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Quantitative estimation of bala (physical fitness) with respect to dhatu sarata

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Dhatusarata is described with respect to Sapta Dhatu viz. Rasa, Rakta, Mamsa, Medas, Asthi, Majja, Shukra and Sattva i. e. Ashtavidhsarata. Dhatu Sarata or Tissue excellence is a quality assessment of seven dhatu. Examination of Dhatu Sarata is done at physical and psychological level. For determining the Dhatu sarata, when the positive features are present above 75 %, it will be considered as best tissue quality (Uttam Sarata). When the positive features are present between 75 % and 25 %, it will be considered as moderate tissue quality (Madhyam sarata). When positive features are present below 25 %, it will be labeled as poor tissue quality (Heen sarata). The bodily movements which are meant for producing firmness and strength in the body are known as Vyayama or physical exercises. 'Bala' (Physical fitness) of each student will be determined by Harvard step test. "Harvard Step Test" is a practical application of Ayurvedic Principal that "Bala should be measured by vyamshakti" (Balam Vyayamshakty Parikshet). The person should be examined with reference to his capacity for exercise which is determined by one's ability to perform work. Therefore this study will estimate Bala in the students and study the Dhatusarata and their association between them.
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Jagruti Chaple et al / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 4(5), Sep Oct 2013
705
Research Article
www.ijrap.net
QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF BALA (PHYSICAL FITNESS)
WITH RESPECT TO DHATU SARATA
Jagruti Chaple
1
*, Ajay Dawale
2
1
Assistant Professor, Dept of Sharir-kriya, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurvedic College, Hospital and Research Centre Salod
(H), Wardha, India
2
Associate Professor, Community Medicine, JNMC, Sawangi (M) wardha, India
Received on:
22/08/13 Revised on: 28/09/13 Accepted on: 10/10/13
*Corresponding author
E-mail: jagsru@yahoo.com
DOI: 10.7897/2277-4343.04516
Published by Moksha Publishing House. Website www.mokshaph.com
All rights reserved.
ABSTRACT
Dhatusarata is described with respect to Sapta Dhatu viz. Rasa, Rakta, Mamsa, Medas, Asthi, Majja, Shukra and Sattva i. e. Ashtavidhsarata. Dhatu
Sarata or Tissue
excellence is a quality assessment of seven dhatu. Examination of Dhatu Sarata is done at physical and psychological level. For
determining the Dhatu sarata, when the positive features are present above 75 %, it will be considered as best tissue quality (Uttam Sarata). When the
positive features are present between 75 % and 25 %, it will be considered as moderate tissue quality (Madhyam sarata). When positive features are
present below 25 %, it will be labeled as poor tissue quality (Heen sarata). The bodily movements which are meant for producing firmness and
strength
in the body are known as Vyayama or physical exercises. Bala (Physical fitness) of each student will be determined by Harvard step test.
Harvard Step Test is a practical application of Ayurvedic Principal that Bala should be measured by vyamshakti (Balam Vyayamshakty
Parikshet). The person should be examined with reference to his capacity for exercise which is determined by ones ability to perform work.
Therefore this study will estimate Bala in the students and study the Dhatusarata and their association between them.
Keyword: Dhatusarata, Bala, Harvard Step Test
INTRODUCTION
As per Acharya Charak, one should not commit the
mistakes by deciding any person as strong or weak by
merely looking at the good or weak build up of body, as
strength is not depend only on physical build up but it
depends on the sara means the excellence quality of
dhatu. In the text, this dhatusarata is described with
respect to Sapta Dhatu; viz. Rasa (skin), Rakta (Blood),
Mamsa (muscle tissue), Medas (adipose tissue), Asthi
(bone tissue), Majja (marrow), Shukra (semen) and Sattva
(mind) i. e. Ashtavidhsarata
1-3
. Dhatu Sarata or Tissue
excellence is a quality assessment of seven dhatu.
Examination of Dhatu Sarata is done at physical and
psychological level. The bodily movements which are
meant for producing firmness and strength in the body are
known as Vyayaama or physical exercises. The person
should be examined with reference to his capacity for
exercise which is determined by ones ability to perform
work
1
. Therefore this study will estimate Bala in the
students and study the Dhatusarata and their association
between them.
