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Leadership and Decision-making: A Study on Reflexive Relationship Between Leadership Style and Decision-making Approach

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British Journal of Education, Society &
Behavioural Science
4(4): 473-484, 2014
SCIENCEDOMAIN international
Leadership and Decision-making:
A Study on Reflexive Relationship Between
Leadership Style and Decision-making
Bakare Kazeem Kayode1*, A. Quadri Mojeed1and Ismail Abdul Fatai1
1Institute of Education, International Islamic University, Malaysia.
Authors’ contributions
This work was carried out in collaboration between all authors. Author BKK designed the
study, wrote the protocol, and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. Authors AQM and IAF,
managed data collection analyses and managed the literature searches All authors read
and approved the final manuscript.
Received 24th June 2013
Accepted 18th November 2013
Published 9th January 2014
Aims: This paper introduces how substantial decision-making and leadership styles relates
with each other. Decision-making styles are connected with leadership practices and
institutional arrangements.
Study Design: Qualitative research approach was adopted in this study. A semi structure
interview was use to elicit data from the participants on both leadership styles and
Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Education international Islamic University
Malaysia 2012-2013.
Methodology: A semi structure interview was usedto elicit data from the participants on
both leadership and decision-making. Two Head of departments (male) from Institute of
education international Islamic university Malaysia were interviewed.
Results: Findings from study show that leadership and decision-making styles are though
opaque in theory, but are highly connected in practice. Also the leadership and decision
style that is most favored are participatory leadership style and consultative decision-
Original Research Article
British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, 4(4): 473-484, 2014
making approach.
Conclusion: This ideal relationship to some extent has substantial contributed to superior-
subordinate relationship and employee performance.
Keywords: Leadership style; decision-making approach.
Leadership, is the process of inspiring others to work together to achieve a common goal in
a given entity, it is an inevitable element of group dynamics [1]. However, the relationship
between leader’s participation and his or her effectiveness in accomplishing goals is
complex [2]. Leadership style is a term that has been defined in numerous ways—mostly
refers to the characteristic manner in which an individual leads others [3]. Researchers and
other practitioners have suggested a participatory theory of leadership, which assumes that
a group’s performance depends on the extent to which leaders share or retain their decision-
making authority.This is a way to assess leadership effectiveness [4].
Here leader may be singled out as an individual contributor or failure, it affects all other
organizational factors [5]. Leadership affects corporate culture, project culture, decision-
making and employees' commitment [6]. Without appropriate leadership, the risk of business
or school failure will increase [6]. Thus, leadership is viewed as the ability to make strategic
decisions, using skills such as communication, interpersonal relationship, motivation,
decision making, and emotional maturity, to achieve the school or organizational goals [7].
However, there are varieties of leadership styles known that may be applicable in dealing
with many challenges an organization could faced at all time. Although, getting leader who
can combine management principles with ethical justification of actions remains a challenge
in organization today.
1.1 Problem
Ethical lapses in leadership and decision-making style are undermining society trust in
schools and their leaders. In institutions like business and educational, people are known for
their higher standard of moral behavior than their peers in political arenas [8]. Issues such as
financial kickbacks, nepotism, conflict of interest, and reform scandals in educational
institutions are now frequently being reported in the media, especially the problematic
routine decisions school leaders make every day that can have a negative and long term
impact on schools moral compass [9,10], argued that superintendent, principal and school
heads make many decisions on a daily basis, and at the heart of every one of them, is the
resolution of a moral dilemma because every decision carries with it the potential to
restructure human life. As such, the work of educational leaders should be the semblance of
intellectual and moral—an activity that is characterized by a blend of human, professional,
and civic concerns [11] asserted that the moral challenges that confront schools are
enormous, and this necessitate a call for more moral leadership, by investigating leadership
style and decision approach of schools leaders which have subjected educational activities
to ethical criticism from the society.
British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, 4(4): 473-484, 2014
1.2 Purpose
The presesent research clearly shows how leadership styles and decision making relate to
each other. The related literatures perused showed need for more investigation on the
behavior and internal lives of school leaders. Therefore, this study aims at elaborating on
this issue with intention to stimulate researches in area of leadership and decision-making to
fill this gap. The relationship between decision making and leadership styles of schools is not
only worthy of study but is also needed, because this will enable us to always figur e out the
kind of decision making style in a setting. Very few significant studies have been done in an
attempt to evaluate the ethical decision-making practices of public school superintendents,
principals and administrators in higher institutions [12]. A brief discussion on leadership and
leadership style are discussed in the next section.
