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The Impact of Parental Involvement on Student Performance: A Case Study of a South African Secondary School

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The purpose of this study was to ascertain how parental involvement in South African schools affects the academic performance of students in mathematics. Literature often claim that involvement of parents results in better academic performance than if parents are not involved. The aim of the research was to see if this relationship exists in South African high schools. The study used a quantitative research approach. Data was gathered using a questionnaire administered to 114 students’ parents. The main findings are that all the parents who responded are highly involved with their children’s education. They have high expectations towards their children’s education and performance. Three parental involvement constructs, that is, parenting, parent –teacher communication and home and family support were found to be positively related to performance. Results further indicate that home and family support is the most significant factor that determines a learner’s performance. Most of the parents consider themselves to have a good communication with their child’s teachers and the school. Children’s homework is considered to be important by each parent and they all assist their children with homework. Thus, it may be concluded that by staying involved with their children’s education, parents do impact positively on the academic achievement of the students. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n8p279
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The Impact of Parental Involvement on Student Performance:
A Case Study of a South African Secondary School
Paul Mutodi
Department of Maths, Science and Technology, University of Limpopo (Turfloop Campus)
Private Bag 1106. Sovenga, 0727.South Africa
Email: paul.mutodi@ul.ac.za
Hlanganipai Ngirande
Department of Business Management, University of Limpopo (Turfloop Campus)
Email: hlanganipai.ngirande@ul.ac.za
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n8p279
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to ascertain how parental involvement in South African schools affects the academic
performance of students in mathematics. Literature often claim that involvement of parents results in better academic
performance than if parents are not involved. The aim of the research was to see if this relationship exists in South African high
schools. The study used a quantitative research approach. Data was gathered using a questionnaire administered to 114
students’ parents. The main findings are that all the parents who responded are highly involved with their children’s education.
They have high expectations towards their children’s education and performance. Three parental involvement constructs, that
is, parenting, parent –teacher communication and home and family support were found to be positively related to performance.
Results further indicate that home and family support is the most significant factor that determines a learner’s performance.
Most of the parents consider themselves to have a good communication with their child’s teachers and the school. Children’s
homework is considered to be important by each parent and they all assist their children with homework. Thus, it may be
concluded that by staying involved with their children’s education, parents do impact positively on the academic achievement of
the students.
Keywords: Parent involvement, parenting, communication, home and family support
1. Introduction
Learning of mathematics is a national problem in South Africa (Howie, 2001). A number of approaches have been taken
to remedy the problem, including in-service training conducted by higher education institutions and education
departments. Included in the list of multiple factors that influence the students success in mathematics is parental
involvement (Jeynes, 2010).There is little research about the underlying mechanisms through which parental involvement
influences children’s academic performance. The present study thus sought to extend the literature by examining
potential pathways from parental involvement to students’ achievement. Research findings suggest that parents’
attitudes, together with their behaviour and activities with regard to their children’s education, have an effect on academic
achievement (Guðlaug, 2010). Parental involvement in schooling is a powerful force, and that ‘parents are a child’s first
and most enduring educator, and their influence cannot be overestimated’ (Department for Children, Schools & Families,
2008, p.67).
The study specifically intends to establish the relationship between parental involvement and students
mathematics performance. Parents have the distinct advantage over anyone else in that they can provide a more stable
and continuously positive influence that could enhance and complement what the school fosters on their children. In this
regard, parental involvement is undeniably critical (Mji & Makgato, 2006). However, with regard to the content of what
children learn, many fall short because in general they do not possess the necessary education and therefore find it
difficult to determine and understand what was done at school (Mji & Mbinda, 2005). This is a point also raised by a
learner in a related study, “... my parents don't know maths and physics so how can they be involved...?” (Mji & Makgato,
2006, p.259).
Parental involvement, defined as motivated parental attitudes and behaviours intended to influence children’s
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educational well-being. It is a multidimensional and bidirectional construct (Christenson, 2004; Fantuzzo, Tighe, & Childs,
2000) that has been shown to have clear links with social and academic outcomes for children (Dearing, McCartney,
Weiss, Kreider, & Simpkins, 2004; El Nokali, Bachman, & Votruba-Drzal, 2010). Traditionally parental involvement has
been defined as engaging parents in school-based activities and events related to their child’s education (Epstein, 2001).
