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Re-Assembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor Network Theory

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... Our work is furthermore inspired by Actor-Network-Theory [42]. Latour argues that artefacts participate in human practice as "mediators" of meaning, as they can translate and distort the meaning they are supposed to carry [42]. ...
... Our work is furthermore inspired by Actor-Network-Theory [42]. Latour argues that artefacts participate in human practice as "mediators" of meaning, as they can translate and distort the meaning they are supposed to carry [42]. Thus the introduction of artefacts in a practice will lead to unpredictable outcomes in ongoing practice. ...
... When a personal computer breaks or new features are available, it requires strategic adjustments from human actors. Artefacts with their afordances and sensorial qualities can suggest possible courses of actions, communicate values, and elicit emotions, especially when employed in social interaction and practices [4,53]; in Latour's terms, artefacts as mediators are regarded as social actors in practice, at the same level as humans [42]. Barad coined the term "intra-action" to defne the intertwined nature of the interaction between humans and their artefacts as: "the mutual constitution of entangled agencies" among the diferent actors participating in a shared practice (human and non-human alike) [4], where the agencies of diferent actors emerge or are molded and transformed [4]. ...
... O interesse pelo universo do futebol acontece porque pode ser pensado como um "fato social total" conforme elaborado pelo antropólogo Marcel Mauss (1974), pois na sua constituição "exprimem-se, ao mesmo tempo e de uma só vez, toda espécie de instituições" (p.41). Tendo milhões de torcedores de todos os gêneros, etnias, rendas, faixa etária e nível de instrução identificados com grandes clubes em todo o Brasil (Damo, 1998), e também objeto de grande interesse da mídia de massa, de empresas e do Estado, o futebol torna-se "bom para pensar" as mudanças que vem ocorrendo na sociedade, e até mesmo refletir sobre as entidades às quais o discurso acadêmico concede o direito de existir (Latour, 2005;Law, 2004). ...
... O presente trabalho tem como objetivo contribuir para compreensão do processo de disseminação das lógicas e de práticas de mercado (empresariais em geral e de marketing em específico) pelo rastreamento da rede complexa de forças que tornaram sua disseminação possível e o faz pelo estudo de dimensões espaço-temporais pouco exploradas nos trabalhos acima citados. Com espírito exploratório e orientado para a descoberta (Latour, 2005;Law, 2004;MacInnins, 2011), estudou-se o processo de transformação do futebol em atividade permeada por práticas e lógicas de mercado a partir da análise histórica de um dos grandes clubes do futebol brasileiro. Em aproximação a sociologia das associações, (ou Actor-Network-Theory), foi "rastreado o coletivo" formado em um espaço de vida concreto e específico, usando a teoria como uma infra-linguagem (sem conteúdo substantivo sobre a natureza dos fenômenos e a existência de entidades) que dá mais espaço para a metalinguagem dos atores humanos e não-humanos (a voz, a agência, o conteúdo substantivo que se quer descobrir) que deslocam a ação dos atores no contexto empírico. ...
... Em aproximação a sociologia das associações, (ou Actor-Network-Theory), foi "rastreado o coletivo" formado em um espaço de vida concreto e específico, usando a teoria como uma infra-linguagem (sem conteúdo substantivo sobre a natureza dos fenômenos e a existência de entidades) que dá mais espaço para a metalinguagem dos atores humanos e não-humanos (a voz, a agência, o conteúdo substantivo que se quer descobrir) que deslocam a ação dos atores no contexto empírico. (Callon,1998;Latour, 2005;Law, 2004). ...
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Este estudo busca contribuir na compreensão do processo de disseminação de conceitos, técnicas e dispositivos do mundo empresarial (lógica de mercado, formação de mercados) na sociedade. O objetivo é compreender, num caso empírico específico, estudado em profundidade e ao longo do tempo, a rede atores que torna possível tais mudanças. Para tanto, no contexto do futebol (fato social total), foi pesquisado o caso de um dos grandes clubes brasileiros, em um período histórico geralmente não explorado (entre o início do século XX e a década de 1970). Utilizando-se da perspectiva da sociologia das associações (ou Actor-Network-Theory) foi possível rastrear uma série de entidades com agência sobre as transformações que vem ocorrendo no futebol brasileiro no sentido da mercantilização ou empresarização. Entre elas estão a rivalidade histórica entre os clubes, o processo de profissionalização do esporte, a presença de uma estética dirigente, a circulação precoce de elementos de um campo da Administração em formação e a popularização das torcidas na forma de comunidades imaginadas de sentimento cujo traço distintivo é a paixão fiel. No conjunto, os achados permitem mostrar que o processo de transformação do futebol começou há muito mais tempo do que acredita-se e envolve um numero maior de forças. Permitem também criticar a noção mais ou menos explícita nas pesquisas acadêmicas que atribuem toda (ou quase toda) a agência das transformações à “globalização dos mercados”, ao “interesse das grandes empresas” ou ao “marketing esportivo”, recomendando-se que estes elementos passem de fonte primordial das explicações para objeto de pesquisa.
... Challenging the precedence of ethnicity/nationality that results from the 'culture' lens, I highlight the category of 'musician' as a relevant category for musicians' self-identification, as it allows me to deploy the Otavalo music network beyond a local place and to show what is at stake in this network. Secondly, the notions of 'assemblage' and 'mediation' (Hennion 1993(Hennion , 2015Latour 2005;Mueller 2016;Tucker 2016) help me to apprehend the processes of 'traditionalisation' and 'indigenisation'. How are elements or 'mediators' assembled to signify and materialise 'indigeneity' and 'tradition'? ...
... Based on my discussion of Ñanda Mañachi and the development of Otavalo music, traditional music appeared to emerge from and to be shaped by many flows crossing Otavalo, stemming from and heading towards different parts of the world (some from/to quite nearby, others from/to far away). The people, objects, ideas and sounds that I highlighted constitute a 'network' and circulate through 'lines' that connect 'nodes' where situations take place (see Latour 2005;Mueller 2016). The idea of the network allows us to go beyond the compartmentalisation of the notion of 'culture' and/or bounded places. ...
... The notion of assemblage is widely used in different ways in the social sciences, and also by scholars looking at music phenomena such as Born (2011), Mueller (2016, Nowak (2016), Tucker (2016) and de Assis (2018). I understand assemblage as a combination of different (human and non-human, actual and virtual) elements participating in and shaping a particular situation (see Latour 2005;Mueller 2016; and for musical experimentation, de Assis 2018). Drawing on Hennion (1993Hennion ( , 2015 and Latour (2005), these elements constitute 'mediators', which affect and transform the assemblage as they 'mak[e] other mediators do things' (Latour 2005, p. 217, emphasis in the original). ...
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This article addresses the relation between Andean ‘traditional music’ and circulations of people, objects, ideas and sounds. Although many studies on Andean indigenous music have explored such circulations, scholars still tend to understand musical practices in terms of ‘cultures’. The case of indigenous music from Otavalo, in the Ecuadorian Andes, encourages us to go beyond this approach. I make two arguments. First, by conceiving of the translocal/transnational flows that have shaped ‘traditional music’ from Otavalo through the concepts of ‘network’ and ‘music world’, I unsettle the link – underlying previous approaches – between a specific people, music and place. Second, through the concepts of ‘assemblage’ and ‘mediation’, I closely look at processes of ‘traditionalisation’ and ‘indigenisation’ to show how, in the context of multiple circulations, social actors nevertheless produce a specific link between people, music and place in order to make a musical practice ‘traditional’ and/or ‘indigenous’.
... Estas controvérsias são antigas, mas seguem abertas. Das discussões político-partidárias às de salas de aula, passando pela pesquisa acadêmica, há muita dúvida sobre a agência (Latour, 2005) do marketing nas pessoas e espaços nos quais se insere. ...
... Como é comum a qualquer controvérsia, atores procuram resolvê-las segundo suas visões de mundo e interesses (Latour, 2005). É o caso, por exemplo, da American Marketing Association (AMA), uma das principais agentes no processo de criação e disseminação do marketing pelo mundo (Cochoy, 1998), e fonte primária de saber para o mainstream do marketing acadêmico por meio dos seus journals. ...
... Enquanto Foucault, em sua trajetória, focou na disciplina, no controle para entender o poder, ele terminou por não se dedicar à compreensão do desejo, do imaginário, da utopia, coisa que ele faria no seu projeto obre a constituição do "self moderno", onde culminaria a sua obra (Lemke, 2001). Nesta perspectiva, procuramos mostrar uma possibilidade interpretativa da relação entre a governamentalidade de marketing e o imaginário, o desejo em conexão com a questão das materialidades (Latour, 2005;Law, 2004) e sua agência, também uma perspectiva não focada por Foulcault (Liesen;Walsh, 2012). Nesse sentido, argumentaremos, com base na análise empírica, que é para fruir uma dada estética, uma dada utopia, que os torcedores são disciplinados. ...