1.3 Leadership
Theoretically, leadership is much like other abstracts concepts such as love, democracy,
freedom e.t.c. A general but working definition of leadership is the process of influencing
people to achieve a common goal. It is also define as a process whereby leaders influence
followers and followers influence leaders [2] Leadership is categorized by early researcher
such as [13] as autocratic, democratic, or laissez-faire. Evaluating leadership styles is a
challenging exercise. Great numbers of literature concerning leadership have attempted to
define and analyze leadership [14,15,16,17]. The literature, however, give relatively wide
range of varying approaches to leadership [18] Leadership is a complex and dynamic
subject that encompasses and influence by many variables—that is leaders assumed
varieties of roles and these roles have impact on factors that affect them. This intricacy
accounted for the absence of a comprehensive understanding of the constituents of good or
effective leadership [18]. Leadership as mentioned earlier is a dynamic relationship based on
“mutual influence and common purpose between leaders and collaborators in which both are
moved to higher levels of motivation and moral development as they influence others
through action to accomplish an objective” [19].
[1] defined a leader as one who exercised intentional authority over one or more other
individuals, in an effort to guide actions toward the accomplishment of some mutual goal
which often requires mutually supporting actions among members of the group. In any
organizational setting, the leader is required to interact with followers on a regular basis and
at the same time, listen and direct them towards success[ 20]. For example Allah in the holy
Qur'an emphasis to Prophet the need for a leader to consult with his followers in any
decision making before it is finalized. [21] suggest that good leaders should be trusted by
their followers for whom they provide a sense of autonomy. The leader should be consistent
in decision making with followers as well as the overall good of the organization. Also leader
should be able to envisage problems and drawbacks before the event unfolds [22,23]
maintained effective leader should be able to balance many variables while mobilizing the
organization’s resources in pursuit of a common objective. They further affirmed that
achieving such objectives required the unification of purpose for both leader and followers.
Meanwhile, to achieve balance does not necessarily rely on the development of a particular
trait or style of leadership but more on the leader’s ability to analyze the situation and adopt
a leadership approach and decision that mobilize followers [24]. The general definition of
leadership as used within the context of this write-up, is the ability to recognize the need to
implement change, establish direction, align people, motivate and inspire, communicate,
British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, 4(4): 473-484, 2014
build teams and share decision making, mentor and coach subordinates and demonstrate a
high degree of integrity [25,26].
[27] argued that if the task of administrator of schools and universities is to merely comply
with the routine regulations to achieve the stated goal, then decision-making and
administrative activities in institutions will only portray a mere scientific procedure and not
the value of the actions. Essences of leadership and decision-making are to enact change,
and not to merely support current organization systemic processes [28].
Researchers such as [29] and [30] emphasized on the importance of ethics in decision-
making of principal and administrators of schools. To establish ethic decision making format
among administrators of schools, there is need to investigate the interplay between
leadership style and decision making approach.
1.4 Theoretical Concepts of Leadership
The study of leaders and the leadership process stems from social psychology, sociology,
psychology, and organizational behavior [1]. Since late 1950’s there have been about 65
different classification of leadership [2]. The discussion in this paper viewed leadership from
two perspectives. Firstly, Leadership is viewed as the ability to make strategic decisions
using communication [31]. Second as human resource skills of interpersonal relationship,
motivation, decision making, and emotional maturity [7].
Leadership theories describe the behavioral pattern of leaders and the consequences of
various styles in terms of effectiveness. Concern for people, employee-centeredness, and
concern for production, production centeredness, and task orientation are other terms used.
These factors are found simultaneously in the behavior of leaders, but in different degrees.
This statement is profoundly established, both theoretically and empirically. There are
different classifications of theoretical approaches to leadership; these include the following:
transformational leadership, transactional leadership, Laissez Faire Leadership and
authentic leadership.
1.5 Laissez Faire Leadership
Laissez faire is a French term which connotes hands off. Laissez faire leadership therefore is
an absence of formal leadership; it is leadership that is informal and emergent. No one
attempts to influence anyone else. Few policies and procedures are established by
management; almost all are derived by the organizational stakeholders. Members of the
group often can do what they want to; members even determine the organization’s direction
and goals though management does provide the resources to achieve them.