However, a more comprehensive view of parental involvement envisaged in this study goes beyond just parent activities
in school settings but in subject- oriented participations. This comprehensive view of parental involvement is grounded in
the understanding that children’s success in mathematics is influenced by multiple contexts (e.g., home, school, and
community) in a dynamic and bidirectional manner (Vukovic, Roberts & Wright, 2013).
Parenting involvement is one factor that has been consistently related to a child's increased academic
performance (Topor, 2010; Kgosidialwa, 2010). While this relationship between parent involvement and a child's
academic performance is well established, studies have yet to examine how parent involvement increases a child's
academic performance. The goal of the present study was to test three variables that may mediate, or explain how,
parent involvement is related to a child's academic performance. Parent involvement was defined as the teacher's
perception of “the positive attitude parents have towards their child's education, teacher, and school” (Topor, Susan &
Keane, 2010).
Many researchers recognise the important role of a strong positive bond between homes and schools play in the
development and education of children (Sanders & Sheldon, 2009; Richardson, 2009; Sheldon, 2009). Research has also
shown that successful students have strong academic support from their involved parents (Sheldon, 2009). Furthermore,
research on effective schools, those where students are learning and achieving, has consistently shown that these
schools, despite often working in low social and economic neighbourhoods, have strong and positive school-home
relationships (Sanders & Sheldon, 2009; Sheldon, 2009). More importantly, these effective schools have made a real
effort in reaching out to their students’ families in order to bring about liaison and cooperation.
Guy, Tali and Mordechai (2008) hypothesized that parental involvement primarily influences children’s attributes
and behaviours, which in turn affect mathematics achievement. Similarly, the theoretical framework provided by Hoover-
Dempsey and Sandler (1997) suggests that parental involvement enhances children’s academic self-efficacy, intrinsic
motivation to learn, self-regulatory use, and social self-efficacy, which in turn operate to enhance achievement. Similarly,
Chowa, Masa and Tucker (2013) found that parental involvement (i.e., home involvement, school involvement, parent–
teacher communication) was predictive of children’s school engagement and socio-emotional adjustment. If parental
involvement does indeed buffer the effects of children’s mathematics anxiety on children’s mathematics achievement, the
importance of supporting parental involvement initiatives becomes even more evident.
Studies have shown that students performed better academically and had more positive school attitudes if they
had parents who were aware, knowledgeable and involved (Anthony & Walshaw, 2007). Rich learning environments that
incorporate meaningful mathematical experiences are associated with higher achievement and genuine home/school
collaboration has also been found to lift children’s achievement significantly (Biddulph, Biddulph & Biddulph, 2003).
Results from a study conducted by Cai (2003) indicated that parental involvement is a statistically significant predictor of
their children mathematical achievement and also promoted positive behaviours and emotional development.
2. Problem Statement
One of the problems facing South African secondary school mathematics teachers is how to involve parents in academic
matters in order to enhance achievement. Parental involvement in the form of fostering interest and support has a major
influence on pupils’ educational outcomes and attitudes. However many parents feel uninformed about current
educational practices and how they can be more involved with their child’s learning. A number of initiatives have been
implemented internationally to encourage home-school links, but the documentation of these initiatives; particularly in the
area of mathematics education is limited. Legislation like the South African Schools Act of 1996 compels parents to
participate in school governance schools, but other activities like participation in fund raising, assisting teachers with
academic or extramural activities are voluntary and parents must be motivated and trained to participate actively.
According to Shinn (2002) parents are usually very involved in their children’s early education but this involvement tends
to decrease when children proceed to high school. Therefore the study of this nature will seek to shed more light on the
importance of parental involvement on students’ performance at high school level.
3. The objectives of the study
The objectives of this study were:
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1. To explore the impact of parental involvement on students’ mathematics performance in South Africa.
2. To explore the contribution of parental involvement disparities in mathematics performance.
3. To investigate the relationships between students’ academic performance in maths and their family
background characteristics.
4. Significance of the study
Findings from this study could inform more inclusive school practices for encouraging active participation by parents in
mathematics education to the overall benefit of the children.
5. Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated:
H1 : Parental educational level and gender have a significant effect on the student’s performance.
H2: There is a relationship between parental involvement (parenting, communication and home and family support)
and students’ mathematics performance.