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Este artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre a natureza do marketing e do seu papel na construção de mercados. Inspirado na abordagem da governamentalidade desenvolvida por Foucault, apresentamos a descrição e interpretação de uma governamentalidade de marketing. O trabalho interpreta as práticas de marketing por ocasião da implantação de uma das Arenas entre as várias que foram construídas no período da Copa do Mundo FIFA de 2014 no Brasil. Ao contrário de buscar entender seu 'público alvo' e criar 'soluções' que satisfaçam as suas necessidades, ativando a 'liberdade dos mercados', o marketing desenvolve uma biopolítica na forma de diversos mecanismos de poder que transformam o espetáculo de futebol num sentido específico. Mais do que disciplinar os corpos, o marketing instiga novas utopias que orientam e dão forma a essa disciplinarização no sentido da obtenção do sucesso econômico e esportivo. Assim, a governamentalidade de marketing trama-se a governamentalidade neoliberal na forma da sua micropolítica dos mercados no futebol brasileiro.
... Relational theories, such as Actor-Network Theory (ANT) (Latour, 2005) and Assemblage Theory (DeLanda, 2006), highlight a number of key issues in the knowledge domain of urban development, in particular regarding the mechanisms of emergence and transformation of city forms. They effectively argue how both material and human elements play an 'equal' role in emergence, how the connections between these define the nature of assemblages and how multiple scales and relations determine transformation processes. ...
... Actor-Network Theory constitutes an approach to social theory that emerged in the mid-80s primarily by Bruno Latour's work. Latour (2005) argued that society can only be considered as a type of connection among things that are not themselves social. In that sense, both human and non-human elements are particularly important in the investigation and understanding of the social, since both are approached as equally important in the emergence of the social (Latour, 2005). ...
... Latour (2005) argued that society can only be considered as a type of connection among things that are not themselves social. In that sense, both human and non-human elements are particularly important in the investigation and understanding of the social, since both are approached as equally important in the emergence of the social (Latour, 2005). Therefore, in Actor-Network Theory scale is usually defined by means various actors' connectedness at multiple scales (not only micro and macro) (Charalambous & Geddes, 2015). ...
... XX, o neomaterialismo rejeita as explicações deterministas acerca de como a sociedade é construída, voltando a atenção para o papel das associações entre tecnologia e corpo, humanos e não-humanos na produção do social (FOX; ALLDRED, 2017). Entre os fundamentos dessas abordagens estão as ideias popularizadas pela Teoria Ator-Rede (CALLON, 1984;LATOUR, 2005;LAW, 1992), pela ontologia orientada ao objeto (HARMAN, 2005(HARMAN, , 2011(HARMAN, , 2016, pelos trabalhos de Deleuze e Guatarri (1995a, 1995b, 1996 e pelo realismo agencial de Karen Barad (BARAD, 2007). ...
... O que particulariza o fenômeno são os modos pelos quais ele age e as consequências práticas que suas conexões geram nessa produção. Dessa maneira, o olhar para as associações também rompe com o ideal antropocêntrico e os dualismos da modernidade, vez que no curso das ações os atores humanos e os não humanos possuem a mesma importância na produção do social (LATOUR, 2005). ...
... Nessa concepção simétrica e ontológica (como as coisas se produzem), a agência não está associada à consciência e à deliberação humana, mas se refere à capacidade que as entidades (humanas ou não) têm de afetar umas as outras, de produzir resistência (BENNET, 2010) ao curso dos projetos do antropoceno e de mobilizar ações performativas em conjunto às coisas do mundo (LATOUR, 2008a(LATOUR, , 2015. Para o neomaterialismo, portanto, a noção de agência reconhece o papel social dos objetos na produção dos fenômenos, opondo-se aos determinismos que pressupõem uma sociedade construída por forças invisíveis decorrentes das projeções humanas (BENNET, 2010;LATOUR, 2005LATOUR, , 2015. ...
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O desdobramento da computação vestível sofisticou ainda mais as possibilidades de conexão entre o humano, a técnica e a informação. Na medida em que a associação humano-computador foi amplificada pela popularização dos sensores embarcados em objetos cotidianos de uso simples, os modos de articulação do corpo com a informática também foram matizados. Imbricados no próprio mecanismo operacional dos artefatos, os processos algorítmicos deslocaram a informação da posição intermediária – interface que orienta o uso da ferramenta – para a condição de protagonista na reformulação das ações do humano e no design das máquinas. No lugar de substrato pontual do funcionamento do instrumento, a informação digital passou a ocupar espaços mais constitutivos: ela performatiza interações, produz modelos interpretativos e narrativas sobre as experiências de uso das ferramentas. Sumário: Apresentação Prefácio: Dataficação do Corpo Introdução I. A poética do smartbody Introdução da parte i Capítulo 1: O depoimento das coisas Capítulo 2: Perspectivas explodidas Capítulo 3: Criando objetos inteligentes para o corpo Capítulo 4: O corpo como modelo heurístico Capítulo 5: Reelaborando os corpos para as coisas II. A política e a episteme do smartbody Introdução da parte ii Capítulo 6: Domingo no parque Capítulo 7: Um projeto além do pulso Capítulo 8: Wearable: um objeto, duas agendas Capítulo 9: Prognósticos numéricos e tratamentos algorítmicos Capítulo 10: Escritas algorítmicas de si: a ação como princípio III. A estética do smartbody Introdução da parte iii Capítulo 11: O ladrão de passos Capítulo 12: A experiência como experimento Capítulo 13: A dieta do movimento Capítulo 14: Experimentando Smartbodies Conclusões Capítulo 15: O algoritmo nosso de cada dia Capítulo 16: Considerações sobre um começo Referências Apêndices Apêndice 1: Promovendo o Smartbody: procedimentos Apêndice 2: Mapeando o experimento Fitbit: Procedimentos
... Na descoberta desse territó-rio, que se compõe como espaço privilegiado para a prática do design gráfico, procuramos contribuir para a viabilização de olhares distintos e renovados sobre a 'caixa negra' em que decorre o processo e a prática em design gráfico. Inspirado pelo olhar teórico definido no quadro da Actor-Network Theory (ANT), que confere aos objetos o estatuto de cúmplices e associados nas construções sociais (Latour, 2007), visamos uma compreensão mais global do papel detido pelos distintos agentes identificados no seio do ateliê. Esta abordagem de inquirição, aplicada no contexto da prática projetual em Arquitetura (Yaneva, 2009), permitiu-nos gerar novos significa-dos sobre a distribuição espacial dos designers, a dinâmica relacional com agentes externos e os circuitos do líder projetual no espaço, para além de viabilizar um olhar crítico e reflexivo sobre a cultura material destes territórios. ...
... Partindo com a Actor-Network Theory (Latour, 2001(Latour, , 2007(Latour, , 2008Yaneva, 2009), ou ANT, como alicerce conceptual e teórico, focamo-nos na compreensão das relações estabelecidas não só entre agentes humanos, mas também dotamos de especial importância as relações convocadas pela cultura material da cada um dos territórios, com uma ação constante e sempre presente, conforme podemos constatar na representação visual da Figura 4 e na justaposição fotográfica entre os ateliês (Figura 5). Pela sua disseminação em cada lugar, observada pelo investigador e invocada nos discursos dos colaboradores, realçámos a presença de artefactos com ação direta e preponderante para as atividades projetuais de cada grupo, nem sempre conscientes das relações sociotécnicas ali presentes, tomando consciência da expansão do social aos objetos (Latour, 2007) na atividade dos designers. ...
... Partindo com a Actor-Network Theory (Latour, 2001(Latour, , 2007(Latour, , 2008Yaneva, 2009), ou ANT, como alicerce conceptual e teórico, focamo-nos na compreensão das relações estabelecidas não só entre agentes humanos, mas também dotamos de especial importância as relações convocadas pela cultura material da cada um dos territórios, com uma ação constante e sempre presente, conforme podemos constatar na representação visual da Figura 4 e na justaposição fotográfica entre os ateliês (Figura 5). Pela sua disseminação em cada lugar, observada pelo investigador e invocada nos discursos dos colaboradores, realçámos a presença de artefactos com ação direta e preponderante para as atividades projetuais de cada grupo, nem sempre conscientes das relações sociotécnicas ali presentes, tomando consciência da expansão do social aos objetos (Latour, 2007) na atividade dos designers. Para além dessa constatação, torna-se também visível a constituição de zonas individualizadas de desenvolvimento projetual, articuladas em permanente diálogo e indelével influência do líder criativo, último responsável pelo sistema de crenças assumido em cada organização e impregnados na cultura material de cada lugar. ...
