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Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution

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... This psycholinguistic study explored whether the inventory of color names and, in particular, basic color terms (BCTs) in the Thai language has changed since the seminal study of Berlin and Kay (1969), who reported 10 BCTs in Thai. We collected color-naming data from 161 Thai native speakers from across Thailand. ...
... [1][2][3][4][5][6][7] Many researchers study the terms used for referring to colors, and the most important finding that was considered and generated a substantial body of research was the work of Berlin and Kay (B&K) in 1969. 8 They conducted a survey of color terms on speakers of 98 languages, investigated empirically using Munsell color chips for 20 languages, including Thai, and obtained additional material from dictionaries and word repositories of 78 languages. B&K found that the speakers in each language used 11 or more consistent color words that they matched with English color terms-red, yellow, green, blue, black, white, gray, orange, brown, pink, and purple. ...
... Consistent with the WCS, in this study, we investigated the use of color terms in Thai by using the same color stimuli as Kuriki et al. 13 We collected data from a larger number of Thai native speakers than B&K. 8 The speakers can speak and write the common Thai language (the official Thai language which is spoken by all Thai speakers), and to cover the dialects of each region, speakers from different provinces of Thailand were selected (50 out of all 76 provinces in Thailand, the list of provinces is provided in Table A2 in Appendix). ...
Article
This psycholinguistic study explored whether the inventory of color names and, in particular, basic color terms (BCTs) in the Thai language has changed since the seminal study of Berlin and Kay (1969), who reported 10 BCTs in Thai. We collected color‐naming data from 161 Thai native speakers from across Thailand. The speakers were requested to name each of the 330 Munsell color chips, similar to those employed in the World Color Survey, using monolexemic color terms. Mean number of color terms offered per speaker was 19.2 ± 5.2. We found that 12 color terms were offered by ≥80% of the speakers. The BCT inventory exceeded the BCTs reported by Berlin and Kay, by nam‐ngoen “dark blue”, fa “sky/light blue”, and thao “gray”; furthermore, som “orange” appears to have supplanted saet “orange trumpet”. We also found that three non‐BCTs, with Thai‐specific referents, were offered frequently: khi‐ma “horse feces” (75%), lueat‐mu “pig blood” (68%), and ban‐yen “four o'clock flower/magenta” (50%). Further scrutiny of color term object referents prompts that most Thai non‐BCTs refer to flora (31.72%) and inanimate nature (17.54%). Pattern of color terms usage by 161 Thai speakers when allowed to use only 11 BCTs given by B&K in 1969 plus fa ‘sky’.
... Тако, рецимо придев red, црвен, служи да се опишу различити 'црвени ' тонови крви, парадајза, вина, џемпера, коже, аутомобила, итд. По узору на Берлина и Кеја (Berlin & Kay 1969) инвентар расположивих хроматских назива може се организовати њиховим свођењем на мањи број основних назива. У енглеском и српском језику таквих назива има укупно једанаест (уп. ...
... Поштујући принцип смисаоног односа хипонимије, у централном делу Речника енглеске одреднице ће бити распоређене у укупно 11 лексичко-семантичких поља, тј. у зависности од значења, конкретна одредница која није BCT биће подведена под кровни, себи надређени BCT према Берлину у Кеју (Berlin & Kay 1969). У Речнику ће се такође наћи: ...
... Како је то већ делимично истакнуто:  ОКОСНИЦУ лексикографског материјала обухваћеног Речником чиниће ЈЕДАНАЕСТ ЕНГЛЕСКИХ ОСНОВНИХ НАЗИВА ЗА БОЈЕ (BCT) ПРЕМА БЕРЛИНУ И КЕЈУ (Berlin & Kay 1969), уједно хипероними или смисаоно надређене лексеме за преостале називе за боје у Речнику, И ЊИХОВИ СРПСКИ ПРЕВОДНИ КОРЕСПОНДЕНТИ. То ће дакле бити лексе-ме енгл. ...
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The paper sheds light on the major theoretical, methodological, and practical aspects of a future English-Serbian Colour Dictionary compilation. It is to represent a contrastive lexicographic survey of (1) English colour terms, (2) Serbian colour terms, and (3) English and Serbian colour terms. In addition to a general description, a typological identifi cation, and the purpose of the Dictionary, an insight is provided into the following lexicographic features: (1) the dictionary macrostructure, i.e. an inventory of English and Serbian colour words which shall represent the future dic�tionary entries as well as their sources, and (2) the dictionary microstructure, that is, the availability of lexical data on the dictionary entries. Similar to the approach developed by Hutchings, Gavitt & Pointer (2019), the main entries will be comprised of Berlin and Kay’s (1969) 11 Basic Colour Terms – namely, white, black, red, green, yellow, blue, brown, purple, pink, orange, and grey, all acting as hypernyms for other colour lexemes clustered underneath them. As for the lexical data on the dictionary entries, these would comprise primary meaning, secondary meanings, hyposynonyms or shade names of the available BCTs, sentence examples, Serbian translation cor�respondents and equivalents, etc
... Identifying which semantic properties are universals and which vary among human languages has been the interest of many researchers for decades (e.g., [85,42,24] among many others). To that end, a common practice is to compare how a set of meanings are grouped into categories across different languages [8,46]. This approach allows examining which properties of semantic categories persist across languages and which do not, conjecturing a set of cross-linguistic regularities/variations. ...
... Importantly, even if the parent's parameters are fixed at each generation, the child agent is allowed, while achieving perfect accuracy, to introduce changes into its' parent language, making the latter more closely aligned with its "innate" biases. 8 Importantly, the language is not forced to remain stationary across generations. ...
... The corresponding NN system (top left) does not encode the dark/light split. While unnatural in 232 this respect, the partitioning is, like those found in human languages, clearly convex (8,9). The NN system clusters correspond, 233 moreover, to the other basic colors attested in low-complexity human languages, once we exclude the dark/light distinction: 234 red, green and a yellow/brown patch. ...
Thesis
The ability to acquire and produce a language is a key component of intelligence. If communication is widespread among animals, human language is unique in its productivity and complexity. By better understanding the source of natural language, one can use this knowledge to build better interactive AI models that can acquire human languages as rapidly and efficiently as children. In this manuscript, we build up on the emergent communication field to investigate the well-standing question of the source of natural language. In particular, we use communicating neural networks that can develop a language to solve a collaborative task. Comparing the emergent language properties with human cross-linguistic regularities can provide answers to the crucial questions of the origin and evolution of natural language. Indeed, if neural networks develop a cross-linguistic regularity spontaneously, then the latter would not depend on specific biological constraints. From the cognitive perspective, looking at neural networks as another expressive species can shed light on the source of cross-linguistic regularities – a fundamental research interest in cognitive science and linguistics. From the machine learning perspective, endowing artificial models with human constraints necessary to evolve communicative protocols as productive and robust as natural language would encourage the development of better interactive AI models.In this manuscript, we focus on studying four cross-linguistic regularities related to word length, word order, semantic categorization, and compositionality. Across the different studies, we find that some of these regularities arise spontaneously while others are missing in neural networks’ languages. We connect the former case to the presence of shared communicative constraints such as the discrete nature of the communication channel. On the latter, we relate the absence of human-like regularities to the lack of constraints either on the learners’ side (e.g., the least-effort constraints) or language functionality (e.g., transmission of information). In sum, this manuscript provides several case studies demonstrating how we can use successful neural network models to tackle crucial questions about the origin and evolution of our language. It also stresses the importance of mimicking the way humans learn their language in artificial agents’ training to induce better learning procedures for neural networks, so that they can evolve an efficient and open-ended communication protocol.
