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Routine and Project-Based Leisure, Happiness, and Meaning in Life



The search for happiness and life meaning is an ancient quest. Positive psychology has brought this topic to the forefront of modern research. Previous research has shown that meaning and happiness can be found through one's vocation and through leisure pursuits. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of routine and project-based leisure experiences on meaning and happiness. Three-hundred and five college students participated in the study. Structural equation modeling and regression analyses revealed significant relationships between meaning, happiness, and routine leisure pursuits. Social engagement, personal reflection, and time spent outdoors were potent predictors of happiness and meaning. Implications for the leisure field are discussed in light of these findings and other relevant research.
Routine And Project-Based Leisure, Happiness And Meaning In Life.
Andrew Bailey
Assistant Professor, Calvin College
2347 Jefferson Dr SE
Grand Rapids, MI 49507
Irene K. Fernando
Executive Director, Students Today Leaders Forever
Abstract: The search for happiness and life meaning is an ancient quest. Positive psychology
has brought this topic to the forefront of modern research. Previous research has shown that
meaning and happiness can be found through one’s vocation and through leisure pursuits. The
purpose of this study was to determine the impact of routine and project-based leisure
experiences on meaning and happiness. Three-hundred and five college students participated in
the study. Structural equation modeling and regression analyses revealed significant relationships
between meaning, happiness, and routine leisure pursuits. Social engagement, personal
reflection, and time spent outdoors were potent predictors of happiness and meaning.
Implications for the leisure field are discussed in light of these findings and other relevant
Keywords: Happiness, Meaning in Life, Social Capital
More than sixty years ago, Victor Frankl attributed a notable increase in diagnosed
neuroses to a lack of meaning in life. His position was summed up in the now famous quote, “…
people have enough to live by, but nothing to live for; they have the means, but no meaning”
(Frankl, 2006, p. 140). This statement comes as no surprise to those who specialize in the fields
of psychology and human development. Increases in wealth and intelligence, two popular
indicators of progress, have done little to influence general happiness and well-being (Flynn,
1998, Csikszentmihalyi, 1999). Ten percent of Americans now have mood disorders, and major
depressive disorder is the leading cause of disability in the US for15-44 year olds (WHO, 2004).
If Frankl is correct in asserting that meaning and happiness dwell together, then life purpose is
not just the culmination of a hierarchy of fulfilled needs (Maslow, 1954), but the driving force
behind a life of thriving. While meaning and happiness may emerge from a variety of
circumstances, leisure pursuits consistently rank high on the list of facilitators (Lyubomirsky,
King, & Diener, 2005). The term “leisure” may apply to any number of activities undertaken
during free time and/or for their own sake (Godbey, 2007). An understanding of how the type
and duration of leisure activities influence happiness and meaning would allow for a more
prescriptive program design, steering leisure programmers and participants toward purposeful
Literature Review
The Will to Meaning
Frankl’s innovative branch of therapy, Logotherapy, is based on the principle that
humans are primarily motivated by a search for meaning and purpose. This theory is juxtaposed
to Nietzsche’s “Will to Power” and to Freud’s “Will to Pleasure”. While security, efficacy, and
enjoyment may motivate us to act in certain situations, an underlying sense of purpose drives us
to persevere through even the most difficult times. Life meaning, though defined in a variety of
ways, is consistently regarded as vital to thriving. Meaningful living has been tied to greater
work enjoyment, life satisfaction, and happiness (Bonebright, Clay, & Ankenmann, 2000;
Chamberlain & Zika, 1998; Debats, van der Lubbe, & Wezeman, 1993). Individuals that report a
lack of life purpose also report a greater need for therapy (Battista & Almond, 1973), higher
levels of depression and anxiety (Debats et al. 1993), and suicidal ideation and substance abuse
(Harlow, Newcomb, & Bentler, 1986). It is reasoned that a lack of meaning leads to
psychological distress, which is manifested in a variety of neuroses.