6. Literature Review
Home experiences are vital in shaping children’s future mathematical interests, beliefs, and motivations. The role of
parents in shaping their children’s future mathematics’ attitudes and motivation is key during early childhood. Iruka and
Barbarin and Aikens (2008) noted that parents and families are considered the most essential others who children
encounter in the earliest stage of their lives. The reason why parents are considered the most essential others in their
children’s early and later lives is because children observe and learn from, and later apply as parallel their early
observations. Because each parent provides different experiences at home, the observations of each child results in
differences related to their parents’ attitudes, values, and beliefs about mathematics. All of these parental behaviours lead
to different educational emphases in the home (Cross, Woods, & Schweingruber, 2009). To provide more positive
educational experiences at home, parents need to be informed about how their involvement affects their children’s
mathematical skills and knowledge.
Friedel, Cortino, Turner and Midgley (2010) noted that parental involvement in its many and varied ways is a vital
parameter for increasing children’s mathematics achievement. Current studies have indicated some specific factors that
play an essential role in increasing children’s mathematics achievement: Parental aspirations, parent-child
communication, home structure, and parents’ involvement in school’s activities ( Wang, 2004). Bicer, Capraro, and Cetin
(2012) noted similar indicators affecting children’s mathematical achievement either adversely or positively: parents’
socio-economic status, parents’ success expectations from their children’s mathematics courses, parental beliefs about
mathematics, and parent-child, teacher and school communication.
Demir, Kilic, and Unal (2010) demonstrated that students whose parents were highly educated and exposed to
mathematics before in their lives tend to show more success in mathematics than their peers whose parents were less
educated and not being exposed to mathematics. The reason for this correlation is because highly educated parents
know the learning requirements and had the opportunity to provide the best educational environment for their children
(Alomar, 2006). Parents can increase the potential development of their children mathematical knowledge and skills by
setting high expectations and providing stimulating environments (Cross et al., 2009). Israel, Beaulieu, and Hartless
(2001) concluded that parents’ socioeconomic status is correlated with a child’s educational achievement.
Farooq, Shafiq and Berhanu (2011) concluded that students whose parents are educated score higher on
standardized tests than those whose parents were not educated. Educated parents can better communicate with their
children regarding the school work, activities and the information being taught at school. They can better assist their
children in their work and participate at school (Fantuzzo & Tighe, 2000). The academic performance of students heavily
depends upon the parental involvement in their academic activities to attain the higher level of quality in academic
success (Barnard, 2004).
Dysfunctional family processes (e.g. conflict, substance abuse, child abuse, negative modelling, disturbed parent-
child relationships, deprivation of stimulation and affection) can affect children’s performance and behaviour. Children in
such family circumstances are at increased risk of hyperactivity, truancy, mental health disorders (and suicide),
delinquency, and low levels of literacy and self-esteem.
Smith and May (2006) emphasised the importance of children’s interactions with the more competent members of
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the culture (predominantly family members). She describes families as having a key function in providing responsive
learning contexts which allow children to gradually take more and more initiative in their own learning, work cooperatively
on shared tasks with others, and provide responsive feedback. The key elements of this process are dialogue, social
interaction and graduated assistance based on the child’s existing skills and knowledge.
The Competent Children Study revealed that children from low income homes and homes with low parental
education, “…can go over these hurdles when they also take part in activities and interactions which feed their use and
enjoyment of literacy and mathematics, and of words, patterns and other symbols generally.” (Wylie, 2001:34).
7. Conceptual Framework
The framework that serves as a basis for this study is a research-based framework developed by Epstein (1995). The
framework summarizes the theory of overlapping spheres of influence to explain the shared responsibilities of home,
school, and community for children’s learning and development. The framework contains six important factors with regard
to parental involvement. The six factors are parenting, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, decision-making
and collaborating with the community. However this study is going to be limited to parenting, communicating and learning
at home since these are applicable at subject level while the whole spectrum applies to school-family partnerships.
Parenting pertains to helping all families to understand the development of both the child and the adolescent. The
basic obligations of parents include responsibilities of families to ensure children's health and safety; to the parenting and
child-rearing skills needed to prepare children for school; to the continual need to supervise, discipline, and guide children
at each age level; and to the need to build positive home conditions that support school learning and behaviour
appropriate for each grade level. It also helps establishing a supportive home environment for children as students.
Communicating involves designing and establishing two-way communication channels between school and home
that are effective and reliable. Communication channels between the mathematics teacher and parents about the
children’s progress must be in place so that the learner benefits from the support from the two parties.
Learning at home pertains to providing ideas and information to parents about how they can best assist their
children with homework and curricular related decisions and activities. Parent involvement in learning activities at home
among others refers to parent-initiated activities or child-initiated requests for help, and ideas or instructions from
teachers for parents to monitor or assist their own children at home on learning activities that are coordinated with the
children's classwork. The framework helps educators develop more comprehensive programs of school and family
partnerships.