... According to (Berlin 1991), there are 11 universal basic colour terms; white, black, red, green, yellow, blue, brown, purple, pink, orange, and grey, which exist in the vocabulary of almost any given language. In combination with types, shapes, tastes, odours, and functions, we use these color terms to categorise the objects around us (Heer, 2012). ...
... For this reason, we use the dataset of Munroe (2010). We will use this dataset to train a machine learning model to classify the 11 universal basic colour terms of Berlin (1991). The model will be tested on its accuracy to identify its usefulness. ...
... We have chosen to use the eleven basic universal colour terms defined by Berlin (1991). However, based on the colours mentioned in the dataset, we suggest adding 12 more colour terms to research how it influences the model's accuracy. ...
... Since the pioneering work of Berlin and Kay (1969), color has become a popular area for scholarly research worldwide (e.g., Baxter, 1983;Hardin & Maffi, 1997;Hays, Margolis, Naroll, & Dale, 1972;Kay, 2003;Kay, Berlin, Maffi & Merrifield, 1997;Kay & McDaniel, 1978;Kikuchi & Lichtenberk, 1983;Mitterer, Horschig, Musseler & Majid, 2009;Philip, 2006;Socelia, 2008;Tao, 1994;Uuskula, 2008;Wierzbicka, 1990Wierzbicka, , 1996Wierzbicka, , 2008Xing, 2008, to name a few). In this connection, the two most competitive and controversial accounts have been led by Kay and McDaniel (1978) and Wierzbicka (1990). ...
... Since 1969, when Berlin and Kay's theory about color term systems was published, linguists have more actively paid their attention to color term systems in different languages. According to Berlin and Kay (1969), the type of color term system is defined according to the number of basic color terms in the language. ...
... Brown, pink, orange, purple, and grey had none. She claimed that the universal order of figurative meanings among color terms follows the emergence of basic color terms as proposed by Berlin and Kay (1969). She maintained that "red color" meaning for RED is shared in all four languages; 'ripe', 'angry', and 'chop' meanings for RED are shared in three languages, while 'pertaining to sex' and 'hot' meanings are shared only in two languages. ...
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We deal with a wide range of colors in our daily life. They are such ubiquitous phenomena that is hard and next to impossible to imagine even a single entity (be it an object, place, living creature, etc) devoid of them. This omnipresence of colors around us has also made its way through abstract and less tangible entities via the interaction between culture and cognition. In an attempt to shed further light on the way color meanings could be extended in different languages and cultures, the present study sought to investigate the semantic extension of Persian and English color terms based on cultural data. The findings revealed the existence of both language-idiosyncratic and general tendencies for both Persian and English languages with respect to semantic extension of color terms. It was also shown that Persian and English speakers mostly use the same mechanisms of metonymy, metaphor and sense of opposite relation based on cultural data and their experience of the physical world to develop more and more color meanings. Furthermore, the study suggested that the direction and development of the semantic domain of a color term mainly depends on its already developed semantic properties and is not accidental. Two other accidental points were also found in the study. First, the borrowing, acceptance and the usage of a color expression from another language might depend on the already developed semantic properties of the related color term in the recipient language. Second, it is possible to predict the direction and development of the new connotations and meanings of a color term in a specific language.
... As Wyler explains, each language has the capacity of segmenting the colour range perceptible to human eye into countless number of segments, shades or tones (1992: 51). While some languages segment the colour continuum into very large segments and provide a name for each of these segments, some languages -such as European languages -provide very detailed colour terms in addition to basic colour terms proposed by Berlin & Kay (1969), on which I will provide greater detail in due course. 4 A colour term is, indeed, nothing more than "a cover name" for the range of wave lengths between ultra-violet and infra-red, which actuates particular reactions in a person's retina and brain, which, in turn, makes him or her see the world in colours -prismatic colours. ...
... Thus, the literature written on colour terminology is so large that giving a full account here is unfortunately not possible. For that reason, only some of the most influential and notable works regarding the analysis of colour terms since this epoch-making study of Berlin &Kay (1969)are mentioned: 20 Barnickel (1975) investigated general aspects of Middle English Colour Terms; Bennett (1988) contributed to the 19 Post (1962) (cited in Berlin & Kay 1969: 149) and G. Allen (1879) (cited in Kerttula 2002: 27) argue, on the other hand, that primitives have, on the average, slightly better visual acuity than modern people have. Allen (1879) argued that the absence or lack of colour terms in the languages of primitives is not a proof for a lack of perceptual abilities and claimed that the most interesting objects in the lives of primitive people had such various hues that describing them by a single abstract colour term would be too inaccurate; that is why, the truly abstract colour terms in the vocabulary of ancient men and of primitive people were absent but primitive men used, indeed, a variety of fine and concrete colour designations which we would now call secondary colour terms, including, especially, those which reflect productive processes, such as "sky-faced" for any object which has a slightest degree of blueness (cited in Kerttula 2002: 27;in Berlin & Kay 1969: 138). ...
... In the next chapter, the study of Berlin and Kay (1969) and the two opposite viewsrelativistic vs. universalist -in the history of colour naming will be dealt with in greater detail. ...
... representations, and to continually learn and readily adapt to novel stimuli (e.g., Langacker, 1987;Croft and Cruse, 2004;Goldberg, 2006). Moreover, language is grounded in universal human experience, such that these categorization and generalization mechanisms operate over a level of universal (crosslinguistically valid) conceptual grounding (e.g., Berlin and Kay, 1969;Bowerman and Choi, 2001;Levinson et al., 2003;Regier et al., 2007;Majid et al., 2008;Gentner and Bowerman, 2009). We briefly discuss the implications of each of these three properties for the human lexicon. ...
... For example, languages vary widely in the precise lexical divisions they adopt in a domain (such as how to carve up the continuous color spectrum into basic color terms), differentially making a trade-off between expressivity of the terms and efficiency in their lexicons (e.g., Kemp et al., 2018;Zaslavsky et al., 2018). However, considerations of "cognitive naturalness" of lexical categories greatly constrain the observed variation across languages, such that human lexicons follow common organizational principles (e.g., Berlin and Kay, 1969;Levinson et al., 2003;Gentner and Bowerman, 2009;Xu et al., 2020). Moreover, people benefit (or suffer!) from "transfer effects" in learning a new language, or in lexical access in the context of a multilingual lexicon (e.g., Van Hell and de Groot, 1998;Degani et al., 2011). ...
... Clearly, languages vary widely in how they "carve up" a semantic space with words-e.g., some having a single word for two concepts for which others have distinct words (English on [SUPPORT] vs. Dutch aan [TENUOUS SUPPORT] and op [STABLE SUPPORT]). Despite this lack of alignment in the world's lexicons-with various one-to-many or even many-to-many mappings attested between languages-detailed linguistic analyses of various semantic domains have revealed consistent commonalities in how languages label concepts with words (e.g., Berlin and Kay, 1969;Haspelmath, 1993;Levinson et al., 2003;Majid et al., 2008;Gentner and Bowerman, 2009). More recently, large-scale work has confirmed that languages exhibit universal tendencies in lexical structure across a wide variety of semantic domains (Youn et al., 2016;Thompson et al., 2018). ...