Aim
To study the Dhatu Sarata (Tissue quality) with the
subjective parameters mentioned in the Text in Ayurvedic
Students
Objectives
· To study the Bala (Physical fitness) by using Harvard
Step Test in Ayurvedic Students
·
To study the association between Dhatu Sarata (Tissue
quality) and Bala
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Cross sectional study was conducted among first year
Ayurvedic students at Mahatma Gandhi Ayurvedic
College and research centre, Salod (H), Wardha
, India.
Study was conducted from June 2012 to November 2012
for the period of six months. All the 50 healthy students
between 17 to 22 year age group were selected for the
study. Approval was taken from the Institutional ethics
committee (Datta Meghe Institute of Medical sciences,
DU, Wardha, India) on 3.3.2012 with Ref. No.DMIMS
(DU)/IEC/2012
-13/688. Informed written consent was
taken from the study subjects. Students were interviewed
by pre designed questionnaire that contains the
information about Dhatu Sarata (Tissue Quality) and Bala
parikshan examination was done by Harvard step test.
The allied information of the volunteers were collected
like diet (Veg / Non veg),
exercise etc.
Assessment Criteria
For determining the Dhatu sarata
1
, when the positive
features recommended by Acharaya Charak are present
above 75 %, it will be considered as best tissue quality
(Uttam Sarata). When the positive features are present
between 75 % and 25 %, it will be considered as moderate
tissue quality (Madhyam sarata). When positive features
are present below 25 %, it will be labeled as poor tissue
quality (Heen sarata).
Harvard step test
Physical fitness of each student was determined by
Harvard step test. Harvard Step Test is a Practical
application of Ayurvedic Principal that Bala should be
measured by vyamshakti (Balam Vyayamshakty
Parikshet)
4
.
The subject steps up and down on the bench
Jagruti Chaple et al / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 4(5), Sep Oct 2013
706
of having height 20 inches (For male) and 18 inches (For
Females). Stepping at rate of 30 steps / min will be
performed for period of 5 minutes (Males) or 4 minutes
(females) or until exhaustion
5,6
. Physical efficiency Index
was calculated with the following Formula.
PEI = Duration of exercise in seconds X 100
2 X (A+B+C)
Where, A = Pulse of 1 to 1.5 minutes during recovery.
B = Pulse of 2 to 2.5 min
utes during recovery.
C = Pulse of 3 to 3.5 minutes during recovery
Classification of Fitness according to index
Physical efficiency index
Fitness
Below 55
Poor
55-64
Low average
65-79
Average
80-89
Good
90 and above
Excellent
RESULTS
A total of 50 students between 17 and 22 years of age
were assessed for determining Dhatusarata and also
Physical fitness
. Dhatusarata (Tissue Quality) was found
as per positive features recommended by Acharaya
Charak (Table 1). Uttam sarata was found in 10 (20 %)
Students, Madhyam sarata was found in 27 (54 %)
students and heen sarata was found in 13 (26 %) students.
Madhyam sarata was found more among females (58.53
%) as compared to
male (33.33 %).
Table 1: Sex-wise distribution of students according to Dhatusarata
Dhatusarata
Male
Female
Total
Uttam sarata
3
7
10
Madhyam sarata
3
24
27
Heen sarata
3
10
13
Total
9
41
50
Table 2: Classification of physical fitness as per physical efficiency
index
Male
Female
Total
1
2
3
2
5
7
2
10
12
1
14
15
3
10
13
9
41
50
Table
2 shows physical efficiency index of all the students. Most of the
students (80 %) were having average, low average and poor physical
efficiency index.
Table 3: Association between Datusarata and physical efficiency
index
PEI
Dhatusarata
Total
Uttam
sarata
Madhyam
sarata
Heen
sarata
Excellent
3
0
0
3
Good
7
0
0
7
Average
0
12
0
12
Low average
0
15
0
15
Poor
0
0
13
13
Total
10
27
13
50
It has been observed that those subjects having uttam
sar
ata (10) were excellent with good physical efficiency
index, while subjects having madhyam sarata (27) were
average with low average physical efficiency index.