These three types of involvement can guide the development of a balanced, comprehensive program of
partnerships, including opportunities for family involvement at school and at home, with potentially important results for
students, parents, and teachers. The results for students, parents, and teachers will depend on the particular types of
involvement that are implemented, as well as on the quality of the implementation.
8. Research design and Methodology
8.1 Approach
This study utilised a quantitative design to identify specific parental influences that contribute to students’ mathematics
performance in South African secondary schools. An assessment of the contribution of parental support disparities in
mathematics performance was carried out in order to investigate relationships between students’ academic performance
and their family background characteristics.
8.2 Population and Sample
The population for the study comprised of 150(N=150) parents of grade 12 students from a selected high school in South
Africa. Using the Rao Soft sample size calculator, a minimum recommended sample size of 109 respondents was
obtained. A probability sampling procedure was used and a simple random sample consisting of 44 male parents and 70
female parents was drawn.
9. Data collection
A self-generated questionnaire guided by Epstein’s (1995) framework was used to solicit data for this study. A structured,
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five point numerically scaled Likert–type questionnaire was used. The questionnaire was divided into two sections.
Section A consisted of demographic variables and contained a nominal scale of measurement. Aspects covered included:
age, gender, home language and educational level. Section B consisted of parental involvement constructs. Three
constructs were explored: parenting, communication and home and family support.
9.1 Reliability of the Questionnaire
Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to determine the internal consistence reliability of the questionnaire. As shown in
Table1below, the overall Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient for the whole questionnaire was 0.893.The Cronbach’s
alpha reliability coefficient for the other constructs are shown in table 1 below:
Table 1: Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients
Cronbach’s Coef
f
icient Alpha
Variable(s) Number of items Alpha
Parenting 80.793
Communication 80.685
Home and Family Support 13 0.680
Performance 12 0.780
Overall questionnaire 41 0.893
10. Data processing and analysis
The returned questionnaires were inspected to determine their level of acceptability. They were edited where necessary
and coded. A statistical computer package, SPSS version 20, was used to process the data. The techniques used during
data analysis included descriptive statistics, t-tests, correlation analysis, ANOVA and regression analysis.
11. Results and discussion
11.1 Response rate
A follow up of the questionnaires showed a good response rate from the research participants. At the end of the data
collection phase, the total number of the completed questionnaires was 114. Given that the sample size of the study was
150, this represented a response rate of 76%. This was considered sufficient enough to continue with the analysis of the
data as eluded by Bryman and Bell (2011) who posit that a response rate above 60% is acceptable.
Table 2: Demographic variables: Gender
Variable Frequency Percentages (%)
Gender Male 47 41.2
Female 67 58.8
Total 114 100
The majority of parents who participated in this study (58.8%) were females. This finding is supported by Mooney, Oliver
and Smith (2009) who argued that fathers contributed little to children's education except for their economic contributions.
Rohner and Veneziano (2001) also posts that fathers are not genetically endowed for parenting. Mothers tend to display
more encouraging behaviours that motivate the child to work hard while fathers often display more pressuring behaviours.
Table 3: Demographic variables: Age
Variable Frequency Percentages (%)
Age 31-50 73 64
51-
A
bove 41 36
Total 114 100
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Parents in the 31-50 years age category dominated (64%) the study. Middle –aged parents participated in the study and
showed a lot of concern than older parents. Middle-aged parents feel that they should collaborate with mathematics
teachers’ efforts while older perceive themselves as outside the school system and feel it is responsibility of teachers to
do the teaching (McDermott, 2000).
Table 4: Demographic variables: Home language
Home Language Frequency Percentages (%)
Sepedi 81 71.1
Venda 5 4.4
Shangane 6 5.3
Other 22 19.3
Total 114 100
The sample of respondents was dominated (71.1%) by Sepedi-speaking parents. The study also postulates that family
and language backgrounds have an effect on parental involvement. This concurs with Olusanjo (2012) who observed that
socio-economic backgrounds of family structures aid children’s academic attainments.
