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  • Smt. S. S. Patil College of Pharmacy, Chopda, Maharashtra, India


The anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activity of extract of leaves of Vigna Mungo linn. (Leguminosae) were investigated as well as the mechanisms of action. The extract significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the formation of paw edema induced by    carrageenan in rat and increased reaction latency to thermal pain in rat in a dose-dependent manner. The extract caused a significant (P<0.05) dose-dependent ulceration of rat gastric mucosa and concentration-dependent inhibition of hypotonicity-induced haemolysis of red blood cell. Also the extract significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the activates of the phospholipase A2 and prostaglandine synthesis in a concentration related manner. These suggest that the leaves posses anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activities mediated through sequential inhibition of the enzymes responsible for prostaglandine synthesis from arachidonic acid. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of glycoside, tannins, alkaloid, flavonoids and Saponins. Acute toxicity studies established an oral LD50 greater than 3000 mg/kg.
International Journal of Phytopharmacy Research Article
Vol. 1 (2), pp.55-60, Nov-Dec 2011
©Scholar Science Journals
Mohammed Rageeb Mohammed Usman
, S. D. Barhate
Ph.D Research Scholars JJT University, Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan, India, 333001
Shri Suresh Jain Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research Center, Jamner,
Maharashtra, India, 424206.
Corresponding Author:
The anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activity of extract of leaves of Vigna
Mungo linn. (Leguminosae) were investigated as well as the mechanisms of action. The
extract significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the formation of paw edema induced by carrageenan
in rat and increased reaction latency to thermal pain in rat in a dose-dependent manner. The
extract caused a significant (P<0.05) dose-dependent ulceration of rat gastric mucosa and
concentration-dependent inhibition of hypotonicity-induced haemolysis of red blood cell.
Also the extract significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the activates of the phospholipase A
prostaglandine synthesis in a concentration related manner. These suggest that the leaves
posses anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activities mediated through sequential
inhibition of the enzymes responsible for prostaglandine synthesis from arachidonic acid.
Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of glycoside, tannins, alkaloid,
flavonoids and Saponins. Acute toxicity studies established an oral LD
greater than 3000
Keywords- Vigna Mungo Linn; Pharmacological evaluation; phytochemical investigation
Medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activity are considerably employed in the traditional
treatment of several disorders of inflammation. The inflammatory response involves a
complex array of enzyme activation, mediator release, fluid extravasations, cell migration,
tissue breakdown and repair.
these different reactions in the inflammatory response cascade
are therapeutic targets which anti-inflammatory agent including medicinal plants interfere
with to suppress exacerbated inflammatory responses usually invoked in such disorders as
rheumatoid arthritis, in infection or injury. Inhibition of the synthesis of pro-inflammatory
prostaglandins is one of such therapeutic targets to which some of the potent anti-
inflammatory agents of clinical relevance (NSAIDs) owe their activity
. several anti-
inflammatory medicinal plants have also demonstrated the ability to inhibit the synthesis of
Vigna Mungo Linn. (Leguminosae) is widely distributed in tropical west Africa and
extensively cultivated all over India. It is commonly knows as Black gram, Urad and Udid.
Hot aqueous extracts of the leaves are useds in the treatment of stomach, rhematic pain and
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inflammatory disorderds. Indicating that the plants leaves may possess anti-inflammatory,
analgesic and ulcerogenic properties among others. The young leaves are used as vegitable.
The antiatherogenic nature of Phaseolus Mungo L. has been reported.
The enzymes IAA
oxidase and peroxides are responsible for the production of IAA.
black gram fiber exhibits
significant hypoglycemic action in experimental animals.
The search for new anti-inflammatory agents from the vast array of medicinal plant sources
in intensifying since they may hold promise for the discovery of therapeutic agents with
beneficial effect not just in suppressing relevant aspects of the inflammatory cascade but also
on diverse disease conditions where the inflammatory response is amplifying the disease
process. This present study carried out to assess the validity of the folkloric uses of this plant
in the management of pain and treatment of inflammatory disorders and establish the possible
mechanisms of pharmacological action.