There is no universal meaning that applies to everyone’s life. Meaning must be found
individually within the present moment, and can be facilitated by: 1) creating a work or doing a
deed, 2) experiencing someone or something powerful, or 3) the attitude we take to unavoidable
suffering (Frankl, 2006). Recent research has identified similar antecedents to meaning,
including: the pursuit of important goals (Klinger, 1977), the development of a coherent life
narrative (Kenyon, 2000), and self-transcendence (Seligman, 2002). A meaningful life can help
to fend off depression, anxiety, and suicidal tendencies, thus paving the way for happiness and
life satisfaction to emerge (Debats et al., 1993; Harlow et al., 1986). Such is the basis of the
Positive Psychology movement, which endeavors to “improve quality of life and prevent the
pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless” (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000,
p. 5).
The quest for happiness is universal and as old as human existence. The ancient Greeks
considered happiness the only true end worth striving for (Aristotle, 1996). In the US, the pursuit
of happiness is considered a fundamental human right. Bhutan has identified happiness as their
indicator for national progress. The rise of Positive Psychology has brought about a slew of
research centered on positive affect. So popular is the topic that entire journals have emerged to
disseminate research focused only on such themes (c.f. Journal of Positive Psychology, Journal
of Happiness Studies). Though happiness is a widely accepted and highly praised construct, its
elusive, ephemeral character renders it a difficult topic of study. Undaunted, researchers have
identified many predictors and correlates of human happiness.
Happiness, defined also as positive affect and subjective well-being, is a product of
inheritance, environment, and attitude (Seligman, 2002). Gender has a negligible effect on
happiness, though a more communal disposition, often regarded as a feminine trait, is associated
with greater happiness (Michalos, 1991). Despite stereotypes of the “grumpy old man”,
happiness has been shown to remain constant with age (Diener & Suh, 1998). Extraverts
consistently report higher levels of well being (Fujita, 1991; Lyubomirsky et al., 2005), while
neuroticism is highly predictive of negative affect (Watson & Clark, 1984). Self-esteem and self-
efficacy also predict subjective well-being, though this effect is much stronger in individualistic
cultures (Lucas, Diener, & Suh, 1996; Feasel, 1995).
Environmental predictors of happiness include: one’s level of education and income
(Diener et al., 1993), being married (Diener et al., 2000), physical health (Foster et al. 2004),
leisure satisfaction (Veenhoven, 1994), and consistent physical activity (Audrain et al., 2001).
Social interaction also has a powerful effect on one’s level of happiness. Number of friends,
frequency of engagement, and frequency of formal and informal social activities (i.e. parties,
clubs) are all associated with greater levels of subjective well-being (Argyle & Lu, 1990; Crede,
Chernyshenko, Stark, & Dalal, 2005). Finally, Time spent in the outdoors is associated with
positive mood (Maas et al., 2009), and religious experiences have been tied to life satisfaction
(Ellison, 1991).
Much previous research relied heavily on correlational analyses, leaving open the
question of causality. Lyubomirsky, King, & Diener (2005) conducted a meta-analysis of
previous research with the assumption that happiness was not the result, but the cause of positive
life events. The evidence is compelling, leaving us with the dilemma of whether or not happiness
can and should be sought after directly. Frankl held that “happiness cannot be pursued, it must
ensue…” (2006, p. 138). Chasing after happiness could be counterproductive, given the inherent
elusiveness of the construct. Furthermore, if one fails to achieve happiness, they may experience
further distress at their incompetence. This could lead to an endless cycle through which distress
breeds further distress. Alternatively, Frankl proposed a process of transcendence, through which
an individual “loses him/herself” through engagement with others and life events. In this way,
one creates his/her own life meaning through purposeful daily activities.
The Role of Leisure
"Happiness is thought to depend on leisure; for we are busy that we may have leisure,
and make war that we may live in peace." Aristotle
Meaning can come through a variety of mediums in life, not the least of which is one’s
vocation. Donovan (2000) reported a .50 correlation between job satisfaction and personal affect.