Table 5: Demographic variables: Educational level
Educational level Frequency Percentages (%)
Matric and below 15 13.15
Certificate 16 14.03
Diploma 11 9.65
Undergraduate Degree 42 36.84
Post-graduate Degree 30 26.33
Total 114 100
The educational level of respondents was evenly spread with undergraduate degree holders dominating the sample
(36.84%). According to Seifert (2014) the education level of a parent is a significant predictor of a child’s educational
achievements. Eccles (2005) pointed out that parents with higher education levels have stronger confidence in their
children’s academic abilities, and they also have higher expectations of their child. These high expectations motivate their
child to perform well in mathematics. The confidence they have in their children builds their own confidence in their
academic abilities and makes them more likely to succeed.
11.2 Hypotheses testing
Table 6: T-Test
One-Sample Test: One-Sample Test: Gender and Educational Level
Test Value = 0
t df Sig. (2-
tailed) Mean
Difference
95% Confidence Interval
of the Difference 95%Confidence Interval
of the Difference
Lower Upper
Gender 30.499 113 .000 1.4123 1.321 1.504
Educational level 34.785 113 .000 3.8421 3.623 4.06
A t-test was conducted to test whether there was a significant difference in parental involvement between male and
female parents. The results for the test are shown in table 6 above (df=113, t = 30.499, p=0.000). Therefore, the null
hypothesis was rejected since the p-value is less than 0.05. Hence we conclude that there is a significant difference in
parental involvement between males and females parents.
A t-test was conducted to test the significance of parental educational level performance predictor. The results for
the test are shown in table 6 above (df=113, t = 34.785, p=0.00). Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected since the p-
value is less than 0.05. Hence we conclude that parental education level significantly affects involvement and child
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performance. The parent’s educational level has an effect on his/her parenting style, level of communication with the
teacher and his/her home and family support approach to the child’s academic needs.
Table 7: T-TEST One-Sample Test: Educational Level Parental Involvement Constructs
Test Value = 0
t df Sig. (2-
tailed) Mean
Difference
95% Confidence Interval
of the Difference 95% Confidence Interval
of the Difference
Lower Upper
Parenting Communication
Home & Family Support
51.119
52.580
58.184
113
113
113
.000
.000
.000
25.4298
23.9211
43.2632
24.4442
23.0197
41.7900
26.4153
24.8223
44.7363
A t-test was conducted to test the significance of parenting as a performance predictor. The results for the test are shown
in table 7 above (df=113, t = 51.119, p=0.00). Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected since the p-value is less than
0.05. Hence we conclude that parenting significantly affects performance.
A t-test was conducted to test the significance of parent –mathematics teacher communication as a performance
predictor. The results for the test are shown in table 6 above (df=113, t = 52.580, p=0.00). Therefore, the null hypothesis
was rejected since the p-value is less than 0.05. Hence we conclude that communication significantly affects
performance.
A t-test was conducted to test the significance of home and family support as a performance predictor. The results
for the test are shown in table 6 above (df=113, t = 58.184, p=0.00). Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected since the
p-value is less than 0.05. Hence we conclude that home and family support significantly affects performance.
To test if there are significant differences in performance among students receiving different parental treatments,
an Analysis of Variance test was conducted to test the following hypothesis.
H0 : There is no difference in math performance among students receiving different parental treatments.
H1 : There is a difference in math performance among students receiving different parental treatments.
Table 8a: ANOVA Parenting And Perfomance
Sum of Squares df Mean Square FSig.
Between Groups 3591.383 23 156.147 20.882 .000
Within Groups 672.976 90 7.478
Total 4264.360 113
The results of the test in table 8a above show that (df = 23, df =90, F= 20.882, p=0.000).Therefore, we reject the null
hypothesis since p<0.05 and conclude that there are significant differences in mathematics performance among students
receiving different parental treatments.
Table 8b: ANOVA Communication And Perfomance
Sum of Squares df Mean Square FSig.
Between Groups 3415.755 22 155.262 16.649 .000
Within Groups 848.605 91 9.325
Total 4264.360 113
The results of the test in table 8b above show that (df = 22, df =91, F= 16.649, p=0.000).Therefore, we reject the null
hypothesis since p<0.05 and conclude that communication is a significant factor that affects mathematics performance.
Table 8c: ANOVA Home & Family Support And Perfomance
Sum of Squares df Mean Square FSig.
Between Groups 3758.005 30 125.267 20.533 .000
Within Groups 506.355 83 6.101
Total 4264.360 113
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To test if there are significant differences in performance among students receiving different home and family support, an
Analysis of Variance test was conducted to test the following hypothesis.
H0: There is no difference in math performance among students receiving different home and family support.
H1: There is a difference in math performance among students receiving different home and family support.