Subjects having heen sarata (13) were poor physical
efficiency index (Table 3). No significant difference was
found among Male and female students. There is
association between Dhatu sarata and physical fitness as
P value (
Pearson value) is 0.003* which is less than
0.05.
DISCUSSION
Physical Aerobic fitness by Harvard Step Test has also
significant correlation with asthi, majja and to some
extent with shukra, Mansa Sarata.
Harvard Step Test is
very good, universally accepted Objective parameter to
access Yuktija and Kalaja Bala (i.e. fitness acquired
through practice of exercise, proper diet and healthy
season etc)
1
. Harvard Step Test showed significant
correlation with some Dhatu Sarata. Fitness, determined
by Harvard step test is not sufficient to access the
fitness
related with Dhatu Sarata. Fitness may be the combined
effect of genetically inherent physical, psychological,
spiritual and social health
6
. Saratah pariksha is the second
important factor of dasavidha pariksha. It can be said that
sara pariksha itself is also competent for assessment of
bala.
Acharya Charaka and Vagbhata during description
of sara pariksha frequently mentioned that the main
purpose of sara pariksha is to measure the strength of
individual (c s. vi. 8/118, A.H. su 3/117) Charaka,
Sushruta and Vagbhata stated the number of sara as eight
i.e. tvak sara, rakta sara, mamsa sara, meda sara, asthi
sara,
majja sara and sukra sara and sattva sara. Presence
of all the sara is known as sarva sara and the individual
possess maximum bala. This study also shows the
association between physical fitness and dhatusarata.
CONCLUSION
Physical Aerobic fitness by Harvard Step Test has
significant co-relation with Dhatusarata i.e. asthi, majja
and to some extent with shukra, Mansa Sarata. Majority
(54 %) students were having Madhyam sarata. Most of
the students (80 %) were having average, low average and
poor physical efficiency index. Statistically significant
a
ssociation was found between Dhatu sarata and physical
fitness.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors acknowledge the support and facilities received from the
Department of Kriya Sh
arir, Dr. Dandekar, HOD, Dept of Kriya sharir
for cooperation, Dr S. Bhutada, Dean Faculty of Ayurveda Mahatma
Gandhi Ayurved College, Hospital and RC, Salod (H) Wardha, India
DMIMS (DU) for his constant encouragement.
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3, 3
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Edition, Krishnadas Academy, Varanasi; 1996.
4. TripathiPiyush Kumar,
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5. Brouha L, Health CW, Graybiel A. Step test simple method of
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Cite this article as:
Jagruti Chaple, Ajay Dawale. Quantitative estimation of Bala (physical
fitness) with respect to dhatu sarata. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm.
2013;4(5):
705-707 http://dx.doi.org/10.7897/2277-4343.04516
Source of support: Nil, Conflict of interest: None Declared
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Ashtanga hridayam, Sutra Sthana
  • Kr Prof
  • Murthy
  • Srikantha
Prof KR. Murthy Srikantha, Ashtanga hridayam, Sutra Sthana. Chapter 3, 3 rd Edition, Krishnadas Academy, Varanasi; 1996.
Practical Physiology. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
  • Cl Ghai
CL Ghai. Practical Physiology. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, 7 th Edition; 2008
Chaukhambha Orientalia
  • Pv Sharma
  • Vimana Charaka Samhita
  • Sthana
Sharma PV. Charaka Samhita, Vimana Sthana. Chapter 8. Vol.1. Varanasi, India: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2008. (Jaikrishnadas Ayurveda Series No. 36).
Chapter 35 Varanasi, India: Chaukhambha Orientalia
  • Krs Murthy
  • Sutra Sushruta Samhita
  • Sthana
Murthy KRS. Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana. Chapter 35 Varanasi, India: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2008.
  • Pv Charaka Sharma
  • Vimana Samhita
  • Sthana
Sharma PV. Charaka Samhita, Vimana Sthana. Chapter 8. Vol.1. Varanasi, India: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2008. (Jaikrishnadas Ayurveda Series No. 36).