2.1. Plant Materials: Fresh leaves of Vigna Mungo Linn. Collected in local area of Jalgaon.
The plant was identified and authenticated from the Department of Botany, Rashtrasant
Tukadoji Maharaj University, Nagpur. The Account no. of authentication certificate was
9146. The fresh leaves were cleaned, dried and pulverized. About 200 g of the powdered
leaves was boiled and boiled in distilled water for 2 h. the filtrate was partitioned with
chloroform: methanol (2:1) to remove traces of fatty constituents from the hot water
extraction. The methanol fraction (15.29%) was concentrated and subjected to phytochemical
analysis using the general method and evaluated for biochemical and pharmacological
2.2. Animal and Tissues: Adult albino rats (150-200) of either sex. The animal were
acclimatized for about 7 days under standard environmental condition and were maintained
on a regular feed and water ad libitum Ox vesicles (OSV) and ox blood were obtained from
healthy animals slaughtered in the local abattoir Nsukka. Strains of Bacillus pulmilum used
for enzyme assay were obtained from the Dept. of Microbiology.
2.3. Chemical: The chemical used for this study included analytical grades of methanol,
hydroquinone, ethyl acetate, sucrose, ethylene diamine tetracetate (EDTA), hydrochloric
acid, sulphuric acid, sodium chloride, chloroform, tri-sodium citrate, alpha naphthol,
glutathione, adenosine 5
-diphosphate (ADP) and hemoglobin. Other reagents and solvent
were also of analytical grade.
2.4. Acute toxicity and lethality (LD
) test: Acute toxicity study was carried out according
to OECD guidelines (Organization for economic co-operation and development).
The acute
toxicity study of various extracts of Vigna Mungo Linn. Leaves shown signs of toxicity like
tremor, convulsion and deep breathing at 2000 mg/kg b.w. 1/10
of the same dose for all
these extract were taken as therapeutic dose i.e.200 mg/kg b.w.
2.5. Anti-inflammatory activity test: Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in rat using a
of the method of Winter et. al.
increase in paw volumes was used to assess
inflammation. Four group of rats (n = 5) were deprived of food but not water for 18 h and
then received i.p. injection of the extract (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) thirty minutes later, each animal
received subplantar injection of carrageenan (0.1 ml of 2% suspension) in its right hind paw.
Paw volume was measured by mercury displacement before and at 1.5 and 5.5 h after
carrageenan injection. Control animals received either normal saline (5 ml/kg) or
phenybutazone (150 mg/kg).
2.6. Analgesic activity test: Analgesic activity was tested in rats using the hot plate method.
Twenty five rats of either sex were grouped in five (n = 5 per group). Each group received
one dose of the extract (50, 100, 150 mg/kg), normal saline (5 ml/kg) or acetylsalicylic acid
(100 mg/kg). at 15 and 60 min after extract administration, animal were lowered onto the
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surface of a hot plate (50±2
C) enclosed with cylindrical glass and the time for the animal to
raise or lick the fore limb was noted as the reaction time (RT). Cut off time in the absence of
a response was 90 sec to prevent the animal from being burnt.
2.7. Gastric ulcerogenic activity test: The ulcerogenic activity of the extracts was
investigated using the method of Cashin et. al.
rat of either sex were fasted for 18 h with
access to water. At the end of the fasting the animal received the extracts (250 or 500 mg/kg;
n = 5) orally control animal received indomethacin (30 mg/kg) or normal saline (5 ml/kg).
Eight hours after drug administration, animals were scarified and stomachs opened along the
greater curvature. The stomach mucosa was examined for ulcer lesion using a hand lens (x20
magnification). The length of lesions on the gland at portion were estimated and summed up
to calculate the ulcer index using the method.
2.8. Phospholipase A
activity test: The preparation of Phospholipase A
from B. pulmilus
and assay of the extract on its activity were performed using the method of Vane.
(0.5 ml)
of re-suspended erythrocytes were mixed with normal saline containing 2 Mm
calcium chloride and the enzyme preparation and incubated either in the absence or presence
of the extract (0.37, 0.74, 1.10 mg/kg) at 37
C for 1 h. the incubated reaction mixture was
centrifuged at 3,000 g for 10 min and the absorption of the supernatant read against the blank
at 418 nm. Prednisolone, a known inhibitor of the enzyme was used as control.
