Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Although the participant's reasoning system is a common variable in the literature on strategic management decisions [95], to our knowledge it has never been used in technology acceptance models of social robots. Nevertheless, it is not a variable that is entirely alien to the world of the new technologies, since it has been used to study the effect of use of smartphones [96]. According to the dual-process theory, when individuals must make a decision, they can tackle it through a fast heuristic process or through a more elaborate and slower analytical process [97,98]. ...
... Not all people exhibit the same behaviour, however, and some are less miserly and make more intense use of rationality than others [107]. In a study on the use of new technologies, it was found that smartphones were considered more useful and practical by the more miserly cognitive than by those with a greater propensity to rationality [96]. That is, those who rely more on intuition are more prone to intensive use of smartphones, since they resort to their smartphone more than to their mind to obtain information, thereby showing a greater dependence on that external source than people who use their own mental resources [106]. ...
... However, the principle of energy efficiency that prevails in participants applying system 1 [103] will cause them to consider ease of use as a precedent for determining the usefulness of the robot. Something similar has been detected with the use of smartphones, since their greater use among the miserly cognitive is closely related to proximity, accessibility and ease of use [96]. With these precedents, in the case of entertainment robots we can expect: H13. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the rapid ageing of the population, a longer life expectancy and elderly people’s desire to live independently are social changes that put pressure on healthcare systems. This context is boosting the demand for companion and entertainment social robots on the market and, consequently, producers and distributors are interested in knowing how these social robots are accepted by consumers. Based on technology acceptance models, a parsimonious model is proposed to estimate the intention to use this new advanced social robot technology and, in addition, an analysis is performed to determine how consumers’ gender and rational thinking condition the precedents of the intention to use. The results show that gender differences are more important than suggested by the literature. While women gave greater social influence and perceived enjoyment as the main motives for using a social robot, in contrast, men considered their perceived usefulness to be the principal reason and, as a differential argument, the ease of use. Regarding the reasoning system, the most significant differences occurred between heuristic individuals, who stated social influence as the main reason for using a robot, and the more rational consumers, who gave ease of use as a differential argument.
... One of the most pertinent questions for the 21st century is how these increasingly intelligent and invasive technologies will affect our minds. The term "extended mind", has been used in order refer to notion that our cognition goes beyond our brains and suggests that individuals may allow their smart devices to do their thinking for them [6]. The ability to rely on the external mind might have detrimental consequences to cognition [7] because humans are ''cognitive misers'', meaning that people tend to eschew costly analytic thought in favor of comparatively effortless intuitive processing. ...
... The ability to rely on the external mind might have detrimental consequences to cognition [7] because humans are ''cognitive misers'', meaning that people tend to eschew costly analytic thought in favor of comparatively effortless intuitive processing. There is evidence suggesting that users that make high use of smartphones are genuinely lower in analytical reasoning leaning more towards an intuitive decision-making [6]. Based on that premise, is it possible to argue that the use of ubimus technology could also shape the way we think music or has any detrimental effect on our musicality? ...
... Barr et al. [6] studies suggest that people who think more intuitively when given reasoning problems were more likely to rely on their connected devices, suggesting that people may be prone to look up information that they actually know or could easily learn but are unwilling to invest the cognitive cost associated with encoding and retrieval. Music is still believed to be mostly a matter of the "intuitive" right brain -the avatar of emotion and creativity [11]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
All humans share a predisposition for music even those who consider themselves to be “unmusical”. Until recently, most scholars were wary of the notion that music cognition could have a biological basis, and this fact reflects on the limited support HCI offers to the design of ubimus technology. In this paper, we present a preliminary discussion on five main aspects of human nature that can be applied to ubimus interaction design including (i) materiality and physicality of musical instruments; (ii) consciousness achieved when skills and challenges are in equilibrium during musical learning; (iii) natural mappings of gestures and movements; (iv) ability to recognize and synchronize with auditory signals; and finally (v) usage of (true) imitation as an strategy to musical learning and communication. It is our intention to point some ideas, concepts and principles that could be used as initial set of interaction design guidelines for improving User eXperience (UX) when developing digital music instruments in ubimus context.
... To address this question, smartphone use was examined in this paper in terms of the potential predictors of how these devices digitally extend the mind. This study was built on existing research that has established that the smartphone augments (Wilmer et al., 2017) and supplants cognition (Barr et al., 2015) and examined age, gender, personality traits, and device utilization (i.e., screen time) as potential predictors of extended cognition. The focus of this stud y was to determine if these individual characteristics predicted the degree to which the smartphone extends the mind. ...
... Screen time describes the frequency of use and the length of time (Nijssen et al., 2018) an individual spends operating a smartphone and is commonly used in research that differentiates different types of smartphone-related behaviors and cognitive outcomes. For example, Barr et al. (2015) found that changes in smartphone and internet screen time were associated with different levels of cognitive ability and cognitive style when the smartphone was treated as a mindextending resource. In addition, Twenge et al. (2018) found that screen time might link to a lower sense of psychological well-being. ...
... The responsibility for informational storage is being offloaded to technology more and more (Hamilton & Yao, 2018) and transactive memory theory provides a framework for understanding this phenomenon. In addition, researchers such as Barr et al. (2015) pointed to research on the internet as a transactive memory partner as support that this digital technology can extend the mind. Collectively, extended mind theory, trait theory, and transactive memory theory provided the basis for considering the smartphone as mind-extending and for considering the potential predictors of this phenomenon. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Smartphones have permeated nearly every aspect of life, and existing research has demonstrated that cognitive processes are being offloaded to the smartphone as a mind-extending resource. The digital extended mind describes a circumstance where cognitive processes are offloaded to a digital artifact as a result of perceived reliance, accessibility, and trust with the resource, and little is known about the predictors of the phenomenon. To address this research gap, age, gender, screen time, extraversion, and need for cognition were evaluated as potential predictors of the digital extended mind in this study. A quantitative nonexperimental research methodology with a convenience sample was used to determine if variance in extended mindedness was predictable from age, gender, screen time, extraversion, and need for cognition. Members of the millennial generation and Generation Z, often described as digital natives, have been substantially impacted by the advent of the smartphone and were the focus of this study. The online convenience sample of digital native smartphone users (N = 136) in the United States was collected over a one-month period in August 2020 from Amazon Mechanical Turk. Age, gender, and screen time were collected as self-report variables, and extraversion, need for cognition, and extended mindedness were collected using the 18-item Need for Cognition scale developed by Cacioppo et al. (1984), the Mini International Personality Item Pool developed by Donnellan et al. (2006), and the Extended Mind Questionnaire developed by Nijssen et al. (2018), respectively. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the collective and unique predictive ability of the independent variables on the outcome variable, and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine which variable or combination of variables predicted the most variance in extended mindedness. Data analysis indicated strong reliability (α > .89) for the three scales and that the assumptions for a multiple linear regression analysis were met. The results of the multiple linear regression analysis indicated that extended mindedness was collectively predictable from age, gender, screen time, extraversion, and need for cognition (F (5, 102) = 4.978, p < .001, R2 = .196, R2adj = .157) and that screen time alone predicted the most variance in extended mindedness (F (1, 106) = 23.752, p < .001, R2 = .183, R2adj = .175). The results of this study suggest that the length of time spent operating a smartphone (i.e., screen time) predicts the degree to which this technology extends the mind.
... Showing affection, comforting, listening to a friend who experiences distress, or even such a simple thing as asking how your spouse's day has been. 5 As a result, researchers raise a worry that the very nature of the interaction between a human and technology (including, the design of a device/program, its marketing, the narratives about devices, and our practices of interacting with them) invites, encourages, and reinforces anthropomorphization of our devices. The disruptive potential of this phenomenon for the human condition is multidimensional, but, perhaps the most fundamental risks are the degradation of relationships between persons, frustration of rationally justified expectations and subsequent psychological distress, and the objectivization of persons. ...
... Transferring human features to technology is just one instance of treating inanimate things as if they were alive. Merely referring to the tendency of anthropomorphization does not capture the nature of the interaction 5 A broad range of such uses is discussed in [58]. 6 Nyholm and Frank in [15] look into the conditions under which a robot could possibly love a human who sees her/himself as being in love with the robot. ...
... Thus, our point is that it is not so much the case of misattribution of human features to technology that is most informative for the understanding of the human condition in the context of HTI, but the co-dependency of human and artificial agents for the formation of their identity. When we shift the attention to the hybridization of personhood and acknowledge the degree of the investment of the user's personality into a device, we will be able to better appreciate the uniqueness of modern technology (especially the various "smart" devices, see e.g., [5]) and its true effect on personhood. Let us take an example of conversational agents, i.e., artificial agents that-due to natural language processing (an AI technique)-allows direct verbal communication with the user (e.g., chatbots or virtual agents). ...
Article
Full-text available
The current state of human–machine interaction has set forth a process of hybridization of human identity. Technology—and most notably AI—is used as an effective cognitive extender, which enables the extension of human personhood to include artificial elements, leading to the emergence of artificial identity. Discussing—and accommodating—anthropomorphization in human–machine interaction should no longer be the primary focus. Rather, the scope and quality of frameworks in which the hybridization of human identity occurs and evolves has significant ethical implications that pose very pragmatic challenges to users, the industry, and regulators. This paper puts forth a few main principles upon which such a discussion should evolve. We illustrate why disruptiveness can easily turn into human harm when the frameworks facilitating it overlook the human vulnerabilities that arise from hybrid identity, notably the asymmetric and asynchronous relationship between the human and artificial counterparts. Finally, we claim that these new types of vulnerabilities, to which a person is exposed due to the intimate degree of pairing with technology, justifies introducing and protecting artificial identity as well.
... Excessive screen time affects brain structure and function, particularly during development, which greatly impacts attentional and inhibitory control, focused concentration, learning, memory, reasoning, and creativity [10,[74][75][76]. These basic capacities are essential for executive control in goal-directed and decision-making behaviours which underlie human intelligence and the essential "ability to adapt to uncertain, changing, and open-ended environments" [74] (pp. ...
... In the general population, long-term effects of excessive screen time were associated with reductions in long-term memory and cognitive development [9]. In addition, many adults rely on technology and smartphones as opposed to cultivating self-imposed analytical thinking [76]. For instance, three studies examining smartphone use and cognition determined that individuals who thought more intuitively were more likely to rely on their smartphones for information when compared to individuals who thought more analytically [76]. ...
... In addition, many adults rely on technology and smartphones as opposed to cultivating self-imposed analytical thinking [76]. For instance, three studies examining smartphone use and cognition determined that individuals who thought more intuitively were more likely to rely on their smartphones for information when compared to individuals who thought more analytically [76]. Since search engines allow easy access of information, users are more prone to remember where to locate a fact instead of remembering the fact itself [10]. ...
Article
Converging evidence from biopsychosocial research in humans and animals demonstrates that chronic sensory stimulation (via excessive screen exposure) affects brain development increasing the risk of cognitive, emotional, and behavioural disorders in adolescents and young adults. Emerging evidence suggests that some of these effects are similar to those seen in adults with symptoms of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the early stages of dementia, including impaired concentration, orientation, acquisition of recent memories (anterograde amnesia), recall of past memories (retrograde amnesia), social functioning, and self-care. Excessive screen time is known to alter gray matter and white volumes in the brain, increase the risk of mental disorders, and impair acquisition of memories and learning which are known risk factors for dementia. Chronic sensory overstimulation (i.e., excessive screen time) during brain development increases the risk of accelerated neurodegeneration in adulthood (i.e., amnesia, early onset dementia). This relationship is affected by several mediating/moderating factors (e.g., IQ decline, learning impairments and mental illness). We hypothesize that excessive screen exposure during critical periods of development in Generation Z will lead to mild cognitive impairments in early to middle adulthood resulting in substantially increased rates of early onset dementia in later adulthood. We predict that from 2060 to 2100, the rates of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) will increase significantly, far above the Centres for Disease Control (CDC) projected estimates of a two-fold increase, to upwards of a four-to-six-fold increase. The CDC estimates are based entirely on factors related to the age, sex, race and ethnicity of individuals born before 1950 who did not have access to mobile digital technology during critical periods of brain development. Compared to previous generations, the average 17–19-year-old spends approximately 6 hours a day on mobile digital devices (MDD) (smartphones, tablets, and laptop computers) whereas individuals born before 1950 at the same age spent zero. Our estimates include the documented effects of excessive screen time on individuals born after 1980, Millennials and Generation Z, who will be the majority of individuals ≥65 years old. An estimated 4-to-6-fold increase in rates of ADRD post-2060 will result in widespread societal and economic distress and the complete collapse of already overburdened healthcare systems in developed countries. Preventative measures must be set in place immediately including investments and interventions in public education, social policy, laws, and healthcare.