However, according to a recent survey only 45% of Americans are satisfied with their jobs (a
61% decrease from 1987) and only half of workers find their jobs interesting (The Conference
Board, 2010). Despite their dissatisfaction, those who plan on sticking with their current job will
do so because of a good friend at work, a good paycheck, or an easy commute: hardly the
material of a meaningful vocation. Given the lack of interest and satisfaction in the work
environment, Americans must find happiness and meaning through other outlets.
Leisure can be a powerful medium for the discovery of life’s meaning, whether it comes
through the experience of positive emotions, positive self-identity, the development of social
connections, or lifelong learning (Iwasaki. 2007). In fact, it is often argued that the pursuit of a
meaningful life is a function of leisure (Godbey, 2007). Commonly agreed upon components of
leisure include: voluntary activity, intrinsic motivation, enjoyment, and self-discovery (Godbey,
2007; Iso Ahola, 1980; Czichsentmihalyi, 1990). These components may be encountered
through short-term, project-based leisure experiences or through long-term commitment typically
associated with routine and/or serious leisure experiences (Stebbins, 2009).
Project-based Leisure and Volunteer Tourism
Stebbins (2009, p. 82) defined project-based leisure as, “short-term, reasonably
complicated, one-shot or occasional, though infrequent, creative undertaking carried out in free
time, or time free of disagreeable obligation”. Volunteer tourism was specifically identified by
Stebbins as a new type of leisure activity which combines travel and service to benefit a target
group. These experiences may include travel and service within one’s home country or abroad.
Interest in volunteer vacations is increasing across all age groups, with participants and host
communities often reporting powerful outcomes (Travel Industry Association, 2006). Participant
outcomes include: self-discovery (Lyons & Wearing, 2008), pro-social values, cognitive,
affective and reflective assets (Bailey & Russell, 2010), and increased social consciousness and
interest in activism (McGehee, 2002).
The experience utilized in this study was the Pay It Forward Tour (PIFT), a 10-day cross-
country service-trip. Participants elected to be a part of this tour during their academic spring
break. There were no incentives for participation other than the enjoyment of being involved.
Past participants identified a desire to enhance their skills and a willingness to help others as
their key motivators for attending this tour (Bailey & Russell, 2009). Daily activities included
travel by coach bus, community service (i.e. tutoring, homeless shelters), and reflective group
discussions. This experience was deemed appropriate to test Frankl’s (2006) theory of meaning-
making, as it could potentially address all three methods of finding purpose in life. Participants
on the PIFT would have the opportunity to perform a good deed, experience someone/something
powerful, and respond to the unavoidable suffering of others (i.e. poverty, inequality). Skeptics
may scoff at the idea of finding life meaning over the course of a 10-day tour. Frankl was fond of
responding to such skepticism with the following quote from Emil A. Gutheil; “one of the more
common illusions of Freudian orthodoxy is that the durability of results corresponds to the length
of therapy” (Frankl, 2006, p. 127).
Routine Leisure
Though not as novel or potent a form of leisure, one’s usage of daily free time may
provide happiness and a sense of purpose. It is not uncommon for individuals to contribute more
time, effort, and financial investment to their chosen leisure pursuits than their paid vocations
(Stebbins, 1996). Lyubomirsky et al. (2005) found a strong correlation (r = .51) between
satisfaction with recreation and subjective well-being. Many studies have also reported a strong
connection between quantity & quality of social activities and subjective well-being (Burger &
Caldwell, 2000; Kahana et al., 1995; Lyubomirsky et al., 2005). The importance of social
relationships has been touted by researchers and practitioners alike. Many such relationships, of
course, are formed through leisure activities.
One positive outcome of social engagement is the building of one’s social capital. This
system of networks and relational ties has been shown to influence almost every aspect of one’s
life, from physical health, to academic & work success, and also happiness and life meaning
(Lyubomirsky et al. 2005; Putnam, 2001). These benefits can be realized through informal
activities (i.e eating out with friends) or through formal engagement (i.e. team sports, community
service). Those who are better connected may also benefit those around them, through an
overflow of social support and general positive affect (Lyubomirsky et al, 2005). Those born into
a socially active family or who find themselves surrounded by socializers may benefit from this
Of course, social engagement is not the only source of positive influence through leisure.