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To process language in a way that is compatible with human expectations in a communicative interaction, we need computational representations of lexical properties that form the basis of human knowledge of words. In this article, we concentrate on word-level semantics. We discuss key concepts and issues that underlie the scientific understanding of the human lexicon: its richly structured semantic representations, their ready and continual adaptability, and their grounding in crosslinguistically valid conceptualization. We assess the state of the art in natural language processing (NLP) in achieving these identified properties, and suggest ways in which the language sciences can inspire new approaches to their computational instantiation.
... The history of the colour names research dates back to the works of such well-known scholars as А. Vezbytska [6], B. Berlin [7] and Е. Rosch [8]. Unlike the previous works, dedicated to the issues of fundamentals of visual perception of colour and its proper nomination [6], university and evolution of colour terms [7] and mental codes for colour categories [8]. ...
... Vezbytska [6], B. Berlin [7] and Е. Rosch [8]. Unlike the previous works, dedicated to the issues of fundamentals of visual perception of colour and its proper nomination [6], university and evolution of colour terms [7] and mental codes for colour categories [8]. ...
... chromatiques (comme du vert et du noir) sont présentées sur le même support. Par la suite, de nombreuses études sont venues appuyer ces résultats (e.g.,Granzier & Gegenfurtner, 2012 ;Mizokami, Ikeda, & Shinoda, 2004 ;Radonjić, Cottaris, & Brainard, 2015).L'étude menée parBerlin et Kay (1969) fait état d'une universalité de la perception des couleurs. Ces anthropologues ont fait passer une tâche de catégorisation de couleurs à des adultes européens, asiatiques, africains et américains.Les résultats indiquent que, quelle que soit leur culture, les participants classent les différentes teintes qui leurs sont proposées de la même manière, bien qu'ils ne disposent pas tous des termes permettant de les nommer. ...
... De plus, il semble que les individus apprécient de la même manière les différentes dimensions de la couleur énoncées ci-avant (teinte, luminosité et saturation). En effet, tous reconnaissent les couleurs primaires comme étant non mélangées, alors que les couleurs telles que le marron par exemple sont définies comme des couleurs non pures ou mélangées(Berlin & Kay, 1969). Ainsi, il semblerait que la culture n'ait pas d'effet sur la perception des couleurs dites de base(Guest & Van Laar, 2000 ;Lin, Luo, MacDonald, & Tarrant, 2001 ;Oyibo, Ali, & Vassileva, 2016). ...
Thesis
De par le lien étroit qu’elles entretiennent avec la cognition, les émotions influencent nos comportements, nos perceptions ainsi que nos performances lorsqu’il s’agit d’apprendre. Si l’existence de ce lien semble faire consensus au sein de la communauté scientifique, la nature de celui-ci fait aujourd’hui encore débat. Ainsi, pour certains, les émotions seraient une entrave aux fonctions cognitives (e.g., Hadwin, Brogan, & Stevenson, 2005). Selon le RAM (Ellis & Moore, 1999), toutes émotions mobiliseraient une partie des ressources attentionnelles au détriment de la tâche à réaliser. Cependant, à l’inverse, d’autres études font état d’un effet facilitateur des émotions (e.g., Burkitt & Barnett, 2006). Cette apparente opposition pourrait être liée à l’interaction entre l’émotion induite et l’état initial des participants. Selon le modèle de la congruence émotionnelle (Bower, 1981), une information véhiculant une émotion de même nature que celle ressentie par l’individu (congruence) serait plus rapidement traitée qu’une information véhiculant une émotion non similaire (incongruence). Or, rares sont les études prenant en considération l’état des participants avant la tâche. De plus, un grand nombre de travaux étudie l’effet des émotions sur des processus cognitifs de haut niveau. Cependant, ceux-ci sont sous-tendus par l’activation de différents processus tels que l’attention qui est impliquée dans toutes tâches d’apprentissage. Il est possible, d’une part, que les émotions n’aient pas le même effet sur l’ensemble des processus cognitifs et d’autre part, que cet effet soit variable au cours du développement de l’individu. A l’heure actuelle, peu de travaux ont été conduits chez l’enfant et encore moins en milieu scolaire. Aussi, ce travail de thèse a pour objectif d’étudier l’influence des émotions sur les processus de focalisation et d’orientation de l’attention sélective chez l’enfant d’école maternelle et primaire. Pour ce faire, cinq études expérimentales ont été réalisées.
... We adopt the rich features of color space and convolutional layers as target representations for the position tracking. The optimal position is obtained through combining the multi-channel color attributes with the features extracted from CNN. (2). A new independent filter is learned to estimate the target scale depending on the optimal target position estimation, which obtains an impressive performance gain in accuracy. ...
... Different with the traditional color features, color names (CN) [43] are giving image pixels with linguistic color labels through a mapping between RGB and color names to represent colors in the world. By Berlin and Kay [2], CN include eleven basic color terms: black, blue, brown, gray, green, orange, pink, purple, red, white and yellow in English linguistic study, see Fig. 2. In other words, CN are actually a way of color term by linguistic color labels in real-world images, which belong to the same category as RGB and HSV. CN retrieve large numbers of images by Google search as the data set. ...
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Object tracking in videos has been a hot research for decades. Many approaches have been applied to improve the visual tracking, a challenging task in computer vision. Compared with the state-of-the-art methods, correlation filters have achieved more significant performance in visual object tracking. However, their flexibilities in the robust scale estimation are not very well. In this paper, we improve the performance of tracking with high discrimination power and explore an energy-efficient approach to design a simple superior tracker. First, instead of one simple feature extraction, we utilize multi-feature channels from the color space and convolutional layers, respectively, and establish a corresponding weighted formulation to fuse multiple features. Through the optimization, it can effectively obtain the latest position estimation of target object. Furthermore, the scale space correlation filter is investigated by the tracking-by-detection structure to distinguish the scale variation of the target object according to the updating position estimation. Additionally, we employ fusion approach to merge the multi-channel response maps to obtain an optimal tracking result, which ensures that our model can supply sufficient tracking information. Compared with the existing tracking approaches, we reduce the computation complexity. On the OTB-dataset, our tracker significantly improves the baseline, with a gain of 3.4% in the experimental evaluation. Both quantitative and qualitative evaluations are implemented on multiple benchmark sequences to demonstrate that the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches.
... The linguistic relativity hypothesis has been challenged mostly by nativists, particularly Pinker (1994Pinker ( , 2007, in the 1960s through the 1980s. Whorf's work was also criticized after the publication of Berlin and Kay's (1969) study of basic color terms. Berlin and Kay (1969) reported that lexical labels for basic color terms followed universal principles and the order of universal properties in focal colors. ...
... Whorf's work was also criticized after the publication of Berlin and Kay's (1969) study of basic color terms. Berlin and Kay (1969) reported that lexical labels for basic color terms followed universal principles and the order of universal properties in focal colors. They also asserted that the typological patterns of basic color terms were the product of cultural evolutionary processes. ...