2.9. Prostaglandine synthesis activity test: Prostaglandine synthesis was isolated from ox-
seminal vesicle using the method of Nugteren et. al.
the enzyme activity was assayed using
a modification method of Yoshimoto et. al.
and Flower et. al.
the enzyme activity was
monitored at 278 nm due to the formation of PGB from PGE
by concentrated alkali
treatment. The reaction mixture consisted of 1.5 ml cofactor solution and 0.5 ml arachidonic
acid as substrate. After incubating at 37
C for 2 min, the reaction was stopped by adding 1.5
ml of 0.2 M citric acid, extracted twice with 5 ml ethyl acetate and centrifuged at 2,500 g for
10 min. each time 4 ml aliquots of the top organic layer were pipette into a clean test tube.
2.10. Membrane stabilization activity test: The membrane stabilization effect of the extract
was evaluated using hypotonicity induced haemolysis of red blood cells. Briefly, citrated ox-
blood sample were centrifuged at 3,000 g for 10 min. the pellets containing the red blood
cells were re-suspended in volumes of saline equal to those of the plasma. An aliquot (0.5 ml)
of the red cell suspension was added to 4 ml water and incubated at 37
C for 1 h.
Data was analyzed using ANOVA, further subjected to Fischer LSD post hoc test and
expressed as Mean ± SEM. Differences between means were regarded significant at P<0.05.
4.1. Phytochemical tests: Phytochemical tests on the extract have positive reaction for
glycosides, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids and Saponins.
4.2. Acute toxicity: The acute toxicity studies revealed an oral LD
greater than 2000 mg/kg.
4.3. Effect on carrageenan induced paw edema formation: The extract significantly
(P<0.05) inhibited the formation of paw edema in rats. The magnitude of inhibition increased
with time with the effect of the extract comparing well with that of phenybutazone (Table
4.4. Effect on reaction latency to thermal induced pain in rat: The extract caused a dose-
dependent increase in reaction latency to thermal pain. At 15 min, the extract (50 mg/kg)
significantly (P<0.05) evoked a longer reaction latency than aspirin and also significantly
(P<0.05) prolonged the reaction latency at 60 min (Table No.2)
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4.5. Effect on gastric ulcerogenic activity: The extract caused a significantly (P<0.05) dose-
dependent ulceration of the rat gastric mucosa. The ulcerogenic effect of the higher dose was
comparable to indomethacin (Table No.3)
4.6. Effect on phospholipase A
activity: The extract significantly (P<0.05) inhibited
phospholipase A
activity in a concentration related manner provoking inhibition comparable
to that pf Prednisolone (Table No.4)
4.7. Effect on prostaglandine synthesis activity: The extract evoked a significant (P<0.05)
concentration related inhibition of prostaglandine synthesis activity (Table No.5)
4.8. Effect on hypotonic-induced haemolysis: The extract significantly (P<0.05) inhibited
hypotonicity-induced haemolysis of red blood cells in a concentration-dependent manner
(Table No.6)
1. Vane JR, Bolting RM, New insight into the mode of action of anti-inflammatory drugs,
Inflamm. Res., 1995, 44(1), 1-10.
2. Flower RJ, Vane JR, Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, Biochem. Pharmacol., 1974,
23, 1439-1450.
3. Jager AK, Hutching A, Van SJ, Screening of Zulu medicinal plants for prostaglandin
synthesis inhibition, J. Ethnopharmacol., 1996, 52, 95-100.
4. Asima C, Satyesh C, The Treatise of Indian Medicine, CSIR, New Delhi, 1992, 2,
5. Srivastava A, Joshi LD, Effect of feeding black gram (Phaseolus Mungo) on serum
lipids of normal and diabetic guinea pigs, Ind. J. Med. Res., 1990, 92,383-386.
6. Ghosh S, Basu PS, Production and metabolism of indol acetic acid in roots and root
nodules of Phaseolus Mungo Linn., Microbial. Res., 2006, 161(4), 362-366.