Regular physical activity can improve objective and subjective well-being (Lyubomirsky et al.,
2005) and cognitive brain function (Voss et al., 2010) whether it is done individually or with
others. Time spent outdoors can improve mood, decrease symptoms of ADHD, and improve
physical health (Maas et al., 2005; Primack et al., 2009; Scopelliti & Giuliani, 2004). Artistic
pursuits (i.e. art, music) have been shown to influence awareness, perception, persistence, and
judgment (Hetland et al., 2007). Finally, reflective activities such as journaling and meditation
may influence wisdom, openness, compassion, and physical and mental health (Bailey &
Russell, 2010; Sanford et al., 2009).
Given the lack of work satisfaction, the ubiquitous nature of leisure, and the recent surge
of energy in the field of positive psychology, a better understanding of the impact of specific
leisure pursuits on meaning and happiness is in order. The purpose of this study was to determine
the impact of a short-term volunteer travel experience, routine social engagement and
participation in various leisure activities on one’s happiness and meaning in life.
Surveys were distributed to 305 students at a university in the Midwest, ages 16 to 22 (M
= 20.6), two-thirds (65%) of whom were female. Two-hundred and four of these students
participated in an alternative spring break trip that included cross-country travel and community
service. A total of 184 surveys were returned complete, resulting in a response rate of 90%. An
additional 101 students who were not participating in the trip also completed the surveys (94%
response rate). This purposive sampling method was utilized in order to achieve a substantial
amount of variance in regular civic engagement. Participants completed the surveys one week
before spring break. Those attending the volunteer travel experience completed an additional
survey electronically (via email) during the week after spring break. This final assessment
achieved a response rate of 71%.
Meaning and purpose in life was measured by the Meaning in Life (MLQ) questionnaire,
a 10-item questionnaire with two subscales assessing one’s search for, and discovery of meaning
in life (e.g. “I am searching for meaning in life,” “My life has no clear purpose”). This
instrument was chosen due to its reported non-collinearity with similar positive constructs such
as happiness (Steger, Frazier, Oishi, & Kaler, 2006). Reliability for the MLQ and the two
subscales was robust (α = .77, .87, .89). Regular social engagement and community involvement
of the participant, their parents, and their closest friends was assessed with 22 items adapted
from the “Social Capital Short Form” (The Saguaro Seminar, 2002). These items assess one’s
routine involvement in informal and formal social activities over the past 12 months and their
trust of others. A CFA conducted on the social capital items indicated that one’s own social
capital, and that of their parents and friends could be combined into one, unobserved social
capital construct (TLI = 1.0, CFI = 1.0, RMSEA = .00 - .095).
Overall happiness was assessed with 4 items (i.e. I am content with what I have in life,
My friends would describe me as a happy person, It doesn’t take much to make me upset or
angry). Reliability for the happiness construct was acceptable (α = .70). Routine leisure
participation was assessed with six items describing how often one participates in the following
leisure activities on a monthly basis: team sports, journaling, art, music performance, watching
television for 3 hours or more, spending more than 20 minutes outdoors, and prayer or
meditation. Age, gender, and GPA were the only demographic measures addressed.
Paired t-tests were conducted to measure differences in pre and post-test scores for
volunteer travel participants. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was utilized to assess the
relationships between social engagement items, meaning in life, and happiness using pre-test
scores. The model was first explored using half (n =140) of the participant data (randomly
selected), then a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted using the other half of the
data. To elucidate the most salient predictors of meaning and happiness, a three-stage regression
analysis was conducted on each of the MIL subscales, and on the happiness construct with the
following progression: 1) Demographics, 2) Social Capital items, 3) Leisure activity items.