Laissez faire leadership is appropriate and effective if members of school or organization
are full of professionals. That is, the workers are highly skilled, experienced, dedicated, and
has pride in their work. Laissez faire leadership will invariably lead to adverse decision in a
situation where members are insecure, untrained, unm otivated. Laissez faire leadership is
placed beyond democratic leadership on a continuum of leadership styles [32]. However,
leaders who utilize a laissez faire style take a "let-it-ride" approach. The leader chooses to
have little or no interaction with the followers. Then he abdicates responsibility, delays
decision, gives no feedback, and makes little effort to satisfy followers needs [2].
British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, 4(4): 473-484, 2014
1.6 Transactional Leadership
[33] posited that leadership can be viewed as either a transactional or transformational
process. Leadership behaviors such as initiating structure and consideration are based on
quid pro quo” that is exchange for value consideration transactions [34]. Transactional
leaders are those oriented towards accomplishing the task at hand and at maintaining good
relations with those working with them by exchanging rewards promised for perfo rmance
[21].Transactional leadership diverges from transformational leadership because the formal
does not individualize the needs of subordinates nor focus on their personal development
[2]. The behavior of transactional leaders is dictated by the application of contingent rewards
and /or management by exception (MBE). The active transactional leader offers rewards to
the follower for meeting objectives that were mutually set and agreed upon previously. The
leader in an active transactional relationship determines the goal and then defines what the
subordinate will get for achieving that goal [21]. If the subordinate attains the objective then
the reward could be a raise in pay, a promotion or some other form of recognition within the
work group [1]. The passive transactional leader on the other hand employs an avoidance of
corrective actions once goals are achieved [35].
1.7 Transformational Leadership
Transformational leadership was first coined by [36]. Transformational leadership is the style
of leadership that is closely related with ethics. Individuals who demonstrate transformational
leadership characteristics often have a strong set of internal values and beliefs, and they are
effective at motivating followers to act in ways that support the greater good rather than their
own self interests [37].
[33] argued that transactional leadership and transformational leadership have strong
philosophical underpinnings and ethical components. Transactional leadership focuses on
the exchanges that occur between leaders and followers while transformational leadership
focuses on the link that raises the level of motivation and morality in both the leader and the
follower [2]. At the core of leadership and at the very core of life rests morality and value
judgment. Individual virtue in transformational leadership terminology is known as idealized
influence [26]. Idealized influence as explained by [2] is the characteristic given to
transformational leaders because they exhibit very high standards of moral and ethical
conduct. Idealized influence describes leaders who act as strong role models for followers.
In summary transformational leadership is a broad-based perspective that encompasses
many facet and dimensions of the leadership process. Transformational leaders empower
followers, raise moral consciousness, provide support, act as role models, and initiate
1.8 Authentic Leadership
Authentic leadership is a new term for a leadership style that is similar to transformational
leadership. Authentic leadership is rooted in hedonism and eudaemonia; that is to say,
authentic leadership focuses on human happiness and the worthiness of human life.
Authentic leadership involves self awareness, unbiased processing, transparent behavior,
and true relationships [38]. Authentic leadership is also described as the relationship
between personal values and leadership behaviors. A values approach to leadership is
essential in times of change and uncertainty because followers need to regain confidence
British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, 4(4): 473-484, 2014
through the reaffirmation of values when the environment becomes ambiguous, turbulent,
and even chaotic [39]. Leadership is a moral activity built upon virtues. Authenticity is always
relational with people, a cause, or a career. Finally, authenticity is the freedom of an
individual to choose and shape one’s own life. Authenticity demands that we shuold be true to
ourselves and to be true to others [11]. Authentic leadership then involves self-knowledge
because authentic leaders are resistant to social or situational pressures by being true to
themselves and to their core values [40].
1.9 Decision-making
[41] claimed that human are guided by one of the four formal functions used when solving
problems. These functions are: sensing which is a perception through our senses; thinking
which gives us meaning and understanding; feeling which judges and assesses, and
intuition which tells us about the possibilities in the future [42]. Every human being has one
function which is applied most when making decision- the dominant function. The opposite of
the dominant function (which is the strength of that person) is the inferior function (which is
the weakness of that person). When, the dominant function is thinking the weakest function
will be feeling. When the dominant function is intuition, the inferior function will be sensing.