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Design not only interacts with Territory, but it can also be one of the latter’s crucial transformation agents, due to the sizable and significant part it plays in the appreciation of local resources and contribution to identify and reveal the history, culture and predicates of communities where several of the products and services it projects are, in fact, generated. Regardless, Design’s role understandably pivots around the conceptual innovation and renovation of products, production procedures, communication strategies and overall services associated with general goods. Thus, its focus could actually be quite efficient when altering the perception which distinct agents from a certain value chain may nurture about the potential of very diverse territories, particularly through its ability to integrate different scopes of human activity, from agriculture to tourism, craftsmanship to science, gastronomy to the industry. Contemporary Design and the myriad of knowledge and values it encompasses may easily facilitate the dialogue, as well as integrate and explore multiple dimensions from historically underestimated individuals and communities, both locally and within more cosmopolitan spheres. Design changes people’s lives, alters routines, shifts expectations, opens markets and, most of all, has the ability to - through the thought and projectual action that defines its practices - connect production’s several dimensions with the ones from distribution and fruition, as much in a local as in a global scale, bestowing them with a cultural purport. Also, it is in concrete territories that transformation opportunities are created, through the development of actions and projects that are able to answer, from bottom up and in a participated manner, to the complex issues and restraints emerging from the operative social-economical models with an increasingly hegemonic propensity. Design can undoubtedly contribute to build alternatives there. On the other hand, the duo Design / Territory summons the topics from DESIGNA’s previous editions, particularly the ones concerned with Projectual Hope, un/Sustainability and Identity, although multimedia interfaces and the overall components from desire and lapse can also be easily reflected and detected in it.
... For Actor-network theory (ANT) was developed in the 1980s by Michel Callon, Bruno Latour, Steve Woolgar, and John Law. ANT is a social theory that thinks the social is always a part of the material, and hence ANT challenges the disciplinary distinctions between the social and technical that often shape social theories [26,28]. Moreover, ANT perceives human and non-human actants as parts of more extensive social networks. ...
... As described above, Latour claims that the world consists of actants; actants have agency or are assigned actions from others and actants can be both human and things [26]. When we use this concept on the CTG machine (an actant), we find that the machine acts in the birthing room as it registers the heartbeat, and the midwife (another actant) assigns actions to it when commencing monitoring. ...
... As the world consists of networks, everything is relationally understood. As Latour describes it, there is no separation between the social world and the technological world because they are constantly interwoven in networks [26]. The CTG machine is a part of a network example, it connects to the fetus, parents, clinicians, birthing room, guidelines, labour ward, or society. ...
Article
Background: There is an overuse of cardiotocography for intrapartum fetal monitoring for low-risk women in high-income countries, despite recommendations from evidence-based guidelines. Aim: To understand why midwives use cardiotocography for low-risk women despite evidence-based recommendations and to understand the roles of the cardiotocograph machine. Method: This qualitative study used focus groups for data collection. Thirty-one midwives and three student midwives participated from four different countries: New Zealand, Australia, Denmark, and Norway. Constant comparative analysis, informed by an actor-network theory framework, was the method of data analysis. Findings: Cardiotocography was multifaceted and influenced all attendants in the birth environment. The cardiotocograph itself is assigned different roles within the complex networks surrounding childbirth. The cardiotocograph's roles were as a babysitter, the midwives' partner, an agent of shared responsibility, a protector that 'covers your back', a disturber of normal birth, and a requested guest. Discussion: The application of the actor-network theory enabled us to understand how midwives perceive cardiotocography. The assigned roles of the cardiotocograph shape its everyday use more than evidence-based guidelines. Discussion of these inconsistencies must inform the use of cardiotocography in the care of women with low-risk pregnancies. Conclusion: We found that the cardiotocograph is a multifaceted actant that influences practice by performing different roles. Drawing on this study, we suggest that actor-network theory could be a helpful theoretical perspective to critically reflect upon the increasing use of technologies within maternity care.
... Therefore, there is good reason to study the formal and informal practices of gatekeeping which take place in this interactive space where minds and machineries are woven together and associations are made (Latour, 2005). I suggest there are many of these practices. ...
... Borrowing a notion from the Actor-Network Theory, a bibliometric indicator such as the citation can be described as either an intermediary or a mediator. In the first case, according to Michel Callon (Callon, 1986;Callon et al., 1991), an (1) intermediary only transmits the information from one point to the other without transforming it, while Bruno Latour (2005) has noticed the role of (2) mediators as entities that actually transform the meaning and thus need to be explained in terms of "other activities" (such as the social realm), since these entities not only transfer meaning but translate it. We will not dig deeper into this, but to note that when Derek de Solla Price noted that citations were a viable way of measuring impact in the 1960s, he regarded citations as "unobtrusive" indicators (intermediaries) of scholarly activity, something that could be studied without exercising an influence on those who were to be measured. ...
Chapter
Peer review is the most legitimate form of evaluation in academia, and a pillar of many decisions and processes in education, research, and other areas of life in higher education. Its legitimacy is based on the peer having relevant expertise to make judgements about the evaluand, and on its presumably external and disinterested character. However, in this chapter we identify what we call “peer advocacy”: when peer reviewers take on the role of promoter or advocate for the evaluand, or for any of the stakeholders involved. To explore this phenomenon, we analyse four cases in the context of Swedish higher education, based on documented studies and the authors’ own experiences. The cases are analysed to show how peer advocacy can be attributed not only to the peer reviewers themselves, but also to the evaluation model, conditions, and expectations. With a view to preserving the legitimacy and integrity of peer review, recommendations are made both to those who commission evaluations and to peer reviewers.
... Este projeto teve como objetivo geração de conhecimento sobre a formação e transformação de mercados (Callon, 1998;Cochoy, 2005Kjellberg e Hallgesson, 2007Thrift, 2008aThrift, , 2008b. Mercados podem ser pensados como redes de atores que fazem tipos específicos de agenciamentos, mediando a criação de certos tipos de relação e, consequentemente tipos de sociedades particulares (Latour, 2005;Law, 2004 produção e comercialização de cerveja como um agente de restrição a ação de mercado dos produtores artesanais da região. ...
... Este projeto se justifica na medida em que seus resultados contribuem, (Geertz, 2012;Peirano, 1995), e das persistências da materialidade que fazem um mercado (Latour, 2005). Revisão teórica ( x) Sim ( ) Não ...
Technical Report
Este projeto teve como objetivo geração de conhecimento sobre a formação e transformação de mercados (Callon, 1998; Cochoy, 2005 Kjellberg e Hallgesson, 2007; Thrift, 2008a, 2008b). Mercados podem ser pensados como redes de atores que fazem tipos específicos de agenciamentos, mediando a criação de certos tipos de relação e, consequentemente tipos de sociedades particulares (Latour, 2005; Law, 2004). Este projeto contribui na compreensão do tipo de transformação que os mercados fazem para as relações sociais ou o tipo de sociedade que os mercados ajudam a criar. Especificamente, buscamos compreender os agenciamentos relativos a produção e ao consumo de cervejas artesanais na cidade de Rolante/RS, um mercado incipiente e que crescentemente vem apresentando interessados, acompanhando um movimento maior de crescimento desse mercado no Brasil e no mundo. Além do conhecimento teórico (publicação de artigos científicos/pesquisa), o projeto também tem como objetivo de gerar conhecimento útil para os produtores de cerveja locais (extensão), assim como criar conteúdo para atividades de ensino em sala de aula (indissociabilidade entre pesquisa, ensino e extensão). Foram realizadas entrevistas e observação participante em momentos de produção com produtores de locais de cerveja artesanal; Visita técnica a micro cervejaria da região; observação participante em reuniões do grupo de cervejeiros artesanais; reunião com investidores em potencial; observação participante em eventos de cervejeiros artesanais; coleta de dados de mercado em supermercados e lojas; coleta de dados sobre micro cervejarias e cervejas ofertadas na cidade; coleta de dados sobre o mercado cervejeiro em geral; transcrição de entrevistas; análise de dados; escrita de resumos e apresentação do trabalho em mostra científica. Foi identificada a rede composta por uma série de atores que fazer o espaço da cerveja artesanal no município de rolante. Entre eles se destaca o desejo por fazer uma cerveja própria e exclusiva, por sua vez mediado pela relação com as raízes germânicas, a aproximação com familiares e amigos por meio do processo. Destaca-se também as exigências legais para a produção e comercialização de cerveja como um agente de restrição a ação de mercado dos produtores artesanais da região.
... Therefore, there is good reason to study the formal and informal practices of gatekeeping which take place in this interactive space where minds and machineries are woven together and associations are made (Latour, 2005). I suggest there are many of these practices. ...
... Borrowing a notion from the Actor-Network Theory, a bibliometric indicator such as the citation can be described as either an intermediary or a mediator. In the first case, according to Michel Callon (Callon, 1986;Callon et al., 1991), an (1) intermediary only transmits the information from one point to the other without transforming it, while Bruno Latour (2005) has noticed the role of (2) mediators as entities that actually transform the meaning and thus need to be explained in terms of "other activities" (such as the social realm), since these entities not only transfer meaning but translate it. We will not dig deeper into this, but to note that when Derek de Solla Price noted that citations were a viable way of measuring impact in the 1960s, he regarded citations as "unobtrusive" indicators (intermediaries) of scholarly activity, something that could be studied without exercising an influence on those who were to be measured. ...