The results of the test in table 8c above show that (df = 30, df =83, F= 20.533, p=0.000).Therefore, we reject the
null hypothesis since p<0.05 and conclude that there are significant differences in mathematics performance among
students receiving different home and family support.
Table 9: Correlations
Parenting Communication Home &Family support Performance
Parenting Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
1
114
.831**
.000
114
.917**
.000
114
.904**
.000
114
Communication Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
.831**
.000
114
1
114
.811**
.000
114
.868**
.000
114
Home &Family support Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
.917**
.000
114
.811**
.000
114
1
114
.922**
.000
114
Performance Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
.904**
.000
114
.868**
.000
114
.922**
.000
114
1**
114
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
Hypothesis two examined the association and the nature of relationships between performance and the three constructs
of parenting, communication and home and family support. The correlation between any two variables (or sets of
variables) summarizes a relationship, whether or not there is any real-world connection between the two variables.
Analysis of the data resulted from the Pearson correlation analysis (see Table 9), indicates that performance is positively
correlated with all the three components of parental involvement and the association is significant at the 0.01 level.
The results of this study show that there is a significant relationship between parenting and performance (r=.904**,
p=.000).These findings concurs with findings by Fan and Williams (2010) who showed that parental academic aspirations
for their children had greater effect on students’ academic growth.
The results of this study also show that there is a significant relationship between communication and performance
(r=0.868, p=0.000).
The results of this study show that there is a significant relationship between home and family support and
performance (p=.922**, p=0.000). A correlation greater than 0.8 is generally described as strong, whereas a correlation
less than 0.5 is generally described as weak. Thus, all the three constructs are positively linearly related to performance.
The correlation analysis also reveals that the relationships are highly significant and the strengths of the
relationships between independent (parenting, communication and home and family) and dependent variables are very
strong between performance and the three components of parental involvement.
However since we have more than one predictor variable, it is not conclusive to compare the contribution of each
predictor variable by simply comparing the correlation coefficients. Further tests of beta regression coefficients are carried
out in order to make such comparisons and to assess the strength of the relationship between each predictor variable to
the response variable.
11.3 Test of Multi-collinearity
The term multi-collinearity (or collinearity) is used to describe the situation when a high correlation is detected between
two or more predictor variables. Table 9 shows that (parenting/communication=.831**, parenting/home and family
support=.917**, communication/ home and family support=.811**).These high correlations cause problems when drawing
inferences about the relative contribution of each predictor variable to the success of the model (Laursen, Pulkkinen &
Adams, 2002).The variance inflationary factor (VIF) for each explanatory variable was used in this study as suggested by
Bersenson et al. (2004). If variance inflationary factor (VIF) in each independent variable is equal to 0, it means that the
variables are uncorrelated to each other. If the variance inflationary factor (VIF) is greater than 5, it means that the
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independent variables in the model are not highly correlated to each other. The requirements for employing regression
analysis were fulfilled since all the VIFs were more than zero but less than 5.
Table 10: Test of Multi-collinearity
Variables VIF
Parenting 3.39
Communication 3.69
Home and Family Support 4.89
Model R R2 Adjusted
R2 Std. Error of the Estimate Change Statistics
R2Change F Change df1 df2 Sig. F Change
.947c .898 .895 1.9916 .005 5.861 1c110 .017
Predictors: (Constant), Parenting, Home & family support, Communication)
The results of multiple regression analysis indicate that multiple regression coefficients of parenting, communication and
home and family support on performance is 0.947 and the adjusted R square is 0.898. Therefore, the findings confirmed
and suggested that the overall 89.5% of the variance (adjusted R square) in performance has been significantly explained
by these three factors of parenting, communication and home and family support. The p-value for the adjusted R square
is (p= 0.017) and is less than 0.05. Thus we conclude that the three variables are significant predictors of mathematics
performance.
Table 12: ANOVA: Performance and Home & family support, Parenting& Communication
Model Sum of Squares d
f
Mean Square FSig.
Regression 3828.036 3 1276.012 321.691 .000d
Residual 436.324 110 3.967
Total 4264.360 113
Table 12 above reports an ANOVA, which assesses the overall significance of the model. In the ANOVA table, the F
statistic is equal to 1276.012/3.967 =321.691. The distribution is F (3, 110), and the probability of observing a value
greater than or equal to 321.691 is less than 0.05. There is strong evidence against the null hypothesis. As p < 0.05 the
model is significant. To measure the contribution of each variable to the response variable beta tests were carried out.