... Similar to the effects of other addictions, smartphone addiction also showed aberrant salience in a study. 5 Smartphone addiction is found to influence cognitive functions negatively. Some studies have shown that smartphone use could replace cognitive function because of 'cognitive misers,' that humans tend to be, and smartphones form 'the extended mind'. ...
... Some studies have shown that smartphone use could replace cognitive function because of 'cognitive misers,' that humans tend to be, and smartphones form 'the extended mind'. 5 The same study says that this cognitive miserliness on smartphone users negatively affects certain cognitive functions such as analytical thinking. Studies have shown that smartphone addiction negatively influences cognitive function like attention and elements of social cognition like the social presentation of self, which can be related to social networking services like Facebook, Twitter where social acceptance or otherwise is instantly known. ...
Article
With the advancement in science and technology, gadgets have become an important part of one’s life. Smartphones are one such gadget which is indispensable today. Smartphone addiction has become a reality and has several adverse effects on health. There may be changes in the structure and function of the brain due to smartphone addiction. Meditation and mindfulness techniques also bring about changes in similar areas as those affected by addiction. Databases like Pubmed are searched extensively using the key words “smartphone overuse, smartphone addiction, brain structure, brain function, cognitive function, meditation, mindfulness, effects on brain structure”. It yielded 335 articles. After the screening, 303 articles were excluded. 32 articles were included in the review. 12 articles are in relation to the structure of the brain. 20 articles relates to the function of the brain. It is observed that smartphone addiction has adverse structural and functional effects on the brain. Meditation and mindfulness improves the structure and function of the same areas of the brain. Hence, meditation can be an effective tool to reverse smartphone addiction.
... In this context, the negative effects of smartphone use have been subject to psychological and IS research in recent years (for an overview from an IS perspective and a comprehensive qualitative study, see Salo et al. 2021). Current studies have uncovered negative emotional consequences of extensive smartphone use, such as increased stress and anxiety levels (e.g., Salo et al. 2021), and lower levels of analytic thinking (e.g., Barr et al. 2015). However, research on how smartphone use influences consumers in their everyday life are quite rare. ...
... Researchers across disciplines have shown that today's consumers increasingly rely on mobile devices for offloading information from their internal memory system (e.g., Barr et al. 2015;Grinschgl et al. 2020;Sparrow et al. 2011;Spitzer 2016). By doing so, they also rely on that same external device to retrieve that specific information (Sparrow et al. 2011). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Researchers have recently raised concerns about the harmful effects of external information storage on memory. At the same time, new and emerging mobile technologies have led to the increasing capacity and convenience of external memory aids. Our research investigates the effects of mobile information storage on consumers' price knowledge. Results from our two studies suggest that consumers who think that the price information will be available on their smartphones show lower price recall scores than a control group without available price information. In addition, we find that the level of general mobile information storage influences consumers' explicit price knowledge negatively, while implicit price knowledge remains unaffected. Finally, we show that less price-conscious consumers are more strongly affected by the smartphone effect than are price-conscious customers. Implications for consumers, companies, information systems design and further research as well as limitations of the study are discussed.
... Is it possible, for example, that functional, readily available technology "in the pocket" increases dependency on these informational resources and minimizes the need for the development of other outdoor recreation skills? Research has already demonstrated how the same technology may minimize the need for effortful thinking (Barr et al. 2015). Is it also possible that smartphones psychologically distance hikers from the environments they are passing through (Dustin et al. 2019)? ...
... If more time on the trail leads to greater smartphone use, and that smartphone use is directed explicitly for navigation purposes, one has to wonder whether the smartphone may be replacing thru-hikers' seemingly organic knowledge for making their way along the trail and through the experience. Is the "brain in the pocket," as Barr et al. (2015) refer to smartphones, doing the navigational work for thru-hikers so they do not have to tax their own brains when making decisions about where to find water, where to find shelter, and where to camp along the PCT? In this regard, it is also telling that Amerson et al. (2020) found that the more days on the PCT, and the more use that is made of smartphones, the less dependent thru-hikers are on the functional value of the places they are walking through. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Pacific Crest Trail (PCT) runs from Mexico to Canada across the western United States. Attempting to complete the entire trail (i.e. thru-hiking) is increasingly popular. We surveyed 560 PCT thru-hikers and found that 97% carried smartphones. This study examined backcountry smartphone use along the PCT. We assessed thru-hikers’ daily smartphone use, different smartphone use behaviours, and days on the trail. Factor analysis categorized the smartphone use behaviours into logical groups: communication, navigation, feeling safe, boredom alleviation, and photography. Regression analysis found that days on the trail, navigation, and boredom alleviation were significant, positive predictors of thru-hikers’ daily smartphone use. Additionally, females were significantly more likely than males to report using smartphones to feel safe. Smartphones are fully integrated into daily life, so outdoor recreation managers should understand how to employ the technology to enhance rather than hinder the quality of outdoor recreation experiences. Implications and future research are discussed.
... Regarding the impact that can be inferred from excessive access to a smartphone, a smartphone that is used without control can also trigger feelings of anxiety and feelings of loss if you are far from a smartphone [5]. The same thing was also stated by Nathaniel Barr and Gordon Pennycook that dependence on the internet can reduce mental intelligence, anxiety and the ability to solve problems [6]. Anxiety when away from the smartphone refers to nomophobia. ...
... At each meeting the subjects in the experimental group will be given socialization material about nomophobic literacy; mindfulness literacy; digital detox literacy; implementing the application of mindfulness interventions and digital detox part 1; implementing the application of mindfulness and digital detox interventions; part 2; implementation of mindfulness intervention and digital detox part 3; implementation of mindfulness intervention and digital detox part 4; implementation of the application of mindfulness and digital detox interventions part 5. Then at the end of the experimental stage the subjects are expected to be able to apply mindfulness and digital detox continuously, so that it is expected to reduce the level of nomophobia of adolescents who have high categories; (6). Post-test (Final Ability Measurement): The post-test stage is the same as the pre-test. ...
... As a result, they train their brains less, taking information readily available as a given rather than filtering it through the mind (BARR; PENNYCOOK; STOLZ;FUGELSANG, 2015). It is also important that they do not criticize this information, but simply believe it. ...
... As a result, they train their brains less, taking information readily available as a given rather than filtering it through the mind (BARR; PENNYCOOK; STOLZ;FUGELSANG, 2015). It is also important that they do not criticize this information, but simply believe it. ...
Article
Este artigo explora o problema de transformar as informações que um usuário recebe na Internet em conhecimento. O trabalho visa encontrar um fator prioritário que garanta maior grau de precisão na transformação da informação da Internet em conhecimento humano. Foi demonstrado que a natureza da World Wide Web torna difícil traduzir as informações que chegam a uma pessoa em conhecimento. Conclui-se que a condição para a conversão da informação recebida pelo usuário na Internet é sua atividade cognitiva, condicionada, em primeiro lugar, pelo desenvolvimento de sua esfera ideológica e de valores. Se uma pessoa cognoscente tem valores e atitudes suficientemente desenvolvidos e estáveis, então ela se realiza com sucesso como um sujeito em desenvolvimento, um participante ativo na cognição. Ao contrário, um valor insuficientemente estável e uma esfera atitudinal podem levar a uma percepção passiva da informação pelo indivíduo, adaptação à realidade etc.
... Concerns have been raised that the increased pressures for digitally juggling remote working with social, recreational, and information demands may be contributing to difficulties maintaining a healthy work-life balance (5) and the onset of mental health difficulties such as occupational burnout (6,7). Additionally, online social spaces are influencing users with persuasive design (i.e., rolling feeds), prompting high cue reactivity and prolonged use of and overreliance on digital devices (8)(9)(10)(11). Multitasking, multiple device use, and frequent attentional shifts are salient behaviors potentially leading to digital information overload (12)(13)(14). ...
... Furthermore, latent mean differences indicated that females were more susceptible to SD than males, consistent with the smartphone literature (148,154,208). The analyses conducted provided evidence of the validity of a four-factor structure comprising of attention impulsiveness, emotion regulation, online vigilance, and multitasking and confirming that SD entails a cognitive, emotive, and behavioral component, consistent with the evidence reported in the literature (8,27,56,60,120,237,238). Statistically, the fourfactor model was followed with a marginal difference in terms of fit by a hierarchical model, providing further evidence of the multidimensional and multifaceted nature of SD rendering a second-order model (239). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Distraction is a functional emotion regulation strategy utilized to relieve emotional distress. Within the attention economy perspective, distraction is increasingly associated with digital technology use, performance impairments and interference with higher-order cognitive processes. Research on smartphone distraction and its association with problematic smartphone use is still scarce and there is no available psychometric assessment tool to assess this cognitive and emotive process parsimoniously. Method: The present study reports the development and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Smartphone Distraction Scale (SDS) through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, construct validity, gender invariance, and latent mean differences. The study was conducted in a sample of British university students (N = 1,001; M = 21.10 years, SD = 2.77). Results: The 16-item SDS was best conceptualized in a four-factor model solution comprising attention impulsiveness, online vigilance, emotion regulation, and multitasking. Construct validity was established using relevant psychosocial and mental health measures, with SDS scores being moderately associated with deficient self-regulation and problematic social media use. Gender measurement invariance was achieved at the configural, metric, and scalar levels, and latent mean differences indicated that females had significantly higher means than males across all four SDS latent factors. Discussion: The SDS presents with several strengths, including its theoretical grounding, relatively short length, and sound psychometric properties. The SDS enables the assessment of distraction, which appears to be one of the pathways to problematic smartphone use facilitating overuse and overreliance on smartphones for emotion regulation processes. The assessment of distraction in relation to problematic use in vulnerable populations may facilitate interventions that could encourage metacognition and benefit these groups by allowing sustained productivity in an increasingly disrupted work and social environment.
... According to Bowman et al. (2010), communication differs in the digital environment since users of digital media have the time to compose and revise their responses and this gives them more control over their communication. Barr et al. (2015) found that the extensive use of smartphones via mobile Internet connection affects human cognition, as people allocate the thinking process to smartphones. ...
Article
The aim of this study is to provide insights concerning the effects of the ubiquitous digital environment on the way people think and the subsequent need to equip young individuals with the necessary skills. Several studies focus on defining the so-called digital skills, also providing indications that higher cognitive skills are required. However, they do not examine how young individuals could perform better to adapt to the continuously evolving digital environment. To address this gap, the study introduces and analyses the construct of digital intelligence, representing the new way of thinking and behaviour in the digital environment. For the purposes of the study, a set of tests was given to students at Greek high schools, targeting 15–16 years old students and employing original tests to assess digital intelligence. According to the findings, digital intelligence is composed of: (1) logical reasoning, algorithms, and evaluation, (2) abstraction, decomposition, and patterns and generalisation, (3) digital emotional intelligence and communication, (4) digital safety and security, and (5) digital identity, use, literacy, and rights. Assessing digital intelligence, as proposed in this study, could be used to assist vocational guidance, employee selection and evaluation, and development of revised school curricula.