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The purpose of this paper is to extend the linguistic relativity hypothesis (i.e., the language we speak affects the way we think) to a script relativity hypothesis (i.e., the script in which we read influences our thought). Based on the rich body of knowledge in the science of reading that shows the effects of literacy on our cognitive processes, the foundation, rationale, and converging evidence of script relativity are discussed. The tenable notion of script relativity is anchored in previous research into the connection between language and thought as well as a causal relationship from language to cognition. Further discussed is the application of linguistic relativity to reading in both first and second languages to elucidate the reading-to-cognition link and how reading affects our attention, perception, and thought. Focused research for script relativity is suggested in the areas of the operating principle of script (alphabetic vs. morphosyllabic), reading directionality (left-to-right vs. right-to-left), word configurations (linearity vs. block), literacy experience (literates vs. illiterates), and interword spaces (presence vs. absence of interword spaces). The article ends with further recommendations and future directions. It is suggested that linguistic and cultural effects on cognition be controlled in future studies to disentangle the true effects of script.
... Thus, studies vary greatly in the number of colour samples they have used, from as few as 23 (Lindsey et al., 2015) to the much more extensive World Color Survey (Kay et al., 2010), where responses were obtained for 320 samples. Even here, the colour terms were obtained from only highly saturated colour samples as is general in cross-cultural studies of colour naming (Berlin and Kay, 1969, Bimler and Uusküla, 2017Gibson et al., 2017;Kay et al., 2010;Lindsey et al., 2015;Roberson et al., 2005), despite worries about the outcomes being affected by the variation in that dimension (Paramei, 2005;Roberson et al., 2005;Witzel, 2016;Witzel, 2018;Witzel et al., 2015). To our knowledge, there have been few, if any, studies with remote populations that have used computerised colour presentations to overcome these problems, perhaps because of worries about uncontrolled colour reproduction and the unfamiliarity of computer screens to indigenous populations. ...
... In conclusion, our findings showing the augmentation of a green term provide further evidence against the claim that primary colour categories are constrained by early perceptual mechanisms (Abramov and Gordon, 1994;Bosten and Boehm, 2014;Emery et al., 2017;Malkoc et al., 2005;Mylonas and Griffin, 2020;Valberg, 2001;Wool et al., 2015;Wuerger et al., 2005) and challenge explanations based on this claim Kay, 1969/ 1991;Kay and McDaniel, 1978;Kuehni, 2005;Philipona and O'Regan, 2006;Regier et al., 2007). Our findings from machine learning give priority to linguistic similarity as the mechanism for augmentation. ...
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Languages differ markedly in the number of colour terms in their lexicons. The Himba, for example, a remote culture in Namibia, were reported in 2005 to have only a 5-colour term language. We re-examined their colour naming using a novel computer-based method drawing colours from across the gamut rather than only from the saturated shell of colour space that is the norm in cross-cultural colour research. Measuring confidence in communication, the Himba now have seven terms, or more properly categories, that are independent of other colour terms. Thus, we report the first augmentation of major terms, namely green and brown, to a colour lexicon in any language. A critical examination of supervised and unsupervised machine-learning approaches across the two datasets collected at different periods shows that perceptual mechanisms can, at most, only to some extent explain colour category formation and that cultural factors, such as linguistic similarity are the critical driving force for augmenting colour terms and effective colour communication.
... In particular, different languages and cultural groups measure out the color spectrum differently. In 1969, Berlin [68] published the book Basic Color Terms: their Universality and Evolution. Berlin and Kay concluded: "The perception of color mainly occurs inside our heads, so its existence in the mind is influenced by personal feelings, tastes or opinions." ...
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White light can be decomposed into different colors, and a complex sound wave can be decomposed into its partials. While the physics behind transverse and longitudinal waves is quite different and several theories have been developed to investigate the complexity of colors and timbres, we can try to model their structural similarities through the language of categories. Then, we consider color mixing and color transition in painting, comparing them with timbre superposition and timbre morphing in orchestration and computer music in light of bicategories and bigroupoids. Colors and timbres can be a probe to investigate some relevant aspects of visual and auditory perception jointly with their connections. Thus, the use of categories proposed here aims to investigate color/timbre perception, influencing the computer science developments in this area.
... Pour des monographies qui prennent en compte l'ensemble des éléments du milieu, animaux et végétaux, Bahuchet (1985), Grenand (1980). 62. B. Berlin a poursuivi ses recherches en ethnoscience en l'appliquant aux termes de couleurs dans de nombreuses langues du monde, dans un ouvrage qui a eu un réel retentissement (Berlin & Kay 1969). ...
Article
Revue de Botanique Appliquée was founded in 1924 by Auguste Chevalier, director of the colonial agriculture laboratory of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, in Paris. This article recontextualizes the foundation of the journal within the scientific journey of its founder and, within the history of the Museum. We discuss the study of “useful plants” from the origins of the Museum in the Royal Garden for medicinal plants, and then in its various services related to botany and agriculture. More generally, we contextualize the experience of the Paris Museum within an international historical framework, recalling the emergence of various currents such as economic botany, ethnobotany, ethnoecology, ethnoscience and finally ethnobiology. This international journey begins with the inventory of useful plants all the way to the study of human societies in relation to their environments. A diversity of approaches and terminologies emerges in the various academic centers, approaches which, however, interpenetrate and influence each other.
... Podľa systému farebných označení sa farba oranžová spolu s fialovou, ružovou a sivou zaraďujú do najvyššejtzv. siedmej etapy vývoja (pozri bližšie Berlin, Kay, 1969). Vo všetkých rozvinutých indoeurópskych jazykoch, vrátane ruštiny, sú tieto farby najmladšie. ...
... Lo que olvidamos es que ambas visiones resultan de la herencia directa de los planteamientos de Goethe (2000) y su acento puesto en la percepción humana de los colores, en sus efectos y sensaciones entre quienes los visualizan, perciben e interpretan, preámbulo de una posterior visión y análisis fenomenológico de la realidad. Una herencia que fue también ampliamente replicada por antropólogos y lingüistas quienes usaron las categorías definidas y empleadas en distintas sociedades para su clasificación, por un lado, y para la comprensión de ritos o prácticas simbólicas, por otro (Berlin y Kay 1979;Gage 1999;Turner 1967). Sin embargo, más allá de su percepción, interpretación y significado, resulta relevante rescatar las dimensiones materiales del color, pues estas otorgan información para identificar, entre otros aspectos, las materias primas empleadas y comprender así los conocimientos manejados para su obtención, producción y propiedades, como también sobre las distintas formas de uso en el caso de recursos con colores naturales diferentes y combinados intencionalmente. ...
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Este trabajo nos lleva a reflexionar por primera vez sobre variadas dimensiones del color en el pasado prehispánico del desierto de Atacama, a partir del estudio de su materialidad y expresión en objetos que forman parte de la colección de Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes, hoy depositada en el Museo Nacional de Historia Natural. Se describe brevemente la colección, luego proponemos una forma de abordar el análisis del color distinguiendo su naturaleza, formas de composición, además de destacar piezas que si bien no presentan cualidades cromáticas particulares contribuyeron a la valorización de pigmentos colorantes. Este artículo constituye una búsqueda y análisis del color para comprender su rol en las interacciones entre sujetos y colectivos que habitaron el desierto de Atacama en tiempos prehispánicos.