7. Boby RG, Leelamma S, Black gram fiber (Phaseolus Mungo): mechanism of
hypoglycemic action, Plant Food Human Nutrition., 2005, 60(4), 173-80.
8. Guidelines Document on Acute Oral Toxicity Environmental Health and Safety
Monograph Series on Testing and Assessment no. AOT 425.
9. Ezekwesili C, Nwodo OF, Anti-inflammatory activity of Vignia ungiculata seeds
extract, J. Med. Lab. Sci., 2000, 9, 141.
10. Winter CA, Risley EA, Nuss GW, Carrageenan-induced edema in hind limp paw of the
rat as an assay for anti-inflammatory drugs, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol., 1962, 111, 544-557.
11. Sharma KK, Khanna T, Sen P, Current status of centrally acting peptides. In:
(Dhawan, B. N., ed) Advance in Biosciences, 1982, 38,142.
12. Cashin CH, Darson W, The pharmacology of bernoxaprofen, a new compound with
anti-inflammatory activity apparently unrelated to inhibition of PG synthesis, J. Pharm.
Pharmacol., 1979, 29, 330-336.
13. Vane JR, Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis as a mechanism of action for aspirin like
drug. Nat. New Biol., 1971, 231, 232-235.
14. Nugteren DH, Beerthius RK, Enzymic conversion of all-8, 11, 14-eicosatrienoic acid
in to prostaglandin E, Rec. Trav. Chin., 1966, 85, 1757-1765.
15. Yoshimoto A, Tomita k, cofactor requirements of the enzyme synthesizing
prostaglandin in bovine serninal vesicles. J. Biochem., 1970, 68, 487-499.
Flower RK, Vane JR, Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, Biochem. Pharmacol., 1974,
23, 1439-1450.
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Table No. 1: Effect of extract on carrageenan induced paw edema in rats.
Extract Dose
Edema (ml)
1.5 h 5.5h
Inhibition of edema (%)
1.5 h 5.5 h
Control _ 0.48±0.01 0.41±0.01 _ _
0.02±0.01 0.07±0.01
0.42±0.01 0.07±0.01
58.3 82.9
12.5 82.9
Phenybutazone 150 0.03±0.01 0.02±0.01 37.5 51.2
*P<0.05 compared to control (ANOVA; LSD post hoc) n = 5.
Table No. 2: Effect of extract on latency of pain reaction in rats.
Extract Dose (mg/kg) Reaction latency (T) (s)
15 min 60 min
Control _ 6.3±0.6 6.1±0.25
Methanol extract
7.0±1.40 13.8±1.83
8.0±1.00 15.3±0.58
Acetylsalicylic acid 100 8.30±0.90 12.0±0.60
*P<0.05 compared to acetylsalicylic acid and control respectively (ANOVA; LSD post hoc).
Table No. 3: Gastric ulcerogenic activity of extract.
Extract Dose (mg/kg) Ulcer index (mm)
Control _ 0±0.00
Methanol extract
Indomethacin 30 15±1.15
Values of ulcer index shown are Mean ± SEM., *P<0.05 compared to control (ANOVA; LSD post
hoc) n = 5.
Table No. 4: Effect of extract on phospholipase A
Values of absorbance shown are Mean ± SEM of triplicate determination.
*P<0.05 compared to control (ANOVA; LSD post hoc).
Table No. 5: Effect of extract on prostaglandine synthesis activity.
Extract Concentration
Absorbance Enzyme
Inhibition of
enzyme activity (%)
Control _ 1.570±0.040 7.15 0.00
Indomethacin 4.0 0.030±0.003
2.00 72.02
Values of absorbance shown are Mean ± SEM of triplicate determination.
*P<0.05 compared to control (ANOVA; LSD post hoc). Percent inhibition enzyme activity was
calculated relative to control.
Extract Dose (mg/kg) Absorbance Inhibition of enzyme
activity (%)
Control _ 1.33±0.06 00.0
Methanol extract
Prednisolone 1.00 0.11±0.01
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Table No. 6: Effect on extract on hypotonic-induced haemolysis.