... Lepp et al. (2015) also showed that college students who use cellphones more than 10 h a day experienced significantly more leisure distress than the other groups. In a 2015 study, Barr et al., 2015 show that cognitive ability was associated with less smartphone use and less time spend using online search engines. In Samaha and Hawi (2016) and Hawi and Samaha (2016), the researchers show that a smartphone addiction risk was negatively related to academic performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies have been conducted to understand the predictors of academic performance of various levels of high school and undergraduate students as quantified by the grade point average. This study focuses specifically on engineering students as they differ from other undergraduate students in their background and expectations. We focus on quantifying essential predictors of the performance of engineering students in an advanced mathematics course. We collected data from 72 participants recruited from engineering students enrolled in the advanced engineering mathematics (AEM) course in a research university. We chose this course to represent a standard engineering mathematics course covering several essential topics. We consider several factors in our analysis, such as cellphone usage and the academic background, e.g., the academic year, number of minors, and majors, performance in prerequisite courses. We perform several regression analyses to understand the effects of cellphone usage, course schedule, and academic background on performance in the AEM course and its prerequisites. In particular, we use the stepwise regression technique using forward selection and backward elimination procedures. We discovered a few interesting findings in this case study. Firstly, for the participants in this study, we find that the daily average “screen time” on their cellphones is not a statistically significant predictor of student performance. This finding contradicts some prior studies on this participant and may indicate adaption and integration of the technology by the new generation of students in recent years. We also found that the lecturing schedule was not an influential factor for their academic performance. These findings are especially relevant during the COVID-19 pandemic, as they suggest that advanced engineering students have adapted to the use of technology and are flexible concerning lecture schedules. Another unexpected finding is that this study brings new evidence that the number of minors taken by the participants is a negative predictor of their grade in the AEM course. This observation may indicate that course-work from non-major classes may adversely impact their performance in mathematical engineering courses.
... Participants' smartphone use was assessed with respect to daily screen time (in hours) and checking frequency (in times), in line with past research that has examined smartphone use and cognitive abilities (e.g., analytical thinking, working memory; Alloway & Alloway, 2012;Barr et al., 2015). Using sliding scales, participants were asked to estimate how many hours they use their smartphones per day (from 0 to 24 h) and how many times they check their smartphones per day (from 0 to 200 times). ...
Article
Full-text available
The pervasiveness of smartphone engagement among young adults has attracted growing interest regarding its impact on cognitive processes. However, research on the relation between smartphone use and executive function (EF)—a set of adaptive, goal-directed control processes—remains inconclusive due to imprecise estimation of EF dimensions and inconsistent operationalisation of smartphone use in past studies. Therefore, we examined how two indices of smartphone use—screen time and checking frequency—would predict EF (common EF, shifting-specific-, and working-memory-specific components), using a latent-variable approach based on a comprehensive battery of EF tasks. We also examined the moderating role of problematic smartphone use in the link between smartphone use and EF components. We found that screen time positively predicted working-memory-specific and shifting-specific abilities, whereas frequent checking was associated with enhanced shifting-specific, but poorer common EF, abilities. Importantly, problematic smartphone use moderated the relation between checking frequency and common EF. Overall, our findings demonstrate that different indices of smartphone use asymmetrically predict EF facets, thereby highlighting the construct distinctiveness of the various markers of smartphone engagement. Our findings imply that checking frequency and problematic use, rather than screen time, are the most promising targets for interventions that aim to circumvent cognitive impairments by curtailing smartphone use, especially in educational settings.
... Nevertheless, past research is also restricted in several aspects. For example, many studies have focused on well-being, satisfaction with life, loneliness, and depression, but not other constructs, such as fundamental cognitive abilities and skills (e.g., intelligence, information processing, spatial perception, etc.; for exceptions, see Barr et al., 2015;Minear et al., 2013;Takeuchi et al., 2018;Walsh et al., 2020). ...
... With the popularity of mobile Internet devices, mobile Internet has profoundly changed human thinking habits, and also influenced individuals' behavioral and psychosocial adaptation (Barr, Pennycook, Stolz, & Fugelsang, 2015;Yang, Zhou, Liu, & Fan, 2019). As the most popular mobile Internet terminal, mobile phone has become an essential medium to reshape the way of human existence and live. ...
Article
Full-text available
The phenomenon of problematic mobile phone use (PMPU) has been incredibly increasing, especially in Asian countries. Prior studies have argued that negative emotion is linked to PMPU. Based on the cognitive‐behavioural model of pathological Internet use and the buffering model of social support, our purpose is to identify the nuanced mediators of the rumination subtypes (i.e., reflection and brooding) and examine the moderator of social support in the relation between negative emotion and PMPU. A sample of 1,014 college students was recruited to complete the scales of PMPU, depression, anxiety, rumination (i.e., reflection and brooding), and social support. Results showed that (a) reflection did not mediate a link between negative emotion and PMPU whereas brooding partially mediated the link, and (b) both the direct association between negative emotion and PMPU and the mediated effect of brooding were moderated by social support, and they were stronger when social support was low rather than high. The study distinguishes the mediated effect of rumination subtypes and incorporates social factor in the relationship between negative emotion and PMPU, which deepens our understanding of how and when negative emotion relates to PMPU.
... Furthermore, according to the dual-process theories in social, personality, and cognitive psychology, when the audiences use media to obtain news and think about information, generally, they are more likely to use the intuitive system [62,63], and they are not willing to distinguish news critically, but rely on their own intuition [64]. If there is no contradiction between news and the basic cognition of (some or all) respondents, they will use their intuitive system to think about the news and information; otherwise, they will use the rational system. ...
Article
Full-text available
A study of the relationships between the image of a country and media use is one of the most appropriate methods to gain knowledge on various stakeholders’ different perceptions of the country’s sustainability. Through an online survey of China’s post-90s generation, this paper first studies the respondents’ domestic image of China (including social, political, economic, and cultural images), second, their media use behaviors, and third, the relationships between their perceptions of China’s image and their behaviors. Based on the CFA model, with 16 items obtained from the survey data, the results of the empirical analysis indicated that China’s domestic image, as well as its political, economic, and cultural images, were generally neutral for the respondents, while they tended to disagree with the social image. Furthermore, neither traditional media use time nor new media use time of the respondents had any statistically significant influence on their perceptions of China’s image, where the latter was significantly more than the former. However, the type of media contact had a significant influence on their perceptions of political image and on their perception of some items concerning economic and cultural images.
... Evidence for this account comes from laboratory studies where cognitive style is positively associated with a wide range of social phenomena, such as religious disbelief 38,39 , paranormal disbelief 39 , rejection of conspiracist claims 40 , increased acceptance of science 41 , and rejection of pseudo-profound nonsense 42 . More reflective individuals are also less likely to offload their thinking to internet searches 43 . Of particular relevance to the current paper, people who perform better on the CRT are less likely to believe "fake news" stories [44][45][46] and they self-report a lower likelihood of sharing such content on social media 45,46 , as well as reporting less trust in unreliable fake news or hyperpartisan news sources 47 . ...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the relationship between individual differences in cognitive reflection and behavior on the social media platform Twitter, using a convenience sample of N = 1,901 individuals from Prolific. We find that people who score higher on the Cognitive Reflection Test—a widely used measure of reflective thinking—were more discerning in their social media use, as evidenced by the types and number of accounts followed, and by the reliability of the news sources they shared. Furthermore, a network analysis indicates that the phenomenon of echo chambers, in which discourse is more likely with like-minded others, is not limited to politics: people who scored lower in cognitive reflection tended to follow a set of accounts which are avoided by people who scored higher in cognitive reflection. Our results help to illuminate the drivers of behavior on social media platforms and challenge intuitionist notions that reflective thinking is unimportant for everyday judgment and decision-making.
... Future research could explore the individual-level variables that predict the phenomena explored in the current studies. For example, those who rely on intuition seem to be more reliant on smartphones for providing them information in their daily lives (Barr et al., 2015), which could make them especially suspectable to learning deficits. Furthermore, using online search leads to more frequent searching in the future (Storm et al., 2016), suggesting that those that spend more time on the Internet may show stronger effects on learning. ...
Article
The Internet has radically shifted how people access information. Instead of storing information internally, increasingly, people outsource to the Internet and retrieve it when needed. While this is an efficient strategy in many ways, its downstream consequences remain largely unexplored. This research examines how accessing online information impacts how people remember information in a learning context. Across five experiments, participants studied for a quiz either by searching online to access relevant information or by directly receiving that same information without online search. Those who searched the Internet performed worse in the learning assessment, indicating that they stored less new knowledge in internal memory. However, participants who searched the Internet were as confident, or even more confident, that they had mastered the study material compared to those who did not search online. We argue that, by making information retrievability salient, Internet search reduces the likelihood of information being stored in memory. Further, these results suggest that searching online leads to the misattribution of online information to internal memory, thus masking the Internet-induced learning deficits.
... To combat memories being changed in the brain, people will store memories in the environment or other people (Wegner, Erber, & Raymond, 1991;Clark and Chalmers, 1997;Clark 2008;Barr, Pennycook, Stolz, & Fugelsang, 2015). Offloading is the phenomenon of using other people and things to externalize memory. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Prior research has shown that people have a better memory for facts when the fact is deleted from a computer, rather than saved. The current understanding is that we are offloading items that are saved and thus have no need to remember them. The question that remains is if there are any limitations to this phenomenon. We conducted two different experiments to explore these limits. Our first experiment looked at how the reliability of the saving system affected memory. We found a significant interaction effect that shows that this offloading effect only occurs on reliable saving systems. In experiment two, we looked at the effect of familiarity with specific topics on the offloading effect. We found that there was no interaction between familiarity and saved status. However, we did find evidence of a topic status interaction. This means that some topics were more effected by the topic type than others. These studies suggest that future experiments in the transactive memory domain need to take into account the confidence in the offloading partner and the topics that are chosen as stimuli.
... As Wilmer [13] suggested, when people turn to mobile devices, they generally learn and remember less from their experiences. Barr [15] considered that the use of mobile devices in learning correlates with more intuitive but less analytic thinking. Meanwhile, a more extreme view of mobile learning includes Beland [7], which contended that enforcing mobile phone bans in school is associated with learners achieving better academic performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: This study evaluates teachers' perspectives on the integration of guided mobile learning through the Mobile Intervention Module (MIM) in English language teaching. As previous studies suggested that there are conflicting views among scholars with regards to mobile usage in classroom learning, this paper attempts to address scholars' concerns by suggesting English language teachers' opinions on the possibility of having practical guided mobile learning activities to complement the course contents. Study Design: This study adopts a qualitative approach. Place and Duration of Study: Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia, between February 2019 to July 2019. Methodology: Interview sessions are conducted among four language instructors to see how they perceive the effectiveness of guided mobile learning intervention towards teaching and learning. Content Analysis is later adopted to analyse the interview data where specific themes are derived. The concept of MIM that incorporates appropriate web learning tools is developed and explained. MIM functions as a comprehensive guide that matches the course contents to the most appropriate web learning tools. Results: The results show that all instructors perceive guided mobile learning through the MIM positively. This study implicates that guided mobile learning could be useful in facilitating the teaching approach shift from conventional to technology-assisted, enabling the integration of interactive activities in learning, developing specific language skills and enhancing engagement. It should also be noted that there may be some adaptation barriers of mobile learning that can hinder learning process. Conclusion: While it is recommended that mobile learning is integrated with lessons, to achieve effective results, however, as suggested in the findings of this study, it has to be guided, thus a proper module that links the syllabus to the mobile apps needs to be created.
... This change could be due to the integration of technology in learning. An increasing number of studies on mobile learning emphasizes the role of technology as "extended cognitive tools" (Barr et al. 2015) that can bridge the gap between formal and informal learning (Mills et al. 2014). Consequently, the differences between formal and informal learning have been reduced. ...