... Despite its initial popularity during the first half of the 20 th century, linguistic relativism rapidly fell out of favor among cognitive scientists and linguists. Notably, studies suggesting the existence of universal semantic constrains on color terminology (Berlin & Kay, 1969), works falsifying some of Whorf's most famous claims on Eskimo lexicon (Pullum, 1991), and researchers pointing out the universality of non-linguistic concepts (Chomsky, 1975;Fodor, 1975;Pinker, 1994) all contributed to marginalize the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and its tenants. ...
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With its context-independent rules valid in any setting, mathematics is considered to be the champion of abstraction, and for a long time human mathematical reasoning was thought to follow nothing but the laws of logic. However, the idea that mathematics is grounded in nature has gained traction over the past decades, and the context-independency of mathematical reasoning has come to be questioned. The thesis we defend concerns the role played by general, non-mathematical knowledge on individuals' understanding of numerical situations. We propose that what we count has a crucial impact on how we count, in the sense that human's representation of numerical information is dependent on the semantic context in which it is embedded. More specifically, we argue that general, non-mathematical knowledge about the entities described in a mathematical word problem can shape its interpretation and foster one of two representations: either a cardinal encoding, or an ordinal encoding. After introducing a new framework of arithmetic word problem solving accounting for the interactions between mathematical knowledge and world knowledge in the encoding, recoding and solving of arithmetic word problems, we present a series of 16 experiments assessing how world knowledge about specific quantities can promote one of two problem representations. Using isomorphic arithmetic word problems involving either cardinal quantities (weights, prices, collections) or ordinal quantities (durations, heights, number of floors), we investigate the pervasiveness of the cardinal-ordinal distinction in a wide range of activities, including problem categorization, problem comparison, algorithm selection, problem solvability assessment, problem recall, sentence recognition, drawing production and transfer of strategies. We gather data using behavioral measures (success rates, algorithm use, response times) as well as eye tracking (fixation times, saccades, pupil dilation), to show that the difference between problems meant to foster either a cardinal or an ordinal encoding has a far-reaching influence on participants from diverse populations (N = 2180), ranging from 2nd graders and 5th graders to lay adults, expert mathematicians and math teachers. We discuss the general educational implications of these effects of semantic (in)congruence, and we propose new directions for future research on this crucial issue. We conclude that these findings illustrate the extent to which human reasoning is constrained by the content on which it operates, even in domains where abstraction is praised and trained.
... One of the central issues about colour naming in linguistics is the way in which colours are classified in different contexts. Berlin and Kay (1969), in their seminal study of colour names, suggest that there is a universal colour-naming system, with a set of 11 basic colour categories: black, white, red, green, yellow, blue, brown, purple, pink, orange and grey, and that differences in colour classifications in different cultures occur because each culture sees different stages in the evolution of colour vocabulary. van Leeuwen (2011), however, argues that colour has a range of dimensions, incorporating not just the hue, but also luminosity, temperature, cultural values, etc. ...
Article
The present study adopts a corpus stylistic approach to: (1) examine a relationship between textual patterns of colour words in The Great Gatsby and their symbolic interpretations and (2) investigate the ways those patterns are handled in Thai translations. Distribution and co-occurrence patterns were analysed for colour words that are key in the novel: white, grey, yellow and lavender. The density and frequent patterns of each word are argued to foreground an association between the colour word and particular concepts, pointing to symbolic meaning potentials related to the novel’s themes of socioeconomic inequality and destructive wealth. The textual patterns are compared with what occurs in three Thai translations of the novel. While most of the colour images are directly translated, non-equivalents tend to be applied to figurative uses of the colour terms. This results in some changes in textual patterns of the colour words in the translated texts, which can in turn affect readers’ interpretations of colour symbolism in the novel.
... El concepto del color se origina en el cerebro por medio de la percepción de señales provenientes de los fotorreceptores de la retina del ojo, en los que la luz incide a través de longitudes de onda provenientes del espectro electromagnético. En diversas culturas es común distinguir cerca de 11 colores conocidos como básicos: azul, verde, amarillo, rojo, anaranjado, rosa, café, púrpura, negro, blanco y gris (Berlin y Kay, 1969. Matlin y Foley, 1996 (Peirce, 2014;Elizondo, 2012, pp. ...
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El objetivo del presente capítulo es proyectar las oportunidades de expresión del diseñador gráfico; mediante un primer acercamiento entre algunas visiones de la administración pública y los insumos, los procesos y la variedad de productos del diseñador gráfico; a efecto de delinear los cursos de acción factibles para la relación expuesta durante los procesos institucionales. Para el desarrollo de este propósito, el resto del texto se organizó en cinco apartados: 1) Tres visiones básicas de las instituciones de la administración pública; 2) Elementos y conceptos gráficos como signos de identidad, afectividad, emociones y excitación; 3) El proceso creativo del diseñador gráfico; 4) La gama de elementos de identificación visual; y 5) Conclusiones.
... The perception-based lexicon of a language is an important tool to fulfil the communicative needs of the speakers. With respect to terminology of colour, for example, Kay and Berlin (1969) proposed that languages consist of a set of colour words that tend to congregate around similar perception. Likewise, the seminal work on perception verbs by Viberg (1983), a topological study, formed a unidirectional model where the verb see is the most dominant source of perception over other senses. ...
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Verbs of perception describe the actual perception of some entity and it is emphasized by earlier researchers that lexicon in languages is conceptually-oriented and is necessary for our daily communicative needs. In this paper, we demonstrate and explain, which among the perception verbs have the higher frequencies of all the five senses (vision, hear, smell, taste, touch) by using a Telugu corpus and self-rating task. This study shows a greater lexical differentiation when compared to studies done using English corpus and other languages. Based on our analysis–vision, followed by hear are the most commonly used verbs in daily communicative needs by the Telugu speakers as compared to touch, taste, and smell; The inconsistency in usage of other senses are not identical to the vision and hear in other studies, it may be due to sampling and methodological variations in the corpus of different language, but in common these two senses play a key role in perception verbs. The study of Telugu perception verbs may give more interesting facts and insights into the cognitive linguistics paradigm.
... Each hue-saturation combination was presented 3 times, which resulted in 144 trials (16 hues × 3 saturations × 3 presentations). Participants were instructed to name aloud each square presented, with one of the 11 basic colour terms (BCT: monolexemic abstract colour names whose extensions are not included in other basic terms, which are used consensually and consistently in a language) 55 in their native language, English 56,57 (red, green, blue, yellow, pink, purple, orange, brown, grey, black and white) or Portuguese 58 (vermelho-red, verde-green, azul-blue, amarelo-yellow, rosa-pink, roxo-purple, laranja-orange, castanho-brown, cinzento-grey, preto-black and branco-white). For clarity, in this paper, English equivalents are reported. ...
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Red-green colour vision deficiency (CVD) affects ~ 4% of Caucasians. Notch filters exist to simulate CVD when worn by colour vision normal (CVN) observers (simulation tools), or to improve colour discrimination when worn by CVD observers (compensation tools). The current study assesses effects of simulation (Variantor) and compensation (EnChroma) filters on performance in a variety of tasks. Experiments were conducted on 20 CVN and 16 CVD participants under no-filter and filter conditions (5 CVN used Variantor; 15 CVN and 16 CVD used EnChroma). Participants were tested on Ishihara and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue tests, CVA-UMinho colour discrimination and colour naming tasks and a board-game colour-sorting task. Repeated-measures ANOVAs found Variantor filters to significantly worsen CVN performance, mimicking protanopia. Mixed-model and repeated-measures ANOVAs demonstrate that EnChroma filters do not significantly enhance performance in CVD observers. Key EnChroma results were replicated in 8 CVD children (Ishihara test) and a sub-sample of 6 CVD adults (CVA-UMinho colour discrimination and colour naming tasks) for a smaller stimulus size. Pattern similarity exists across hue for discrimination thresholds and naming errors. Variantor filters are effective at mimicking congenital colour vision defects in CVN observers for all tasks, however EnChroma filters do not significantly compensate for CVD in any.