Book
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This open access volume explores peer review in the scientific community and academia. While peer review is as old as modern science itself, recent changes in the evaluation culture of higher education systems have increased the use of peer review, and its purposes, forms and functions have become more diversified. This book put together a comprehensive set of conceptual and empirical contributions on various peer review practices with relevance for the scientific community and higher education institutions worldwide. Consisting of three parts, the editors and contributors examine the history, problems and developments of peer review, as well as the specificities of various peer review practices. In doing so, this book gives an overview on and examine peer review , and asks how it can move forward. Eva Forsberg is Professor of Education at Uppsala University, Sweden. Her research focuses education governance and evaluation, academic work and the interface between educational policy, practice and research. Lars Geschwind is Professor in Engineering Education Policy and Management at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden. His main research interests are higher education policy, institutional governance, academic leadership and academic work. Sara Levander is Senior Lecturer and Researcher in Education at Uppsala University, Sweden. Her research interests are higher education, academic work and faculty evaluation in academic recruitment and promotion. Wieland Wermke is Associate Professor in Special Education at Stockholm University, Sweden. His research interest focuses on comparative education methodology, and teacher practice at different levels of education.
... In light of this observation, here we turn to socio-material approaches to learning which make more fundamental arguments concerning materiality, claiming it is not only a condition of learning but an inseparable element in learning processes. Socio-material approaches to learning (Fenwick, 2015)-inspired by a number of theories, including actornetwork theory (Latour, 2005;Law, 2009), cultural-historical activity theory (Engeström & Sannino, 2021), complexity theory (Davis & Sumara, 2006) or posthumanism (Coole & Frost, 2010)-generally pay attention to ways in which the material, the immaterial and the human constitute what is called 'everyday life' (Fenwick, 2010: 105) and, therefore, comprise inseparable elements of what it means to be a citizen and how learning happens. ...
... For example, Orlikowski (2010: 135) argues that capacities for action are enacted in practices characterized by 'entanglements' of humans and technologies. Actor-network theory (Latour, 2005) considers learning as 'translation', whereby human and material elements change each other in a process of creating new links and new actions. Activity theory (Chaiklin et al., 1999;Engeström, 2014) focuses on the ways in which learning as change is mediated by the concrete and symbolic tools and artifacts with which humans work on the objects of their activity. ...
Chapter
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The notion of economic citizenship is prevalent in non-governmental organizations’ (NGOs) interventions aimed at promoting inclusive development in the Global South. In this chapter, we draw on the concept of participatory learning (Mayoux in IDS Bulletin 29:39–50, 1998; Pretty in World Development 23:1247–1263, 1995), to explore how NGO-initiated village savings and lending associations (VSLAs) provide platforms for learning among rural women in Uganda. Based on findings from qualitative participatory research with saving groups in western Uganda, we identify three ways through which women learn a plethora of skills that promote economic citizenship. Further, we reflect on how shared learning inspired by VSLAs enables women to negotiate power relations and achieve empowerment nuanced to local settings. We conclude that VSLAs provide learning that lessens impediments to and strengthens women’s citizenship at the community level, even if this does not tackle entrenched traditional norms in a fundamental way.
... De manière générale, il est préférable d'adopter, par défaut, une position selon laquelle l'observateur a une boucle de réflexivité en retard sur ceux qu'il étudie. Avec une telle position, le risque est plus faible de se tromper que lorsqu'on prétend être plus lucide que ceux qu'on étudie (Latour, 2005 (Baumard et al., 2014, p. 274). ...
... De manière générale, il est préférable d'adopter, par défaut, une position selon laquelle l'observateur a une boucle de réflexivité en retard sur ceux qu'il étudie. Avec une telle position, le risque est plus faible de se tromper que lorsqu'on prétend être plus lucide que ceux qu'on étudie (Latour, 2005). ...
Thesis
L’objet de cette thèse est d’étudier l’instrumentation des achats, par la méthode des coûts performances cachés, pour prendre en compte les impacts des dysfonctionnements et mettre en lumière les apports d’une telle méthode dans un contexte d’achats.Cette thèse s’appuie sur une recherche-intervention qualimétrique, menée au sein d’une compagnie d’assurances, avec un positionnement de praticien réflexif.Les résultats montrent que la méthode des coûts-performances cachés s’applique aux achats en dotant les acheteurs de moyens de gestion et d’analyse des dysfonctionnements exprimés par les fournisseurs et les clients internes : catégorisation des dysfonctionnements, historique et calcul du coût d’achat intégral (coût visible + coût caché).
... En relación con la teoría Actor-Red, esta explica la sociedad en términos de relaciones reticulares y de conjuntos estructurados, incorporando aspectos teóricos de la antropología cultural, sociometría, teoría de los grafos, la Gestalt y el estructural funcionalismo, entre otras que consideran la idea de estructura y sistema(Latour, 2005).Este enfoque reúne en un mismo plano la comunicación en red, la generación de estructuras, la inseparabilidad de la acción humana y no humana, el rol de la tecnología y las infraestructuras derivadas, entre otras(Latour, 2005).4.3.1.2 ©Carlos Tapia JopiaCaleta Coliumo, región del Biobío ...
... En relación con la teoría Actor-Red, esta explica la sociedad en términos de relaciones reticulares y de conjuntos estructurados, incorporando aspectos teóricos de la antropología cultural, sociometría, teoría de los grafos, la Gestalt y el estructural funcionalismo, entre otras que consideran la idea de estructura y sistema(Latour, 2005).Este enfoque reúne en un mismo plano la comunicación en red, la generación de estructuras, la inseparabilidad de la acción humana y no humana, el rol de la tecnología y las infraestructuras derivadas, entre otras(Latour, 2005).4.3.1.2 ©Carlos Tapia JopiaCaleta Coliumo, región del Biobío ...
Technical Report
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Esta Guía fue elaborada en el marco de proyecto “Fortalecimiento de la Capacidad de Adaptación en el Sector Pesquero y Acuícola Chileno al Cambio Climático”, el cual es ejecutado por la Subsecretaría de Pesca y Acuicultura (SUBPESCA) y el Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (MMA), e implementado por la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura (FAO), con financiamiento del Fondo para el Medio Ambiente Mundial (GEF, por su sigla en inglés). Este se está implementando en cuatro caletas piloto: Riquelme (Tarapacá), Tongoy (Coquimbo), Coliumo (Biobío) y El Manzano-Hualaihué (Los Lagos). Un factor central para el éxito del programa de formación -cuyos contenidos se desarrollan en el “Manual práctico para la pesca artesanal y la acuicultura a pequeña escala”- será la facilitación del proceso de aprendizaje, por lo cual es recomendando desarrollar un proceso guiado por un equipo de, al menos, dos profesionales. Estos facilitadores del aprendizaje deben poseer las competencias necesarias para ejecutar este programa con adultos, lo que implica contar con habilidades que les permitan posicionarse no como meros transmisores de conocimiento, sino como agentes de cambio, capaces de movilizar el conocimiento y experiencia de quienes participen en la capacitación, integrándolos como parte del abanico de nuevos conocimientos que serán abordados en las diversas sesiones. Para ello, los facilitadores del aprendizaje deberán generar un ambiente de simetría y reciprocidad, distinto a la formación escolar tradicional, donde prima una estructura jerárquica y asimétrica. Además, este proceso de formación deberá considerar el contexto de las personas que serán parte de ella, para lo cual se deberán realizar acciones previas tales como la realización de un análisis de actores, la recopilación y sistematización de información para adecuar los contenidos a la realidad local, y la selección de ejemplos pertinentes al territorio. En este contexto, esta guía contiene los fundamentos teóricos y las orientaciones pedagógicas necesarias para apoyar el rol de los facilitadores del aprendizaje que ejecuten este programa de capacitación dirigido a comunidades de pescadores artesanales y acuicultores a pequeña escala. Incluye, además, las presentaciones en formato PowerPoint para las diversas sesiones, las cuales contienen el contenido base que deberá ser adecuado a la realidad local de estas comunidades. En consecuencia, el desarrollo del programa implicará la formación de facilitadores del aprendizaje andragógico como un requisito previo al inicio de las sesiones, buscando disponer de las capacidades suficientes para ejecutar el programa de una manera que permita fortalecer la capacidad de adaptación de pescadores artesanales y acuicultores a pequeña escala. La presente Guía entrega los fundamentos teóricos y las orientaciones pedagógicas necesarias para apoyar el rol de los facilitadores que ejecuten el programa de capacitación contenido en el Manual. Trabajados en conjunto, ambos materiales buscan ser una contribución al proceso de adaptación de las comunidades costeras de América Latina, el Caribe, y en otras regiones. El desarrollo de esta guía contó como insumo el trabajo desarrollado en la preparación y ejecución de cada una de las 10 sesiones de capacitación, donde se agradece el trabajo de los relatores: Andrea Scheinost, Javier Chávez, Alfredo Flores y Sergio Calderón de CESSO; y Carlos González y Manira Matamala de INPESCA; la participación de Sergio Núñez, Roberto San Martín y Héctor Medina de INPESCA en las jornadas de trabajo para el diseño de las sesiones de capacitación; y el apoyo logístico de Flor Tapia. El diseño original de esta guía y su edición estuvo a cargo de Soledad Amenábar, junto a Carlos Tapia quien además contribuyó con las fotografías incluidas en esta guía. Un especial agradecimiento para las pescadoras y pescadores artesanales de las caletas Riquelme, Tongoy, Coliumo y El Manzano-Hualaihué, que participaron tanto en la fase inicial de diagnóstico como en la ejecución del programa, retroalimentando el proceso. Además, se agradece la revisión realizada por Laura Naranjo Báez, Alessandro Lovatelli y Félix Inostroza de FAO y Gustavo San Martín, de SUBPESCA; y la colaboración de los coordinadores de FAO en cada una de las regiones, Marcelo Pavez, Marcelina Novoa, Alberto Fuentes, Cristian Vásquez y Cecilia Godoy. Finalmente, un agradecimiento a Rodrigo Martínez y Bárbara Castro por los últimos cambios al diseño y a José Aguilar-Manjarrez, Cristina Veiga y Radhika Gopali de FAO por su apoyo con la supervisión de la Guía para su inclusión en el Repositorio de Documentos de la FAO.