Article
Full-text available
With the integration of technology in teaching and learning, online learning is not a new instructional strategy in the education landscape. However, the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic has necessitated the implementation of Home-based Learning (HBL) for educators, parents, and students on an unprecedented duration and scale. The notions and the factors associated with the implementation of HBL are yet fully investigated. As such, this study aims to shed light on the prerequisites needed for implementing HBL and suggest its future research direction. The methodology involves a systematic review of the existing studies on ICT-supported formal learning outside the classroom and to identify the prerequisites of HBL from various perspectives of the students, teachers, and parents. By doing so, this report will provide a deeper understanding of the multiple components of HBL and how it is to be taken into consideration when implementing HBL from both the theoretical and practical standpoint.
... Given the sheer amount of time the average individual spends engaging in online activities (of both communicative and non-communicative nature), various insights into neurobiological pathways through which online activities affect cognition can be gained from investigating the shorter-term effects of internet usage on the brain [3,[36][37][38][39]. Existing neuroimaging studies examining the acute or short-term effects of internet-based information processing/consumption currently report mixed results. ...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid uptake of the internet has provided a new platform for people to engage with almost all aspects of life. As such, it is currently crucial to investigate the relationship between the internet and cognition across contexts and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms driving this. We describe the current understanding of this relationship across the literature and outline the state of knowledge surrounding the potential neurobiological drivers. Through focusing on two key areas of the nascent but growing literature, first the individual- and population-level implications for attention processes and second the neurobiological drivers underpinning internet usage and memory, we describe the implications of the internet for cognition, assess the potential mechanisms linking brain structure to cognition, and elucidate how these influence behaviour. Finally, we identify areas that now require investigation, including (i) the importance of the variation in individual levels of internet usage, (ii) potential individual behavioural implications and emerging population-level effects, and the (iii) interplay between age and the internet–brain relationships across the stages of development.
... (Harkin, 2003, p.16;Clayton et al., 2015). Barr et al. (2015) discovered that we rely on our smartphones as an extension of ourselves to 'offload' cognitively demanding tasks such as critical thinking, and that isolation from it amplifies state anxiety and hinders executive functioning (Clayton et al., 2015). Furthermore, previous research attempted to identify behavioural segments in mobile phone markets. ...
Smartphones, as an integral part of human life, can now assist researchers in forecasting human behaviour patterns. Recently, the spread of COVID-19 increased people's reliance on their smartphones, and the resulting lockdown revealed them engaging in a variety of pro-social or virtue-based behaviours. Using the extended self-theory, previous research examined the effects of objects on the human mind and cognitive behaviour in order to identify behavioural segments in smartphone markets. Subsequently, scholars examined smartphone-based (iPhone vs. Android) virtue traits such as honesty and humility. However, other virtues such as compassion and altruism have received little attention in this regard. Thus, this study aims to bridge this gap by analysing the predictability of consumers' compassion and altruism in relation to their smartphone type (iPhone vs Android) and usage. A total of 509 completed questionnaires were received from participants in the United States, Europe, and Asia. According to the findings, iPhone users are more compassionate and altruistic than Android users. This study offers implications for marketers, retailers, and brands in developing strategies based on smartphone user behaviour.
... 111)". As a technological tool, scholars consider it as an "instantiation of the extended mindwhich means that smartphones are a kind of cognitive miserliness" (Barr, Pennycook, Stolz, & Fugelsang, 2015) This convenient mode of communication is used by individuals of all age groups; however, the reasons behind its usage pattern differ across age groups. For example, mobile phone helps working parents to mend their children while at work whereas, it helps youngsters to share their emotional feelings and get psychic support from their families (Chen & Katz, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
The advancement of technology is progressing by leaps and bound and mobile phones are leading in this process. The usage of mobile phone offers connectivity, convenience and comfort. However, it's excessive usage my adversely impact individuals psychological well-being. Thus, in this regard the present study examines the relationship between mobile phone dependence and psychological well-being. Sample of the present study comprised of 243 students. All the participants were requested to fill the measure of mobile phone dependence and psychological well-being. Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient (r) was used to assess the relationship between different dimensions of mobile phone dependence and psychological well-being. The findings revealed that higher mobile phone dependence negatively affects psychological well-being. The results may impart an important message to the young adults that an excessive mobile phone may result in its dependence which in turn may cause a detrimental impact on daily life activities.
... Drawing on the additional work of Campbell, Wang, and Barr [26][27][28], Park and Kaye [2019] express the complicated nature of smartphone attachment. Hence, we suggest that the prevalence of "nomophobia" may be attributed to a newly emerging human-technology interaction, rather than indicative of a clinical pathology. ...
Article
Nomophobia or “No Mobile Phobia” is a relatively recent term, which describes the anxiety associated with not having access to one's mobile phone or smartphone. Recently, research into nomophobia has garnered significant research attention in tandem with rising rates of smartphone penetration worldwide. However, most research on nomophobia de-contextualizes the source(s) of nomophobia; rather, pathologizing the need for communication and how it occurs. Ultimately, the current conceptualization of nomophobia infers burden upon the individual to address their smartphone-related “phobia”, rather than the social and environmental factors that necessitate their use in modern society. The following opinion piece critiques the ways in which nomophobia has been conceptualized in research literature and discusses the limitations and ethical implications of this approach.
... A large majority of today's readers consider internet resources a part of their own cognitive resources. The internet has become a Source of external memory or an extension of our brains (Wegner & Ward, 2013a;Barr, Pennycook, Stolz & Fugelsang, 2015). In this study, it was observed that reader brains were no longer the sole seats of prior knowledge that helped with the comprehension of texts; what was stored within the reader and what was available on the internet functioned together to help build accurate mental representations of texts in the participants of this study. ...
Article
Full-text available
Studies with proficient users of English suggest that readers demonstrate deeper comprehension of texts when reading non-linear hypertexts than when reading linear texts. This is attributed to the networked nature of texts that helps readers exercise cognitive flexibility. An aspect that remains largely unresearched is the potential of linear online texts to facilitate comprehension in readers who are non-proficient users of English. Keeping in mind the fact that a majority of readers reading online texts in English can be hindered by three types of comprehension deficits – low levels of language proficiency, non-availability of prior knowledge, or both – this study investigated the interactive effects of two salient features of online texts, viz., non-linearity in the presentation of text and the availability of additional sources of information, on the reading comprehension of ESL readers. Two groups of readers with high and low levels of English proficiency read twelve texts on familiar and unfamiliar topics in print, linear online, and non-linear online modes. A comparison of readers’ responses to comprehension questions and free recalls showed that those with low linguistic competence and/or topic familiarity were able to achieve better comprehension of linear online texts than print texts or non-linear online texts. The findings indicate that text linearity when combined with the presence of multiple information resources (both provided by the author within the text and freely available on the internet) might have the potential to scaffold linguistic and content knowledge deficits in ESL readers and promote deep levels of comprehension.
... Moreover, not only were participants who initially used the Internet more likely to rely on the Internet than they would have been otherwise, but they spent significantly less time trying to think of the answers before conducting their searches, and they reported significantly depressed levels of Need for Cognition (Cacioppo, Petty, & Kao, 1984). This finding suggests that relying on the Internet has the potential to exacerbate cognitive miserliness (see related evidence, see e.g., Barr, Pennycook, Stolz, & Fugelsang, 2015;Wang, Wu, Luo, Zhang, & Dong, 2017). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Digital technologies have changed the everyday use of human memory. When information is saved or made readily available online, there is less need to encode or maintain access to that information within the biological structures of memory. People increasingly depend on the Internet and various digital devices to learn and remember, but the implications and consequences of this dependence remain largely unknown. The present chapter provides an overview of research to date on memory in the digital age. It focuses in particular on issues related to transactive memory, cognitive offloading, photo taking, social media use, and learning in the classroom.
... Finally, a distracted pedestrian suffers from reduced cognitive attention. Smart devices can make our brain lazy and reduce cognitive skills [31]. Pedestrians require a substantial processing of stimuli and extremely rapid decision-making during a walk in the urban environment. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pedestrian safety has emerged recently as a public health challenge worldwide. People are being physically harmed due to losing focus on their surroundings and putting safety at risk. Though pedestrian safety is a shared responsibility, researchers suggest that distractions by smart devices and reduced cognitive skills are major causes of accidents. There is a scope to assist pedestrians through amplifying cognitive skills using heterogeneous Internet of Things (IoT) and sensors. These technologies could discover and warn users about unanticipated events such as just-in-time warnings about the hazards, distractions, extreme weather, and potential impending dangers. An automated personalized agent helps monitor, diagnose problems, and protect people in an urban environment. Researchers have proposed various systems and implemented them in multiple domains. In this survey, we assessed, analyzed, and compared the most recent research on pedestrian safety. We identified the challenges, research gaps, and future directions towards using technology to improve pedestrian safety.
... The widespread availability of smart phones and the capability to be constantly connected to social media sites and applications allows users to interact with these platforms daily (Pew Research Center, 2018). Having this abundance of information, as well as a novel way in which media is consumed (through a screen as opposed to print), may have implications for how our brain organizes information (Barr et al., 2015). Considering the rapid and continuous growth of social media use among children and adults around the world, and the dearth of information on its effects, it is imperative that changes in human cognitive functions, such as working memory and attention, be addressed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Social media use and its effects on mood have been well researched. However, social media use and its effects on cognition are not as well known. Based on the research studies available, this study hypothesized that those categorized as participating in high social media use would have lower ability to effectively inhibit irrelevant information and higher ability for working memory. The 70 participants in this study were given a questionnaire to assess their level of social media use (low, average, high) and the Stroop and Corsi tests were used as measures of inhibition and working memory, respectively. One-way ANCOVAs were used to analyze the data and control for age, gender, race, and education, as these are common demographics that cognitive tests use to standardize and compare scores. The researchers were unable to find a significant relationship between social media use, working memory functioning, and ability to inhibit information. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
... Nel caso specifico della dipendenza da smartphone, difatti, gli studi sviluppatisi durante gli anni hanno evidenziato come: la terapia cognitiva basata sulla mindfulness potrebbe ridurre significativamente l'alterazione emotiva, la risposta incontrollata, il ritiro sociale e la "dissociazione virtuale", causati dalla smartphone addiction (Zhang, 2014), essa potrebbe inoltre essere utile nella prevenzione di tale condizione in quanto capace di ridurre efficacemente l'ansia e l'impulsività, che sono considerate caratteristiche tipiche degli smartphone users (Li, 2017) Ulteriori studi longitudinali hanno palesato l'efficacia della mindfulness sulla smartphone addiction dopo sei settimane di lavoro, ottenendo una rapida riduzione dell'utilizzo del dispositivo (Lan Y., 2018) Considerando che la smartphone addiction è risultata dannosa per la struttura cerebrale e le funzioni cognitive, alcuni esperti (Barr N., 2015) hanno studiato l'effetto della meditazione sullo spessore cerebrale, informando sulla potenzialità della mindfulness; considerando che le aree cerebrali attivate durante le pratiche sono implicate nei sistemi di controllo della risposta, di ricompensa, di impulsività, salienza e funzione cognitiva; attività che hanno sede nelle regioni cerebrali coinvolte nella dipendenza da smartphone, si deduce come il protocollo mindfulness possa essere adottato efficacemente per la gestione di tale disturbo (Roshni, 2021) La mindfulness è dunque considerata un metodo adatto a trattare la smartphone addiction (Liu, et al., 2017), (Cho, Kim, & Park, 2017) essendo che sia l'effetto della nomofobia sull'uso dello smartphone, che il reale 34 utilizzo di questo diminuiscono con l'aumentare della consapevolezza (Regan, et al., 2020) Implementare la propria consapevolezza significa essere in grado di riconoscere i propri stati emotivi ed i propri pensieri e dunque regolarli, diminuendo i sentimenti di ansia e di ruminazione tipici della dipendenza (Cheng, 2020) In particolare sembra che, alti livelli di consapevolezza siano correlati negativamente con la dipendenza da smartphone, avendo maggiori capacità di controllo e livelli più bassi di ruminazione, essa svolge un ruolo fondamentale nell'adattamento degli stimoli emotivi negativi (Cheng, 2020); eliminando le emozioni negative e sviluppando una mentalità ben regolata, gli utenti potranno ridurre l'utilizzo del dispositivo al minimo, fino a limitarlo all'uso necessario, migliorando la propria qualità di vita, attraverso un miglioramento del ritmo circadiano, delle interazioni sociali, e dell'adattamento all'ambiente (Cheng, 2020). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Il presente studio nasce dalla curiosità di esplorare il fenomeno della smartphone addiction ed in generale dell’utilizzo del dispositivo, in relazioni ai fattori di rischio e protezione del fenomeno. L’idea è scaturita dall’esigenza di conoscere le motivazioni che spingono le persone all’utilizzo dello smartphone come mezzo di prima scelta, e soprattutto dal bisogno di capire quali siano i trigger che spingono gli utenti a non potere farne a meno, tenendoli incollati allo schermo. Una popolazione che vive con la testa chinata, ha suscitato molte domande che hanno oltrepassato il semplice accessorio, dando vita alla presenta ricerca. L’obiettivo dell’elaborato è indicativamente, quello di fornire maggiori informazioni relative allo studio dell’utilizzo dello smartphone, usufruendo dei risultati ottenuti e contribuendo e renderne l’uso funzionale e adattivo.