Extract Concentration
Absorbance Inhibition of
haemolysis (%)
Control _ 0.46±0.02 0.00
Methanol extract
Distilled Water _ 0.65±0.28 _
Values of absorbance shown are Mean ± SEM of triplicate determination.
*P<0.001 compared to control (Normal saline) and distilled water (ANOVA; LSD post hoc).
Percent inhibition of haemolysis was calculated relative to control.
... TAXONOMY 3, 5,7,8,11,14,15,16,17,18,19 Kingdom: Plantae ...
... Black gram is grown mainly in Central and Southeast Asia. It is widely distributed in tropical West Africa and extensively cultivated all over India 5,7,14,16,18,25 . The Guntur District ranks first in Andhra Pradesh for the production of black gram in India 3 . ...
... When used externally it acts as Taḥlīl-i-Awrām (dissolvent), Jālī (corrosive), Musakkin-i-Alam (analgesic) 21 and Mulayyin (laxative) 30 . The plant leaves may possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and ulcerogenic properties among others 16 . In traditional medicine, the seed is used for its suppurative, cooling, and astringent properties 25 ...
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Māsh (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper belongs to the family Papilionaceae. It is one of the important legume crops extensively cultivated in India and other parts of the world. Pulses and legumes have been gaining interest because they are an excellent source of bioactive compounds. The objective of this present review is to compile all relevant information regarding the medicinal uses of Vigna mungo. It is rich in flavonoids, isoflavonoids, phytoestrogens, phenolic acids, enzymes, fibers, starches, trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectins, saponins, tocopherols, fatty acids, and proteins. Most of the reported components are from the seed part of the black gram. Various processes like cooking, soaking, and germination affect bioactive components. Studies have shown the presence of bioactive compounds in other parts of the plant like leaves, pods, roots, stems, etc. which are normally considered as a waste product. Hence there is a need to isolate and characterize novel bioactive components from other parts of the black gram plant. This review demonstrates that Vigna mungo is rich in bioactive components and able to cure and prevent diseases in addition to its basic nutritional value. Keywords: Māsh, Vigna mungo, black gram, bioactive components, legumes
... Analgesic and anti-inflammatory, [26] Ethanol ...
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... It is also known as Vigna mungo and scientifically it is known as Phasiolus mungo. Black gram has a significant lipid lowering action 5 and anti inflammatory 6 properties. Other than the anti oxidant properties , this black gram acts as anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, hepatoprotective, and also free radical scavenging properties 7 and showed significant anticolon-cancer and anti-inflammatory activity 8 . ...
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Medicinal plants play a vital role in human health as these are nature's gift to human beings to make disease-free, healthy lives. The various families such as Amaranthaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbaceae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Myrtaceae, Orchidaceae, Piperaceae, Solanaceae etc. comprises several medicinal properties distributed in the tropical and subtropical region of India. The medicinal usage of these families has been reported in the traditional systems of medicine. An exhaustive literature survey was performed on the medicinal plants of the district which revealed that 90 plants belong to different families is reported antiulcer property used by tribal region. Different parts of Fabiaceae family plant extract are widely used by tribal (Gond Madiya Jamat) of Gadchiroli to heal ulcer and relieve stomach pain without precipitating any side effects. The present review was conducted and focuses on the ethnomedical, phytochemical and antiulcer activity of different plant extracts of the Fabiaceae family.
