local community involvement and tourism development are more likely to impact biodiversity conservation in Gashaka Gumti national Parks than strict conservation.
... They estimate a mean TEV of €500 ha -1 year -1 before restoration for their Finnish site, mostly from crop production, and the southern Scandinavian sites closer to €1,000 ha -1 year -1 , from a broader mix of FES. Remme, Edens [39] estimated value in € ha -1 year -1 for a province in the Netherlands for agriculture, drinking water, air quality regulation, carbon sequestration and recreation, finding a TEV of around €500 ha -1 year -1 , mostly coming from agriculture and recreation. Lankia, Kopperoinen [40] estimated the value of recreation in various Finnish regions using survey data. ...
Article
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Nordic catchments provide a variety of ecosystem services, from harvestable goods to mitigation of climate change and recreational possibilities. Flows of supplied ecosystem services depend on a broad range of factors, including climate, hydrology, land management and human population density. The aims of this study were: 1) to quantify the total economic value (TEV) of consumed ecosystem services across Nordic catchments, 2) to explain variation in ecosystem service value using socio-geographic and natural factors as explanatory variables in multiple linear regression, and 3) to determine which societal groups benefit from these ecosystem services. Furthermore, we tested the scientific rigour of our framework based on the concept of final ecosystem services (FES). We used a spatially explicit, integrative framework for ecosystem services quantification to compile data on final ecosystem services provision from six catchments across Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Our estimates showed a broad variation in TEV and in the proportion contributed by separate services, with the highest TEV of €7,199 ± 4,561 ha ⁻¹ y ⁻¹ (mean ± standard deviation) in the Norwegian Orrevassdraget catchment, and the lowest TEV of €183 ± 517 ha ⁻¹ y ⁻¹ in the Finnish Simojoki catchment. The value of material services was dependent on both geographic factors and land management practices, while the value of immaterial services was strongly dependent on population density and the availability of water. Using spatial data on land use, forest productivity and population density in a GIS analysis showed where hotspots of ecosystem services supply are located, and where specific stakeholder groups benefit most. We show that our framework is applicable to a broad variety of data sources and across countries, making international comparative analyses possible.
... There are scarce experimental academic and national statistical office applications at national/subnational ecosystem type scales that extend the standard SNA (Hein et al., 2020a(Hein et al., , 2020bKeith et al., 2017;Obst, 2019;Remme et al., 2015;Sumarga et al., 2015). In the context of the ongoing debate surrounding ecosystem accounting, our extended Agroforestry Accounting System (AAS) methodology aims to overcome the limitations of the standard NVA (Campos et al., 2019a(Campos et al., , 2020a(Campos et al., , 2020b(Campos et al., , 2020c. ...
Article
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The standard System of National Accounts (SNA) omits the costs of the environmental inputs from nature and the environmental fixed asset degradation from the national/sub-national natural working landscapes. The United Nations Statistic Division (UNSD) is currently drafting the standardization of the Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (EEA), as part of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA). The EEA- aims to mitigate some of the limitations of the SNA by extending the concept of economic activity and explicitly incorporating ecosystem services and environmental assets provided by nature in the estimates of net value added, adjusted according to the costs of the environmental inputs consumed and the environmental fixed asset degradations of ecosystem. However, the NVAad proposed in the ongoing draft of the EEA is inconsistent in that it omits the manufactured costs of the public economic activities of the new government institutional sub-sector of the ecosystem trustee. In addition, the ongoing methodological guidelines of the EEA do not propose to estimate the environmental income. This implies that there is not a single indicator that integrates the ecosystem services obtained and the evolution of the environmental assets in the natural working landscapes in which the private and public activities are valued. The objective of this research is to discuss conceptually and compare the measurements of ecosystem services and environmental incomes in the extended Agroforestry Accounting System (AAS), and in refined versions of the official SNA and the ongoing EEA methodologies, through a case study of privately-owned holm oak dehesas working landscapes in Andalusia-Spain. This comparison shows that the refined SNA and the refined EEA in their current state of development do not allow the complete visualization of the environmental income contribution to the total income of the natural working landscapes. We also discuss the advances provided by the AAS extended accounting methodology that would be relevant for the EEA next improvements.
... Sumarga et al. 2015), replacement cost and avoided cost approaches (e.g. Remme et al. 2015). Also compatible with accounting rules are revealed preference methods, such as hedonic pricing methods, as long as they retrieve exchange values for the ES, and not consumer of Hicksian variations. ...
Conference Paper
Construction of ecosystem accounts requires conversion of biophysical measurements of ecosystem services supply and use into monetary terms. A range of valuation methods are compatible with the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) methodological framework for this purpose. Benefit transfer (BT) method is not seen as an eligible method in SEEA, even if pilot studies have already employed value transfers (either in physical or monetary terms) in practice. We propose that eligibility of BT should be reconsidered especially at this experimental stage of ecosystem accounting and explicit guidance for its use should be developed. BT is a fast and cost-effective method that can enable empirical applications in situations of limited resources. In this paper we elaborate on the challenges that may arise when using BT for ecosystem accounting purposes, namely in relation to a) value metrics b) spatial dimension of accounts c) application process of BT d) accuracy and errors of BT estimates and e) reproducibility of accounts. For addressing these challenges, we suggest that BT process is adjusted for the use in accounting context and the policy purpose of BT deployment is explicitly identified. We stress the need for developing and pursuing standardized procedures for BT applications and place particular focus on accounting for spatial information ideally during the operation of primary studies as well as during possible BT applications. We also highlight specific areas for further research to inform guidelines for acceptable transfer errors and to develop approaches to minimize transfer errors. With reference to reproducibility of accounts we suggest the use of function transfers particularly in case of ecosystem accounting at national level. Keywords: value
... The second defines green GDP as the traditional GDP minus the cost of environmental degradation and natural resource depletion (Kunanuntakij et al., 2017). Compared to the second definition, the first is in its infancy because the accounting of ecosystem services is still in the progress of conceptualization (Remme et al., 2015). In addition, to incorporate regional benefits of ecosystem services into national accounts (Bartelmus, 2009) or price goods and services from the ecosystem is problematic since most of them are not traded and priced by markets (Boyd, 2007). ...
Article
The rapid growth of energy-intensive and high-emission industries has underpinned China’s economic boom over the past few decades. Since her economic development entered the new normal phase in 2013, China has faced the challenge of mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while achieving medium-high economic growth. Transforming the economic development pattern and restructuring the economy is a principal solution, and one important prerequisite is discerning great sectoral disparities of GHG emissions and corresponding environmental costs because the diversity of characteristics among different sectors causes the pollutants that are discharged to vary. Hence, this paper aims to assess the environmental costs of China’s total and sectoral GHG emissions. Based on the System of Environmental and Economic Accounts and using the economic input-output life cycle assessment model, this study calculates the green GDP and green output value of 27 sectors to reflect the environmental costs of GHG emissions in China during 1991–2016. The findings are as follows: (1) while China’s direct GHG emissions increased from 3,040.60 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MtCO2eq) to 10,641.10 MtCO2eq during 1991–2014, declining trends were observed in the total and 16 sectors’ direct GHG emissions in the subsequent two years; (2) although the ratios of direct GHG emissions to total GHG emissions in most sectors decreased, total GHG emissions in eight sectors rose first and then fell, and in 15 sectors continued to rise; (3) China’s green GDP grew from 2,003.88 billion Chinese Yuan to 26,245.25 billion Chinese Yuan during 1991–2016, and the difference between China’s GDP and green GDP decreased from 2.73% to 1.02%; and (4) differences between the output value and green output value decreased in over 20 sectors. Finally, some policy implications are given from the perspective of some key sectors of the Manufacturing industry, Agricultural sector, and Transport, storage, and post sector.
... Economic valuation methodologies provide a means to estimate ES economic values (Fisher et al. 2009;Loureiro et al. 2009;Martín-López et al. 2011;Campbell and Tilley 2014;Häyhä et al. 2015;de Groot et al. 2012;Remme et al. 2015), and the number of studies, in this area, has been growing steadily (Fisher et al. 2009;de Groot et al. 2012). ...
Article
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Even though ecosystem services have a significant contribution to human well-being, their value is not always recognized. Despite difficulties, the application of economic valuation methodologies to ecosystem services has grown significantly in the literature, in order to contemplate ecosystem services’ values in the decision-making processes at different levels. Soil erosion and the associated loss of nutrients has been a major concern worldwide and is expected to increase. The present study proposes the biophysical and monetary quantification of avoided soil erosion, in an area ranging from Serra de Arga to the Âncora river mouth, in Northern Portugal. The biophysical and monetary values were estimated using the Universal Soil Loss Equation and an indirect market valuation method—the avoided costs of erosion. The results indicate that 1,075,236.8 tons of soil erosion is avoided each year, which, according to the model used, has a value of 5,247,155.70 €/year or, on average, of 1144.00 €/ha/year. Although these values may represent an underestimate of the real value, this paper hopes to contribute to the recognition of the value of ecosystem services to human well-being, in order to promote a more sustainable use of natural resources, the preservation of ecosystems and biodiversity, and a sustainable economy.