Findings indicate that routine leisure had more influence on happiness and meaning than
did the project-based experience. There was no difference in pre and post test scores for
volunteer travel participants on the MIL Questionnaire (t = -.403; p = .687) nor on overall
happiness (t = .529; p = .93). SEM analyses provided support for the proposed structural model
(TLI = .911; CFI = .929; RMSEA = .071). As shown in Figure 1, one’s direct and indirect social
relationships (i.e. social capital) were directly related to both meaning (r = .282) and happiness
(r = .289). The discovery of meaning in life, however, demonstrated a much stronger direct
relationship to happiness (r = .644). One’s search for meaning was not significantly related to
happiness. Social capital and the discovery of meaning together account for over 60% of the
happiness construct.
A three-stage regression analysis helped to elucidate those social capital items and leisure
activities which were most influential for meaning and happiness. Neither demographics, nor
social capital, nor leisure activities had a significant influence on one’s search for meaning. The
only individual item to significantly predict one’s search for meaning was level of attendance at
Insert Figure 1 here
religious ceremonies. Surprisingly, one’s search for meaning was unrelated to one’s discovery of
meaning or happiness. One’s level of social capital did account for 17% of the variance in one’s
discovery of meaning. The most salient items for the discovery of meaning, with all other items
in the model, included: Age, having friends who participate in activities for personal
development, level of friends’ club attendance, and amount of personal time spent in prayer or
Finally, demographics (p = .029), social capital (p = .002), and leisure activities (p = .
008) all accounted for a significant amount of unique variance in the happiness construct. The
items which accounted for the most unique variance in the happiness construct were the amount
of time spent outdoors, and amount of time spent in prayer and meditation. Trust also factored
into one’s level of happiness. Those who felt that people were generally trustworthy and who
disagreed with the statement, “I can only trust my core group of friends” reported higher levels
of happiness.
This study revealed a number of notable findings, which must be interpreted with the
awareness of a few limitations. While the sample size was appropriate for the analyses used, the
purposive sampling technique complicates claims of external validity. There is currently no
standard measure of happiness, and the subjectivity of the term should be acknowledged. Given
Insert Table 1 here
that the SEM is based on cross-sectional data, it is impossible to determine the true nature of
cause and effect. Finally, no follow-up measure was included to determine the long-term impacts
of the volunteer travel experience.
Project-Based Leisure
The volunteer travel experience did not significantly influence meaning in life or
happiness. This may be due to the short-term nature of the experience, or to a lack of time for the
experience to be digested. While powerful, project-based leisure experiences can be life altering,
it may take time for such changes to manifest themselves (Daniel, 2003; Wearing, 2001). Other
studies have reported a host of positive outcomes from short-term, service oriented experiences
including: wisdom, life purpose, academic achievement, and empathy (Bailey & Russell, 2010;
Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning, 2003; Lakin & Mahoney, 2006).
Perhaps ephemeral concepts such as meaning and happiness would be better assessed
longitudinally and/or qualitatively. Given Frankl’s (2006) assertion that there is no universal
meaning that applies to everyone, the rich, contextual evidence provided by qualitative research
may be more illustrative of changes in life meaning. For example, a participant might not be
aware that “their life has more purpose” after serving those in need. However, they may have
found a mission worth striving for; that of alleviating the suffering of others. Such changes may
not be adequately assessed through global research instruments, but case studies can point
toward these effects (Lyons & Wearing, 2008).
Given that short-term service projects can positively impact long-term civic engagement
(Astin, et al. 1999), it may be more constructive to focus on measureable program outputs of
project-based experiences which may lead to long-term meaning and happiness. Frankl’s (2006)
preferred method of therapy was to avoid hyper-reflection and to encourage the client to
transcend their own inadequacies by engaging them in meaningful tasks (i.e. volunteering). In
this way, individuals aren’t paralyzed and isolated by meaninglessness, but are energized through
purposeful encounters.
Social Engagement, Meaning, and Happiness
The SEM supports Frankl’s (2006) claim that happiness comes as a byproduct of a
meaningful life. Higher levels of regular social engagement can have a direct impact on one’s
overall happiness as well as an indirect impact by contributing to one’s sense of meaning in life.
It is noteworthy that, while the discovery of meaning was positively associated with happiness,
one’s search for meaning was unrelated to happiness. This may indicate that, like happiness,
meaning must ensue from engagement in positive activities and relationships. The active search
for elusive, indefinable terms such as happiness and meaning may be exponentially discouraging,
but their qualities may be found in purposeful living.