The standardized beta coefficients give a measure of the contribution of each variable to the model. A large value
indicates that a unit change in this predictor variable has a large effect on the criterion variable. The t and Sig (p) values
give a rough indication of the impact of each predictor variable – a big absolute t -value and small p value suggests that a
predictor variable has a great impact on the criterion variable.
Table 13: Influence of each variable on Performance: Coefficients
Model
Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
BStd. Error Beta
(Constant) 2.998 1.065 2.816 .006
Home And Family support .383 .061 .494 6.307 .000
Communication .381 .071 .301 5.352 .000
Parenting .231 .096 .200 2.421 .017
Performance=Constant + Home & Family support+ Communication+ Parenting + Error term
Performance=2.999 + 0.494 Home &Family support+ 0.301Communication+0.200Parenting+ Error term
The beta value is a measure of how strongly each predictor variable influences the response variable (performance). The
beta is measured in units of standard deviation. The higher the beta value the greater the impact of the predictor variable
on the response variable. The beta regression coefficient is computed to make comparisons and to assess the strength of
the relationship between each predictor variable to the response variable.
From the result presented in table 13, home and family support appeared as the strongest explanatory variable
1
β
2
β
3
β
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ISSN 2039-9340 (print)
Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences
MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy
Vol 5 No 8
May 2014
288
with standardized beta of 0.494. A t-test for this regression coefficient gives (t=6.307, p=.000). Since the p<0.05 we
conclude that the regression coefficient is significant and home and family support is a predictor of performance.
This is followed by communication with a standardized beta value of 0 .30 .A t-test for this regression coefficient
gives (t=5.352, p=.000). Since the p<0.05 we conclude that the regression coefficient is significant and communication is
a predictor of performance.
Parenting has a standardized beta value of 0 .200.A t-test for this regression coefficient gives (t=2.421, p=.017).
Since the p<0.05 we conclude that the regression coefficient is significant and parenting is a predictor of performance.
12. Conclusion and Recommendations
The present study explored the impact of parental involvement as a predictor variable on students’ mathematics
performance. The research hypothesized that parental education and gender have a significant effect on the student’s
performance. The results showed that parents’ education level and gender were directly related to students’ mathematics
performance. This means that the educational level and gender of parents play a vital role in students’ performance.
Therefore, because highly educated parents know the learning requirements and had opportunities to provide the best
education environment for their children.
The research also proposed that there is a relationship between parental involvement (parenting, communication
and home and family support) and students’ mathematics performance. The results indicated that there is a significant
positive relationship between parental involvement and student performance. A regression model was used to find the
most contributing parental involvement construct. Home and family support is the most contributing predictor of students’
mathematics performance. This suggests that parents’ involvement through home works, creating conducive home
environments for studying and motivating and setting realistic expectations enhances performance. Therefore it can be
concluded that performance and dimensions of parental involvement are positively related and if teachers and parents
need to improve students’ performance, they should ensure children's health and safety and to build positive home
conditions that support school learning.
The study recommends that parents should take a leading in supporting their children’s educational endeavors
since they are the first educators to expose them to the academic world. The research also recommends a strong parent
–teacher partnership for students to excel in mathematics. Parents should also set realistic expectations on their
children’s performance. These high expectations motivate their child to perform well in mathematics. The confidence they
have in their children builds their own confidence in their academic abilities and makes them more likely to succeed.
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This study was conducted to examine different factors influencing the academic performance of secondary school students in a metropolitan city of Pakistan. The respondents for this study were 10 th grade students (300 male & 300 female). A survey was conducted by using a questionnaire for information gathering about different factors relating to academic performance of students. The academic performance was gauged by the result of their 9th grade annual examination. Standard t-test and ANOVA were applied to investigate the effect of different factors on students' achievement. The results of the study revealed that socioeconomic status (SES) and parents' education have a significant effect on students' overall academic achievement as well as achievement in the subjects of Mathematics and English. The high and average socioeconomic level affects the performance more than the lower level. It is very interesting that parents' education means more than their occupation in relation to their children's academic performance at school. It was found that girls perform better than the male students.