... An immediate issue is to harmonise the computation of touristic values, which goes beyond a money valuation of the natural capital that is exploited or sacrificed through tourism practices. Attempts, such as Remme et al. (2015), require further analyses. The harmonising issue is essential to maintain the ability to compare tourism performance and consequently to identify operational tourism strategies conditionally to contexts. ...
... An immediate issue is to harmonise the computation of touristic values, which goes beyond a money valuation of the natural capital that is exploited or sacrificed through tourism practices. Attempts, such as Remme et al. (2015), require further analyses. The harmonising issue is essential to maintain the ability to compare tourism performance and consequently to identify operational tourism strategies conditionally to contexts. ...
Article
The objective is to carry out a freeze frame of the English-written literature in tourism economics from 2008 to 2019. This period is not trivial since the two crises at both ends of the spectrum are breakpoints in the continuous growth of the tourism industry. Using a disciplinary classification of reference journals and focusing on the most influential contributions for this literature, a synoptic table of the diversity of research fields in economics identifies: the main issues; the scales of analysis; the disciplinary interactions; and the methodological progress. From there, future research perspectives are outlined for the coming decade.
... In the functional value evaluation method, some key service functions are evaluated through a series of ecological equations, and the calculation is more complex than that of the equivalent factor method (Remme et al. 2014). The functional value evaluation method is suitable for smaller spatial scales (Remme et al. 2015), and the cost of this method is high. Researchers often lack the required investigations of the ecological backgrounds of their study Responsible Editor: Philippe Garrigues areas, and the customization necessary to determine the service function parameters to be evaluated; these omissions bring great uncertainty to the evaluation results (Boithias et al. 2016). ...
Article
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Ecological restoration projects have great impacts on ecosystem service values (ESVs) in China. However, it is still unclear how the temporal and spatial characteristics of ESVs in karst areas in southwestern China changed before and after the implementation of some ecological restoration projects. Land use data from five phases between 1980 and 2018 were used in combination with socioeconomic data of karst areas in southwestern China. The equivalent factor method and spatial, autocorrelation analysis method were used to study the temporal and spatial distributions of ESVs. The results show that (1) the conversion of land use types mainly consisted of the conversion of cultivated lands to woodlands, grasslands, and water areas, and from grasslands to woodlands, construction lands, and wetlands; (2) from 1980 to 2018, the overall trend of ESVs in the study area first decreased and then increased; the ESVs increased by 19.62 billion yuan, with a growth rate of 0.35%, and changes in water areas were the main reason for the ESVs increase, while changes in the areas of woodlands and wetlands were the second reason for the ESVs increase; (3) in terms of its spatial distribution, the ESVs was higher in the southwest direction, while in other areas, from west to east, the ESVs generally showed a spatial distribution pattern of “high-low-high-low”; and (4) the ESVs in the study area had significant, positive autocorrelations in its spatial distribution from 1980 to 2018. The spatial aggregation of ESVs among cities mainly included aggregations of spatially similar values. The results of this study provide reference data for ecological infrastructure construction and ecological-economic development in karst areas in southwestern China.
... The SEEA-EA is a spatially based, integrated statistical framework that 'places considerable focus on recording data on the stocks and flows at sub-national and finer spatial scales' (United Nations, 2021: 25). The analysis of spatial units is key to understanding and tracking individual ecosystem assets, flows of ecosystem services and production changes in smaller areas Edens and Hein, 2013;Remme et al., 2015), in addition to aggregated information from national accounts. In our application, we estimate differentiated values across a spatial area by combining the Cameron's (1988) approach with the explanatory variables of the preferred model. ...
Article
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We applied discrete choice contingent valuation to the amenities consumed by non-industrial private forest owners in Andalusia (Spain) in a survey of 765 landowners. The landowners’ median willingness to accept compensation from an alternative investment for giving up land amenity consumption is EUR 387.8 per hectare yearly. The preferred model shows diminishing marginal values of amenity consumption with property size, negative effects of eucalyptus and Aleppo pine presence and positive effects of distance to urban centres. We discuss the performance of the question formats and models employed and recommend the single-bounded format in this valuation context.
... Crop yield is, despite being regularly used as an ecosystem service indicator 5,6 not a well-suited measure for natural contributions to human well-being, as crop yield is only partly related to what agricultural ecosystems contribute and as it strongly depends on human management 7,8 . For instance, in a case study on accounting for natural contributions for six arable crops, Remme et al. 9 found that the resource rent, as a proxy for natural contributions, only accounts for 12% of the total revenue of six arable crops, while operating, labour and capital costs account for the rest. On the one hand, crop production depends on a range of natural contributions such as soil formation and nutrient cycling leading to soil fertility 10,11 . ...
Article
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Crop production is a crucial ecosystem service that requires a combination of natural and anthropogenic contributions to high and stable yields, which is a coproduction process. We analysed this coproduction based on nationally aggregated data for 15 major crops for 67 countries and the European Union with data for four time steps (2000, 2006, 2010, 2014). We found strong increases in fertilizer use, net capital stock and manure use intensity for lower-middle-income countries and stagnation or decrease of these for high-income countries. We used a multiple linear regression model predicting yield to distinguish the effect of anthropogenic contributions (crop-specific fertilizer use intensity, net capital stock intensity, manure use intensity) and natural contributions (crop-specific agricultural suitability, including soil characteristics, topography and climate). We found that in particular fertilizer use intensity, manure use intensity and agricultural suitability explained variation in yields to a considerable degree (R ² = 0.62).
... There are usually two methods employed to quantify the value of ecosystem services: biophysical assessment of ecosystem services and socioeconomic assessment of ESV per unit . Model-based approaches usually require a large number of input parameters and complex computing processes and, thus, tend to be performed on a smaller spatial scale or for a single ecosystem service (La Notte et al. 2017;Remme et al. 2015). In comparison, the ESV equivalent method is more convenient for comprehensively evaluating the temporal and spatial distributions of multiple ecosystem services at regional, national, and global scales Jiang et al. 2020;Li et al. 2018;Xie et al. 2015). ...
Article
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Urbanization has substantially changed landscape patterns and seriously disturbed the structure and function of the ecosystems. However, the spatial characteristics and relationships between landscape patterns and ecosystem service values (ESVs) along the urban-rural gradient remain unclear. Based on high-resolution images, this study used concentric buffer zones to explore the characteristics and relationship between landscape pattern indexes (LPIs) and ESVs in the rural-urban gradient to reveal the impact of urban development on urban ecosystems. The results showed that the landscape heterogeneity was high in the urban fringe 18–20 km from the urban center. The PD, ED, LSI, SHAPE_MN, DIVISION, SPLIT, and SHIDI variables had the lowest values in the urban center, while CONTAG and AI had the high values in the urban. Water bodies and forest land are the main land use/land cover (LULC) types that provide ecosystem services. The total ESV of Kunshan city totaled 5597.31 × 10⁶ CNY in 2018. The average ESV increased from 2.42 × 10⁶ CNY to 9.92 × 10⁶ CNY along the urban-rural gradient, which indicated that natural landscapes had higher ESVs. ED and Landscape Division Index (DIVISION) had positive effects on ESV, while Largest Patch Index (LPI), Contagion (CONTAG), Proportion of Like Adjacencies (PLADJ), Patch Cohesion Index (COHESION), and Aggregation Index (AI) had negative effects on ESV. The results of the regression model indicated there were quantitative relationships between ESVs and LPIs, which revealed how landscape pattern affected ESVs. The study can provide a scientific reference for the optimization of urban landscape patterns and urban and rural sustainable development.
... Currently, widely used methods include the primary-data-based method and the unit-value-based method. The former method builds on a set of biophysical calculations of ES using ecology-related models to value each of ES by using primary valuation (e.g., market price method, revealed preference method, carbon tax method, travel cost method), and has commonly been applied to a relatively small region or the specific ES (La Notte et al., 2017;Remme et al., 2015); the latter method utilizes land use as a proxy according to the benefit transfer method by assigning an economic value to each of ES per unit area to estimate multiple ESV based on a summation of the area of every ecosystem. In contrast to the other method, the unitvalue-based method neither required many model parameters nor involved complicated calculation steps; therefore, this approach is very appropriate for the multiple-scale assessment of ESV in view of its operability and practicableness (Costanza et al., 2014;Wang et al., 2014). ...