This imposes a dilemma for educators and practitioners; that of encouraging the
discovery of meaning without invoking the distress of meaninglessness. As daunting as this may
seem, it has been the domain of experiential educators from the beginning (Dewey, 1916). The
simple act of debriefing an activity can encourage the participant to reflect on the experience and
make the connections necessary for meaning to emerge. The focus of such reflection would be
on the activity (i.e. community service) and its purpose for those serving and those served, not
necessarily on its contribution to a life of meaning. Through such experiences the realization of
life purpose could slowly emerge, having been facilitated through meaningful action and
reflection. Many methods of reflection have been utilized, ranging from highly directive to
entirely open-ended (Luckner & Nadler, 1997). The method, though, may not be as critical as the
It is notable that three of the four strongest predictors of discovered meaning did not
involve one’s own social engagement, but that of one’s parents and friends. Parents who
intentionally interact with diverse groups, and friends who seek out opportunities for personal
development and participate in various clubs may benefit kith and kin more than themselves.
This may indicate that leisure programmers should take a broader view of program design. By
factoring in one’s full sphere of influence, leisure programmers could magnify positive
Other Leisure Predictors
The six leisure activities accounted for an additional 3% of variance in the discovery of
meaning and 5% in happiness. Weekly time spent in prayer or meditation influenced one’s
discovery of meaning and their happiness. It is curious that the search for meaning was not
associated with prayer given its relationship to religious participation. Previous research
highlighted the importance of personal reflection for personal growth and for retaining
programmatic outcomes (Bailey & Russell, 2010). Journaling did not have an influence on
meaning or happiness in this study. It is entirely possible that prayer and journaling overlap
substantially, but it is noteworthy that prayer and meditation appear to be the most salient of the
reflective activities in this study.
Finally, time spent outdoors emerged as the strongest direct predictor of happiness. This
outdoor time was not associated with a particular activity, but did require a minimum exposure
of 20 minutes. Even a short span of time spent outdoors may improve subjective well-being if
enjoyed on a regular basis. This has serious implications for an American population that spends
95% of their time indoors (Mayer & Frantz, 2004). The recent surge of energy incited by the
“Leave no Child Inside Movement” is encouraging in this regard. Programmers and policy-
makers need to consider methods of encouraging outdoor exposure and enabling access to
natural environments on a daily basis.
This study has relevant implications for leisure practitioners and researchers in positive
psychology. Life meaning is a salient predictor of happiness, but the direct pursuit of either asset
may prove to be an unfruitful strategy. Failure to achieve happiness may result in an added
burden, making one feel “sad about being sad”( Frankl, 2006, p. 144). Instead, it may be more
beneficial to encourage involvement in specific activities which may facilitate meaning and well-
being. In this study, higher levels of social engagement (i.e. club attendance, public outings with
friends, community service) were associated with higher levels of meaning and happiness. In
addition, prayer/meditation and time spent outdoors emerged as the most salient individual
activities for happiness. Natural environments have been shown to improve mood and relieve
mental stress (Maas et al., 2009), and the benefits of a reflective life have been touted for
millennia (Assman, 1994). Leisure advocates should take seriously their opportunity to facilitate
meaningful programs for their clientele. This may require the discretion to look beyond activities
which seem immediately pleasurable, to provide activities that have been shown to influence
meaning and happiness. Such intentional program design would demonstrate that “the true
meaning of life is to be discovered in the world rather than within man or his own psyche, as
though it were a closed system” (Frankl, 2006, p. 110).