... Actor-Network Theory (ANT) is a social science research method that relies on the network system model to present the dynamic relationship between actors [20]. The theory originated in France in 1980s, and its main representatives are Michel Cuarón [20], Bruno Latour [21], and John Law [22]. ANT claims that actors are heterogeneous, including not only human beings, but also inanimate non-human actors, such as nature, artifacts, ideas and concepts. ...
... They "juggle" among human actors, "transform, translate, distort and modify the elements or meanings they carry", which makes the linear chain dominated by human actors "refract", thus guiding actions in unexpected directions, and then shaping the network-like spatial form; Third, the actornetwork is connected by "translation". The translation is generally divided into four stages: Problematization, Interestement, Enrolment and Mobilisation [20][21][22]. From a qualitative point of view, the actor-network theory has shaped a relational topological structure space, which is helpful to dispel the binary opposition between place and globalization. Its core idea provides a conceptual framework for analyzing the increasingly complex social space hybridization [30]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Gulangyu Island is a special case of social development and changes since modern China. In the past, Chinese and foreign people lived together and Chinese and Western cultures coexisted, resulting in an international community with outstanding cultural diversity and modern quality of life. As a functional carrier, space is of great reference significance to the research on the spatial evolution path of the Gulangyu international community with the accelerating globalization and rapid expansion of urbanization. Based on the interpretation of historical maps and the integration of historical geographic information, this paper explores the evolution path of Gulangyu community space in modern times from the perspective of actor-network theory. It is found that: (1) The change of key actors promotes the spatial evolution of the Gulangyu international community. (2) In the stage of foreign culture dissemination (1840–1902), foreign nationals, as key actors, promoted the formation and development of actor-networks through administrative recruitment and other means, and promoted Gulangyu Island to change from a traditional Minnan community to a modern community form, with the embryonic form of an international community beginning to emerge. (3) In the stage of multicultural integration (1903–1940), overseas Chinese returning home became key actors. The concept of a combination of Western cultures was not only embodied in community management but also acted on space practice to promote the multicultural integration of the Gulangyu international community. This paper summarizes the effects of various factors on the evolution of community space, to provide a reference for other coastal cities to rationally develop islands and promote the multicultural integration of local communities.
... This paper proposes to define NbS as 'co-evolutionary technology' CET and develops the theoretical framework based on recent co-evolutionary thinking in Anthropocene research [ 21 , 22 ] and on pluralistic approaches to agency as championed in Science & Technology Studies [23] and feminist approaches [ 24 ]. We approach NbS as mediators between biosphere and technosphere evolution ( Section 2 ) and present a definition and four principles in Section 3 . ...
... However, there are also many approaches that reconcile the two perspectives. In our work, we follow the lines of niche-construction theory (seminally, [ 33 , 34 , 35 ]. • Distributed agency is a key idea in many transdisciplinary approaches inspired by science & technology studies [23] and feminist theory (Haraway 2017), which has resulted in a rich array of theories that overlap, but also sometimes stay in tension, even normatively (for example, consider narrower notion of coevolution of humans and technology, [36] ). We extract the notion that agency is not confined to the boundaries of the human body, but distributed in human groups, and extend this to include artefacts and eventually non-humans. ...
... Second, in line with STS scholarship, PO understands ontologies to perform themselves into being (Blaser, 2009). This means that ontologies are not schemes of classification but enacted or performed in practice (Law & Lien, 2018;Mol, 2002), which involves humans-nonhumans entanglements (see Latour, 1991Latour, , 2005Law, 2004;Mol, 2002). Specific entities acquire their socio-material attributes based on their relations to others (Law, 2004). ...
... The point is not to examine practices 'as they are' but to understand how they come into being and perform particular kinds of realities, worlds, or natures (Stensrud, 2016). The crafting of realities and statements about the world and its materialities are produced together with particular scientific practices that include specific instrumental, technical, and human configurations (Latour, 2005). Crafting, for example, does not only imply human agency and skill. ...
Article
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This article examines corporate social responsibility (CSR) through the lens of political ontology. We contend that CSR is not only a discursive mean of legitimization but an inherently ontological practice through which particular worlds become real. CSR enables the politics of place-making, connecting humans and nonhumans in specific territorial configurations in accordance with corporate needs and interests. We discuss three CSR mechanisms of singularization that create a particular corporate ontology in place: (1) community engagements that form ‘stakeholders’; (2) CSR standards and certifications that produce singular sustainable environments; and (3) CSR reporting that erases ontological conflicts and enables the singularized representation (of the environment and the community) to travel to other locations of the corporate world. We argue that these ontological CSR practices obscure the pluriverse of other world and place-making practices that would create different kinds of sustainabilities based on less extractive and non-corporate ways of being in place.
... In a further investigation, he found an 80% match between son/ daughter and father`s club partisanship. To understand the nature of this influence, we trace the main mediators operating in this social space (Latour 2005). ...
... We conducted our research following the onto-epistemological tenets of actor-network-theory (Callon 1998;Latour 2005;Law 2004). We collected data from the universe of two big Brazilian clubs as part of broader research program on the interrelated uncertainties about marketing, consumption and emotions. ...
Article
This paper analyzes the intergenerational evangelization of new supporters. Through the ethnography of two rival football clubs in Brazil, we show how engaged supporters transmit the club mythology through ordinary and extraordinary rituals. We discuss the implications of this process for studies on intergenerational influences, brand loyalty, and family identity. ABSTRACT This paper analyzes the intergenerational evangelization of new supporters. Through the ethnography of two rival football clubs in Brazil, we show how engaged supporters transmit the club mythology through ordinary and extraordinary rituals. We discuss the implications of this process for studies on intergenerational influences, brand loyalty, and family identity.
... Comprehensively, we believe that DPA needs to solve four problems: cultural creativity, industrial development, cultural conservation, and social relations (Fig. 4), including inheritance and promotion of handicrafts, development of bamboo weaving industry, and sustainability of knowledge and social relations. The research of Callon and Latour pointed out that only sufficient mobilization and gathering can form a successful actors network [35][36][37]. The design team understands the basic interest of the village and the interest needs of craftsmen through village site surveys, household interviews and group meetings. ...
Article
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Design for poverty alleviation (DPA) is becoming an active promoter and effective practice form of rural social innovation. This study aims to explore the sustainable, collaborative design path of rural poverty alleviation. Based on actor network theory, this study analyzes the poverty alleviation process of rural actor network construction and participatory translation through the perspective of design integration. The case study chooses the traditional Chinese handicraft, Shengzhou bamboo weaving, to discuss the key links and elements of sustainability such as the role, benefits, and interaction of multiple actors. The staged effectiveness and social impact of the design integration are evaluated by questionnaire surveys, in-depth interviews, qualitative and quantitative data collections, a logistic regression model was used to test for significant effects while adjusting for multiple factors simultaneously. The analysis shows that although DPA is difficult to realize the fundamental adjustment of the rights and interests of rural craftsmen, it plays a key role in guiding the development of industrial goals, expected economic and social benefits, brings huge driving force and implementation effect to rural social innovation. The actor network theory solves the problem of separation between the individual and network attributes of DPA among stakeholders, and provides an innovative basis for rural social innovation to choose effective design intervention and mechanisms to balance the rights and interests of various stakeholders.