Article
Revegetation is a conventional approach used for ecological protection and restoration projects, especially in the agro-pastoral ecotone of northern China (AENC). However, for this ecologically vulnerable area, the changes in land use and ecosystem service values (ESV) resulting from revegetation projects have received little attention and have not been fully elucidated. In this study, based on a rapid valuation tool–the benefit transfer method modified by the biomass factor (net primary productivity, NPP)–we assessed the ESV of the AENC at multiple-time scales by designing land scenarios related to local revegetation projects. The results showed that forestland expansion (+697 thousand ha) and grassland shrinkage (-650 thousand ha) dominated the land use change in the AENC in 2000-2018 and indirectly resulted in a net increase of US$8.18 billion in total ESV, in which revegetation projects generated nearly 1.5 million ha of new vegetated land and a corresponding US$6.86 billion in ESV (83.83% of the total increase). For future revegetation, the returning-farmland-to-forestland scenario exhibited a greater potential with increases of 5.66 million ha of forestland and US$65.20 billion in ESV to be provided. Overall, revegetation projects improved the ESV of the AENC in the last two decades because of the pronounced expansion in forestland of high ESV at the expense of the reductions in farmland and grassland, and this trend will be led continually by the Grain for Green Project in the future through the rapid assessment based on the modified benefit transfer method. Specifically, more investments and attention must be directed to the protection and restoration of grassland and wetland ecosystems.
... Some studies estimated the value of RES through the incomes generated by nature-based tourism. Remme et al. (2015) calculated the average tourist expenditure in the province of Lindburg, Netherlands, to value RES as resource rent generated by recreation in nature. Popa et al. (2016) estimated the value of RES in Maramures Mountains in Romania based on the number of visitors, the percentage of tourists with longer stays and the total expenditure per visit, comprised of direct spending on hotels and meals. ...
Article
Recreational Ecosystem Services (RES) are among the most frequently evaluated ecosystem services. RES are seen as a major opportunity for sustainable development in areas of high ecological value resulting from the presence of emblematic species, habitats or scenery, often integrated in conservation areas, in particular in mountain areas affected by depopulation, rising environmental risks and poverty. Economically, the assessment of RES has been based on Contingent Valuation and Choice Experiments, methods with limitations related to their subjectivity. Alternatively, Input-Output (IO) models provide a very accurate and effective way of valuation of RES with regional information regarding interindustry transactions. Whilst data on nature tourist expenditure may be only available annually, tourism inflows have a strong seasonal behavior, which impacts the profitability of several local economic activities. In this paper, we firstly constructed a novel regionalized IO-model based on Cross-Industry Location Quotients using employment data and, secondly, based on Monte Carlo simulation, we estimated nature tourist expenditure monthly using data on nature tourism inflows. This method allowed for a more precise RES evaluation, estimating direct, indirect and induced monthly economic impacts of nature-based tourism. The method was applied to the Ordesa and Monte Perdido (OMP) National Park in the Spanish Pyrenees. To estimate the average tourist expenditure, we collected and analyzed spending on commerce, hospitality and restaurants, leisure, and transport of 385 visitors. Results suggest that using a regionalized IO model leads to a considerable reduction of over-estimation of the economic impact of tourist expenditure estimated by conventional methods. Taking into consideration the direct, indirect and induced effects of tourist expenditure in 2016-2018, the total annual output effect in the OMP National Park amounted to €208.8 million, while the total income effect amounted to €86.29 million. Also, a total of 2,429 jobs were created which indicates that for each thousand annual visitors to the National Park, 3.8 jobs are created in the surrounding area. Overall, the proposed methodology can be easily applied to the remaining National Parks in Spain or other regions in the world, making it a valuable tool to estimate the value of RES in areas affects by strong seasonality, to set priorities and support regional policies for mountain sustainable development.
... Costanza et al. (1997) first evaluated the World's natural capital in 1997 based on the 'willingness-to-pay' by individuals for ES. It has attracted much attention from the academic community (Remme et al., 2015;Sannigrahi et al., 2018;Xie et al., 2017Xie et al., , 2008Zheng et al., 2020). Many scholars have argued that it is important to account for ES in financial and monetary terms to help policy-makers assess the value of dryland ecosystems (Castro et al., 2018). ...
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Ecosystem services (ESs) provided by dryland ecosystems store nearly half and one‐third of the earth's terrestrial biomass and biodiversity, respectively. Pakistan is a typical dryland region with significant land degradation and dramatic changes in ESs in recent decades, which has not been sufficiently investigated. This study explored the spatiotemporal variations in ecosystem service values (ESVs) over Pakistan (2001‐2018) by combining land use/cover data, economic modelling and hotspot analysis. From the achieved results, the total ESVs indicated an improvement in ESs before 2012 and then showed a declining trend. The largest contribution was attributed to the increase in forest/shrubland by 16.17% (2001‐2006) and 10.36% (2006–2012). However, the ESV decreased to 7.76% from 2012–2018, which was mainly attributed to the decrease in cropland and grassland. Heterogeneous changes were observed in ESVs. The hotspot of ESV change (approximately an area of 32,578 km2) was mainly located in the southern and southeastern parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), the northeastern part of Balochistan, and the central and western parts of Sindh Province. The cold spot (approximately an area of 24,491 km2) showed a distribution in the northern part of KPK and Gilgit Baltistan, northeastern Punjab, coastal regions and southeastern Sindh Province. We also found that although the total ESV and gross domestic product (GDP) indicated growth, the proportion of ESV from the total ESV and GDP (%ESV) exhibited a negative trend. The provinces of Punjab and Balochistan retained the highest value of %ESV, while Azad Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan were much lower. These results reflected the spatial imbalance of ecosystem protection and economic development in Pakistan. We recommend that necessary actions for conserving ESs are important to strengthen ecological conservation in Pakistan. Additionally, further interdisciplinary research is needed to fully explore synergies in conserving ESs and economical conservation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The functional value evaluation method is based on a series of ecological functions used to evaluate several key service functions and is very complicated [23]. Therefore, this method is more suitable for use at small scales [24]. However, this method is tremendously expensive, and researchers usually lack the background of the research region needed to customize the parameters for these functions, resulting in considerable uncertainty [25]. ...
Article
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Land use/land cover (LULC) has an important impact on the ecological environment and is crucial for calculating ecosystem service values (ESVs). However, whether and to what extent the ESVs vary when calculated by LULC product data at different spatial scales remain unclear. Data from two LULC products were used in this study, and two datasets with different spatial scales were obtained by resampling. Then, the ESVs were calculated by the equivalent factor method. Finally, the impacts of LULC on ESVs at different scales were studied, revealing the following: (1) The ESVs calculated by LULC products and by the same products at different scales are different. (2) The difference in the ESVs calculated by the two LULC datasets is approximately 28%, and the difference tends to decrease with increasing scale. (3) With an increase in the LULC scale, the overall change trend of ESVs also increases, and the increasing trend gradually moderates. In addition, the ESVs and LULC scale conform to a logarithmic relationship, and the coefficient of determination (R2) is greater than 0.7. These results have important reference value for obtaining reliable ESVs.
... In this case, it should be linked to households. There are already some examples in the scientific literature on how fodder could be accounted for: Remme et al. (2015), Remme et al. (2014) for instance, suggest combining grazing with harvested fodder (mainly grass and maize) for animals which spend the summer freely grazing and the rest of the year in barns being fed. ...
Article
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The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA EEA) represents a crucial approach to incorporate the assessment of the sustainable use of natural resources and ecosystems into decision- and policy-making. However, its application is constrained by challenges distinct across specific implementation contexts, including those present in developing nations. In this paper, we focus on a pilot SEEA EEA application in a local-scale case study in Kyzyl Unkur, Jalal-Abad region, the Kyrgyz Republic, characterized by a unique natural walnut forest. We summarize key methodological and empirical challenges identified through collaboration with local experts and stakeholders during the compilation of Supply and Use tables for selected ecosystem services (ES) relevant at local, national and global levels. Specifically, we focus on the methodological challenges related to a) defining and assigning benefits for own consumption; b) delineating the chain of ES flows (e.g., fodder for farm animals); c) uncovering the relevance of carbon sequestration in developing nation contexts which are often minor greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters and demand for the service lies mostly beyond their boundaries. Among empirical challenges, we highlight the issues of data collection and availability. The aim of this communication is to provide lessons learnt from building SEEA EEA accounts in a developing, data-scarce context, potentially transferable to other similar applications.
... Similar results of outdoor recreation have been found in our study while, additionally, a decrease in 1995 had been observed. Tourism is one essential indicator of cultural services indicating the attractiveness of a landscape, which has been studied by many ecosystem research (Raudsepp-Hearne et al. 2010;Remme et al. 2015). In this study, there is insufficient tourism data when tracing back to 1990; however, it is believed that in Yan'an area tourism coincides with outdoor recreation. ...
