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A Review on Spikenard (Nardostachysjatamansi DC.)- An ‘Endangered’ Essential Herb of India

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The herb Nardostachys jatamansi DC. is known to be a popular medicinal and aromatic plant species. It is a reputed Ayurvedic herb and used in various multiple formulations. It has also been mentioned in the Holy Bible and Quran. The roots and rhizomes of Nardostachys jatamansi DC. have been used to treat epilepsy, hysteria, syncope and mental weakness.It also exhibits cardio protective activity and used in the treatment of neural diseases. The essential oil obtained from the roots of jatamansi showed various pharmacological activity including antimicrobial, antifungal, hypotensive, antiarrhythmic and anticonvulsant activity. Sesquiterpene is the major component of this plant, others include jatamansone, nardostachone. But this reputed plant species have become critically endangered and requires various conservation strategies. The review summarizes the conservation methodologies being investigated on the plant as well as its phytochemical and pharmacological investigations.
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... Its multi-millennial importance as an aromatic and officinal plant is manifested in Ayurveda, homeopathy, popular medicine, and modern pharmaceutical industry (Purohit et al. 2012b). The species has a great reputation in the Ayurvedic medicine, and is a component of many formulations to treat epilepsy, hysteria, syncope, mental weakness, to combat stress and promote hair growth and blackness (Gupta et al. 2012). In popular pharmacopoeia of the regions of northwestern Himalaya, it is also used for palpitations and insomnia. ...
... Its aromatic essential oil, obtained from the rhizome, is used as incense, flavouring agent and as a component in luxury perfumes (Gautam and Raina 2016). It also has antimicrobial, antifungal, hypotensive, antiarrhythmic, and anticonvulsant activity (Gupta et al. 2012) and is valuable for treating leprous wounds (Thakur and Hussain 1989). In addition, N. jatamansi has cardioprotective properties and is used to cure neural diseases. ...
... All parts of it have analgesic, antiemetic, and antipyretic action (Purohit et al. 2012b). It is probably effective to treat Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases (Gupta et al. 2012). Because of all these qualities, the species is known as a life-saving drug and is subject to massive overexploitation in the Himalayan region (Chauhan and Nautiyal 2005;Purohit et al. 2012a, b), so that, today, it is classified as critically endangered according to the IUCN Red List classification (Ved et al. 2015). ...
Article
The spikenard is a plant mentioned since early antiquity, mostly known for its intense and pungent aroma that made it a precious ingredient of many cosmetic recipes for luxury perfumes. The nature of the spikenard has been controversial since the ancient era and, still today, there is the need for a correct attribution of such a name to a currently accepted botanical species. Thanks to a specimen from the Este Herbarium (Erbario Estense), preserved in the Modena State Archives (Italy), we tried to bring our contribution to the debate concerning this topic. We checked all the Italian ancient herbaria in search of samples of spikenard, analysed past literary and medical–pharmaceutical sources from classical antiquity to the XIX century, and searched former and present ethno-botanical uses. Our investigation allowed us to ascertain that the spikenard samples preserved in the Renaissance Italian herbaria belong to Nardostachys jatamansi (D. Don) DC., a herbaceous species belonging to the Valerianaceae, native to alpine regions of the north-western Himalaya, still used in Ayurveda medicine and as a component of cosmetic products.
... Rhizomes and roots of the plant consist of number of chemical constituents such as essential oil which is pale yellow in color and has pleasant odour (Disket et al, 2012 (Thorat et al, 2009). ...
Article
Plant tissue culture method has an impressive technique for Investigation and Explains basic and applied problems in plant biotechnology field. Micropropagation has played a vital role in the rapid multiplication of many plants species. The nodal explants and shoot tip of N. jatamansi inoculated in MS medium (Murashige and Skoog) contain different types concentrations of PGRs (Phytohormones) at various frequencies for the optimization of growth quality for shoot bud Induction, shoot proliferation and micro rooting in plant. The perfect shoot induction takes place in the concentration of BAP + IBA (2.0 mg/l +1.5 mg/1) multiplication of nodal explants and shoot tip in the combination lower concentration of BAP and KN (2.0 mg/1+1.5 mg/1) This combination proved best for multiple shoot formation. Half strength (1/2) of the MS medium containing NAA and BAP (1.5 mg/1+1.0 mg/1) in combination was most useful for rooting in plant. Well developed rooted micro shoots were smoothly removed for the culture flask and dipped in 70% ethanol for 2 min and then washed with running tap water for 5-10 min to remove media for the root and transferred to small plastic cups carry cocopeat, garden soil and sand (2:2:1) and produce healthy growth in ex-vitro conditions.