... The Google Trends service was used to download historical monthly search volume data from Go ogle for elev en colour names in English (white, black, red, green, y ellow, blue, brown, purple, pink, orange and gray ) from January 2004 to December 2019 [1 9]. We chose these particular colour names because they are the eleven unambiguous colour names acco rding to a number of studies [20]. Google Trends allows users to download a normalised count of the total number of searches related to a specific word (or phrase) ov er a specific time frame. ...
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This work explores the relationship between relative search frequencies for colour names using Google Trends and measures of investor sentiment and consumer/business confidence using data between 2004 and 2019. It was found that during periods of economic downturn or negative sentiment, relative search frequencies for black increased and those for yellow decreased. Additionally, we used Granger Causality to show that changes in search frequencies for white and purple may be able to forecast investor sentiment and consumer confidence respectively. The work has implications for the use of data-driven methods for effective colour forecasting.
... angry). According to Berlin and Kay (1969), "there appears to be a positive correlation between general cultural complexity and complexity of colour vocabulary" (Dedrick, 1998, p. 2). Berlin and Kay did research on 78 different languages and found that there are universals in the semantics of colour (Peek, 2006, p. 3), making linguistic relativity seem quite plausible. ...
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The present study investigates the effective strategies that can be employed in translating English culture-bound expressions into Arabic. The study mainly explores the translation and idiomacity of some colour-related expressions of comparison (i.e. similes), collocations and binomials. The paper examines whether it is possible to observe any consistency in the strategies used for the translation of these colour-related idiomatic expressions. This is attempted under the notions of foreignization and domestication proposed by Venuti (1995), the framework of Berlin/Key studies on colours (1969), and the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, which are all concerned with the interrelationships between language, culture, and translation. The researcher is the instrument of this study. In translating the culturally-bound expressions, the researcher uses two techniques to solve the cultural gap between the source and target languages. The paper reaches the conclusion that no translation strategy should be discarded. Venuti claims that the translator's invisibility is a direct fallout of domesticating translation. However, domestication is very successful in translating many of the idioms incorporated in the corpus data by providing an equivalent idiom in the target language (TL). Foreignising translation, on the other hand, is not always favoured as a form of cultural innovation if it is taken to extremes, as is the case with colour-related idioms deeply bound to culture as it negatively affects the semantic content of the source language. | KEYWORDS
... ColourIconizer is a pattern-based colour identifcation aid that uses strong associations between colour names and everyday objects that are often associated with those colour names (e.g., Pine Tree = Green). We constrained ColourIconizer to 10 total colour-pattern combinations, basing our choices on the eleven basic colour terms identifed by Berlin and Kay [5], but merging 'black' and 'white' into 'grey' and adding 'teal' to represent blue-green colours similar to the approach taken with ColourPopper [18]. In our goal of a symbol set that provides a strong analogy for the represented colour, we frst collected a set of icons that clearly (to us) represented each colour from: faticon.com, ...
Conference Paper
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Many daily tasks rely on accurately identifying and distinguishing between different colours. However, these tasks can be frustrating and potentially dangerous for people with Colour Vision Deficiency (CVD). Despite prior work exploring how pattern overlays on top of colours can support people with CVD, the solutions were often unintuitive or required significant training to become proficient. We address this problem by creating two new colour patterns (ColourIconizer, ColourMix). We evaluated these patterns against a previously published colour pattern (ColourMeters) using an online evaluation with three new colour identification tasks (Selection Task, Transition Task, Sorting Task). ColourMeters helped with the Transition Task, but struggled with the Selection and Sorting Tasks. Conversely, ColourIconizer helped with the Selection and Sorting Tasks but struggled to help on the Transition Task. ColourMix provided general assistance on all tasks. Our combined results help inform and improve the design of future colour patterns.
... Another interesting phenomenon evident from Table 10 is that models seem to be good at translating "red", mediocre at translating "yellow", and poor at translating "orange". This observation is consistent with cross-lingual hierarchy of color terms described in Berlin & Kay (1969); Saunders & Brakel (2002), which find that terms for color generally arise in specific orders across the world's cultures, with words for "red" occurring in stage II of color development, "yellow" in stage III/IV, and "orange" in stage VII. ...
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In this paper we share findings from our effort to build practical machine translation (MT) systems capable of translating across over one thousand languages. We describe results in three research domains: (i) Building clean, web-mined datasets for 1500+ languages by leveraging semi-supervised pre-training for language identification and developing data-driven filtering techniques; (ii) Developing practical MT models for under-served languages by leveraging massively multilingual models trained with supervised parallel data for over 100 high-resource languages and monolingual datasets for an additional 1000+ languages; and (iii) Studying the limitations of evaluation metrics for these languages and conducting qualitative analysis of the outputs from our MT models, highlighting several frequent error modes of these types of models. We hope that our work provides useful insights to practitioners working towards building MT systems for currently understudied languages, and highlights research directions that can complement the weaknesses of massively multilingual models in data-sparse settings.
... The shape of a dog's head, for instance, has invariant properties that differ from the shape of a cat's head, but we have no need of labels for these shapes because they are so reliably associated with the more general concepts dog and cat. Cultures vary in what concepts they choose to label, as vividly demonstrated by the variation of color labeling across languages (Berlin & Kay, 1969) and by borrowed words like schadenfreude. Semantics refers to the formal study of meaning attached to linguistic signs (words, phrases, discourse). ...
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Accessing word meaning is a core process in language comprehension and production. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological data suggest that lexical semantic knowledge is partly “embodied” in perception, action, and emotion systems but that more abstract crossmodal or amodal representations also play a role. The evidence points to a hierarchical architecture in which modal association cortices converge at multiple levels, culminating in high-level temporal and inferior parietal lobe convergence zones that enable word associations and mapping between abstract semantic codes and phonological forms.
... The general point worth considering is that some firms are prototypical of a group's position, while others are not. Categorisation theorists label this phenomenon membership gradience (Berlin, Kay, 1969). However, it is also probable that the firms included in a particular analysis will determine which firms are core and secondary (Lakoff, 1987). ...
Article
The paper aims at presenting a theoretical perspective of considering strategic groups and performance in retail. The specific aims are as follows: a) identifying the state of the art of SGs; b) identifying the core, secondary, and transient enterprises as well as their characteristics; c) identifying pure, hybrid, and mixed strategies in companies, in particular, SGs; d) identifying the relationships between SG structure, strategies and firms’ performance, e) proposing the methodology for examining SGs and performance in retail. To realise the paper aims, the narrative literature review was used. The paper enhances the SG approach. The paper contributes to the development of the SGs field. It links an SG approach with performance and type of strategy at ontology, epistemology, and axiology.
... There are certain universal constraints in the formation of color categories (Gibson et al., 2017;Regier, Kay, & Cook, 2005) but languages differ in the way they partition the spectrum of wavelength into discrete components (Berlin & Kay, 1969). One widely established phenomenon related to this cross-linguistic variation is categorical perception. ...