... Further work would be required to isolate the contribution of ecosystems to the value of experience the consumer enjoys. For example, following Remme et al., (2015) the resource rent approach can be used. Here the contribution of the ecosystem service to the overall value of the experience the consumer enjoys is estimated by subtracting all costs for capital and labour from the park visitor and guiding fees. ...
Technical Report
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This report presents a set of biodiversity and tourism accounts for Uganda. The accounts are designed in an integrated way to provide a clear articulation of the status of natural capital assets underpinning Uganda’s wildlife-watching tourism sub-sector, level of tourism activity in that sector and the level of associated expenditures
... Research on the demand side such as the identification of beneficiaries is ongoing and has received increased attention [21]. Some previous studies considered beneficiaries of ES, mainly by mapping them [45][46][47], by land use and landowners [48], and by regarding all residents living in a particular area as beneficiaries [23]. ...
Article
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Although researchers expect the valuation of ecosystems and their services to be used in various decision-making processes, some studies have insisted that the valuation results cannot be fully used in the real world. The so-called “information gap” was highlighted, and some reasons for the gap were raised by researchers. One of them is the lack of local-specific and demand-side information, such as who receives the benefits and to what extent. This study proposes a valuation that includes demand-side information for it to be practically useful for policy decision making, especially for local policymakers. We focus on the headwater conservation service of the forest ecosystem by referring to the case of constructing solar power plants in the Satetsu-gawa river basin in Ichinoseki, Japan. We estimate the size of the area and the number of households affected by deforestation caused by the construction of the plants. Furthermore, the lost value of ecosystem services is assessed in monetary terms to reflect information on the demand side. Based on the results, we present multiple indicators for assessing the impact of constructing the plants and discuss how the valuation can be used by local policymakers as well as how it can close the information gap.
... Theoretically, the compartmentalised nature of accounting may not align well with Indigenous knowledge and values. For example, ecosystem accounting commonly emphasises monetary metrics for valuation (Remme et al., 2015) and this is likely to be incompatible with Indigenous relationships with Country, which are generally conceived as a reciprocal relationships between people and nature (Comberti et al., 2015). Practically, the datasets often used to inform the development of ecosystem accounts may not fully encompass Indigenous understandings of the continuity of Country. ...
Article
Ecosystem accounting is emerging as a promising tool for environmental management by offering consistent information about ecosystem change over time. Via a United Nations process, ecosystem accounting has been standardised in the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA). However, there are currently no examples of ecosystem accounts developed specifically to support Indigenous people’s management of land or sea. More than 40% (3 million square kilometres) of Australia’s land and sea territory has Indigenous Title. If Indigenous managers are to use ecosystem accounting, then it is essential for them to be involved in its devel- opment. We assessed how ecosystem accounts can be developed and applied in a manner that supports the management objectives of Indigenous owners and managers. Working collaboratively with the Yawuru Tradi- tional Owners of the land and sea country around Broome, Western Australia, we constructed and assessed experimental ecosystem accounts for land cover and fire for the period 2000–2020. Three key benefits of ecosystem accounts for supporting the priorities of Yawuru managers were identified: (1) flexibility in the units used for the analysis; (2) the extended time scale of the accounts; and (3) the emphasis on consistent capturing and reporting of data. We also identified the need for further work to incorporate cultural knowledge and values within the broader SEEA, with implications for the recognition of Indigenous people, knowledge and values within accounting systems globally.
... Currently, widely used methods include the primary-data-based method and the unit-value-based method. The former method builds on a set of biophysical calculations of ES using ecology-related models to value each of ES by using primary valuation (e.g., market price method, revealed preference method, carbon tax method, travel cost method), and has commonly been applied to a relatively small region or the specific ES (La Notte et al., 2017;Remme et al., 2015); the latter method utilizes land use as a proxy according to the benefit transfer method by assigning an economic value to each of ES per unit area to estimate multiple ESV based on a summation of the area of every ecosystem. In contrast to the other method, the unitvalue-based method neither required many model parameters nor involved complicated calculation steps; therefore, this approach is very appropriate for the multiple-scale assessment of ESV in view of its operability and practicableness (Costanza et al., 2014;Wang et al., 2014). ...
Article
Large-scale revegetation practices have lasted approximately two decades in the agro-pastoral ecotone of northern China (AENC), and their impacts on hydrological and ecological effects remain poorly understood. Previous studies largely focused on assessing water yield service (WYs) based on several fixed time points, whereas time series information—continuous WYs dynamics were more reliable and valuable in decision-making about water sustainability goals. This study analyzed the interannual WYs trend and relative roles of its drivers in the last 20 years based on a newly proposed approach, and revealed the past, present and future impacts of revegetation on WYs. The final results indicated that the annual WYs averaged approximately 97 mm and exhibited an increasing trend of 1.96 mm year⁻¹ (p = 0.086) during 2000–2019, in which climate and land-use changes were responsible for 88% and 12% of WYs variations, respectively. From 2000 to 2019, WYs was pronouncedly 1.47 mm year⁻¹ (p = 0.119) lower in the afforestation area than in the nonafforestation area, but the precipitation in the two regions had a statistically insignificant difference (p = 0.97). Future revegetation scenarios showed great potential for the shrinkage of WYs provision, even approaching a maximum of 50 mm at a local scale. Even so, the afforestation-induced reductions in blue water and benefits in green water both should receive equal attention. Specifically, any attempts to assess WYs or other climate-driven ecosystem services using discontinuous years as the study period must be taken with extreme caution.
... Similar results of outdoor recreation have been found in our study while, additionally, a decrease in 1995 had been observed. Tourism is one essential indicator of cultural services indicating the attractiveness of a landscape, 123 Landscape Ecol which has been studied by many ecosystem researches (Raudsepp-Hearne et al. 2010;Remme et al. 2015). In this study, there is insufficient tourism data when tracing back to 1990; however, it is believed that in Yan'an area tourism coincides with outdoor recreation. ...
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Context From 1999 onwards, China has initiated a large-scale landscape restoration project in the Chinese Loess Plateau, which has had profound but variable impacts on the local ecosystem services supply. The dynamics of ecosystem services throughout the restoration process remain poorly understood. Objectives To analyze the spatial and temporal dynamics in ecosystem services before and after the implementation of the land restoration project, and to understand trade-offs and synergies between multiple ecosystem services. Methods We used the InVEST model and statistical yearbook data to quantify the ecosystem services over the period 1990–2018 for the Yan’an area and applied the concept of ecosystem service bundles to understand the dynamics of 11 ecosystem services over its 13 constituent counties. Results A significant increase of fruit production, sediment retention, habitat quality, aesthetic landscape value, and learning and inspiration value was found over time in the Yan’an area, while a decrease of timber production and water yield was also observed. The majority of the county-level ecosystem service bundles were transformed from having a focus on timber production to aesthetic landscape value. The dynamics of ecosystem services change induced by land restoration was discovered to start with increasing regulating services at the expense of provisioning services, while cultural services exceeded regulating services and occupied the main proportion subsequently. Conclusion Both trade-offs and synergies were found between provisioning, regulating and cultural services. Implementation of the large-scale restoration project is recognized as a key driving force inducing change of ecosystem services, starting with an improvement of regulating services followed by a gradually evolving prominence of cultural services.
... For example, cattle are sold in market, while hunting by Indigenous people is an example of a service of largely non-market benefits (recreational and symbolic benefits), alongside benefits that can be valued monetarily using exchange values (e.g. as a food provisioning service). Consistent with other case studies in ecosystem accounting, the biophysical land assets that comprise Country, and the services produced from Country, may be valued in monetary terms as ''exchange values'' (Remme et al. 2015). In this instance, the monetary value of the ecosystem asset(s) as an exchange value could be calculated based on the present value of the flow of ecosystem services estimated in monetary terms (as an exchange value) (UN 2021, p. 177). ...
Article
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The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA-EA) is widely promoted in environmental and economic policy and management. Unfortunately, the SEEA-EA has not substantively addressed the aspects of accounting that may be of interest to, or used by, Indigenous peoples. We investigate an Indigenous perspective on the potential of the SEEA-EA to support cultural and environmental management through collaborative workshops with managers of Nyamba Buru Yawuru, the Prescribed Body Corporate representing the Yawuru Traditional Owners in Western Australia. Our discussions highlight that while the SEEA-EA may be a valuable tool for empowering Indigenous people and supporting the management of their lands and seas, there are areas where the SEEA-EA needs to be broadened to better reflect cultural values, and the services to ecosystems provided by Indigenous peoples. Embedding Indigenous perspectives into the SEEA-EA would mean that it is of greater use to Indigenous peoples and their representative organisations and ensure that these values are better recognised in the policymaking of government.