... Teachers should be aware of the risks of the so-called "copy-and-paste" practice that ICTs can exacerbate, such as rote learning and reproductive and superficial learning (e.g., the use of SparkNotes). In fact, many studies have shown that using certain digital tools can cause students to make less cognitive effort and, for example, to be more dependent on their smartphones for their analytical tasks (Barr et al., 2015). Examples of superficial processing related to ICT use are the adoption of simple trial-and-error strategies (Van Nimwegen, 2008), memorizing the source more than the information itself (Sparrow et al., 2011), or issuing repetitive and simple responses on digital forums simply to comply, without revising or reworking the ideas. ...
Chapter
The university of the 21st century is undergoing a radical and accelerated transformation. Factors such as the continuous increase in students with very different profiles, global competition between universities, the impact of ICT or the emergence of new pedagogical paradigms, such as teaching by competencies, or formative assessment, require new abilities of the university teacher, traditionally based on their academic status, not very permeable and flexible. This chapter identifies and analyzes, from the perspective of the Dialogical Self Theory, the professional positions most commonly held by university teachers and advocates the re-construction of their professional identity, in order to be more adjusted to current challenges, offering some advice and guides for their training.
... The offloading of a mental operation to an artifact means that the biological agent is no longer entirely responsible for completing the operation in question, which implies that the agent does not have to engage in as much active cognition to execute said operation. There exists a negative correlation between cognitive offloading and active cognition: as offloading grows increasingly excessive, the level of active cognition required for daily cognitive functioning decreases (Barr et al., 2015). Tightly coupled, all-purpose cognitive artifacts like neuromedia are the most concerning from the perspective of intellectual virtue development precisely because they foster a relationship of excessive cognitive offloading, and therefore, a disposition of cognitive passivity. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper engages in what might be called anticipatory virtue epistemology, as it anticipates some virtue epistemological risks related to a near-future version of brain-computer interface technology that Michael Lynch (2014) calls 'neuromedia.' I analyze how neuromedia is poised to negatively affect the intellectual character of agents, focusing specifically on the virtue of intellectual perseverance, which involves a disposition to mentally persist in the face of challenges towards the realization of one’s intellectual goals. First, I present and motivate what I call ‘the cognitive offloading argument’, which holds that excessive cognitive offloading of the sort incentivized by a device like neuromedia threatens to undermine intellectual virtue development from the standpoint of the theory of virtue responsibilism. Then, I examine the cognitive offloading argument as it applies to the virtue of intellectual perseverance, arguing that neuromedia may increase cognitive efficiency at the cost of intellectual perseverance. If used in an epistemically responsible manner, however, cognitive offloading devices may not undermine intellectual perseverance but instead allow people to persevere with respect to intellectual goals that they find more valuable by freeing them from different kinds of menial intellectual labor.
... The more time spent on the smartphone a day, the less mental effort participants expended in our web-based training intervention-a finding that might show that learners who are prone to heavy smartphone usage are less willing to invest mental effort during a webbased training intervention. Alternatively or additionally, this correlation might indicate a modern form of cognitive miserliness, as discussed by Barr et al. (2015). Learners who are less willing to invest mental effort during a web-based training intervention might also be more prone to rely on outsourcing information and cognitive processes on their smartphone. ...
Article
Full-text available
The rising prevalence of online courses and ubiquitous smartphone use pose challenges to researchers and instructors. Open questions concern the effectiveness of digital interventions under unsupervised non-lab conditions, as well as potential associations between interruptions, smartphone usage, and learning. We experimentally tested a web-based training intervention based on video examples and self-explanation prompts with 53 undergraduate teacher students (training condition, n = 27 versus control condition, n = 26). Despite the unsupervised non-lab conditions with potential distractions and interruptions, we found the expected effect on learning outcomes. More interestingly, this effect was completely mediated by self-explanation quality. Furthermore, the effect of self-explanation quality on declarative knowledge was moderated by the number of interruptions during the web-based learning. Moreover, we implemented a simple yet valid method to assess the learners’ mean daily smartphone usage time. To do that, we relied on logging-functions most smartphones already have preinstalled. We detected moderate, negative correlations between the learners’ mean daily smartphone usage and their task engagement (i.e., mental effort and lack of interruptions) during our intervention. Our findings emphasize how effective it is to self-explain video examples, and how important it is to not get interrupted during web-based learning.
Article
Full-text available
Célkitűzés A tanulmány célja, hogy áttekintést nyújtson azon nemzetközi empirikus kutatások főbb eredményeiről, melyek azzal foglalkoznak, hogy az IKT-eszközök használata milyen összefüggést mutat a kognitív működéssel, személyiségvonásokkal. A kognitív működés területei közül a következőkre fókuszál a tanulmány; gondolkodás, figyelem és emlékezet, végrehajtó funkciók, intelligencia. A személyiségvonások közül az impulzivitás, szenzoros élménykeresés és kontrollhelyelvárás szerepe jelenik meg. Az áttekintés módszertana Az összefoglaló tanulmány olyan kutatások eredményeire támaszkodik, melyek nemzetközi színtéren született empirikus vizsgálatok a fent felsorolt témákon belül. A tanulmány törekszik a témában friss, releváns nemzetközi empirikus kutatások áttekintésére. A főbb eredmények és az ezekből levont következtetések: Az IKT-eszközök használata feltételezhetően eredményez bizonyos átalakulásokat kognitív működésünkben, azonban a kutatások eredményei arra a következtetésre vezetnek, hogy nem önmagában az IKT-használat az, ami a kognitív változásokat eredményezi, hanem az IKT-eszközök nem megfelelő használata. Vagyis valószínűleg a megfelelő IKT-használati szokások elsajátítása a kulcs abban, hogy az IKT-eszközök kognitív működésünkre gyakorolt negatív hatásainak mérséklésével ki tudjuk használni ezen eszközök előnyeit. Az IKT-eszközök nem megfelelő, problematikus használata olyan személyiségtényezőkkel mutat összefüggést, mint az impulzivitás (türelmetlenség, alacsony önkontroll és kitartás), gátolatlanság unalomintolerancia, külső kontrollos kontrollhelyelvárás. Kérdéses azonban, hogy ezen személyiségbeli jellemzőket valóban az IKT-eszközök bizonyos típusú használata idézi-e elő, vagy fordítva; az eleve ilyen személyiségvonással jellemezhető személyek hajlamosabbak a problematikus IKT-használatra? Ahhoz, hogy erre a kérdésre nagy bizonyossággal választ tudjunk adni, több randomizált kontrollált kutatásra van szükség a területen. A tanulmányban szereplő empirikus kutatásokat így kutatásmódszertani szempontból is fontos megvizsgálni annak érdekében, hogy árnyaltabb következtetéseket tudjunk megfogalmazni elemzésük révén. Aim The goal of this paper is to review the main findings of the international empirical studies which are focusing on the relationship of ICT-usage and cognitive functioning, and on the relationship of ICT-usage and personality factors. In the field of cognitive functioning, this paper studies the followings; reasoning, attention, memory functions, executive functions, intelligence. From the personality traits, this paper engages in impulsivity, sensory seeking and locus of control. The methodology of the review This paper reviews the relevant and up-to-date international empirical studies, which are made in the aforementioned fields. Main findings and conduisons: The usage of ICT- devices presumably results in changes in our cognitive functioning, but we can conclude from the results of the reviewed studies, that these changes are the impacts of the maladaptive use of these devices. So probably the most important issue is the acquirement of adequate habits in the filed of ICT-usage to moderate the ICT-devices' negative effects on our cognitive functioning, and to maximize the benefits of these devices.The maladaptive, problematic use of ICT-devices is in relationship with some personality traits, with impulsivity (impatience, low self-control, lack of persistence), with disinhibition, boredom susceptibility, and external locus of control. At the same time the direction of casuality is questionable, so we don't know, if problematic ICT-usage causes these changes in our personality, or conversely; people with these personality traits susceptible more to problematic ICT-usage? If we want to answer this question, we need more randomized controlled studies in this field. Therefore it is important to examine the methodology of the empirical studies which are appeared in this paper, in order to make accurate conclusions about them.
Article
Background: Smartphone usage has become more common in daily life, and in certain situations, this may lead to addictive behavior. Objective: This study aims to investigate the relationship between smartphone addiction and musculoskeletal problems and cognitive flexibility in university students. Methods: Smartphone addiction was evaluated with the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS), the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was used to evaluate musculoskeletal symptoms, and pain was measured with Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Cognitive flexibility was assessed with the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI). Results: A significant correlation was found between SAS total score and musculoskeletal problems in the upper back, lower back, hip and feet (p < 0.05, r = 0.11; r = 0.16; r = 0.11; r = 0.13, r = 0.14). Smartphone addiction showed a significant positive correlation with neck pain, right hand pain and right arm pain (p < 0.05, r = 0.13; r = 0.17; r = 0.14). There was a significant negative correlation between CFI total score and SAS total score (p < 0.05, r = - 0.13). Conclusions: Smartphone addiction is associated with musculoskeletal problems, pain and cognitive flexibility in university students. Encouraging an active lifestyle, physical activity, ergonomic arrangements, individual behavioral modification as well as environmental regulations and policies may eliminate the negative effects of smartphone addiction.
Article
Introduction. The purpose of this study was to analyze L. S. Vygotsky’s cultural-historical psychology from the perspective of distinguishing the structure of the act of development within its framework and understanding its explanatory potential as a whole. This analysis enables to clarify and understand the essence of the digital and virtual shift. Moreover, it is required in order to overcome the limitations associated with the currently dominant behavioral models, which are used by researchers in their attempts to explain and describe the phenomenon of the influence of digital technologies on people, in particular, on schoolchildren and students. Materials and Methods. The paper considers the concept derived from L. S. Vygotsky’s cultural-historical psychology, which is proposed to be adopted as a basic one in order to build an explanatory model used by the author to describe and comprehend the phenomenon of transformation of the human development process in the new reality of the digital environment. Results. The article introduces the basic principles and provisions, the explanatory model is built on, concerning the role of symbolic-instrumental mediation in human development, the role of an adult as a mediator, the structure of the act of thinking and the act of development, the basic mechanism of mastering a person's behavior, which permeates the formation of higher mental functions. The author compares this explanatory model and the behavioral model used in most modern research investigations that examine the impact of digital technologies on schoolchildren and students. Conclusions. The findings show that the student is presented in the behavioral model as a passive reactive being that reacts to external stimuli. In this sense, a human being is not treated as a personality with highest abilities, but is considered as a function. The proposed model cannot be used to explain and comprehend modern development processes.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research on the incorporation of information technology into human cognition indicates that the constant availability of information on the internet is affecting how humans engage with information, process knowledge, and reason. People are less likely to store information in their memory if they know they can find it on the web. This has potential consequences for democratic politics. Individuals may hold fewer opinions and may have access to less political knowledge stored in memory, for example. In this study, I use observational data to investigate how human cognition and communication technology interact and I examine the effect of this interaction on political knowledge, participation, opinion-holding and other variables important to democratic politics. I find that offloading (reliance on the web to supply information as needed) has some-normatively speaking-negative effects on civic competence. I also find, however, that trying to remember information does not help in the face of information abundance, either.