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This study examined whether children's mathematics anxiety serves as an underlying pathway between parental involvement and children's mathematics achievement. Participants included 78 low-income, ethnic minority parents and their children residing in a large urban center in the northeastern United States. Parents completed a short survey tapping several domains of parental involvement, and children were assessed on mathematics anxiety, whole number arithmetic, word problems, and algebraic reasoning. Research Findings: The results indicated that parents influence children's mathematics achievement by reducing mathematics anxiety, particularly for more difficult kinds of mathematics. Specifically, the mediation analyses demonstrated that parental home support and expectations influenced children's performance on word problems and algebraic reasoning by reducing children's mathematics anxiety. Mathematics anxiety did not mediate the relationship between home support and expectations and whole number arithmetic. Practice or Policy: Policies and programs targeting parental involvement in mathematics should focus on home-based practices that do not require technical mathematical skills. Parents should receive training, resources, and support on culturally appropriate ways to create home learning environments that foster high expectations for children's success in mathematics.
Book
Early childhood mathematics is vitally important for young children's present and future educational success. Research demonstrates that virtually all young children have the capability to learn and become competent in mathematics. Furthermore, young children enjoy their early informal experiences with mathematics. Unfortunately, many children's potential in mathematics is not fully realized, especially those children who are economically disadvantaged. This is due, in part, to a lack of opportunities to learn mathematics in early childhood settings or through everyday experiences in the home and in their communities. Improvements in early childhood mathematics education can provide young children with the foundation for school success. Relying on a comprehensive review of the research, Mathematics Learning in Early Childhood lays out the critical areas that should be the focus of young children's early mathematics education, explores the extent to which they are currently being incorporated in early childhood settings, and identifies the changes needed to improve the quality of mathematics experiences for young children. This book serves as a call to action to improve the state of early childhood mathematics. It will be especially useful for policy makers and practitioners-those who work directly with children and their families in shaping the policies that affect the education of young children. © 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Article
We assert that the most important questions concerning parental involvement in children's education address why parents choose to become involved and why their involvement, once underway, often positively influences educational outcomes. We present a model suggesting that parents become involved primarily because (a) they develop a personal construction of the parental role that includes participation in their children's education, (b) they have developed a positive sense of efficacy for helping their children succeed in school, and (c) they perceive opportunities or demands for involvement from children and the school. Parents then choose specific forms of involvement in response to the specific domains of skill and knowledge they possess, the total demands on their time and energy, and specific requests for involvement from children and the school. The model suggests that parental involvement then influences children's developmental and educational outcomes through such mechanisms as modeling, reinforcement, and instruction, as mediated by the parent's use of developmentally appropriate activities and the fit between parental activities and the school's expectations. The major educational outcomes of the involvement process are children's development of skills and knowledge, as well as a personal sense of efficacy for succeeding in school. Major implications of the model for research and practice are discussed.
Article
For many years, educators, parents, and social scientists have conceptualized engaged parents as those who help their children with their homework, frequently attend school functions, and maintain household rules that dictate when their young engage in schoolwork and leisure. Recent meta-analyses on parental involvement confirm the salience of more subtle social variables, which Bandura and Walters asserted may be even more important than overt parental behavior in fostering positive student outcomes. These results indicate that factors such as parental expectations, the quality of parent–child communication, and parental style may be more highly related to student achievement than various more overt expressions of this involvement.
Article
In this article, family-school partnerships are discussed as a viable and essential way to increase the opportunities and supports for all students to enhance their learning progress and meet the recent demands of schooling inherent in accountability systems and most notably of Title I No Child Left Behind legislation. School psychologists are encouraged to make the family-school partnership a priority by collaborating with school personnel to (a) apply principles from systems-ecological theory to children's learning; (b) maintain an opportunity-oriented, persistent focus when working with youth and families living in challenging situations; and (c) attend to the process of partnering with families. Example opportunities for school psychologists to make this partnership a priority for children's academic, social, and emotional learning are delineated.
Chapter
(from the chapter) School readiness and academic preparedness of African American children are a continuing concern to many, including early childhood researchers and interventionists, school administrators, policy makers, and community leaders (Johnston & Viadero, 2000; U.S. Department of Education, 2005). Recognition of the lagging educational progress and patterns of subpar achievement among African American children have given rise to a push for greater understanding of the underlying causes. There are many theories of African American underachievement, such as genetic explanations and faulty neurodevelopment, but they account for only a tiny fraction of the affected population. This chapter focuses on the key ideas that dominate the literature and that have been strongly linked to children's early schooling: parenting and the home environment, school environment, and neighborhood effects. In addition to reviewing previous research, we summarize newly analyzed relevant data from a large national study; provide recommendation for parents, teachers, and communities; and suggest future steps. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) (chapter)