... Different combinations of these methods generate two kinds of approaches: one is referred to as the primary data-based approach using ecological models plus economic valuation techniques; the other is referred to as the unit value-based approach using land use/land cover proxy plus benefit transfer methods. The primary data-based approach usually requires many input parameters and contains complex calculations, and is thus often applied to a single service of a single ecosystem (La Notte et al., 2017), or otherwise conducted at a small spatial scale (Remme et al., 2015). In comparison, the unit value-based approach is more convenient for aggregating comprehensive ES values into larger spatial scales, and thus finds wider applications across the world (e.g. ...
Article
Since the turn of the millennium, studies on the value of ecosystem services have grown significantly in China, producing a rich and diverse literature. However, a systematic review of these findings remains lacking. In this paper, we examine over 3000 studies that have been published over the past twenty years (2001-2020), selecting from this vast corpus 63 articles for more in-depth analysis according to four strict review criteria, in order to provide the basis for building a national database of ecosystem services value. Based on this database, we illustrate the spatial distribution of study sites and ecosystem types, identify the methods applied to quantify physical amounts of ES supply and monetary values, analyze the spatial variation of ES values in different provinces of China, and establish a national empirical value table. We further compare our value table to other value tables in the existing literature and indicate the advantages and shortcomings of our database. Finally, we suggest future research needs in this growing field.
... By establishing a comprehensive evaluation index system of economic development and the ecological environment, the economic development level and ecological environment quality can be comprehensively explored. Researchers have published varied interpretations of the ecological, economic, social relationship and outputs, including quantitative measurement of ecological service value and its spatial evolution [8][9][10], the economy and ecological environments [11], the verification of an environmental Kuznets curve [12] and society, ecology and tourism [13], and the ecological function, production function and living function [14]. The general understanding is that ecological environment degradation and economic backwardness are interrelated and geographically coupled, and that this coupling is presented in the form of a "poverty trap". ...
Article
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The coordinated relationship between ecology, economy and transportation is essential for regional sustainable development. Does the high-quality ecological environment mean the lagging development of economy and transportation, or does the rapid growth of the economy and transportation lead to the deterioration of the ecological environment? To shed new light on the complicated relationship between ecology, economy and transportation, our study aims to construct three comprehensive indicators, including an ecological index (EI), economic development level (EC) and transport superiority degree (TR), to reflect the systems mentioned above, and to measure the coordination of the three indicators’ development and evolution using a model of the coordination degree (CD). Specifically, and by applying methods for the indicators’ normalization, including superposition analysis and principal component analysis, the three indicators’ values are reasonably evaluated for measuring their coordination relationship. The above three indicators use data from 58 counties in Fujian province from 2000 to 2018 in our study. All three indicators show differences in the west and east of Fujian province; the EI is relatively low in the eastern coastal areas and relatively high in the western mountainous areas, the EC shows a relatively discrete and irregular distribution and the distribution pattern of the TR is almost the opposite of the EI. The CD shows a relationship among the three indicators, with the EI and EC coordinated in most counties and the EI and TR coordinated in most counties, while the highly coordinated counties are mainly distributed in the northwest and east coastal regions of Fujian province in 2000, and the northwest, south and northeast of Fujian province in 2018. More than 50% of the county EC and TR values are kept in a coordinated state, and are mainly distributed in the eastern coast and central part of Fujian province. Over 50% of counties’ CD between EI and EC, EI and TR and EC and TR are in a coordinated state. The CD of the EI and EC and TR, in most counties, are in a coordinated state, mainly distributed in the eastern coast and central areas of Fujian province. In other words, the findings show that the coordinated state of ecology, economy and transportation can be achieved at the county level of Fujian province. These conclusions have significant reference value for understanding regional sustainable development.
Article
The calculation of ecological compensation and boundary identification of stakeholders represent the key challenges for Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region in its implementation of the trans-regional ecological compensation mechanism. Breaking administrative boundaries and spatially coordinating ecological resources helps to restructure an ecological compensation mechanism of the region based on the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei. According to the estimated ecological assets in the counties of the region in 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015, a quantitative model for total ecological compensation was built based on ecological assets and county-level economic development. Then, the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of the total ecological compensation in the region were defined, and the boundaries of ecological surplus and deficit areas were identified. Results indicate: (1) The region’s annual average ecological assets amounted to ¥1379.47 billion; in terms of annual total ecological assets, Hebei ranked first (¥1123.80 billion), followed by Beijing (¥157.46 billion) and Tianjin (¥98.21 billion); and in terms of ecological assets per unit area, Beijing ranked first, Tianjin second and Hebei last. (2) Among ecosystem services, hydro-logical regulation and climate regulation had the highest annual average value and contributed most to the increase in ecological assets. In 2015, the contribution of water and soil conservation to the total ecological assets decreased to −15.66%, showing the degradation of the function played by different ecosystems. (3) The ecological surplus of the region in four periods of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 were ¥398.98 billion, ¥870.37 billion, ¥1254.93 billion and ¥2693.94 billion respectively, basically offsetting the ecological deficit of each corresponding period, but the urgency for ecological compensation was increased. (4) The ecological surplus and deficit areas showed a great fluctuation in different time periods. Larger time span means more noticeable convergence of deficit areas towards central and eastern areas. Public resources such as education, transportation and medical care in central urban areas should be decentralized to encourage population dispersal, weaken the agglomeration effect of deficit areas and finally achieve the ecological synergy of the region.
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The ecosystem of inland river basin is of great significance to the socio-economic stability in arid area. Therefore, to evaluate the ecosystem service values (ESVs) is necessary for monitor ecosystem changes. In this paper, the response of land use/land cover (LULC) during 1990 to 2020 in Aksu River Basin (ARB) to ESV was explored. The advanced equivalent factor which modified by biomass factor and socio-economic was used to evaluate the ESVs of the ARB. A patch-generating land use simulation (PLUS) was used to simulate the ESV spatial distribution considering the influences of temperature (TEM), precipitation (PRE), NDVI, DEM, Soil organic matter content (SOMC) and Human Activity Intensity of Land Surface (HAILS) of the ARB in 2030. The results show that the total ESV in the study area showed an increasing trend (1.63 × 10¹⁰ yuan to 5.64 × 10¹⁰ yuan) from 1990 to 2020. The grassland had the highest ESV, accounting for nearly 50% of the total ESV for the ARB. The factor detection results showed that q value had the following explanatory power to ESV: HAILS (0.332) > NDVI (0.126) > TEM (0.125) > PRE (0.108) > DEM(0.096) > SOMC(0.089)and the interaction between HAILS and PRE had an effect of 0.493 on ESV. The shape index (SI) was negatively correlated with the ESV, and the correlation coefficient was −0.794. The aggregation index (AI) and Shannon's Diversity Index (SHDI) were positively correlated with the ESV, and the correlation coefficients were 0.872 and 0.878, respectively. The simulation results showed a rapid increase in ESVs in 2030, the ESV of grassland would still be the largest, and the per unit ESV of plowland, forestland, unused land and water area would be 20131.07 yuan/km², 64743.29 yuan/km², 3054.21 yuan/km², 41398.54 yuan/km², respectively. This paper can help decision-makers achieve sustainable ecosystem service management and develop land-use strategies in inland river basins in arid oases.
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The valuation of natural capital within individual farms could inform environmentally beneficial land use change and form the basis of agricultural subsidy schemes based on the provision of ecosystem services. Land cover extents can be used in a benefit transfer approach to produce monetary valuations of natural capital rapidly and at low cost. However, the methodology has not before been used within individual farms, and the impact of land cover data characteristics on the accuracy of valuations is uncertain. Here, we apply the approach to five UK farms of contrasting size, configuration and farming style, using three widely available land cover products. Results show that the land cover product used has a substantial impact on valuations, with differences of up to 58%, and the magnitude of this effect varies considerably according to the landscape structure of the farm. At most sites, valuation differences are driven by the extent of woodland recorded in the landscape, with higher resolution land cover products incorporating larger amounts of woodland through inclusion of smaller patches, leading to higher overall valuations. Integrating more accurate land cover data and accounting for the condition, configuration and location of natural capital has potential to improve the accuracy of valuations.