... This taxonomy of actors (human, technological, individual, institutional, etc.) seems to go in the opposite direction of some theoretical approaches, such as actor-network theory (ANT), diluting the differences between different actors (Law, 1999;Latour, 2005Latour, , 1999aLatour, , 1999b. One of the key points of ANT is to provide a 'symmetrical' perspective where human and non-human actors are equally treated. ...
Article
Online gaming involves a complex and multidimensional set of practices. This article proposes understanding online video gaming based on an interface-centred approach that goes beyond the classic study of the “graphic user interface”. In this theoretical and analytical framework, the interface is considered the place where human, institutional and technological actors relate to each other and different processes are carried out. The article draws the data from empirical research with teens carried out in eight countries. It analyses the teenagers’ online playing experience as an interface, understood as a ‘network of actors’ that goes beyond the single video gaming device (console, PC, etc.). This work also presents a map of actors, relationships and processes of the online video gaming interface, paying particular attention to the tensions and critical issues that arise, from a perspective that, in further studies, could be expanded to other practices. https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11623
... Organizations (and institutions), then -and here it is helpful to draw on ANT and assemblage terminology (Latour, 2005;Müller, 2015) -are heterogeneous assemblages of bodies, artefacts, motivations, teloi, information, and other elements that act in networks. Or, to use a practice-theoretical wording, organizations and institutions are patterns of human activity that hang together forming "complexes" (Shove et al., 2012, p. 17) or "constellations" (Schatzki, 2016a, p. 6) of practices. ...
... Borrowing a notion from the Actor-Network Theory, a bibliometric indicator such as the citation can be described as either an intermediary or a mediator. In the first case, according to Michel Callon (Callon, 1986;Callon et al., 1991), an (1) intermediary only transmits the information from one point to the other without transforming it, while Bruno Latour (2005) has noticed the role of (2) mediators as entities that actually transform the meaning and thus need to be explained in terms of "other activities" (such as the social realm), since these entities not only transfer meaning but translate it. We will not dig deeper into this, but to note that when Derek de Solla Price noted that citations were a viable way of measuring impact in the 1960s, he regarded citations as "unobtrusive" indicators (intermediaries) of scholarly activity, something that could be studied without exercising an influence on those who were to be measured. ...
Chapter
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This chapter aims to critically engage with the performative nature of bibliometric indicators and explores how they influence scholarly practice at the macro, meso, and individual levels. It begins with a comparison between two national performance-based funding systems in Sweden and Norway at the macro level, within universities at the meso level, down to the micro level where individual researchers must relate these incentives to knowledge building within their specialty. I argue that the common-sense “representational model of bibliometric indicators” is questionable in practice, since it cannot capture the qualities of research in any unambiguous way. Furthermore, a performative notion on scientometric indicators needs to be developed that takes into account the variability and uncertainty of the aspects of research that is to be evaluated.
... Importantly, the transformation of one actor-or of the understanding of one actor-inevitably entails an alteration of the network in its entirety. 19 Thus, clarifying and analysing Nell Walden's collaborations with Herwarth Walden in Der Sturm is not simply a matter of adding her operations to an established narrative; it is rather an endeavour that necessarily alters our understanding of Der Sturm as a whole. ...
... 94-5). This appreciation of performativity has been influential in social science, as evidenced by the work of Callon (1998Callon ( , 2007, MacKenzie (2006) and Latour (1986Latour ( , 2005, and it has also impacted organization studies through various creative applications including critical performativity (Spicer, Alvesson, & Kärreman, 2009), the interplay between ostensive and performative aspects of routines (Feldman & Pentland, 2003), the performative constitution of organization through communication (Schoeneborn, Kuhn, & Kärreman, 2019), materialization and performativity (Orlikowski & Scott, 2015) and the performative potentials of theory itself (Martí & Gond, 2018). ...
Article
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This editorial essay introduces a special issue that tackles the seemingly intractable challenge of re-conceptualizing power and performativity as continuously interweaving and co-emergent dynamics in the processes of organizing. It is in these processes, we argue, that new futures may be visibly made through the academic activism of our scholarly communities. We position our argument, and the six papers that comprise this special issue, in relation to Rosi Braidotti’s framing of Humanism, anti-humanism and the posthuman. We also suggest some future lines of inquiry to move studies of organizing forward into a posthuman world.
... Rather than considering boundaries as obstacles to be overcome, this form of work considers boundaries as junctures that may enable rather than inhibit collaboration. Theories that inform this understanding of boundaries include Strauss' negotiated order perspective (Strauss, et al., 1985;Strauss, Schatzman, et al., 1963) as well as work from Latour and others that describe active assemblages of actor-networks (Latour, 2007). A particularly insightful contribution from the analysis of this kind of boundary work is the notion that it is possible to have cooperation across boundaries without consensus among stakeholders, a feat mediated through boundary objects (Star, 2010). ...
Chapter
Healthcare workers took center stage in the early unfolding drama of the COVID-19 pandemic. Subject to multiple demands, these workers embodied debates about the duties of professionals, the responsibilities of employers, and reasonable expectations of publics. These dynamics have long been of interest to sociologists studying professions. In this paper, we explore how healthcare workers were reorganized in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Ontario, Canada. Using concepts of boundaries and boundary work, we analyzed the interface between employers, professions, and the state as played out through governmental orders and organizational policies. By placing the dynamics of reorganization in the context of existing policy trajectories, we are able to see both continuities and disruptions. In terms of continuities, the ability to rapidly mobilize the healthcare workforce reflected the historical incursion of policy into the content of healthcare professionals’ work. In terms of disruptions, the nascent policy trajectory of patient and caregiver involvement in health care was abruptly halted as redeployment activity centered around assessments of risk, governance, and accountability. Ultimately, this paper draws attention to relationships of expertise, power, and accountability between healthcare professions, governments, health service organizations and the public, offering potential insight into professional work in a post-pandemic world.
... Indeed, Chenhall et al., (2013), and more recently, Durocher and Fortin (2021), highlight the scope for future research to examine dissonance in accounting. Dissonant translation is pertinent in this study because translations, derived from the French term traduction, between author and user are subject to degrees of freedom (Latour, 2005) serving to highlight "the subsequent effect of creative products on their users" (Hutter, 2015, p. 60) from the original intent of the author. In our setting, dissonant translation occurs between the authors (i.e., standard setters from the late 1980s) and users (investors) today relevant to an accounting standard that remains in force. ...
Article
Research and development (R&D) is increasingly significant in the global economy and its accounting treatment has always been, and remains, a contentious area. The standard governing its accounting treatment under International Financial Reporting Standards is IAS 38 Intangible Assets. This was issued in 1998 and remains in force today. This study contrasts the thinking of the standard setters in the historical development of the standard with evidence through 17 interviews with contemporary buy-side and sell-side equity investors. Specifically, we examine the decision-usefulness of R&D accounting information to them, and especially that of the capitalisation of development costs. This unique insight reveals that investors find R&D accounting information useful for decision making, are supportive of the principle of the mandatory capitalisation of development costs, subject to meeting specified conditions, and are very much opposed to a US expense all treatment. However, they do not regard such assets as providing an adequate signal of future value creation to them, which was the expectation of the standard setters. This is attributed to the perceived vagueness and subjectivity of the conditions currently in the standard. The theoretical framing of dissonant translation is employed to unpick these tensions. The study makes significant contributions to the standard setting and R&D strands of the financial accounting literature and the findings raise important policy implications.
... Similarly, recent IoT literature has pointed out that interactions and relationships with smart objects and algorithms may significantly differ from interpersonal interactions (Hoffman & Novak, 2018;Novak & Hoffman, 2019). Thus, digital BP researchers may consider assemblage theory (DeLanda, 2006;Deleuze & Guattari, 1987) or actor-network theory (Latour, 2005) to further investigate the role of non-human intelligent agents such as smart objects or AI-driven algorithms that contribute to personifying the brand in the minds of the consumers. ...
Article
Full-text available
In a digital world, it is becoming increasingly important for marketing researchers and practitioners to understand how consumers attribute humanlike characteristics and personality traits to brands, as the brand’s personality has a significant influence on consumers’ behavior and their brand relationships. However, despite a growth in research interest over the past two decades, the literature on consumers’ digital brand personality perceptions remains fragmented and dispersed across digital contexts. Thus, now is an opportune time to take stock of the field and build a knowledge foundation for future research to establish the domain of digital brand personality. To this end, this systematic literature review, based on the TCCM framework, identifies dominant theories, contexts, characteristics, and methodologies used to study consumers’ digital brand personality perceptions by systematically reviewing 107 peer‐reviewed journal articles published between 2005 to 2021. Using an in‐depth content analysis of the articles, this review integrates research findings from different digital contexts and provides a new conceptual framework of digital brand personality. The review concludes with a comprehensive research agenda that highlights the need to broaden the theoretical groundings of the field (theory); identifies numerous digital touchpoints and new technologies that remain underexplored (context); reveals inconsistencies and knowledge gaps regarding dimensions, antecedents, and consequences of digital brand personality (characteristics); and suggests diverse, digital‐based research approaches (methodology) to further advance the study of consumers’ digital brand personality perceptions.