According to Jung,there are two ways human being can perceive problems; the use of
sensing and intuition function. Problem can also be solved in two ways;—the use of thinking
and feeling functions. Example of this is cited in the Quran calls the attention of man to make
use of their thinking faculty in appreciating His existence and also in their problem solving
process. The combination of the perceiving and judging functions is called the decision -
making style. [43] adopted the theory and applied it to management. Keegan claim that
Jung’s typology gives a genuine insight into the question as to why individuals succeed or
fail in their decision-making.
Nevertheless, [3] studied how power is widely dispersed in European companies, which is
associated to an emphasis on gaining consensus in making decisions. Valuing consensus-
oriented decision-making processes reduces the power of the leader. Power is spread within
the management and supervisory boards and to experts elsewhere in the organization. It
involves worker participation at all levels. An overall participative climate enhances worker
satisfaction more than occasional participation on specific decisions or goal setting [44]. A
huge variety of classifications of decision making style and examples are available. The
following are some of the decision making style according to literature.
1.10 Facilitative
The facilitative decision making style indicates a joint effort between leaders and
subordinates, both providing input to make or shared decision. It is important that
subordinate have access to the information required to make the decision. They should also
have some degree of expertise /or motivation to ensure the best decision is made. Both the
leader and the fellowship share bear the responsibility of both intended consequences and
unintended consequences of this decision.This decision style can actually be very
empowering to subordinates.
British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, 4(4): 473-484, 2014
1.11 Consultative
Consultative decision making is said to occur when the leader asks for advice and opinions
from his subordinates, and makes the decision himself. As in the authoritative decision
making style, responsibility remains with the leader. If the subordinates are expertise or have
information that will help makes a more effective decision, a wise leader may seek advice or
information from the surbodinate. But this would be s the subordinates understand the
phenomena perfectly, unless it can lead to grudge or disappointment. The Prophet
Muhammad(SAW) exhibited this during the battle of khandaq(Trench) when he called upon
his companions to deliberate on the best approach to be used to crushed down the
Makkans, the final suggestion was made by Salman al-farsi which eventually led to the
Muslims victorious over the unbelievers of Makkah.
1.12 Delegative
Delegative decision making, as the name implies, is when a leader passes responsibility for
the decision making and the decision to one or more subordinates. It may even be all t he
subordinates. Again, the pros and cons are determined by the expertise and knowledge of
those actually making the decision. The style is gradually introduced as the organization gets
larger, and means the leader does not necessarily have to make all the decisions.
1.13 Flexibility
A good leader will chose easily among the styles depending on context. It takes quite a
degree of self wareness as well as understanding the limits of your own knowledge to be
able to use the flexible style
1.14 Leadership and Decision Making
Leadership over human being. . is exercised when people with certain purposes mobilize, in
competition or in conflict with others, institutional, political, psychological and other resources
so as to arouse and satisfy the motives of followers [45]. According to Victor [4] contingency
model, there is a remarkable clarity that the central issue in contemporary leadership is
participation in the process of making decision. Findings shows that the complexities of
modern organizations require careful selection of decision-making processes in organization.
There may be situations where an autocratic style is most effective and other situation call
for highly participatory methods for greatest effectiveness. The major challenge for leader in
schools and business organizations is to analyze the contingencies in each situation and
handle it effectively.
1.15 Summary
From the findings different studies have shown that leadership and decision-making greatly
relate and influence each other. It is also clear that for every decision ma de or to be made,
goes with a particular leadership approach. Thus, it is not a gain -say that leadership style
has a high influence in decision-making. Authoritative decision style calls for an Autocratic
leadership approach. A facilitative decision making style will usually attracts democratic or
contingency approach of leadership. Delegative, consultative and flexible decision-making
styles attract democratic, participative and transformational leadership style respectively.
British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, 4(4): 473-484, 2014
A qualitative research approach was the method adopted in this study. Qualitative
researchers generally study fewer respondents [46]. However the approach must delve more
deeply into those individuals, settings, subcultures and scenes. This will enable the
researcher to generate a subjective understanding of how and why people perceive, take-
role, interpret, and interact in a particular scenario. Generally, qualitative researcher made
little or no effort to generalized the findings of selected sample to the population understudy.
The ontological and epistemological tenet of qualitative esearch approach inretrospect is to
understand the phenomenon through the experience of the respondents. Based on
epistemological foundation of qualitative research, two department coordinators from
Institute of Education international Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) were selected as the
sample size and interviewed until saturated point. Each of the coordinators has at least 2
years experience as department coordinators. One of the participants (Associate professor)
is 56years old, while the other (Professor) is 54years old. Both of them involved in academic
activities in the faculty in addition to their administrative workloads.