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The southern hilly mountains are rich in natural resources and are one of the important ecological security barrier zones in China. However, the disturbance of the ecosystem caused by human activities has led to a differentiated character of spatial ecosystem services. Such spatially differentiated characteristics have not been well studied, and thus are bound to limit our ability to manage ecosystems sustainably. Taking Ruijin City, a typical hilly mountainous area in southern China, as an example, this paper evaluates the ecosystem service values (ESV) of Ruijin City from 2000 to 2020 by using equivalent factor method combined with GIS technology. On this basis, spatial autocorrelation analysis is used to identify unique heterogeneous units of ESV. The results show that the overall ESV of Ruijin City from 2000 to 2020 showed a trend of slow increase in the first decade and a significant decrease in the second decade. The ESV in Ruijin City has a high degree of spatial divergence, showing the distribution characteristics of low value in the central region and high value in the marginal region. With the acceleration of urbanization, the ESV in the central region of Ruijin City decreases significantly from 2010 to 2020. Therefore, for the high value areas of ecosystem services, attention should be paid to the balanced development of economy and ecology. For low-value areas, it is necessary to strengthen the control of the ecological environment, protect sensitive areas with serious loss of ecosystem services, change the development model, and improve the supply capacity of ecological products. The government should calculate green Gross Domestic Product (GDP) based on the evaluation results of ESV, and formulate a green GDP evaluation system in the performance evaluation.
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Recreation has been an important policy impetus for the creation of protected area networks worldwide. This paper reviews valuation techniques for recreation ecosystem services, a subset of cultural services provided by New South Wales national parks, guided by recent conceptual developments and applications in the context of the SEEA Ecosystem Accounting revision process. Drawing from an extensive population survey on national park visitation and existing welfare valuation work, we apply eight different valuation methods suitable to environmental-economic accounting. Methods are compared using four criteria: their degree of conceptual fit, their information cost in a range of contexts, their degree of spatial explicitness and their sensitivity to assumptions or exogenous factors. We offer a pragmatic, applied perspective on recent conceptual advances in environmental economic accounting, including a discussion of the relative merits of production versus consumption approaches. The results of this analysis will be used in statewide and regional ecosystem services accounts in New South Wales. They will subsequently be used to estimate national park asset values and to monitor the productivity of government investment in the New South Wales National Parks Estate.
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Ecosystem accounting is a coherent framework for integrating measures of ecosystems and the flow of services they provide to the national accounting of economic activity. Here we focus on the accounting of cultural ecosystem services, particularly, nature-based recreation in open access conditions in Finland. The aim is to improve national capacity to proceed to ecosystem accounting by illustrating possibilities in existing data and knowledge and by identifying data gaps. We apply the United Nations System of Integrated Environmental Accounting – Experimental Ecosystem Accounts (SEEA EEA) framework for recreation accounting to test its applicability, and to show how existing national forest and outdoor recreation-related data sets can support accounting. Assessment of the extent of recreational resources is based on data from areas available for recreation. In the assessment of recreational use, we illustrate how nationwide survey data can provide an estimate of the number of recreational visits to nature areas and a solid base for monetary accounts. We identify gaps in the extent, supply and use data for recreational ecosystem services.
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Valuing water is difficult and contentious owing to water’s physical, political, and economic characteristics. Combining household-level and county-level data at the county level could clarify the responsibilities of both the government and users. In the Thousand Island Lake Water Distribution Project (TILWDP), the upstream ecosystem services provider, Chunan County, is assumed to sustain a tremendous opportunity cost due to the extremely strict environmental protection requirements of the project. To estimate the opportunity cost of supplying fresh water that meets the standards of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, a synthetic control model is introduced, and county-level macroeconomic data are used. A funding gap was estimated in the current government-financed situation. Meanwhile, willingness to pay is calculated based on household-level data collected in the downstream area. The estimate indicates that the combination of ecological compensation payments from governments and downstream stakeholders’ willingness to pay for water services could completely cover the upstream service provider’s opportunity cost. Specifically, the related central and downstream governments would need to take on approximately 1/3 of the total cost, while the users from the downstream area would take on the rest. The proposed policies include adopting government–user joint-financing payment for ecosystem services (PES) schemes for regional ecological and environmental cooperation in China, implementing diversified payment vehicles, launching additional environmental education projects, etc.
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Im Freistaat Bayern wird derzeit intensiv diskutiert, wie die nach wie vor hohe Freiflächeninanspruchnahme für Siedlungs- und Verkehrszwecke nachhaltig reduziert werden kann. Wissenschaftliche Grundlage für Steuerungsansätze in der Stadt- und Regionalentwicklung sollte ein verbessertes staatliches Flächenmonitoring sein, welches über die amtliche Flächenstatistik und deren Hauptindikator „Siedlungs- und Verkehrsfläche“ (SuV) hinaus auch die qualitative bzw. strukturelle Dimension der Flächeninanspruchnahme einbezieht. Zu diesem Zweck stellt dieser Beitrag methodische Erweiterungsansätze für das Flächenmonitoring vor, welche kleinräumige Analysen der Zersiedelung, Freiraumstruktur, Flächenversiegelung und Ökosystemleistungen am Beispiel des Landkreises Rhön-Grabfeld aufzeigen. Diese werden im Kontext der relevanten Debatten zu Ursachen und Steuerung der Flächeninanspruchnahme sowie zu aktuellen Anforderungen an das Flächenmonitoring diskutiert, sowie deren Bedeutung für das Monitoring rechtlicher Vorgaben und politischer Ziele zur nachhaltigen Flächennutzung betont.
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The lack of information on the value of ecosystems contributing to human well-being in urban and peri-urban setting is known to contribute to the degradation of natural capital and ecosystem services (ES). The purpose of this study was to determine the economic value of ES in Canada’s Capital Region (Ottawa-Gatineau region), so that these values can be integrated in future planning decisions. Using the valuation methods of market pricing, cost replacement, and two benefit transfer approaches (with adjustment and with meta-analysis), the value of 13 ES from five ecosystems (forests, wetlands, croplands, prairies and grasslands, and freshwater systems) was measured. The annual economic value of these 13 ES amounts to an average of 332 million dollars, and to a total economic value of over 5 billion dollars, annualized over 20 years. The largest part of this value is generated by nonmarket ES, indicating that much more emphasis should be put on the management, preservation, and understanding of processes that make up these types of ES. The work generated as part of this study is a first step towards operationalizing the concept of ES in planning. More specifically, these results can be used to raise awareness, but also as a stepping stone to improve ecosystem-wide planning in the Canada’s Capital Region.
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In recent years, the Chinese government has attached greater importance to marine ecological protection. To contribute to scientific understanding of the importance of marine ecosystems to human well-being, this paper analyzes marine ecosystem service and its accounting, and introduces the concept of “quaternary industry” on the basis of current marine economic accounting framework. Marine ecosystem accounting, marine economic accounting and marine ecological-economic accounting of coastal areas in China during the time series of 2005–2017 are calculated. The results show that compared with Gross Ocean Product (GOP), the average annual growth rate of Gross Marine Ecological-Economic Product (GMEEP) stays stable. The proportion of the added value of quaternary industry in marine ecological economy is relatively large, which is between 46% and 51%. And the ratio of GMEEP and GOP is around 1.9, suggesting a quite close association between GMEEP and GOP.
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Peatland plays a pivotal role in providing natural resource production and environmental services for human welfare. However, many studies have mentioned the impact of dryland cultivation in peatland on the shifting carbon balance in the ecosystem that clearly will alter the interaction of these two ecosystem services. The goal of this study, conducted under the framework of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) framework, was to monetary value the ecosystem services (ES) of provisioning and carbon regulating services of the Gaung-Batang Tuaka Peat Hydrological Unit (KHG). We focused on KHG in response to Regulation No.57/2016, which highlights ecosystem boundary as a new basis for peatland management. Under the SEEA framework, ecosystem services become a benefit when utilized by ecosystem beneficiaries. In this case, provisioning services will be valued only for cultivated land, while carbon services calculated for the entire study area (global beneficiaries). Our study showed that the provisioning services and carbon services are under the trade-off condition, where the monetary value of provisioning services increased at a slower rate (0.50 million USD annually) than the monetary loss of the benefit of carbon services (5.28 million USD annually), greatly exceeded the monetary value of provisioning services. We highlight two main strategies to increase the monetary value of the KHG towards a synergy condition, namely increased value-added by reducing the productivity gap among ES beneficiaries and large-scale adoption of a profitable cultivation system with minimum peat disturbance. The main enablers required include financing access and incentives (e.g., reduce tax) and disincentives to allow for peat-adaptive commodities to compete with dryland commodities in the future market.