... We are especially interested in contemporary methods that articulate space as a relation and as completely entangled between personal, social and material dimensions. This approach is becoming increasingly central in work going on in science and technology studies, in anthropology and in geography (Latour 2007(Latour , 2013Ingold 2000, Thrift 2008). These theorists start from the understanding that we engage with the material world dynamically and continuously, through our individual perceptions and beliefs and everyday enactments in 'ordinary' social and spatial practices (that is, the un-thought about routines and assumptions about 'how things work.'). ...
Chapter
In this paper, we are interested in developing a rich understanding of what matters about space, particularly for enhancing student engagement and belonging. We will suggest that this first requires an exploration into the relational aspects of learning in order to begin to model the often complicated and diffuse inter-relationships between its cognitive, experiential and emotional dimensions; and second to explore in more depth how these impact on, and are impacted by, material space. We will do this by first outlining what we mean by relational learning, and by student engagement and belonging. We will then propose a relational understanding of material space, aiming to locate learning environments within the larger ‘space’ of learners’ perceptions and experiences more generally. This will be further explored through analyzing a case study that suggests some helpful pointers. Finally, we will offer an outline conceptual model that aims to locate some of the differing qualities of material space across the various dimensions of relational learning. Whilst this model is proposed not as a solution but as a means of encouraging debate, we argue that developing learning spaces that support engagement and belonging as well as effective learning are an important issue for the higher education sector. This is because evidence shows that students’ sense of belonging has a direct impact on their retention and success (Thomas, 2012).
... Ting, kapaciteter, teknologier och arkitektur gör alla saker i vårt vardagsliv, det vill säga de har ett agentskap. Med utgångspunkt i Latour (2005) hävdar Cooren att icke-mänskligt agentskap inte kan förminskas till mänskligt agentskap. Vi delar våra handlingar och göranden med andra. ...
Book
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Bör vi sträva efter att älska vårt jobb? Har det rent av blivit en förväntan som många arbetsgivare har? På en tuff arbetsmarknad som alltmer kräver individens hängivenhet och engagemang uppstår en problematik i vem det är som har makten över de personliga valen. I Att älska sitt jobb för etnologen Magdalena Petersson McIntyre ett angeläget samtal om passion och styrningen av den. Om känslor betraktas som varor hur påverkar då denna kommersialisering den enskilda arbetstagaren? Utifrån intervjuer med anställda i detaljhandeln diskuterar författaren en process där känslolivet engageras mer och mer i arbetslivet. Hängivenheten blir en normalitet som också utgör vägen till lycka även om målen kan bli svåra att förverkliga.
... Sociomateriality theory (Orlikowski & Scott, 2008); Actor-network theory (Latour, 2005); Organizational spaces perspectives (Beyes & Steyaert, 2011;Dale & Burrell, 2008;Elsbach & Pratt, 2007;Kornberger & Clegg, 2004). ...
Article
This study undertakes a systematic literature review (SLR) on how the workspace influences female workers and, more generally, gender equality. Within the broader context of Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (DE&I) matters, gender issues have attracted ample attention from scholars and policymakers. However, research on the specific topic of this SLR is sparse and fragmented, especially for what concerns the implications on workplace design and management. This paper systematizes the actual knowledge on the subject by reviewing 68 articles published in the last 10 years. Authors critically analyze these articles according to two vital spatial elements: workspace typologies and workspace interiors. The reviewed articles document a general convincement shared by different scientific fields that the workspace affects women and men differently. The results show that space is a crucial element for enhancing gender equality in the workplace. Although the reviewed articles cover multiple disciplines, an interdisciplinary approach is still missing. The concluding section proposes a future research agenda, novel theoretical approaches and methodological advancements, while highlighting practical implications.
... Em que pesem as especificidades de tendências mais recentes na antropologia sociocultural, como o pós-modernismo (Spiro, 1996), a antropologia da agência (Descola, 1996;Latour, 2005;Teubner, 2006), a antropologia da performance e do drama (Tambiah, 1985;Turner, 1987) ou a antropologia da ciência e da tecnologia (Latour & Woolgar, 1997), a importância e a centralidade do símbolo continuam vivas, válidas e presentes. ...
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O texto é uma análise sobre os limites e as possibilidades do uso do método etnográfico nas pesquisas com ênfase em comportamento de chimpanzés. Para fazer isso, nós primeiro apresentamos algumas considerações sobre a ideia de “cultura” usada na primatologia e então fizemos comparações entre essas primeiras e as concepções contemporâneas de cultura usadas na antropologia sociocultural. A seguir, analisamos os contextos de pesquisa nos quais os primatólogos afirmam a existência de “culturas de chimpanzés”, as relações de objetividade, de subjetividade e de antropomorfismo na pesquisa primatológicas com ênfase em comportamento. Por fim, nós avaliamos as proposições baseadas na viabilidade da produção de conhecimento sobre os coletivos formados por humanos e animais não humanos considerando as perspectivas da antropologia sociocultural e da primatologia e enfatizando a etnografia e a etnoprimatologia.
... This means that human and non-human actors are considered as equal, and no distinction is made between the natural, the social, or the technological. An actor is an association of heterogeneous elements constituting a network, presented as a flat ontology (Latour, 2005). If we consider human and non-human actors from this perspective, it affords us a symmetry around the meshes of interactions between them. ...
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This thesis is about sound and space, and is an exploration of sounds and spaces using Pierre Schaeffer’s sound object theory. It addresses aesthetic and experimental approaches to the exploration of spatial audio and site-specific practices through the intrinsic and extrinsic features of sound objects. These experimental approaches make use of software tools for composition, installation, spatial programming, and sound design, as well as for virtual reality simulation. The main contribution of the thesis is an exploration of the relationships between sound and space, going beyond the technical issues of the spatialisation paradigm and into issues of place, site, and landscape, as guiding principles for spatial audio practices. The ambisonic soundfield is in this thesis seen as a link between sound objects and spatialisation of sound masses, sharing the same multidimensional space. The thesis aims to study the various features of sound objects through a multi- dimensional model where we can access main features as well as sub-features, and sub-sub-features, of sound objects. This thesis is divided into four parts, where the first three parts discuss different aspects of the object–structure relationship, and where the last part is a discussion of possible extensions of Schaeffer’s typo-morphological system of identification, classification, and description of sound to encompass spatial features.
... As Latour (2007) said of actor-network theory, the hyphen is important, and, for Žižek (2011), the "political/economy" dyad serves to signpost the site of a political struggle. Dismissing any disputes over processes, people, power and so on in disaster management as "politics" depoliticises that space as a possible site for contending outcomes. ...
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Just as disasters are indissolubly social events, in settler colonial societies, vulnerabilities to hazards, and the impacts from consequent disasters, are inextricably racist. Are Indigenous disasters, like the Bible’s portrayal of the poor (Mathew 26:11; Mark 14:7), “always with us”? As Matthewman (2015) points out, disasters “lift the veil” on how a society works, or doesn’t work, revealing what is tolerated, and who or what is privileged. The post-contact experiences of Indigenous Peoples can be read as a litany of disasters and yet systemic vulnerability does not stem from a lack of attention. As Dunbar-Ortiz (2014) argues, Indigenous Peoples are not peripheral to state legislation. Rather, the violent oppression and discrimination against Indigenous Peoples by state and private forces situates Indigenous societies at the very centre of state philosophising and operations. Yet Indigenous communities are positioned (often by themselves) as the epitome of resilience. Indeed, “resilience” has become the default term for Indigenous individuals and communities who, despite the genocidal tendencies of imperial and colonizing states, are not dead. Reid (2019, p.262) eviscerates this ascription of resilience as “a mantra being repeated by colonial states and deeply powerful western actors worldwide.” Indigenous discourse elevates care for community and ecosystems as “a governing cliché” whereby neoliberal systems maintain their extraction of wealth from Indigenous and, of course, non-Indigenous subjects. To tease out this apparent paradox of simultaneous vulnerability/resilience, this chapter unpacks the impacts of a major disaster on urban Indigenous peoples. Indigenous Peoples are increasingly urban (United Nations [UN] Housing Rights Programme, 2010); 85 per cent of Māori are resident in towns and cities and these built landscapes contain (and produce) complex risks (Mitchell, 1999). What is remarkable about so many modern disasters (including COVID -19) is first, their predictability, and second, how little was done to prevent or prepare for them. We could add a third concern: the slow, often limited, sometimes counterproductive support for Indigenous communities. I have previously ventured a proto-law in a field bereft of theory (Lambert, forthcoming) that states, in any given disaster, Indigenous communities will be more impacted than non-Indigenous communities, and their recovery will be slower and less effective. This chapter gives the genesis of this law.