Chapter
The current study draws on research conducted on the pervasive nature of adaptive e-learning (AEL) (digital) technologies and cognitive enhancement for South Africa’s science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and non-STEM education. The current research was anchored on the perceived failure of execution processes or delayed adoption rates regarding adaptive e-learning (digital) technologies and cognitive enhancement as compared to other industries. Guided by this objective, the current study was conducted involving ten university academics recruited from a South African university. The design was exploratory, in which respondents’ experiences were analyzed via discourse analysis. This study found that many of the university academic participants lacked sufficient understanding of AEL for AEL to be adequately implemented and used at the university. A hypothetical stance for future research is that − while it could be inferred that the current cohort was particularly weak, the literature suggests that the challenge is much more pervasive. Indeed, it is hypothesized that if academics generally were to be investigated from almost any university, similar results would ensue. The implication is that there is an extensive need to concretize notions regarding AEL within any university and possibly beyond for successful implementation to occur.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this study, authors examined a children experience of using digital devices and its relationships with children's cognitive development. Previous research has shown contradictory findings that reflected associations between children engagement with digital technology usage and cognitions. The study approved hypothesis about qualitative changes in children's digital experience after one year. In just one year the landscape of the known by children mobile apps has significantly transformed and expanded. Children continue to master their digital opportunities in the field of those mobile apps which are widely used by adults. The results of the study show there is a qualitative leap in the digital experience of children who hold down in their minds not only the apps that they usually use but also apps related to them. However, adults tend to associate the digital experience with negative consequences. The findings of this study have shown positive connections between the digital experience, cogni-tive development and learning outcomes of children. It could be supposed that cognitive development is accompanied by enrichment of the digital experience which is its integral part in modern conditions of children's mental development .
Conference Paper
Smartphone use has become ubiquitous among college students, with several reports suggesting that students spend over six hours per day on their devices. However, the potential effects of extended engagement with of smartphones on cognitive ability and academic achievement are not well understood. In this research we compared problematic self-report smartphone use in two groups of undergraduate students (STEM and humanities). The groups had very similar demographics in terms of age and sex, and similar mean GPA scores. However, there was a strong negative association between problematic smartphone use and GPA in the STEM students, which was not seen in the humanities students. Furthermore, this association in the STEM students was found to be related to self-reported executive functions- impulse control and sustained attention. We speculate that problematic smartphone use may cause academic problems disproportionately for STEM students because it reduces cognitive resources, which are particularly important to achieve higher grades in fields such as science technology engineering, and medicine.
Article
Introduction: Active introduction of electronic learning tools in educational institutions poses new health risks to school-age children. Creating a modern and secure digital educational environment requires constant monitoring of the conditions and modes of use of new electronic tools, the diversity of which is changing rapidly. The purpose of this work was to assess certain parameters of indoor school environment influenced by the use of interactive panels (IPs), an e-learning tool of the latest generation. Materials and methods: We studied the parameters of electromagnetic radiation, microclimate (air temperature and relative humidity), artificial lighting levels, chemical composition of indoor air, concentrations of positive and negative air ions during the school day in classrooms with and without interactive panels. The measurements were carried out in accordance with the approved methods of laboratory and instrumental research, and the results were then assessed for compliance with current sanitary rules and regulations. Statistical processing of the results was carried out using parametric methods of statistical analysis. Results and conclusion: Indices of the microclimate and air ions in IP-equipped classrooms demonstrated a more pronounced negative dynamics during the school day. Our findings indicate the need for hygienists to pay close attention to the problem of using new electronic teaching aids and interactive panels in particular, to continue research in the area under study in order to elaborate hygienic regulations for applying IPs in the classroom and to prevent overwork and health risks to school-age children.
Article
Online anti-vaccination rhetoric has produced far reaching negative health consequences. Persons who endorse anti-vaccination attitudes may employ less analytical reasoning when problem solving. Considering limitations in previous research, we used an online web-based survey (n = 760; mean age = 47.69; 388 males, 372 females) to address this question. Analytical reasoning was negatively correlated with anti-vaccination attitudes (r = −.18, p < .0001). This relationship remained significant after statistically controlling for potential confounders, including age, sex, education, and religiosity (r = −.16, p < .0001). We hope that elucidating the cognitive, non-information-based aspects of anti-vaccination attitudes will help to guide effective educational interventions aimed at improving public health in the future.
Chapter
Correlations between real-world behaviors and judgment and decision-making paradigms are of great interest to developmentalists to inform our understanding of how to promote positive development and outcomes for our children and youth. There is relatively less research on these associations in child and youth samples relative to adult samples. Several real-world outcomes were examined in the longitudinal developmental study and correlated with judgment and decision-making performance. Youth reported positive outcomes were significantly correlated with judgment and decision-making paradigms and cognitive abilities at Time 2 and Time 3, when youth were 11–17 (Time 2) and 14–20 (Time 3) years of age. Some effect sizes were larger at Time 3 and significant correlations were also obtained with negative outcomes at Time 3. Positive outcome domains that displayed significant correlations were behaviors related to initiative and responsibility, grades, and academic conscientiousness. Negative outcome domains that displayed significant correlations were antisocial behavior and technology overuse. Parent reported real-world correlates at Time 2 displayed few significant correlations with judgment and decision-making paradigms.
Presentation
Are users more likely to employ heuristic (vs. systematic) processing on mobile phones compared to PCs?
Chapter
Der wachsende Einfluss von neuen Medien im Internet wirkt sich stark auf unsere Gesellschaft und die kulturelle Entwicklung der letzten Jahrzehnte aus. Dieses Phänomen wurde von Jean Baudrillard beschrieben, es wurde oft in Science-Fiction thematisiert und in der Kulturphilosophie von Mark Fisher kontextualisiert. Zuletzt wurde es in Subkulturen des Internets aufgegriffen, wo eine dazugehörige visuelle Sprache und dezentrale Gemeinschaft geschaffen wurden. Die Arbeiten von Hannah Neckel rezipieren diese und stellen eine neue Theorie zur Realitätswahrnehmung auf, bestehend aus Traum, Realität und Internet. Darin wird der Wunsch nach Singularität und dem ursprünglichen utopischen Potenzial des Internets geäußert.
Article
Full-text available
This study directly tests the effect of the "Big Five" personality traits on smartphone ownership and use. Although researchers have tested the impact of personality the use of on communication technology, this is the first study that specifically examines smartphone use. Logistic regression and hierarchical linear regression were used to analyze results from a sample of 312 participants. We found that extraverted individuals were more likely to own a smartphone. Also, extraverts reported a greater importance on the texting function of smartphones. More agreeable individuals place greater importance on using the smartphone to make calls and less importance on texting.
Article
Full-text available
While individual differences in the willingness and ability to engage analytic processing have long informed research in reasoning and decision making, the implications of such differences have not yet had a strong influence in other domains of psychological research. We claim that analytic thinking is not limited to problems that have a normative basis and, as an extension of this, predict that individual differences in analytic thinking will be influential in determining beliefs and values. Along with assessments of cognitive ability and style, religious beliefs, and moral values, participants judged the wrongness of acts considered disgusting and conventionally immoral, but that do not violate care- or fairness-based moral principles. Differences in willingness to engage analytic thinking predicted reduced judgements of wrongness, independent of demographics, political ideology, religiosity, and moral values. Further, we show that those who were higher in cognitive ability were less likely to indicate that purity, patriotism, and respect for traditions and authority are important to their moral thinking. These findings are consistent with a “Reflectionist” view that assumes a role for analytic thought in determining substantive, deeply-held human beliefs and values.
Article
Full-text available
A divide exists in the creativity literature as to whether relatively more or less executive processing is beneficial to creative thinking. To explore this issue, we employ an individual differences perspective informed by dual-process theories (DPTs) in which it is assumed that people vary in the extent to which they rely on autonomous (Type 1) or controlled processing (Type 2). We find that those more willing and/or able to engage Type 2 processing are more likely to successfully make creative connections in tasks requiring the unification of disparate elements and the novelty of generated items, but not in some other indices of creativity, namely, cognitive flexibility and fluency. Implications for the role of executive processing in creative thinking are discussed in the context of DPTs. We situate the ability to make remote connections alongside other advanced higher order thinking capabilities that are unique to humans.
Article
Full-text available
By 2025, when most of today's psychology undergraduates will be in their mid-30s, more than 5 billion people on our planet will be using ultra-broadband, sensor-rich smartphones far beyond the abilities of today's iPhones, Androids, and Blackberries. Although smartphones were not designed for psychological research, they can collect vast amounts of ecologically valid data, easily and quickly, from large global samples. If participants download the right "psych apps," smartphones can record where they are, what they are doing, and what they can see and hear and can run interactive surveys, tests, and experiments through touch screens and wireless connections to nearby screens, headsets, biosensors, and other peripherals. This article reviews previous behavioral research using mobile electronic devices, outlines what smartphones can do now and will be able to do in the near future, explains how a smartphone study could work practically given current technology (e.g., in studying ovulatory cycle effects on women's sexuality), discusses some limitations and challenges of smartphone research, and compares smartphones to other research methods. Smartphone research will require new skills in app development and data analysis and will raise tough new ethical issues, but smartphones could transform psychology even more profoundly than PCs and brain imaging did. © The Author(s) 2012.
Article
Full-text available
Dual-process and dual-system theories in both cognitive and social psychology have been subjected to a number of recently published criticisms. However, they have been attacked as a category, incorrectly assuming there is a generic version that applies to all. We identify and respond to 5 main lines of argument made by such critics. We agree that some of these arguments have force against some of the theories in the literature but believe them to be overstated. We argue that the dual-processing distinction is supported by much recent evidence in cognitive science. Our preferred theoretical approach is one in which rapid autonomous processes (Type 1) are assumed to yield default responses unless intervened on by distinctive higher order reasoning processes (Type 2). What defines the difference is that Type 2 processing supports hypothetical thinking and load heavily on working memory. © The Author(s) 2013.
Article
Full-text available
We used a mathematical modeling approach, based on a sample of 2,019 participants, to better understand what the cognitive reflection test (CRT; Frederick In Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19, 25-42, 2005) measures. This test, which is typically completed in less than 10 min, contains three problems and aims to measure the ability or disposition to resist reporting the response that first comes to mind. However, since the test contains three mathematically based problems, it is possible that the test only measures mathematical abilities, and not cognitive reflection. We found that the models that included an inhibition parameter (i.e., the probability of inhibiting an intuitive response), as well as a mathematical parameter (i.e., the probability of using an adequate mathematical procedure), fitted the data better than a model that only included a mathematical parameter. We also found that the inhibition parameter in males is best explained by both rational thinking ability and the disposition toward actively open-minded thinking, whereas in females this parameter was better explained by rational thinking only. With these findings, this study contributes to the understanding of the processes involved in solving the CRT, and will be particularly useful for researchers who are considering using this test in their research.