The participants were asked about the kind of leaders they are and how they come to a
conclusive decision during meetings. The interview sessions were recorded and were later
listened to repeatedly, transcribed and read, in order to have an overall understanding of the
respondents’ view. The themes in these interviews were extracted and analyzed according
to the research questions and issue identifiable from the literatures.
Interviews were conducted on the study with two administrators from Institute of Education
IIUM, the responses were transcribed, and the following themes were derived from the
1. Democratic-cum-Autocratic,.
2. Organizational goal
3. Subordinate assistance.
The interview reveal that, there is no absolute leadership style that can be permanently
used, although a leader may have a style of leadership but sometimes situation may warrant
a change in the leadership style in taking the decision. Below is the quotation from one of the
“when it comes to being the leader for the administrative staff I will say to some
extent am democratic but to some extent I have to be autocratic but I think that I
cannot allow them decide by themselves I have to decide but I think when they
have more knowledge about the area of the area of the scope then I will consult
them because being an academicians first and you are administrative is second
so the administrative post is always base on the rotation”
According to the respondent, consulting the subordinates is something encouraged, because
this will give them sense of belonging and increased their interest in the effective
implementation of the decision taking. However, there are some situations when the le ader
will need to take decision by himself, most especially, when the subordinate are not
cooperating and intend to follow their whim and caprices. So that he will not lose his function
British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, 4(4): 473-484, 2014
as the leader. It is believed that leader direct the affairs of the organization in order to
achieve a set goals and objectives. Any effort to deviate from the goals and objectives, can
lead the organization to the state of jeopardy. Therefore, the next theme to be discussed is
the place of mission, objectives and goal of organization in decision making.
Every organization or institution has its set goals, mission and objectives, these will
determine the modus operandi of the organization. Equally the leadership and decision
making style largely depend on the goals and mission. This was revealed during the
interview when one of the respondent asserts thus:
“Policy is not easy to change we have to do it together because we are in this is
such a small faculty in a university so when something that people know about this
particular university when we talk about their policy. Policy we have to go back to
the philosophy, we have to go back to the mission we have to go back to the vision
of the university. Okay so is a longer time.”
The first consideration in taking any decision in an organization is the philosophy and goal of
the institution. However the leader cannot implement the decision alone, he needs the
support of his subordinates, therefore, it is then imperative on the leader to find means to
convince his/her subordinates. This is where the issue of value arises, hence in this stage
the leader need to use value laden leadership style, in order to win the support of his/her
subordinates. [39], asserts that, a values approach to leadership is essential in times of
change and uncertainty because followers need to regain confidence through the
reaffirmation of values when the environment becomes ambiguous, turbulent, and even
chaotic. For this reason authentic leadership style will be preferred. Authentic leadership
involves self awareness, unbiased processing, transparent behavior, and true relationships
[38]. Support from the subordinate is also one important aspect of decision making and
implementation, therefore, the next theme derived from the interview centered on the effort
of the leader making the subordinates implement the decision made.
The major function of the leader is to coordinate and organize the subordinate, for a targeted
task. From the interview it was made to know that, one of the ways to accomplish
institutional task with the support of the subordinate is through, consultation, monitoring, as
well as assisting them on the task they could not accomplish, on this, one of the respondent
explained thus:
“So usually after, at least the longest is one week I will look at the minutes and
follow up those who are suppose to take the action and ask about the progress of
each of the things each are suppose to be done and if it get stocked somewhere we
will basically have to look at the where it got stocked and why and then, if I find out
that my subordinate are not able to carry out what has been ask to do or requested
them to do if I feel that my subordinate are not able to do it I will take up the
responsibility myself.”
The respondent made us to know that, leaders cannot take decision alone no matter how
intelligent he is, ideas from the subordinates must also be considered, their views must be
acknowledged and respected as well as accepted, if it does not contradict the need, goals
and the philosophy of the institution. An overall participative climate enhances worker
satisfaction more than occasional participation on specific decisions or goal setting [44].
During implementation it is also important for the leader to monitor the steps, in order to
British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, 4(4): 473-484, 2014
guide against any deviation from the decision made. At the same time, a good leader could
also assist when he find out that task has not been implemented correctly.