... While SNA provided a powerful visual and analytical method to explore the PFPF networks, identify supply and demand side barriers and innovation processes, the method falls short of understanding human agency dynamics in social networks (Marshall & Staeheli 2015). A further extension of the framework could combine SNA with more reflexive approaches such as those offered by Actor Network Theory (Law & Hassard 1999;Latour 2005) to inform future hypothesis-based research on the processes by which the PFPF networks form, sustain, innovate, and change over time (Marshall & Staeheli 2015;Müller & Schurr 2016). Such analysis may also provide more nuanced perspectives on agency, the power dynamics in the transformation of food systems, and on intermediation and brokerage as forms of network-based political capital (Rossi et al. 2019;Turner et al. 2020). ...
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There is promising evidence that public food procurement from family farming (PFPF) can serve as a powerful policy instrument in transitions towards more sustainable food systems. Despite the evidence around PFPF, there is lack of systemic and actor-oriented approaches analysing the relational and interactional dynamics among the multiple and diverse sets of actors in PFPF programs. In this paper, we address this gap by presenting an integrative framework that brings together food systems research, innovation studies and social network analysis, to assess the role of actor networks in PFPF. To illustrate the usefulness of the framework, we present the case of public procurement from family farming in Uruguay. We show how the framework has potential to: highlight the composition and diversity of networks of actors in PFPF; unravel individual and network barriers faced by actors in food systems; and, identify how interactions and (intermediary and brokerage) roles of network actors stimulate innovation or block the changes that are needed for PFPF to catalyse the transition towards sustainable food systems.
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With the objective of discussing the insertion of agroecological products in commercialization channels, this article brings together principles of eco-innovation for the production and certification of products and processes arising from family farming. It presents a new rurality, where networks of farmers are formed and, through social organization, there is the certification of peers and the consequent use of seals, attesting to the quality of the products. In the meantime, agroecology, participatory certification systems, eco-innovation, social innovation, networks, markets and commercialization channels are discussed. Methodologically, it is a qualitative research, with a bibliographic approach. The results point to the growing concern with the insertion of agroecological products in a marketing logic that promotes the flow of products and the aggregation of value, either through the constitution of networks for joint sales, or through the use of new technologies such as applications and/or or websites, which implies, above all, a paradigm shift not only in agroecology that appropriates new technologies, but also on the part of consumers who adhere to a new social behavior.
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Suplemento especial de Cuadernos Médico Sociales, dedicado a Antropología de la Salud
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The problem of the role of truth in politics has recently become a subject of intense public and theoretical attention. The issue assumed gravity due to politically significant consequences of the recent recourse to deliberate misinformation in various political campaigns, a phenomenon now referred to as ‘post-truth’. The prevalent reaction to duplicity in politics typically assumes the form of a moralistic demand addressed to politicians that the requirements of truthfulness be observed. I argue that the attitude, which deserves the name of ‘alethic populism’, stems from a misconception of the nature of political activity, an error which I propose to call the ‘cognitocratic fallacy’. Against this, I stress that the neologism ‘post-truth’ was originally intended to refer not to the deliberate lies of politicians but rather to the attitude of the democratic citizenry who leniently accepts them. Also, against the claim that postmodern philosophers are responsible for abjuration of truth, I argue that the effect is rather an unintended consequence of persistent attempts to work out a definitive conception of truth. I also claim that political philosophy offers ambiguous and mutually contradictory views concerning the role of truth in politics. Against the moralistic attitude of alethic populism, and against the cognitocratic fallacy, I argue that making sense of truth in politics and the public life should be based on the concept of a cognitive régime of understood as a set of rules variously regulating the usage of words and concepts in various spaces of human life. Key words: post-truth, alethic populism, cognitocratic fallacy, cognitive regimes This publication is in Brazilian Portuguese
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Introduction . There are currently many different methods in the field of artificial intelligence research. Methods of mathematical, cognitive and philosophical sciences are dominant among them. All research approaches are united by the hypothesis that natural and artificial intelligence are fundamentally comparable. The sociality formed as a result of these changes attracts increasing attention from both foreign and Russian researchers. The purpose of this article is to clarify the theoretical and methodological approaches in the study of artificial intelligence in the social sciences, especially in sociology. Methodology and sources . The article is based on an interdisciplinary approach, which allows outlining the scale of the research problem, coordinating the methodological approach to the organization of research, smoothing the contradictions of ideas and categories, which are operated by different sciences in the study of artificial intelligence. Results and discussion . According to the authors, the widely used concept of Artificial Intelligence is more a scientific metaphor than a proven empirical fact. Currently there is no such thing as artificial intelligence. There are neural networks, machine learning, which can solve certain problems in the real world. Artificial intelligence is a metaphor that captures a certain level of human knowledge about the introduction of information technology, based on computer hardware and specialized software. To treat artificial intelligence as an empirical fact is a fallacy that is not appropriate in science. Conclusion . Sociology is only taking its first steps in the field of artificial intelligence research. It does not have its own methodological tools for analyzing artificial intelligence and the social reality that arises from its introduction into the everyday life of society. Artificial Intelligence changes people's daily lives, embedding itself in everyday social practices, and forming a hybrid social world for the social sciences to study. Today there is a debate about the place of artificial intelligence in sociology. According to the authors, sociological fantasies and speculations are not appropriate here. In order to correctly and accurately define the problem of artificial intelligence in the social sciences, it is necessary to carefully analyze the opinions of the experts in the exact sciences, in which artificial intelligence is understood as algorithms or models created by human, and which perform certain tasks and help them manage specific processes in various spheres of society.
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Norm localization plays a crucial role in shaping the extent to which global norms are transformed into values and political imperatives at the national and sub-national levels. Viewing norm localization as a political process influenced by materio-spatial elements, this article uses an empirical investigation to explore how the materiality of oil determines the localization of transparency in the extractive sector. Drawing from the case of two oil-producing villages in Bojonegoro Regency, East Java, Indonesia, and their experiences between 2000 and 2018, this paper investigates the role of the materio-spatial configuration of oil-the physical and political features of oil, as determined by its biophysics-in the localization of transparency. This paper shows that the localization of transparency in the extractive sector is a "work of assemblage", wherein the materiality of oil enables associated actor-networks (with various agencies and objectives) to shape and embed transparency within the local context. NIJHSS 3(2), 2021 2 Given that oil is a global commodity, the localization of transparency is not a linear process, but rather an ever-changing mechanism, one that spans from the local through the subnational, national, and even transnational. The larger the oil reserve, the greater the efforts of efforts actors-networks to embed transparency within the local context. Using the new-materialism approach and post-structuralist perspective, this paper seeks an alternative explanation of norm localization, as a process through which transparency is implemented, in the extractive sector. This paper attempts to contribute to the discussion of norm localization, which has recently been dominated by a debate between the constructivist and institutional approaches.
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Esta versión revisada y actualizada de un artículo publicado originalmente en inglés en 2010 constituye una introducción a las principales teorizaciones en lengua inglesa del afecto (entendido este término en el sentido que ha adquirido en los affect studies) y de la materialidad. Termina con unas reflexiones sobre cómo estas teorizaciones podrían ser aprovechadas por los investigadores en las humanidades.
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This editorial discusses the sociological perspective of innovation, starting with a critical overview of the situation of sociology in current innovation studies. An outline of several key challenges to understanding innovation in society is followed by an interpretation of the characteristics of a sociology of innovation based on the core assumptions of the discipline. The editorial concludes with a summary of the papers of the special issue.
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This chapter investigates the social implications of locative media (LM) use and attempts to outline a theoretical framework that may support the design and implementation of location-based applications. Furthermore, it stresses the significance of physical space and location awareness as important factors that influence both human–computer interaction and computer-mediated communication. The chapter documents part of the theoretical aspect of the research undertaken as part of LOcation-based Communication Urban NETwork (LOCUNET), a project that aims to investigate the way users interact with one another (human–computer–human interaction aspect) and with the location-based system itself (human–computer interaction aspect). A number of relevant theoretical approaches are discussed in an attempt to provide a holistic theoretical background for LM use. Additionally, the actual implementation of the LOCUNET system is described and some of the findings are discussed.
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Amid ongoing social and ecological transformations, vignerons (winegrowers) and the vines in their care are responding to the impacts of climatic and other forms of change. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in the eastern French winegrowing region of Alsace, I turn to the sensorium as the site where changing landscapes are forcing people to rethink the meaning of terroir, a key term in which winegrowing is articulated as a practice. I go beyond typical renderings of this French concept, often defined in terms of interactions among its various components (e.g. soil, wind and human know-how), to bring attention to the sensory relationships that connect them. Through walking and semi-directed interviews, as well as participant observations, with informants who represent thirteen different winegrowing sites, I generated data that explicate what is changing, how changes are being addressed and what this means for understanding the very place(s) in which place-based wine producers and their products are embedded. By attending to the senses, I contend that the goût du terroir or ‘taste of place’ is not merely refl ected through the wines being produced by Alsatian winegrowers but is also a story of sensory relationships contributed by the vines themselves.
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