Article
Full-text available
Although widely studied in other domains, relatively little is known about the metacognitive processes that monitor and control behaviour during reasoning and decision-making. In this paper, we examined the conditions under which two fluency cues are used to monitor initial reasoning: answer fluency, or the speed with which the initial, intuitive answer is produced (Thompson, Prowse Turner, & Pennycook, 2011), and perceptual fluency, or the ease with which problems can be read (Alter, Oppenheimer, Epley, & Eyre, 2007). The first two experiments demonstrated that answer fluency reliably predicted Feeling of Rightness (FOR) judgments to conditional inferences and base rate problems, which subsequently predicted the amount of deliberate processing as measured by thinking time and answer changes; answer fluency also predicted retrospective confidence judgments (Experiment 3b). Moreover, the effect of answer fluency on reasoning was independent from the effect of perceptual fluency, establishing that these are empirically independent constructs. In five experiments with a variety of reasoning problems similar to those of Alter et al. (2007), we found no effect of perceptual fluency on FOR, retrospective confidence or accuracy; however, we did observe that participants spent more time thinking about hard to read stimuli, although this additional time did not result in answer changes. In our final two experiments, we found that perceptual disfluency increased accuracy on the CRT (Frederick, 2005), but only amongst participants of high cognitive ability. As Alter et al.'s samples were gathered from prestigious universities, collectively, the data to this point suggest that perceptual fluency prompts additional processing in general, but this processing may results in higher accuracy only for the most cognitively able.
Article
Full-text available
An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting (i.e., unbelieving) supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined associations of God beliefs, religious engagement (attendance at religious services, praying, etc.), conventional religious beliefs (heaven, miracles, etc.) and paranormal beliefs (extrasensory perception, levitation, etc.) with performance measures of cognitive ability and analytic cognitive style. An analytic cognitive style negatively predicted both religious and paranormal beliefs when controlling for cognitive ability as well as religious engagement, sex, age, political ideology, and education. Participants more willing to engage in analytic reasoning were less likely to endorse supernatural beliefs. Further, an association between analytic cognitive style and religious engagement was mediated by religious beliefs, suggesting that an analytic cognitive style negatively affects religious engagement via lower acceptance of conventional religious beliefs. Results for types of God belief indicate that the association between an analytic cognitive style and God beliefs is more nuanced than mere acceptance and rejection, but also includes adopting less conventional God beliefs, such as Pantheism or Deism. Our data are consistent with the idea that two people who share the same cognitive ability, education, political ideology, sex, age and level of religious engagement can acquire very different sets of beliefs about the world if they differ in their propensity to think analytically.
Article
Full-text available
Distinctions have been proposed between systems of reasoning for centuries. This article distills properties shared by many of these distinctions and characterizes the resulting systems in light of recent findings and theoretical developments. One system is associative because its computations reflect similarity structure and relations of temporal contiguity. The other is "rule based" because it operates on symbolic structures that have logical content and variables and because its computations have the properties that are normally assigned to rules. The systems serve complementary functions and can simultaneously generate different solutions to a reasoning problem. The rule-based system can suppress the associative system but not completely inhibit it. The article reviews evidence in favor of the distinction and its characterization.
Article
Full-text available
The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005) is designed to measure the tendency to override a prepotent response alternative that is incorrect and to engage in further reflection that leads to the correct response. In this study, we showed that the CRT is a more potent predictor of performance on a wide sample of tasks from the heuristics-and-biases literature than measures of cognitive ability, thinking dispositions, and executive functioning. Although the CRT has a substantial correlation with cognitive ability, a series of regression analyses indicated that the CRT was a unique predictor of performance on heuristics-and-biases tasks. It accounted for substantial additional variance after the other measures of individual differences had been statistically controlled. We conjecture that this is because neither intelligence tests nor measures of executive functioning assess the tendency toward miserly processing in the way that the CRT does. We argue that the CRT is a particularly potent measure of the tendency toward miserly processing because it is a performance measure rather than a self-report measure.
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about the influence of electronic media use on the academic and social lives of university students. Using time-diary and survey data, we explore the use of various types of electronic media among first-year students. Time-diary results suggest that the majority of students use electronic media to multitask. Robust regression results indicate a negative relationship between the use of various types of electronic media and first-semester grades. In addition, we find a positive association between social-networking-site use, cellular-phone communication, and face-to-face social interaction.
Article
Full-text available
This article reports the development, validation, and correlates of a self-report measure of boredom proneness. The 28-item Boredom Proneness (BP) Scale demonstrates satisfactory levels of internal consistency (coefficient alpha = .79) and test-retest reliability (r = .83) over a 1-week interval. Evidence of validity for the BP is supported by correlations with other boredom measures and from a set of studies evaluating interest and attention in the classroom. Other hypothesized relationships with boredom were tested, with significant positive associations found with depression, hopelessness, perceived effort, loneliness, and amotivational orientation. Additional findings indicate boredom proneness to be negatively related to life satisfaction and autonomy orientation. The relationship of boredom to other affective states is discussed, and directions for future research are outlined.
Article
Critics of intelligence tests-writers such as Robert Sternberg, Howard Gardner, and Daniel Goleman-have argued in recent years that these tests neglect important qualities such as emotion, empathy, and interpersonal skills. However, such critiques imply that though intelligence tests may miss certain key noncognitive areas, they encompass most of what is important in the cognitive domain. In this book, Keith E. Stanovich challenges this widely held assumption. Stanovich shows that IQ tests (or their proxies, such as the SAT) are radically incomplete as measures of cognitive functioning. They fail to assess traits that most people associate with "good thinking," skills such as judgment and decision making. Such cognitive skills are crucial to real-world behavior, affecting the way we plan, evaluate critical evidence, judge risks and probabilities, and make effective decisions. IQ tests fail to assess these skills of rational thought, even though they are measurable cognitive processes. Rational thought is just as important as intelligence, Stanovich argues, and it should be valued as highly as the abilities currently measured on intelligence tests.
Article
Many decisions are based on beliefs concerning the likelihood of uncertain events such as the outcome of an election, the guilt of a defendant, or the future value of the dollar. Occasionally, beliefs concerning uncertain events are expressed in numerical form as odds or subjective probabilities. In general, the heuristics are quite useful, but sometimes they lead to severe and systematic errors. The subjective assessment of probability resembles the subjective assessment of physical quantities such as distance or size. These judgments are all based on data of limited validity, which are processed according to heuristic rules. However, the reliance on this rule leads to systematic errors in the estimation of distance. This chapter describes three heuristics that are employed in making judgments under uncertainty. The first is representativeness, which is usually employed when people are asked to judge the probability that an object or event belongs to a class or event. The second is the availability of instances or scenarios, which is often employed when people are asked to assess the frequency of a class or the plausibility of a particular development, and the third is adjustment from an anchor, which is usually employed in numerical prediction when a relevant value is available.
Article
This chapter reviews selected psychological research on human decision making. The classical, rational theory of choice holds that decisions reflect consistent, stable preferences, which are unaffected by logically immaterial changes in context, presentation, or description. In contrast, empirical research has found preferences to be sensitive to logically irrelevant changes in the context of decision, in how options are described, and in how preferences are elicited. Decisions are also swayed by affect and by decisional conflict and are often driven by the reasons that are most accessible at the moment of choice, leading to preference reversals when, for example, different reasons are made accessible. More broadly, decision makers tend to adopt a local" perspective: They accept decisions as described and focus on the most salient attributes, even when a more global" perspective, less influenced by local context and frame, might yield decisions that are less biased by temporary and irrelevant concerns. Future directions and implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Article
College students are more likely to use their cell phones for leisure than for school or work. Because leisure is important for health and well-being, and cell phone use has been associated with mental and physical health, the relationship between cell phone use and leisure should be better understood. This research classified college students into distinct groups based on their cell phone use and personality traits, and then compared each group’s leisure experiences. Methods: A random sample of students (N = 454) completed validated surveys assessing personality (Big 5) and dimensions of the leisure experience (boredom, challenge, distress, awareness). Cell phone use and demographics were also assessed. Results: A cluster analysis produced a valid, three-group solution: a “High Use” group characterized primarily by cell phone use (over 10 h/day), and two Low Use groups (3 h/day) characterized by divergent personalities (extroverted and introverted). ANOVA compared each group’s leisure experiences and found the “Low Use Extrovert” had significantly less boredom, greater preference for challenge, and greater awareness of opportunities and benefits than the other groups (p < .01). The “High Use” group experienced significantly more leisure distress than the other groups (p < .05). Implications for health and well-being are discussed.
Book
When historian Charles Weiner found pages of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman's notes, he saw it as a "record" of Feynman's work. Feynman himself, however, insisted that the notes were not a record but the work itself. In Supersizing the Mind, Andy Clark argues that our thinking doesn't happen only in our heads but that "certain forms of human cognizing include inextricable tangles of feedback, feed-forward and feed-around loops: loops that promiscuously criss-cross the boundaries of brain, body and world." The pen and paper of Feynman's thought are just such feedback loops, physical machinery that shape the flow of thought and enlarge the boundaries of mind. Drawing upon recent work in psychology, linguistics, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, robotics, human-computer systems, and beyond, Supersizing the Mind offers both a tour of the emerging cognitive landscape and a sustained argument in favor of a conception of mind that is extended rather than "brain- bound." The importance of this new perspective is profound. If our minds themselves can include aspects of our social and physical environments, then the kinds of social and physical environments we create can reconfigure our minds and our capacity for thought and reason.
Article
Much research in the last 2 decades has demonstrated that humans deviate from normative models of decision making and rational judgment. In 4 studies involving 954 participants, the authors explored the extent to which measures of cognitive ability and thinking dispositions can predict discrepancies from normative responding on a variety of tasks from the heuristics and biases literature including the selection task, belief bias in the syllogistic reasoning, argument evaluation, base-rate use, covariation detection, hypothesis testing, outcome bias, if-only thinking, knowledge calibration, hindsight bias, and on false consensus paradigm. Significant relationships involving cognitive ability were interpreted as indicating algorithmic level limitations on the computation of the normative response. Relationships with thinking dispositions were interpreted as indicating that styles of epistemic regulation can predict individual differences in performance of these tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A sample of 349 college students completed an argument evaluation test (AET) in which they evaluated arguments concerning real-life situations. A separate regression analysis was conducted for each student predicting his or her evaluations of argument quality from an objective indicator of argument quality and the strength of his or her prior beliefs about the target propositions. The beta weight for objective argument quality was interpreted in this analysis as an indicator of the ability to evaluate objective argument quality independent of prior belief. Individual differences in this index were reliably linked to individual differences in cognitive ability and actively open-minded thinking dispositions. Further, actively openminded thinking predicted variance in AET performance even after individual differences in cognitive ability had been partialled out. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
While functional differences between today’s cell phones and traditional computers are becoming less clear, one difference remains plain – cell phones are almost always on-hand and allow users to connect with an array of services and networks at almost any time and any place. The Pew Center’s Internet and American Life Project suggests that college students are the most rapid adopters of cell phone technology and research is emerging which suggests high frequency cell phone use may be influencing their health and behavior. Thus, we investigated the relationships between total cell phone use (N = 496) and texting (N = 490) on Satisfaction with Life (SWL) in a large sample of college students. It was hypothesized that the relationship would be mediated by Academic Performance (GPA) and anxiety. Two separate path models indicated that the cell phone use and texting models had good overall fit. Cell phone use/texting was negatively related to GPA and positively related to anxiety; in turn, GPA was positively related to SWL while anxiety was negatively related to SWL. These findings add to the debate about student cell phone use, and how increased use may negatively impact academic performance, mental health, and subjective well-being or happiness.