... It also shows soporific activity in hypotensive, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-ischemic anticonvulsant and antiarrhythmic activities [17]. The essential oil obtained from the NJ roots shows various pharmacological activities including antibacterial and antifungal behaviour [18,19]. ...
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In this present work, we focus on the synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) by bio-reduction of Ag⁺ to Ag⁰ using the aqueous extracts of the Nardostachys jatamansi (NJ) root. These synthesized green Ag NPs were further embedded in the copolymer poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) via the emulsion copolymerization technique. The structural and optical properties of the synthesized Ag-copolymer nanocomposite have been investigated using ATR-IR, DLS and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy techniques. In FT-IR, clearly observed axial stretching frequencies at 3449 (–N–H stretching amines), 1626 (–C=O, polyphenols), 1382 (–C–N), 1035 (–C–O) and 815 cm⁻¹ (aromatic) indicated the presence of functional groups (alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds) on silver nanoparticles, which could possibly act as reducing and stabilizing agents. The SEM images of the sample showed the spherical morphology of the synthesized green Ag NPs (~ 20–30 nm), which remained intact even after their immobilization on the copolymer matrix. Further, the wettability test using contact angle measurements revealed the hydrophobic properties of the samples, which is found to be slightly improved for Ag–copolymer nanocomposites (117.93°) as compared to the bare copolymer (110.37°). The antifungal activities of Ag NPs–copolymer nanocomposites were evaluated against several fungal species using the serial dilution method in different concentrations. The obtained results demonstrated that the developed Ag NPs–copolymer nanocomposite could be promising in developing the fungal-free leather materials and products. The aim of this work is to develop an antifungal-based nanocomposite for leather industries in order to get fungal-free leathers. Graphic abstract
... The hardwood extract of A. catechu exhibited promising anti-dyslipidemic activity (Srivastava et al., 2011). Spikenard possesses significant antiarrhythmic and hypotensive activities (Disket et al., 2012). Jaggery has been found to significantly reduce the degree of atherosclerosis (Okabe et al., 2009). ...
... The hardwood extract of A. catechu exhibited promising anti-dyslipidemic activity (Srivastava et al., 2011). Spikenard possesses significant antiarrhythmic and hypotensive activities (Disket et al., 2012). Jaggery has been found to significantly reduce the degree of atherosclerosis (Okabe et al., 2009). ...
... N. jatamansi is perennial herb whose rhizome and roots are mainly used as drug. N. jatamansi is described in Indian traditional system of medicine (Ayurveda) for its use in mental disorders, insomnia, hyperlipademia, hypertension and heart diseases and memory improvement [6,7] . It has protective effect in Parkinsonism, epilepsy, cerebral ischemia and free radical scavenging activity [8] . ...
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Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of Nardostachys jatamansi (N. jatamansi) rhizome against acute, subacute and chronic models of inflammation in experimental animals. Methods: N. jatamansi rhizome extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and the reference drugs phenylbutazone (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and acetylsalicylic acid (300 mg/kg, p.o.) were evaluated using models for inflammation (autacoids induced hind paw oedema, formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, carrageenin-induced paw oedema, cotton pellet granuloma and subcutaneous air pouch model). Results: In acute inflammation as produced by carrageenin 29.06% and 55.81%, by histamine 25.0% and 39.28%, by 5-hydroxytryptamine 21.37% and 36.95% and by prostaglandin E2- induced hind paw oedema 31.03% and 44.82% protection was observed. While in subacute antiinflammatory models using formaldehyde-induced hind paw oedema (after 1.5 h) 13.88% and 33.33% and in chronic anti-inflammatory model using cotton pellet granuloma 7.4% and 17.58% protection from inflammation was observed. N. jatamansi rhizome extract also inhibited the inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide by 12.81% and 38.41%, by prostaglandin E2 12.58% and 47.82% while by TNF-α 13.51% and 41.89%) produced in the pouch. Conclusions: The results of this study strongly indicate the protective effect of N. jatamansi rhizome extract against acute, subacute and chronic models of inflammation, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory potential.
... It is used in various Tibetan healing incenses. 33 The main components of the essential oil of N. jatamansi were calerene, patchouol, α-gurjunene, aristolone and β-maaliene. The essential oil had higher sesquiternoids content. ...
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Nardostachys jatamansi is an enduring herb. It is found in Himalayas. It is a very effective Ayurvedic drug and also used in the treatment of various type of diseases and has many activities including ant Parkinson's activity, hypotensive, neuroprotective, anticonvulsant activity, antidiabetic activity. Mary used the Nardostachys jatamansi DC for anoint Jesus's feet and this is mentioned in Bible besides evolutionary ideas in Ayurveda.The roots and rhizomes of Nardostachys jatamansi is use for the treatment of epilepsy, hysteria, syncope and mental weakness. The essential oil obtained from the roots of jatamansi used various pharmacological activity including antimicrobial, antifungal, hypotensive, antiarrhythmic and anticonvulsant activity.