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Due to rapid urbanization and economic development, the natural environment and ecological processes have been significantly affected by human activities. Especially in ecologically fragile karst areas, the ecosystems are more sensitive to external disturbances and have a hard time recovering, thus studies on the ecosystem services in these areas are significant. In view of this, we took Guizhou (a typical karst province) as the research area, evaluated the ecosystem service value (ESV) according to reclassified land uses and revised equivalent factors, and investigated the determinants of ecosystem services based on geographic detection. It was found that the total ESV showed a prominent increase trend, increasing from 152.55 billion CNY in 2000 to 285.50 billion CNY in 2020. The rise of grain prices due to growing social demands was the main factor in driving the increase of ESV. Spatially, the ESVs of central and western Guizhou were lower with cold spots appearing around human gathering areas, while that of southern and southeastern Guizhou were higher with hot spots that formed in continually distributed woodland. Moreover, the ESV per unit area and its change rate in karst regions were always lower than that in non-karst areas. Precipitation and temperature were the dominant nature factors while cultivation and population density were the main anthropogenic effects driving the evolution of ecosystem services. Therefore, positive human activities as well as rational and efficient land-use should be guided to promote the coordinated and high-quality development of ecology and the economy.
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Vegetation restoration has brought about remarkable landscape evolution in arid regions, and it is of great significance to evaluate its ecological benefits. However, the landscape evolution and ecological effects of different vegetation restoration measures have yet to be distinguished, and their future trends remain to be revealed, especially from the perspective of fine vegetation classification. In this study, we evaluated the ecosystem service value (ESV) of the northern sand prevention belt (NSPB) based on the fine land use/cover classification and benefit transfer method. Then, we analyzed changes in landscape and ESV induced by vegetation restoration from 2000 to 2015 and designed 9 future vegetation restoration scenarios to improve ESV. The results showed that the built-up area and dry farmland expanded by 35.37% and 3.48%, respectively, and paddy field and bush decreased by 19.00% and 6.80% from 2000 to 2015, respectively. Total ESV decreased by 0.62% (1.76 billion USD) during 2000–2015. The reduction in bush led to a loss of 0.85% (2.41 billion USD) in ESV. Vegetation restoration involved grassland restoration (1.99 million ha), bush restoration (0.26 million ha), and forestland restoration (0.18 million ha), which increased ESV by 1.21, 1.17, and 4.29 billion USD, respectively. Anthropogenic disturbance resulted in the loss of 2.97 million ha of vegetation and 9.23 billion USD in ESV. Current vegetation restoration in the NSPB is insufficient to counteract the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on ESV. Riparian vegetation buffer and grain for green scenarios have limited ecological benefits. Desertification control scenarios have the potential to increase ESV by at least 8.94% (25.12 billion USD) and to reverse ESV losses. Bush and grassland can be used instead of forestland for restoration in arid regions. This study can provide important support for the formulation and adjustment of landscape restoration in arid regions.
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Accounting information is a core element of economic decision-making at both national and corporate levels. It is widely accepted that much economic activity is dependent upon natural capital and natural resources—generically termed environmental assets in an accounting context. Environmental assets are under threat of depletion and degradation from economic activity. Consequently, the incorporation of information on environmental assets into standard accounting frameworks is an essential element in mainstreaming environmental information and broadening the evidence base for economic decisions and the assessment of sustainability. This paper describes the treatment of environmental assets within the national economic accounts and summarizes recent developments that extend the accounting approaches as described in the United Nations’ System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA). The potential for implementation of accounting standards for environmental assets is shown through a description of work in Australia on environmental-economic accounting.
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Safeguarding the benefits that ecosystems provide to society is increasingly included as a target in international policies. To support such policies, ecosystem service maps are made. However, there is little attention for the accuracy of these maps. We made a systematic review and quantitative comparison of ecosystem service maps on the European scale to generate insights in the uncertainty of ecosystem service maps and discuss the possibilities for quantitative validation. Maps of climate regulation and recreation were reasonably similar while large uncertainties among maps of erosion protection and flood regulation were observed. Pollination maps had a moderate similarity. Differences among the maps were caused by differences in indicator definition, level of process understanding, mapping aim, data sources and methodology. Absence of suitable observed data on ecosystem services provisioning hampers independent validation of the maps. Consequently, there are, so far, no accurate measures for ecosystem service map quality. Policy makers and other users need to be cautious when applying ecosystem service maps for decision-making. The results illustrate the need for better process understanding and data acquisition to advance ecosystem service mapping, modelling and validation.
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Mapping key areas for ecosystem service (ES) supply is essential for the development of strategies that will ensure their future supply. Given the rapid development in this area of research, we performed a review of different approaches used to map ES, with a special focus on those that use social–ecological data. We used an analytical framework based on five criteria for analyzing and comparing the methodological approaches: the types of ES, availability of data sources, types of data sources, spatial scale, and methods used to model ES. We found that regulating services were the most commonly mapped, followed by provisioning, cultural, and supporting services. Secondary (readily available) data were used more frequently than primary data to map ES. Biophysical data (land-cover variables) and mixed sources (databases like global statistics) were the most commonly employed ones. Most studies were performed at the regional or at the national scale. The most commonly used method to model services was the development of models based on the well-known causal relationships between environmental variables, followed by the extrapolation of ES values from primary data to the total analyzed area frequently using land-cover maps. Our synthesis reveals that the majority of studies are based on secondary data, applied at broad scales, without validation techniques. There is an urgent need to develop methods for deepening our understanding of the social–ecological processes behind the supply of ES in order to improve our ability to map ES for decision making.
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Indonesia is subject to rapid land use change. One of the main causes for the conversion of land is the rapid expansion of the oil palm sector. Land use change involves a progressive loss of forest cover, with major impacts on biodiversity and global CO2 emissions. Ecosystem services have been proposed as a concept that would facilitate the identification of sustainable land management options, however, the scale of land conversion and its spatial diversity pose particular challenges in Indonesia. The objective of this paper is to analyze how ecosystem services can be mapped at the provincial scale, focusing on Central Kalimantan, and to examine how ecosystem services maps can be used for a land use planning. Central Kalimantan is subject to rapid deforestation including the loss of peatland forests and the provincial still lacks a comprehensive land use plan. We examine how seven key ecosystem services can be mapped and modeled at the provincial scale, using a variety of models, and how large scale ecosystem services maps can support the identification of options for sustainable expansion of palm oil production.
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We describe and reflect on seven recurring critiques of the concept of ecosystem services and respective counter-arguments. First, the concept is criticized for being anthropocentric while others argue that it goes beyond instrumental values. Second, some argue that the concept promotes an exploitative human-nature relationship, while others state that it re-connects society to ecosystems, emphasizing humanity's dependence on nature. Third, concerns exist that the concept may conflict with biodiversity conservation objectives while others emphasize complementarity. Fourth, the concept is questioned because of its supposed focus on economic valuation, while others argue that ecosystem services science includes many values. Fifth, the concept is criticized for promoting commodification of nature, while others point out that most ecosystem services are not connected to market-based instruments. Sixth, vagueness of definitions and classifications are stated to be a weakness, while others argue that vagueness enhances transdisciplinary collaboration. Seventh, some criticize the normative nature of the concept implying that all outcomes of ecosystem processes are desirable. The normative nature is indeed typical for the concept, but should not be problematic when acknowledged. By disentangling and contrasting different arguments we hope to contribute to a more structured debate between opponents and proponents of the ecosystem services concept.
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C. Obst et al. provide a welcome opportunity to clarify the difference between environmental-economic cost-benefit analyses (such as ours) and environmental accounting exercises [such as the UN-SEEA ([ 1 ][1], [ 2 ][2]) initiative]. Accounting studies attempt to assess the total value of goods
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In their Research Article “Bringing ecosystem services into economic decision making: Land use in the United Kingdom” (5 July, p. [45][1]), I. J. Bateman et al. demonstrate the importance of considering nonmarket ecosystem services in economic decision-making. It is an excellent example of the
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Recent developments in economics make it possible to design and create markets in sectors of the economy where they have previously been missing or inefficient. Although of interest from an economic efficiency perspective, market-based approaches to environmental management also reveal information and valuations that could have a role in environmental accounting. Using data from a pilot, involving the creation of a market (auction) for conservation contracts, we demonstrate a methodology to calculate the contribution of purchased ecosystem services to GDP, and create selected physical environmental asset accounts consistent with the System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounts. The paper also examines the role this information might play in developing monetary valuations for environmental assets.
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While technological progress has fostered the conception of an urban society that is increasingly decoupled from ecosystems, demands on natural capital and ecosystem services keep increasing steadily in our urbanized planet. Decoupling of cities from ecological systems can only occur locally and partially, thanks to the appropriation of vast areas of ecosystem services provision beyond the city boundaries. Conserving and restoring ecosystem services in urban areas can reduce the ecological footprints and the ecological debts of cities while enhancing resilience, health, and quality of life for their inhabitants. In this paper we synthesize knowledge and methods to classify and value ecosystem services for urban planning. First, we categorize important ecosystem services and disservices in urban areas. Second, we describe valuation languages (economic costs, socio‐cultural values, resilience) that capture distinct value dimensions of urban ecosystem services. Third, we identify analytical challenges for valuation to inform urban planning in the face of high heterogeneity and fragmentation characterizing urban ecosystems. The paper discusses various ways through which urban ecosystems services can enhance resilience and quality of life in cities and identifies a range of economic costs and socio‐cultural impacts that can derive from their loss. We conclude by identifying knowledge gaps and challenges for the research agenda on ecosystem services provided in urban areas.