Generally, from the interviews and the literatures reviewed, we find out that:
Institute of Education IIUM leaders and administrators use almost, all leadership
styles in making decision, whatever styles used depends on the situation. But they
are democratic, transformational, and authentic in nature. Even,where autocratic
style is used they employ an authentic way of implementing it or transformational
way this is supported by argument of [38,11,40] that for leaders to gain the support
of subordinates and community, decision making must be transparent as well as
ethical justified.
Leadership and decision making style in Institute of Education IIUM depend largely
on the philosophy, mission, vision and goal of the institution. Despite that, there is
good relationship between the administrators and the subordinates this result is in
line with studies of [42] and [3] who emphasized collaboration between school
administrators and academic staff to gain consensus in making decisions.
Subordinate are consulted in every decision to be made, their views are respected
and acknowledged. Thuogh they have targeted objectives and goals. There is good
interaction between the leader and the subordinates. Even whenever subordinate
view is rejected, such subordinate do not feel bad.
Leadership is a very sensitive aspect in an organization because it deals with human being.
Human beings are the most difficult set of beings to direct. For this reason, the most
important thing in leadership is the ability of the leader to be of good conduct in order to have
good human relation with his subordinate and win the heart of the surbodinate. This can lead
to effective service delivery and work with interest and love to achieve the set goal This is
what operates in Institute of Education IIUM, therefore, the findings suggest that the sole
administrators and leaders treat surbodinate with respect, by consulting them, respecting
their views and acknowledging it makes them feel they are part of decision makers this make
them feel sense of belonging and develop interest towards the institution and see the goals
and aims of the institution as a collective one to be achieved together. Since this study is
focusing only on one faculty in a university, future studies should include leadership and
decision making across entire faculty in the university either in the same institution or
relevant organization order to make comparison, perhaps using a large sample.
Authors have declared that no competing Interests Exist.
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... There is therefore a nexus between managerial style and decision making. While emphasizing the significance of decision-making which forms the crux of this paper, Kayode, Mojeed and Fatai (2014) observed that every decision is inherent with the potential to restructure and socially re-engineer the lives of people. ...
... They concluded that leadership means having influence with people, not power over them. While supporting this view, Kayode, et al (2014) perceived leadership as the exercise of influence on people in order to achieve a common goal. According to Vogel (2012), the exercise of leadership and decision making is to introduce change, and not a supportive devices to entrench present systemic processes of the organization. ...
... Decisions have also been categorized by Kayode, et al (2014) into: facilitative, consultative, delegative and flexibility. ...
... But they are democratic, transformational, and authentic in nature. Even, where autocratic style is used they employ an authentic way of implementing it or transformational way this is supported by argument of that for leaders to gain the support of subordinates and community, decision making must be transparent as well as ethical justified (Kayode, Mojeed, & Fatai, 2014). The present study examined the role of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership style on prediction of rational, intuitive, dependent, avoidant, (Riaz & Anis-ulHaque, 2016) and spontaneous decision-making style. ...
... Leadership is defined as the process of inspiring others to work together to achieve a common goal in each entity, it is an inevitable element of group dynamics (Kayode, Mojeed, & Fatai, 2014). ...
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Decision making is a significant and rational process in any business organization that deploys so many resources to work on selecting the optimal alternative and build a heuristic framework. In the last decade, Tire sector in Egypt witnessed many changes due to market dynamics and economic challenges, that require being adaptive in the decision-making process. The purpose of this study first is to define the different decision-making styles adopted by the decision makers in our case. The population of the study focuses on decision makers of a local family business. Secondly, is to measure the correlation between the dominant decision-making styles and the age groups, Job stress and Leadership styles. The selected model is based on Simon's concept of "bounded rationality" which has provided the conceptual foundation for much behavioral decision research, (Einhorn & Hogarth, 1981). Using certain tools such as GDMS, Job stress and Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaires. Study applied quantitative online survey then analyzed using scale reliability, test-re-test reliability, Cronbach’s alpha, descriptive, chi-square, and normality tests using SPSS. Results revealed that Rational-dependent, and intuitive decision-making styles are affected by different levels of perceived job stress also, the three leadership styles Transformational, Transactional, and Laissez-faire.