Article
Cross‐category hues are differentiated easier than otherwise equidistant hues that belong to the same linguistic category. This effect is typically manifested through both accuracy and response time gains in tasks with a memory component, whereas only response times are affected when there is no memory component. This raises the question of whether there is a common generative process underlying the differential behavioral manifestations of category advantage in color perception. For instance, within the framework of noisy evidence accumulation models, changes in accuracy can be readily attributed to an increase in the efficacy of perceptual evidence integration (after controlling for threshold setting), whereas changes in response time can also be attributed to shorter nondecisional delays (e.g., due to facilitated signal detection). To address the latent decision processes underlying category advantage across different behavioral demands, we introduce a decision‐theoretic perspective (i.e., diffusion decision model) to categorical color perception in three complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, we collected data from a binary color naming task (1) to determine the green–blue boundary in our sample and (2) to trace how parameter estimates of interest in the model output change as a function of color typicality. In Experiments 2 and 3, we used same‐different task paradigms (with and without a memory component, respectively) and traced the category advantage in color discrimination in two parameters of the diffusion decision model: nondecision time and drift rate. An increase in drift rate predominantly characterized the category advantage in both tasks. Our results show that improved efficiency in perceptual evidence integration is a common driving force behind different manifestations of category advantage.
... Neka od najpoznatijih istraživanja su ona gdje se pokušalo utvrditi da li nazivi za boje u nekom jeziku utiču na sposobnost govornika tog jezika da prepoznaju razlike u bojama i njihovim nijansama. Berlin i Kej (Berlin and Kay, 1969) su pokazali da jezik, odnosno nazivi za boje u slučaju ovog njihovog rada, ne utiče na percepciju boja, ali ne spore da veće bogatstvo naziva za različite nijanse pomaže govornicima da te nijanse lakše imenuju i zapamte. Za istraživanja o uticaju jezika na mišljenje i misaone procese interesovanje je obnovljeno u skorije vrijeme u okviru tzv. ...
... However, this new name is not used to indicate actual forgiveness, but it is used, in a sarcastic way, to ridicule those who chose to forgive and, in a self-mocking way, to express sadness and frustration on the occurrence of cheating. Hence, the name is neither an object-dependent term (Wyler, 1989(Wyler, , 2007, for example, brick red, nor a basic colour term classified by Berlin and Kay (1991); rather, it is a culturally loaded expression and neologism coined by Chinese Internet users that represents a new and playful way of talking about cheating. In other words, the association between the new name and the colour that it designates is achieved through socio-cultural knowledge rather than encyclopedic knowledge, for instance, the name stands for some green object. ...
Article
Social media provide their users with various semiotic resources for meaning-making in different modes (e.g., text, image, colour, etc.). While non-linguistic modes have been recognized to play an important role in meaning-making, less attention has been paid to the creative use of colour on social media. This paper contributes to this area by studying the use of colour when video comments are produced in the form of danmu on a Chinese video-sharing website Bilibili. Drawing on social semiotic multimodal analysis, this paper conceptualizes colours as a semiotic mode, in which specific colours are “turned on” to fulfill two functions, namely: a) enacting fan relation and b) expressing judgement and affect triggered by video contents, signaling a change of context from video commenting to a collective act of colouring video comments. Besides, colours are used by danmu comment makers to create cohesion in danmu comments and marshal their comments into the collective colouring act. Based on these findings, we suggest that colour also works as a contextualization cue, whose function has to be understood in conjunction with cultural knowledge, the texts of the comments and contextual references provided by videos. Furthermore, rather than being subordinate to language/text, colour is a crucial semiotic mode in the meaning-making process of danmu comments, which adds further layers to understanding the discourse and semiotic practices on Chinese social media.
... In the opposite case, when the material absorbs and does not reflect the visible frequencies, it is perceived as dark, opaque, or black. Some works in this regard state that the naming of colors varies according to culture and language [Berlin and Kay, 1991]. However, it is possible to find a correlation between languages and identify eleven basic color terms in the English language that seem to be anchored across the different languages as points in a particular color representation [Kay and Regier, 2003]. ...
Thesis
This thesis work deals with extracting features and low-level primitives from perceptual image information to understand scenes. Motivated by the needs and problems in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) vision-based navigation, we propose novel methods focusing on image understanding problems. This work explores three main pieces of information in an image : intensity, color, and texture. In the first chapter of the manuscript, we work with the intensity information through image contours. We combine this information with human perception concepts, such as the Helmholtz principle and the Gestalt laws, to propose an unsupervised framework for object detection and identification. We validate this methodology in the last stage of the drone navigation, just before the landing. In the following chapters of the manuscript, we explore the color and texture information contained in the images. First, we present an analysis of color and texture as global distributions of an image. This approach leads us to study the Optimal Transport theory and its properties as a true metric for color and texture distributions comparison. We review and compare the most popular similarity measures between distributions to show the importance of a metric with the correct properties such as non-negativity and symmetry. We validate such concepts in two image retrieval systems based on the similarity of color distribution and texture energy distribution. Finally, we build an image representation that exploits the relationship between color and texture information. The image representation results from the image’s spectral decomposition, which we obtain by the convolution with a family of Gabor filters. We present in detail the improvements to the Gabor filter and the properties of the complex color spaces. We validate our methodology with a series of segmentation and boundary detection algorithms based on the computed perceptual feature space.
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The study of basic color terms in Mandarin Chinese started with Berlin & Kay's comprehensive color research in which Mandarin was classified as a Stage V language. Previous studies proved such diagnosis empirically and statistically unreliable and several basic color term systems were proposed, though the discrepancies between which are of minor concern of this paper. In the present study, the color term Qing, which could be the grue color in Mandarin Chinese, is singled out as its controversial status of basic color term, color foci and semantic development are worthy of in-depth investigation. Thirty-two subjects were required to perform two tasks: color naming and selection. The results from the combined analysis indicate that Qing is indeed a grue color term with two focal areas, but fails to qualify as a basic color term.
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In Venetian lagoon, mussels as a food, together with technical innovations and new knowledge for their exploitation, are a recent discovery. In the past, the lagoon’s fishers considered them inedible. The first mussel farming was launched in 1939 and mussels began a new process of rehabilitation. It is the beginning of a new relationship. Mussels turn themselves into delicate animals that need care and fishers develop new interactions with the other non-human components of the environment. A mutual relationship (or inter-agentivity ) is created between mussel farmers and mussels, and it brings undeniable advantages to both species.
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Visuo-spatial reasoning tests, such as Raven’s matrices, Cattell’s culture-fair test, or various subtests of the Wechsler scales, are frequently used to estimate intelligence scores in the context of inter-racial comparisons. This has led to several high-profile works claiming that certain ethnic groups have lower intelligence than others, presumably due to genetic inferiority. This logic is predicated on the assumption that such visuo-spatial tests, because they are non-verbal, must be culture-fair: that their solution process does not significantly draw on factors that vary from one culture to the next. This assumption of culture-fairness is dubious at best and has been questioned by many authors. In this article, I review the substantial body of psychological and ethnographic literature which has demonstrated that the perception, manipulation and conceptualization of visuo-spatial information differs significantly across cultures, in a way that is relevant to intelligence tests. I then outline a model of how these inter-cultural differences can affect seven major steps of the solution process for Raven’s matrices, with a brief discussion of other visuo-spatial reasoning tests. Overall, a number of cultural assumptions appear to be deeply ingrained in all visuo-spatial reasoning tests, to the extent that it disqualifies the view of such tests as intrinsically culture-fair and makes it impossible to draw clear-cut conclusions from average score differences between ethnic groups.