Chapter
The gradual growth of the herbal drug industries has necessitated the need for the quality control measures for the quality assessment of herbal preparations. This has resulted in the employment of a comprehensive set of analytical methods that helps to give a complete picture of the quality of herbal material in terms of its phytochemical composition and chemo taxonomical origin. Hence, this chapter discusses the issue of adulteration and also elaborates on the integrated analytical approach which has come out as a comprehensive tool in the assessment of botanicals authenticity. Twelve commercially important Himalayan medicinal plants whose trade volume exceeds 100 metric tons annually has been discussed. Although, various efforts have already been made towards the quality assessment of these commercially important Himalayan medicinal plants, the integrated set of analytical methods discussed in this chapter can be applied for the complete assessment of their authenticity to further enhance their trade volume in the international market.
Chapter
Since time immemorial, plants have been the basis of many traditional medicines and continue to provide new remedies to mankind. Indian Himalaya is a biogeographically unique region, having critically endangered and threatened endemic plant diversity, and is known for more than 8000 plant species of which 1748 are known to have medicinal properties. These plants including herbs and aromatic plants have played an important role in the lives of tribal peoples living in the Himalayas by providing them essential day-to-day products such as food and medicines. Herbs can act as stimuli to the digestive system, relieve digestive disorders, and have some antiseptic properties and several other remedial properties. These herbals are rare and contain high nutritional and medicinal properties and have incredible demands from pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and many other herbal-based industries. Global consumption of plant-based nutraceuticals has received substantial attention because of their physiological benefits and other therapeutic effects. Therefore, in recent years, the demand for plant-based nutraceutical products has progressively increased. This chapter focuses on providing an indigenous knowledge on some of the Indian Himalayan herbs and aromatic plants that might have high potential to be used as nutraceuticals.
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Objective: To see the effect of anti-stress agents like Panax ginseng and diazepam on stress-induced elevation of norepinephrine (NE) in brain and hypothalamus of rats. Methods: NE was estimated in brain and hypothalamus of rats by spectrophotoflurorimetry. Plasma corticosterone was measured by fluorimetry. Results: Panax ginseng and diazepam both per se did not modify NE levels of brain and hypothalamus in unstressed rats. But both the drugs attenuated stress-induced elevation of NE of brain and hypothalamus and simultaneously attenuated stress-induced elevation of plasma corticosterone. Conclusion: Anti-stress effect of Panax ginseng and diazepam seems to be mediated through attenuation of levels of NE in brain and hypothalamus.
Article
Background and objectives: Nardostachys jatamansi, a popular herb in Indian medicine, has been investigated for various effects on central nervous system. However the neurobiological mechanisms of its actions are not clear. It was hypothesized that N.jatamansi root ethanolic extract (NJE) modulates acetylcholinesterase activity levels in brain regions relevant for learning and memory. Methods: A factorial study design was adopted to investigate the effects of two experimental interventions - treatment with NJE and chronic restraint stress for 21 days - on AChE activity levels in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and striatum. Results: Unstressed animals treated with NJE had significantly higher level of AChE activity in the frontal cortex (179% higher) and hippocampus(36% higher) compared to controls. AChE activity was also significantly higher (by 54 %) in the frontal cortex of stressed animals and concomitant NJE treatment when compared to untreated stressed group. Chronic restraint stress per se had no effect on AChE levels in the brain regions studied. Interpretation and Conclusions: Enhancement of AChE activity in the frontal cortex following NJE administration may be indicative of positive plasticity of cholinergic pathways to the neocortex. The implications of this region specific cholinergic modulation for the possible development of N.jatamansi based anti-dementia and nootropic interventions remain to be clarified.
Article
Cultivation trial of an important medicinal herb, Nardostachys jatamansi was carried out at three altitudes (low - 1800 m, middle - 2200 m and natural habitat - 3600 m) using vegetative propagules and seedling transplantation methods under different treatments. Economic yield varied with treatment, age of plant at the time of transplantation and altitude of nursery. Economic yield increased with the addition of manure (FYM) in all the treatments and altitudes compared to control. Yield significantly increased under horizontal ridge conditions at 3600 m. Cultivation was found commercially viable at 2200 and 3600 m in most treatments. Due to total mortality, cultivation was not found commercially viable at 1800 m in any of the treatments. Highest profit was shown by both vegetatively grown as well as seedling-transplanted crop at 3600 m in polyhouse condition. Profit was almost similar in both vegetatively as well as seedling-raised crop at 2200 m.