... This chapter is centered on theory and its practical application, and although it may be based on existing research, it covers a topic that is only now beginning to receive the attention it deserves. Participative decision-making has enjoyed only limited coverage in the literature to the present time [17,18], yet it is deserving of increased attention. This chapter aims to examine how the existing theoretical frameworks can be combined with more recent work on authentic leadership to arrive at a better understanding of authentic leadership and how it affects leaders' dynamic relationships with their followers. ...
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One of the most important roles in leadership is to support and encourage team members by empowering them and providing them with the opportunity to take greater ownership of their work outcomes. By supporting a culture of innovation, authentic leaders inspire and support individuals, encouraging them to improve performance and develop the confidence to exhibit creativity, demonstrate innovation, and show greater agility when faced with challenges. This enables them to work more independently, helping their organization to better achieve its objectives and increase competitiveness. Authentic leadership enhances an organization’s effectiveness by encouraging its employees to approach their tasks with a more optimistic attitude and with creativity. Through the use of emotional sensitivity organizational leaders can tailor their interactions with their employees to elicit their best performance. By drawing on each employee’s strengths, erudite leaders can create effective individuals that will enhance performance and foster a positive organizational culture. Authentic leadership also encourages employees to participate in decision-making. This empowers them and offers them a feeling of ownership of their tasks and responsibility for the outcomes. Encouraging such a culture promotes the organization as an employer of choice, further supporting its efforts to gain and maintain competitive advantage.
... In addition, it is also stated in the literature that leaders with strong leadership skills should have certain characteristics, such as vision, and that leaders focus on guiding employees with an innovation that is in line with the vision of the organization. It is also emphasized the importance of a leader being competent to make decisions by balancing many variables at the same time [12,13]. Based on this theoretical background, the basic leadership characteristics are determined as encouraging, guiding/coaching, effective communication, being innovative/creative, creating mission/vision, problem-solving, and decision-making in this paper. ...
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The changing perception towards leadership reveals that different leadership types are felt to be needed to deal with different problems that modern organizations face. Even though there is lots of research which focuses on the effects of different leadership types on organizations' performance, there is no research to be found which only focuses on employees' perceptions. Therefore, this paper aimed to figure out the most important leadership characteristic for employees and their choice of leaders to work with. In order to reach these goals, a two-sectioned survey was given to eight hospitality employees in the Sultanahmet Region. Since the evaluations of the employees are subjective, the answers were analyzed with the Fuzzy TOPSIS method by transfiguring the verbal assessments of the participants into numbers to ease the decision-making process. With regard to the results, the most important leadership characteristics discovered were: being a guide to the followers, being capable of creating mission and vision, and encouraging the followers. According to employees' leader choices, the results showed that the hospitality employees in the Sultanahmet region mostly want to work with Transformational Leaders. Considering the implementation and the results, this paper is important as a pioneering study, which will fill the gap in the literature about investigating employees' leadership preferences and choices.
... According to Rival & Muyaldi (2012), the decision-making style consists of (1) directive, with characteristics of a quick process of decision making and oriented to short term, (2) analytic, adaptive and thorough decision-making, (3) conceptual, oriented to long term and often press off creative solution for the problem, (4) behavioral, trying to avoid conflict and strive for acceptance. Kazeem (2014) research finds that leadership style and decision-making is theoretically different but practically very related. The most liked leadership style and decisionmaking is participative leadership style and consultative decision-making approach. ...
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Resumo: A temática da liderança, tem sido amplamente investigada a nível organizacional, e entendida como um fator essencial do sucesso das instituições. O objetivo do presente artigo é de estudar a liderança no contexto educacional, mais precisamente a nível das Instituições de Ensino Superior Portuguesas, com o intuito principal de identificar o estilo de liderança predominante entre professores universitários na perceção dos alunos. Para tal foi feita uma revisão da literatura acerca da evolução da liderança enquanto objeto de estudo, indicada a metodologia utilizada para obtenção de resultados e feita uma discussão critica acerca dos mesmos. Abstract: The leadership theme has been widely researched on an organizational level, and is understood as an essencial factor in the institucional sucess. The aim of the following article is to analyse leadership within the educational context, more precisely within the Portuguese Higher Education Institutions with the intent to indentify the predominant leadership style among university professors as perceived by the students. To complete the aim of this reasearch, a review on the literature regarding the evolution of leadership was made and the methodology employed for the result obtention has been indicated alongside with a critical discussion.