Background: Non-specific low back pain is a leading contributor to disease burden and works absenteeism worldwide with a lifetime prevalence of 60-70% in industrialized countries. This clinical study aimed to assess the efficacy of hot fomentation with half-baked medicated bread (khubz) compared to hot water bag fomentation to alleviate pain and disability in non-specific low back pain. Methods: In this randomized-controlled study, fifty-four patients with low back pain were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either hot fomentation (Takmīd-e-haar) with half-baked medicated bread in the test group or hot water bag fomentation in the control group, on the lumbosacral region daily for 30 min for 15 consecutive days. Patients were assessed statistically using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) at baseline, 7th and after treatment (15th day). Results: After the intervention, statistically significant improvements (p < 0.001) were observed in VAS and ODI scores in both the groups on the intragroup comparison. The test treatment showed better efficacy in comparison to the control treatment with a mean difference of 1.75 in VAS (p < 0.0001) and 8.20 in ODI (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The tested intervention showed significantly better efficacy in comparison to the hot water bag fomentation probably due to the analgesic (musakkin-i-alam), anti-inflammatory (muḥallil-i-awrām), and demulcent (mulaṭṭif) properties of the ingredients of tested Unani formulation in addition to the effects of heat. It may therefore be concluded that medicated fomentation is an effective, safer, feasible, and less expensive regimen for patients with non-specific low back pain. Trial registration: The Clinical Trials Registry-India (CTRI/2020/03/024107).
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Globally, there are more than 500,000 plant species (green scum, duckweed, lichens, liverworts, fungi, ferns, conifers, mosses and flowering plants etc.) that maintain earth’s environmental equilibrium, ecosystem stability and also possess vast endemic, aesthetic and cultural importance, provide medicine, food, fuel, shelter and clothing. Plants are used as therapeutic agents to improve health by a large part of population. Several clinical facts suggest that plant derived foods hold various potential health benefits and well known as neutraceuticals. These are the products that are used as food or as a part of food (foodstuffs), able to cure and prevent diseases in addition to their basic nutritional value. More than 200,000 chemical compounds are synthesized by plants and no doubt, also possess medicinal importance. Worldwide, about 70% plant based preparations are used as traditional medicines and also facilitate the base for 50 percent of prescription and/or over the counter drugs used in the Western-type practice of medicine. For underdeveloped and developing countries, it is a need to provide safe, efficient and cheap medications. In various part of India medicinal plants are widely distributed and always have increasing demand due to their medicinal properties. The present review is focused on the genus Vigna which is widely cultivated and used as neutraceuticals. They grow in varied climatic zones, in high temperatures, low rainfall and poor soils with low input in form of fertiliser and irrigation that make them valuable crop plants. As Vigna is an important genus that fulfils the food demand, useful in cosmetics and medicines, there is scope to enhance its productivity via resource conservation, optimum use of rainwater, bridging the yield gaps and innovations in technology transfer and up scaling. One of the important steps to find out a way to increase the production is the detection and analysis of naturally occurring DNA sequence variation by using DNA markers or molecular markers as these markers are indispensable tool that construct maps of genetic linkage and mark the agronomically important traits.
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Vignamungo (L.)Hepper belonging to the family Fabaceae (Papilionaceae) commonly known as Black gram or Urd. It is an erect hairy annual plant with long twining branches, flowers are small and ye llow in color; fruits are cylindrical and pods are hairy containing 1-4 seeds per pod. The present study provides updated information on its pharmacognostic, phytochemical analysis and pharmacological roperties. The phytochemical analysis of the powdered seeds revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, steroids and vitamin C qualitatively, whereas flavonoids was analysed quantitatively too. It can be used medicinally as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, ulcerogenic , hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunostimulatory, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, narcotic activity. Differential extraction yielded aqueous extract 40.16%, methanol extract 15.50%, ethanol extract 12.07%, chloroform extract 9.88%, petroleum ether extract 0.34% and Quantitative pharmacognostic analysis gave moisture content 14.60%, alcohol extractive value 4.00%, water extractive value 23.6%, chloroform extractive value 2.80%, petroleum ether extractive value 0.8%, total ash 2.5%, acid–insoluble ash 0.50% and water soluble ash 1.0%.Water soluble extractives are more than alcohol soluble extractives show more water soluble constituents in the seeds. Keywords: Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, Pharmacognostic evaluation, Physico-chemical character, phytochemical studies
When normal and alloxan-induced diabetic guineapigs were given whole seed diet of Phaseolus mungo (black gram) for 4 wk, the blood glucose, serum total lipids, triglycerides and esterified fraction of cholesterol were significantly lowered, while serum phospholipid was unaltered. Total cholesterol/phospholipid ratio also decreased in normal as well as diabetic animals indicating the antiatherogenic nature of P. mungo.