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This report presents the methods and results of compiling physical and monetary balance sheets of oil and gas reserves in the Netherlands for the period 1990-2005. The net present value method is used to discount expected future incomes, which are based on a physical extraction scenario and an expected resource rent. The resource rent is calculated as the gross operating surplus less the user cost of capital in the industry 'extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas.' Sensitivity analyses show that monetary values are relatively insensitive to changes in the physical extraction scenario, but extremely sensitive to the use of alternative discount rates and different valuation methods. This report presents the physical and monetary balance sheets of oil and gas reserves in the Netherlands for the years 1990 until 2005. Within the National Accounts, the compilation of physical and monetary balance sheets of oil and gas reserves has three main purposes. First, the results of this project will be used for measuring multi-factor productivity. Second, the results are published in the Dutch environmental accounts. Third, the balance sheets of oil and gas reserves will be a component of non-financial balance sheets. Providing physical and monetary values to subsoil assets is essential for the measurement of multi-factor productivity (mfp) in mining and quarrying (Van den Bergen et al., 2007). Subsoil assets are important capital inputs, if not the most important input, in the production process of mining companies. If the extraction of subsoil assets is not considered a capital input, then changes in extracted subsoil assets will be reflected in mfp change. Including subsoil assets into the productivity calculations by considering them as capital inputs provides a better understanding of the production process and helps to provide meaningful interpretations of mfp. Compiling physical and monetary balance sheets for subsoil assets is based on the premise that non-renewable assets have a finite capacity to supply materials. Taking depletion of subsoil assets into account provides a more complete view on the link
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While applied national accounts are based on market costs and outputs, non-market valuation techniques yield estimates for consumer or Hicksian surplus. To integrate non-market values in national accounts we propose the Simulated Exchange Value method, which simulates the whole market (demand and cost functions) to obtain exchange values. We focus on forest public recreational services because they are relatively close to markets and have been frequently valued using non-market valuation techniques. We apply this method to the public visitor recreational services of the woodlands of Alcornocales Natural Park (southwestern Spain). We estimate the cost function using available data on government costs incurred in the provision of recreational services and we estimate the demand function through contingent valuation. Using both functions, we analyze two potential solutions for the simulated market: monopoly and perfect competition. The results show for monopoly and for perfect competition, respectively, a net operating margin of €0.74/ha and of €0.61/ha, and a total social income of €3.14/ha and of €3.23/ha.
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The world's leaders, business leaders and the public at large are beginning to question, amidst the multiple social, environmental and economic crises, whether our present trajectory of economic growth is sustainable. We seem to force ourselves to believe that we can grow ourselves out of the multiple crises we face today. The notion of sustainable development and the call for going beyond just material wealth to gauge our wellbeing has long featured in much of the sustainable development, environmental and ecological economics literature. We are afraid the present preoccupation with the green economy will not provide the change we are looking for if we don't address the fundamental problem of what we are aiming to achieve and how we measure our progress towards achieving those goals. We fall into the trap many international agencies have made over the past six decades, where the means become the ends and the ends become an academic exercise (Chang, 2001).
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Recent estimates by J. Gosselink, E. Odum, and R. Pope of the economic value of natural wetlands have had considerable impact on analyses and discussions of public policies concerning natural wetlands management. However, these economic value estimates are neither conceptually nor empirically correct. First, these workers failed to recognize the nature of the process by which economic values are determined and made an illegitimate marriage of the principles of systems ecology and economic theory. Second, where Gosselink et al. attempted to apply proper economic principles, their calculations resulted in economic value estimates that are most likely in error.
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Eliciting the economic benefits provided by protected areas is important in order to ensure that they are properly considered in policy and decision making. There are relatively few studies that provide a comprehensive overview of the economic benefits provided by European forest ecosystems, in spite of the large share of forests in the protected area system in most countries. An economic valuation of the ecosystem services supplied by the Hoge Veluwe forest in the Netherlands is presented. The Hoge Veluwe forest is one of the largest and most well-known protected areas in the country. The services included in the study are wood production, supply of game, groundwater recharge, carbon sequestration, air filtration, recreation, and nature conservation. A conservative estimate of the total economic benefits generated by the forest is around 2000 Euro/ha/year, which is more than three times higher than the per hectare-value generated by nearby agricultural land. The study provides an analysis of the economic value of eight ecosystem services, discusses the uncertainties of the value estimates, and examines the implications for financing protected area management.
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Ecosystem service approaches have become a prominent basis for planning and management. Cultural services and non-use values are included in all major typologies and present some of the most compelling reasons for conserving ecosystems, though many barriers exist to their explicit characterization. The values that conform least well to economic assumptions—variously lumped together with/as cultural services—have proven elusive in part because valuation is complicated by the properties of intangibility and incommensurability, which has in turn led to their exclusion from economic valuation. We argue that the effectiveness of the ecosystem services framework in decision-making is thwarted by (i) conflation of services, values, and benefits, and (ii) failure to appropriately treat diverse kinds of values. We address this challenge by (1) distinguishing eight dimensions of values, which have implications for appropriate valuation and decision-making; (2) demonstrating the interconnected nature of benefits and services, and so the ubiquity of intangible values; (3) discussing the implications of these propositions for ecosystem-services research; and (4) outlining briefly a research agenda to enable decision-making that is ecologically appropriate and socially just. Because many ecosystem services (co-)produce ‘cultural’ benefits, full characterization of services must address non-material values through methods from diverse social sciences.
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The paper seeks to contribute to the expanding literature on ecosystem service assessment by considering its integration with economic analyses of such services. Focussing upon analyses for future orientated policy and decision making, we initially consider a single period during which ecological stocks are maintained at sustainable levels. The flow of ecosystems services and their contribution to welfare bearing goods is considered and methods for valuing resultant benefits are reviewed and illustrated via a case study of land use change. We then broaden our time horizon to discuss the treatment of future costs and benefits. Finally we relax our sustainability assumption and consider economic approaches to the incorporation of depleting ecological assets with a particular focus upon stocks which exhibit thresholds below which restoration is compromised.
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Jerez (Spain) and Iteimia (Tunisia) cork oak agroforestry systems have close natural environments but they differ in land property rights, labour market and economic development contexts. These human induced differences result in similarities and dissimilarities on natural resources multiple use management. In this study we apply a simplified agroforestry accounting system (AAS) in two publicly owned cork oak agroforestry systems (COAS) for an average year, assuming steady state situation, without considering both environmental outputs (private and public) and government expenditures. The study objectives are to analyse the multiple Jerez and Iteimia agroforestry system activities intra-relationships taking into account intermediate outputs and to estimate a set of on-site cork oak agroforestry economic indicators related to single activity and the COAS as whole aggregated activities. In addition, in order to estimate separately the Iteimia open access grazing resource rent and the household's self-employed labour cost, we propose a simulated pricing approach trade-off as an alternative to close substitute goods pricing method. The study results show that Jerez generates a commercial capital income loss and employees receive competitive wage rate, while undertakes a significant investment on agroforestry natural resources conservation and improvements. Opposite to Jerez, Iteimia actual management offers a positive capital income and a high household self-employed labour income on hectare basis, mainly from livestock and, in a less extent, other agroforestry land uses carried out in the local subsistence-economy. The noteworthy dependence of Iteimia households on cork oak multiple use, with a current negative impact on that resources conservation, make household subsistence-economy highly sensitive to nature conservationist policies and measures.
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The paper seeks to contribute to the expanding literature on ecosystem service assessment by considering its integration with economic analyses of such services. Focussing upon analyses for future orientated policy and decision making, we initially consider a single period during which ecological stocks are maintained at sustainable levels. The flow of ecosystems services and their contribution to welfare bearing goods is considered and methods for valuing resultant benefits are reviewed and illustrated via a case study of land use change. We then broaden our time horizon to discuss the treatment of future costs and benefits. Finally we relax our sustainability assumption and consider economic approaches to the incorporation of depleting ecological assets with a particular focus upon stocks which exhibit thresholds below which restoration is compromised. KeywordsEcosystem services–Economic valuation–Stocks and flows–Wellbeing–Spatial and temporal issues–Sustainability–Irreversibility–UK National Ecosystem Assessment (UK NEA)
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