Die Geschichte der Führung darf wieder und wieder neu erzählt werden, denn die Zugänge sind immer verschieden und gleichzeitig so universell wie das Thema selbst. Ein Stück weit ist dieses „Nachdenken, Reden und Schreiben darüber“ sicherlich einer „(Selbst-)Aufklärung der Akteure“ verpflichtet (Neuberger, 2002, S. 6), ein Stück weit aber auch einem ganz pragmatischen und konkreten Nutzen für das tägliche Tun. Je weiter nämlich der Bogen gespannt wird, desto größer sind auch die Chancen, Führungsprozesse und -persönlichkeiten beschreibend zu verstehen, um so das eigene oder fremde Führungsverhalten zu spiegeln, zu reflektieren und ein Stück weit auch neu zu erfinden. Führung kann und muss gelernt werden. Dazu lohnt ein Blick auf ihre eigene disziplinäre Geschichte. Darüber hinaus ist Führung ein wichtiger Motor ihrer Entwicklung und Veränderung selbst. Denn: eine gemeinsame Geschichte zu „(er-)finden“, die passende Story zu vermitteln, unterschiedliche Rollen zu besetzen und die richtigen und wichtigen Wendepunkte dabei zu identifizieren, ist eine Führungsaufgabe par excellence. Wie und durch wen diese am besten wahrgenommen wird und ob es künftig eines eigentlichen Führungspersonals überhaupt noch bedarf, ist die zentrale Frage eines sich selbst reflektierenden und immer wieder neu aus alten und neuen Mustern kreierenden Learning Leaderships.
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Abstract The purpose of this article is to provide a theoretical and practical overview of decision-making and decision-making techniques applied to small and medium-sized enterprises in Kosovo. This was made possible through the survey of a sample of 50 enterprises of this type throughout the territory of Kosovo, which enabled direct observations to be obtained from the managers of these enterprises. The objective of this article is to provide original results on the extent to which employees are allowed to participate in decision-making, which decision-making techniques are most commonly applied in SMEs, and how effective the is the application of these decision-making techniques within enterprises. Keywords: decision-making; SMEs; participation; decision-making techniques; effectiveness
The purpose of the research is to investigate the management style of education establishment and its role in attaining education goals. Both theoretical and empirical research methods were used in this study. The study is based on research activities. During the study, questionnaire and test methods were applied. Questionnaire “The required knowledge, skills and personal qualities for the head of the education establishment” (Skaistkalne-Virka, 2004) in this study shows what kind of knowledge, skills and personal qualities are needed for the head of the educational establishment to possess in order to achieve the goals. Test “The head of education establishment, orientation to task or relationship with people” (Pfeiffer Jones, 1974) as an instrument has been used to explain the head of education establishment, orientation to task or relationship with people. The test revealed the type of orientation for each of educational establishment. In conclusion: that head of educational establishment, who is orientated towards the relationship with people, has democratic management style, but who is task-orientated possesses authoritative management style.
As the pressures of global competition become more pronounced and the client's need to develop strategic partnership grows, performance expectations increase correspondingly. Only firms that master the skills of early identification, selection, training, and development of project managers can expect to remain successful. Once the key project managers are in place, the firm's upper management must develop and implement a mutually beneficial reward and reinforcement process that recognizes the organizational reality that all revenues and profits are earned at the project level. In the long-term, upper management cannot be considered competent if the projects that generate shareholder value fail.
Although the literature documents substantial research oil enhancing the performance of construction project managers, one central component has been inadequately researched: leadership behaviors. This study of a major construction company had two objectives: (1) to analyze the differences in leadership behaviors between a top performing group and a control group of construction project managers; and (2) to identify the causal influences for those leadership behavior differences. This paper addresses the first objective. Of 335 construction project managers, 40 were identified as top performers and 40 were selected randomly from the remaining 295 to serve as controls. The final two groups (35 top performers and 33 controls who completed the evaluation) were not significantly different in terms of age, gender, type/amount of formal education, or type of project experience. A 360 degrees leadership evaluation found that the top performers had quantifiably better leadership behaviors than the controls. These findings may indicate a need in the construction industry for a comprehensive leadership culture, including leadership training and development programs.
This paper reports a meta-analytic literature review testing cognitive, affective, and contingency models of the effects of participation in decision making on employees' satisfaction and productivity. Contingency models received no support. Results from field studies provided some support for cognitive models, and strong support for affective models linking participative climate with worker satisfaction. Methodological variations such as research setting and type of participant were important moderators in subgroup analyses. We discuss the implications of such variations for task complexity.