Experiments with guinea-pig lung suggest that some of the therapeutic effects of sodium salicylate and aspirin-like drugs are due to inhibition of the synthesis of prostaglandins.
The effects of various cofactors on prostaglandin formation from arachidonic acid by the microsomal enzyme of bovine seminal vesicles were studied. In addition to the known activators, reduced glutathione and hydroquinone, the enzyme system was found to be markedly stimulated by hemoglobin, myoglobin or hemin. From the specific effects of these cofactors on prostaglandin formation or oxygen uptake, or both, it seemed that heme compounds and hydroquinone were involved in the step in which molecular oxygen became attached to the unsaturated fatty acids, while reduced glutathione was involved in the subsequent step of reduction of the peroxide-type intermediate. The facts that hydroquinone could be replaced by ascorbate, and that the order of addition of reactants to the system markedly affected both the yield of prostaglandin and the rate of oxygen consumption suggested that a free radical was formed during prostaglandin biosynthesis.
The discovery of a second cyclooxygenase has provided fresh impetus to the search for new anti-inflammatory drugs. The second enzyme is effectively absent from healthy tissues but its levels rise dramatically during inflammation. It can be induced in migratory cells by bacterial lipopolysaccharide, cytokines and growth factors. The constitutive cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) can thus be considered a "housekeeping" enzyme, in contrast to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) which is activated by tissue damage. Both enzymes have a molecular weight of around 70 kDa and similar Km and Vmax values for their reaction with arachidonic acid. Several non steroid anti-inflammatory drugs which have more than 1,000 fold selectivity for COX-2 over COX-1 are in the early stages of drug development.
Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 39 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine to treat headache or inflammatory diseases were screened for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors. Extracts were tested in an in vitro assay for cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In general, ethanolic extracts caused higher inhibition than aqueous extracts. Two-thirds of the plants screened had high inhibitory activity. The highest inhibition was obtained with ethanolic extracts of Bidens pilosa, Eucomis autumnalis, Harpephyllum caffrum, Helichrysum nudifolium, Leonotis intermedia, L. leonorus, Ocotea bullata, Rumex saggitatus, Solanum mauritianum, Synadenium cupulare and Trichilia dregeana.
The effect of the administration of blackgram fiber (Phaseolus mungo) on the metabolism of carbohydrates was studied in rats fed 30% NDF (neutral detergent fiber) diet. The experimental group showed a significant increase in liver glycogen level and a significant decrease in blood glucose. Significant increases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, hexokinase, fructose-1, 6-diphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were observed in the experimental group. The activities of phosphoglucomutase and glucose-6-phosphatase were significantly lower in rats fed the fiber diet. The study showed that blackgram fiber exhibits significant hypoglycemic action in experimental animals.
A method is presented for measuring the edema induced by injection of 0.05 ml of 1% solution of carrageenin, an extract of Chondrus, into the plantar tissues of the hind paw of the rat. Peak edema develops within the first 3 to 4 hours, and is inhibited by pretreatment of the animals by single oral doses of antiinflammatory agents, steroid or non-steroid. Log dose responses to drugs are linear and parallel, and yield potency ratios with relatively narrow confidence limits. The potency ratios obtained for aspirin, phenylbutazone and hydrocortisone are fairly close to the ratios of their respective daily doses in the treatment of rheumatic disease. A potent antihistaminic-antiserotonin compound, cyproheptadine, is without effect on carrageenin-induced edema.
The mature root nodules of Phaseolus mungo (L.), a leguminous pulse, contain higher amount of indole acetic acid (IAA) than non-nodulated roots. The tryptophan pool present in the mature nodule and young roots might serve as a precursor for the IAA production. Presence of IAA metabolising enzymes - IAA oxidase and peroxidase - indicate the metabolism of IAA in the nodules and roots. In culture, the symbiont, isolated from the nodules, produced a high amount of IAA, when tryptophan was supplied in the medium as a precursor. The symbiont preferred l-isomer over the dl- or d-isomer of tryptophan for IAA production. The important physiological implication of the IAA production in the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis is discussed.