Article
The proliferation and ease of access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as Facebook, text messaging, and instant messaging has resulted in ICT users being presented with more real-time streaming data than ever before. Unfortunately, this has also resulted in individuals increasingly engaging in multitasking as an information management strategy. The purpose of this study was to examine how college students multitask with ICTs and to determine the impacts of this multitasking on their college grade point average (GPA). Using web survey data from a large sample of college students at one university (N = 1839), we found that students reported spending a large amount of time using ICTs on a daily basis. Students reported frequently searching for content not related to courses, using Facebook, emailing, talking on their cell phones, and texting while doing schoolwork. Hierarchical (blocked) linear regression analyses revealed that using Facebook and texting while doing schoolwork were negatively associated with overall college GPA. Engaging in Facebook use or texting while trying to complete schoolwork may tax students' capacity for cognitive processing and preclude deeper learning. Our research indicates that the type and purpose of ICT use matters in terms of the educational impacts of multitasking.
Article
Despite Miller's (1969) now-famous clarion call to "give psychology away" to the general public, scientific psychology has done relatively little to combat festering problems of ideological extremism and both inter- and intragroup conflict. After proposing that ideological extremism is a significant contributor to world conflict and that confirmation bias and several related biases are significant contributors to ideological extremism, we raise a crucial scientific question: Can debiasing the general public against such biases promote human welfare by tempering ideological extremism? We review the knowns and unknowns of debiasing techniques against confirmation bias, examine potential barriers to their real-world efficacy, and delineate future directions for research on debiasing. We argue that research on combating extreme confirmation bias should be among psychological science's most pressing priorities. © 2009 Association for Psychological Science.
Article
Dual-process theories of cognition are to be found everywhere in psychology although the literatures concerned may contain little or no cross referencing to each other. These theories come under many labels, but at least superficially all seem to be making a similar distinction (see Evans 2008; and Frankish and Evans, this volume). One question addressed in this chapter is that of whether we need to have this great multiplicity of theories, or whether there is one grand unifying dual-process theory that can incorporate them all. The literature already contains dual-system theories which purport to integrate many if not all accounts in this way (see Evans 2003; Stanovich, this volume; Evans and Over 1996; Smith and DeCoster 2000; Stanovich 1999) and one objective is here is to assess the adequacy of such accounts. However, I shall argue that such theories fall into two distinct groups from the viewpoint of the cognitive architecture they imply. There is also a third notion (cognitive styles) which can all too readily be confused with such two-process accounts. In previous reviews of this topic (e.g. Evans 2003), I have followed the fashion started by Stanovich (1999) for referring to System 1 and System 2 processes. I shall not do so in this chapter, except when referring specifically to dual-system theories. Instead I will talk of type 1 and 2 processes, a terminology first used over 30 years ago in the literature on reasoning (Wason and Evans 1975). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses 2 areas--the assessment of human potential and conflict about the Vietnam war--in which the belief that human cognition is sacrosanct and that dysfunction must be explained in noncognitive (i.e., motivational) terms may have led to misunderstanding and counterproductive work. Limitations of ascribing conflicts to motivational rather than cognitive factors are analyzed, and the inadequacy of "conscious judgment" for explaining inter- and intrapersonal problems is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This book represents the first major attempt by any author to provide an integrated account of the evidence for bias in human reasoning across a wide range of disparate psychological literatures. The topics discussed involve both deductive and inductive reasoning as well as statistical judgement and inference. In addition, the author proposes a general theoretical approach to the explanations of bias and considers the practical implications for real world decision making. The theoretical stance of the book is based on a distinction between preconscious heuristic processes which determine the mental representation of (subjectively) 'relevant' features of the problem content, and subsequent analytic reasoning processes which generate inferences and judgements. Phenomena discussed and interpreted within this framework include feature matching biases in propositional reasoning, confirmation bias, biasing and debiasing effects of knowledge on reasoning, and biases in statistical judgement normally attributed to 'availability' and 'representativeness' heuristics. In the final chapter, the practical consequences of bias for real life decision making are considered, together with various issues concerning the problem of 'debiasing'. The major approaches discussed are those involving education and training on the one hand, and the development of intelligent software and interactive decision aids on the other. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The Biological Universe (Dick 1996) analysed the history of the extraterrestrial life debate, documenting how scientists have assessed the chances of life beyond Earth during the 20th century. Here I propose another option – that we may in fact live in a postbiological universe, one that has evolved beyond flesh and blood intelligence to artificial intelligence that is a product of cultural rather than biological evolution. MacGowan & Ordway (1966), Davies (1995) and Shostak (1998), among others, have broached the subject, but the argument has not been given the attention it is due, nor has it been carried to its logical conclusion. This paper argues for the necessity of long-term thinking when contemplating the problem of intelligence in the universe. It provides arguments for a postbiological universe, based on the likely age and lifetimes of technological civilizations and the overriding importance of cultural evolution as an element of cosmic evolution. And it describes the general nature of a postbiological universe and its implications for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
Article
Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is a relatively new website that contains the major elements required to conduct research: an integrated participant compensation system; a large participant pool; and a streamlined process of study design, participant recruitment, and data collection. In this article, we describe and evaluate the potential contributions of MTurk to psychology and other social sciences. Findings indicate that (a) MTurk participants are slightly more demographically diverse than are standard Internet samples and are significantly more diverse than typical American college samples; (b) participation is affected by compensation rate and task length, but participants can still be recruited rapidly and inexpensively; (c) realistic compensation rates do not affect data quality; and (d) the data obtained are at least as reliable as those obtained via traditional methods. Overall, MTurk can be used to obtain high-quality data inexpensively and rapidly. © The Author(s) 2011.
Article
The research reported here was an exploratory study that sought to discover the effects of human individual differences on Web search strategy. These differences consisted of (a) study approaches, (b) cognitive and demographic features, and (c) perceptions of and preferred approaches to Web-based information seeking. Sixty-eight master's students used AltaVista to search for information on three assigned search topics graded in terms of complexity. Five hundred seven search queries were factor analyzed to identify relationships between the individual difference variables and Boolean and best-match search strategies. A number of consistent patterns of relationship were found. As task complexity increased, a number of strategic shifts were also observed on the part of searchers possessing particular combinations of characteristics. A second article (published in this issue of JASIST; Ford, Miller, & Moss, 2005) presents a combined analyses of the data including a series of regression analyses. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
College students use information and communication technologies at much higher levels and in different ways than prior generations. They are also more likely to multitask while using information and communication technologies. However, few studies have examined the impacts of multitasking on educational outcomes among students. This study fills a gap in this area by utilizing a large-sample web- based survey of college student technology usage to examine how instant messaging and multitasking affect perceived educational outcomes. Since multitasking can impede the learning process through a form of information overload, we explore possible predictors of academic impairment due to multi- tasking. Results of this study suggest that college students use instant messaging at high levels, they multitask while using instant messaging, and over half report that instant messaging has had a detri- mental effect on their schoolwork. Higher levels of instant messaging and specific types of multitasking activities are associated with students reporting not getting schoolwork done due to instant messaging. We discuss implications of these findings for researchers studying the social impacts of technology and those in higher education administration.
Article
This article described three heuristics that are employed in making judgements under uncertainty: (i) representativeness, which is usually employed when people are asked to judge the probability that an object or event A belongs to class or process B; (ii) availability of instances or scenarios, which is often employed when people are asked to assess the frequency of a class or the plausibility of a particular development; and (iii) adjustment from an anchor, which is usually employed in numerical prediction when a relevant value is available. These heuristics are highly economical and usually effective, but they lead to systematic and predictable errors. A better understanding of these heuristics and of the biases to which they lead could improve judgements and decisions in situations of uncertainty.
Article
Dual Process Theories (DPT) of reasoning posit that judgments are mediated by both fast, automatic processes and more deliberate, analytic ones. A critical, but unanswered question concerns the issue of monitoring and control: When do reasoners rely on the first, intuitive output and when do they engage more effortful thinking? We hypothesised that initial, intuitive answers are accompanied by a metacognitive experience, called the Feeling of Rightness (FOR), which can signal when additional analysis is needed. In separate experiments, reasoners completed one of four tasks: conditional reasoning (N=60), a three-term variant of conditional reasoning (N=48), problems used to measure base rate neglect (N=128), or a syllogistic reasoning task (N=64). For each task, participants were instructed to provide an initial, intuitive response to the problem along with an assessment of the rightness of that answer (FOR). They were then allowed as much time as needed to reconsider their initial answer and provide a final answer. In each experiment, we observed a robust relationship between the FOR and two measures of analytic thinking: low FOR was associated with longer rethinking times and an increased probability of answer change. In turn, FOR judgments were consistently predicted by the fluency with which the initial answer was produced, providing a link to the wider literature on metamemory. These data support a model in which a metacognitive judgment about a first, initial model determines the extent of analytic engagement.
Article
The advent of the Internet, with sophisticated algorithmic search engines, has made accessing information as easy as lifting a finger. No longer do we have to make costly efforts to find the things we want. We can "Google" the old classmate, find articles online, or look up the actor who was on the tip of our tongue. The results of four studies suggest that when faced with difficult questions, people are primed to think about computers and that when people expect to have future access to information, they have lower rates of recall of the information itself and enhanced recall instead for where to access it. The Internet has become a primary form of external or transactive memory, where information is stored collectively outside ourselves.
Article
Student boredom within the school system has been widely studied and shown to be linked to various negative consequences such as diminished academic achievement, school dissatisfaction and truancy. However, little attention has been given to the issue of boredom within higher education and the current study aims to redress this balance. Two hundred and eleven university students completed questionnaires aimed at assessing contributors, moderators and consequences of their boredom. Results reveal that 59% of students find their lectures boring half the time and 30% find most or all of their lectures to be boring. The consequences of being bored included students missing future lectures and there was also a significant association between level of boredom and grade point average. The most important teaching factor contributing to student boredom is the use of PowerPoint slides, whilst the personality trait Boredom Proneness was the most important factor moderating the experience of boredom. Implications for future research and for teaching staff are outlined.
Article
The idea that we might be robots is no longer the stuff of science fiction; decades of research in evolutionary biology and cognitive science have led many esteemed thinkers and scientists to the conclusion that, following the precepts of universal Darwinism, humans are merely the hosts for two replicators (genes and memes) that have no interest in us except as conduits for replication. Accepting and now forcefully responding to this disturbing idea that precludes the possibilities of morality or free will, among other things, Keith Stanovich here provides the tools for the "robot's rebellion," a program of cognitive reform necessary to advance human interests over the limited interest of the replicators. He shows how concepts of rational thinking from cognitive science interact with the logic of evolution to create opportunities for humans to structure their behavior to serve their own ends. These evaluative activities of the brain, he argues, fulfill the need that we have to ascribe significance to human life. Only by recognizing ourselves as robots, argues Stanovich, can we begin to construct a concept of self based on what is truly singular about humans: that they gain control of their lives in a way unique among life forms on Earth—through rational self-determination. "Stanovich offers readers a sweeping tour of theory and research, advancing a programme of 'cognitive reform' that puts human interests first. . . . By making the point that cognition is optimized at the level of genes, not of individuals, Stanovich puts a fresh spin on the familiar claim that people are sometimes woefully irrational. . . . With The Robot's Rebellion, he sets himself apart from unreflective thinkers on both sides of the divide by taking evolutionary accounts of cognition seriously, even as he urges us to improve on what evolution has wrought."—Valerie M. Chase, Nature
Article
Where does the mind stop and the rest of the world begin? The question invites two standard replies. Some accept the intuitive demarcations of skin and skull, and say that what is outside the body is outside the mind. Others are impressed by arguments suggesting that the meaning of our words "just ain't in the head", and hold that this externalism about meaning carries over into an externalism about mind. We propose to pursue a third position. We will advocate an externalism about mind, but one that is in no way grounded in the debatable role of external reference in fixing the contents of our mental states. Rather, we advocate an *active externalism*, based on the active role of the environment in driving cognitive processes.
Article
Human thinking is often biased by intuitive beliefs. Inhibition of these tempting beliefs is considered a key component of human thinking, but the process is poorly understood. In the present study we clarify the nature of an inhibition failure and the resulting belief bias by probing the accessibility of cued beliefs after people reasoned. Results indicated that even the poo