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Advances in Social Sciences Research ISBN: 978-0-9875862-0-9 iv Preface On behalf of our AICEI committee, I would like to express my sincerest appreciation of the contribution of the conference delegates to the 2013 Online Conference on Multidisciplinary Social Sciences. Online conference is an innovative conferencing which has brought a series of revolutionary changes to the traditional conference. Traditional conference requires participants to travel and stay in a particular place. It is a time-consuming and costly process. Online conference uses the Internet as a conference "venue" in which participants can access the conference from anywhere at any time via Internet. It will become the most economical way of sharing your insights and publishing your research outputs in the near future. AICEI aims to build an open and accessible platform for all scholars, researchers, and professionals who are interested in sharing their studies from various perspectives in the field of social sciences. This year, we successfully have attracted a number of delegates from different parts of world (America, Europe, Asia, Middle East, Oceania, etc.), with different research background (professors, lecturers, researchers, professionals, research students, etc.), and working in the different disciplinary fields (linguistics, politics, education, history, psychology, cultural studies, sociology, etc.) to showcase their latest research outcomes on this platform. It is your participation makes the event multicultural and multidisciplinary. We are delightful to see the harmonious communication beyond the cultural, racial and linguistic limitations on this platform. The book, as a collection of peer-reviewed papers which present the key issues in social sciences around the world, aims to promote diversity and unity in research on a multidisciplinary basis.
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La question de la transitivité sémantique a surtout été envisagée par les typologues dans le but de dégager des invariants inter-langue. Le « prototype transitif » fédère autour de lui les autres constructions verbales en vertu du continuum de transitivité mais cette notion n’aide pas à comprendre en quoi ces autres constructions sont déviantes. Notre approche vise à prouver qu'il est possible de définir la transitivité sémantique non pas comme une propriété du verbe ou d'une construction mais comme la propriété d'une classe de verbes au sémantisme homogène (ici les verbes de contact issus de LVF) classifiés selon des critères de "ressemblance de famille". Les sous-classes transitives sont le résultat d’une analyse statistique multidimensionnelle sur la base de critères sélectionnés que l’on value pour obtenir un score transitif.
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The genre of social interactions determines the linguistic characteristics of interlocutors. Pidgin English is generally regarded as a code meant for informal discourse. Despite the informality of this code, it has formal structures. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine selected Pidgin-based exchanges from a sociolinguistic perspective. Using the survey method and the purposive sampling technique, ten exchanges were selected from buyer-seller interactions. The exchanges were recorded and transcribed for ease of analysis. The data were analysed based on Tannen (2005) and Beiley's (2015) perspectives on Interactional Sociolinguistics approach. The analysis of the data revealed that impoliteness is not only associated with buyers, it also characterises the language of sellers with the influence of cognitive factors such as motivation and state of mind. Apart from this, it has been found that the economic status of sellers in terms of affluence does not guarantee their superiority over those of the buyers in the studied context. In conclusion, even though Pidgin English is contextually an informal code, it has formal characteristics which are discernable in different social situations. Background The core of any sociolinguistic research is basically the reflection and solution of social problems such as the social differentiation of language; language contact resulting to bilingualism and diglossia, national and standard languages and their social functions: prejudice, impoliteness, and so on. Sociolinguistic problems are not universal, they vary across diverse geographical locations and cultures. Therefore, sociolinguists are saddled with the task of developing their individual methodologies and theories, the applications of which provide explanations for specific issues in social interactions and proffer solutions to problems that arise from those interactions. The identified problems as indicated in the discussion above constitute the major thrust of this study. This study is not merely a summary of interactions that ensue among buyers and sellers in the market place, the main goal of this study is to elucidate a number of major sociolinguistic factors that are responsible for the choice of the buyers and sellers, in order to proffer solutions to interaction problems which result from inter-cultural differences among individuals in the market setting. In specific terms, this study seeks to adapt the interactional sociolinguistic theory and models of Gumpez (1982) and Tennen (2005) to the analysis of selected pidgin-based interactions among traders in Ilorin metropolis.
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SUMMARY The English-Serbian Contrastive Lexicology is primarily aimed at philology students, English and Serbian linguists and other scholars, translators, proofreaders and all those interested in contrastive linguistics. The authors’ aim was to take a fresh perspective on the English and Serbian lexicon and the related aspects of the two languages. The book provides the basics of contrastive linguistics from a lexicological viewpoint, information on dictionaries and lexicological companions of English and Serbian, overviews of synonymy, antonymy, homonymy and hyponymy, as well as contrastive approaches to polysemy, dictionary meanings, modal verbs and numerous tenets related to their translation from English into Serbian. Furthermore, the book also encompasses chapters contrasting colour terms, motion verbs, verbs of visual perceptions. The remaining chapters describe Anglicisms and Anglo-Serbian words, false friends, slang and jargon words, as well as phraseological units in English and Serbian. Each chapter includes a set of study questions, which can stir interest for the future approaches to the topics tackled within this book. САЖЕТАК Књига Енглеско-српска контрастивна лексикологија намењена је студентима филолошке оријентације, англистима, србистима, преводиоцима, лекторима и свима који су заинтересовани за контрастивна језичка проучавања. Циљ ауторâ је да се из нове перспективе сагледају лексика енглеског и српског језика, али и различита лексиколошка питања. Ова књига садржи основне поставке контрастирања језика из лексиколошког угла, информације о најважнијим речницима и лексиколошким приручницима енглеског и српског језика, објашњења специфичности синонима, антонима, хомонима и хипонима у енглеском и српском језику, из контрастивног угла приступљено је и полисемији, речничким обрадама значења у речницима, модалним глаголима и финесама у њиховом превођењу са енглеског језика на српски језик. Затим, контрастирани су појмови коjима се именују боје, глаголи кретања и глаголи визуелне перцепције. Посебно поглавље посвећено је англицизмима и англосрпским речима, лажним паровима, те жаргонизмима и фразеологизмима у енглеском и српском језику. На крају сваког поглавља дата су питања за размишљање и дискусију, која могу бити инспирација за нова контрастивна истраживања.
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Los colores transmiten a menudo una carga simbólica al mismo tiempo que reflejan la filosofía y la cultura de una comunidad lingüística. Su uso en unidades fraseológicas también genera nuevos valores connotados a medida que la lengua evoluciona. Si bien existen varios estudios sobre las connotaciones de los colores, estos se centran normalmente en los siguientes seis colores básicos: blanco, negro, rojo, amarillo, azul y verde. Los estudios comparativos sobre el simbolismo del color morado en español y en chino son escasos. Este estudio tiene como objetivo llevar a cabo un análisis comparativo desde un punto de vista cognitivo sobre el simbolismo transmitido en los términos empleados para el color morado y las huellas de estos términos en las unidades fraseológicas en español y en chino. Mediante un análisis en profundidad, se mostrará que hay más diferencias que similitudes tanto en la comprensión de los términos para el color morado como en la cantidad de las unidades fraseológicas generadas.
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