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Figure 1. Illustration of the Latent SEM for Social Engagement, Discovery of Meaning, and
d Meaning
r = .644
r = .282
r = .289
Table 1. Regression Coefficients for All Items Predicting the Search for and Discovery of Meaning, and
Searching for
Meaning Happiness
Full Model tPart r t Part r t Part r
Gender 0.029 0.002 0.801 0.048 0.904 0.049
Age 1.993 0.111* -0.098 -0.006 0.725 0.039
Parents Volunteer -0.798 -0.044 0.822 0.049 0.535 0.029
Having friends over 1.221 0.068 0.596 0.036 0.766 0.041
Service 0.058 0.003 0.391 0.024 -0.523 -0.028
Personal Development -1.266 -0.071 -0.412 -0.025 0.437 0.024
Religious Services 0.348 0.019 0.466 0.028 -0.531 -0.029
Diverse groups 1.760 0.098 0.433 0.026 0.181 0.010
Friends Volunteer -0.217 -0.012 1.124 0.068 0.972 0.052
Having friends over -0.890 -0.050 1.085 0.065 -0.454 -0.024
Personal Development 2.785 0.155* -1.106 -0.067 1.006 0.054
Religious Services 1.219 0.068 -2.125 -0.128* 1.292 0.070
Diverse groups -0.996 -0.056 -0.383 -0.023 0.052 0.003
Club attendance -1.975 -0.110* 1.414 0.085 -0.306 -0.017
Self Club attendance 0.605 0.034 0.019 0.001 1.313 0.071
Team Sports -0.600 -0.033 -0.432 -0.026 0.996 0.054
Volunteer -0.668 -0.037 -0.892 -0.054 1.334 0.072
Club Leadership 1.105 0.062 0.727 0.044 -0.968 -0.052
Religious Attendance 1.351 0.075 0.098 0.006 0.123 0.007
Travel abroad -0.127 -0.007 0.611 0.037 -1.253 -0.068
Trust General Trust 1.071 0.060 -0.140 -0.008 2.528 0.136*
Trust other Races 1.391 0.078 1.089 0.065 0.398 0.021
Trust Schoolmates 0.639 0.036 -1.436 -0.086 -0.130 -0.007
Trust only friends -0.416 -0.023 0.084 0.005 2.268 0.122*
Leisure Journaling 0.653 0.036 0.118 0.007 -1.127 -0.061
Art Production 0.403 0.022 0.551 0.033 1.479 0.080
Music Performance 1.050 0.059 -1.235 -0.074 -0.487 -0.026
Watching TV 0.310 0.017 -1.722 -0.104 0.012 0.001
Time spent Outdoors 0.109 0.006 0.453 0.027 2.486 0.134*
Prayer/Meditation 2.134 0.119* -1.435 -0.086 2.084 0.112*
... In fact, as human beings we build the meaning of our life day after day, by interpreting the naturally occurring everyday life-experiences and integrating them in our identity (Brassai et al., 2011;Frankl, 1963;Park & Baumeister, 2017;. For instance, daily routines and leisure activities, such as have a cup of coffee every morning, has been found to play a leading role in making one's life meaningful (Bailey & Fernando, 2012;Heintzelman & King, 2019). ...
This doctoral thesis aims to open a reflection on how to measure dynamics of change of psychological processes by presenting an application of the complexity framework to the meaning-making process. The first chapter fronts the challenge of how to conceptualize the meaning-making process, by conducting a systematic review of the literature that led toward the formulation of a new integrated conceptual definition of meaning-making. The second chapter presents the development of a new self-report measure of meaning in life (SMILE; situational meaning in life evaluation) that has been validated in a national representative sample and in a sample of emerging and young adults. The third chapter deals with the challenge of how to investigate the dynamics of change of the meaning-making process in the daily life by applying two state-of-the-art data analysis approaches, the Dynamic Structural Equation Models (DSEM) and the Multilevel Network Psychometric approach. Data from emerging and young adults were collected with a measurement burst design made of two daily diary studies during the COVID-19 pandemic. The role of individual factors (transitive condition in love and work), situational factors (positive vs negative events), and contextual factors (pandemic) as activators of the meaning-making process has also been investigated.
... Psychological wellness entails an individual's attitudes and beliefs about their life and their mental health (Miller and Foster, 2010). Social wellness involves the depth and breadth of an individual's interactions and relationships with others, the community, and nature (Bailey and Fernando, 2012;Howell et al., 2013). Interpersonal relationships within one's immediate social circle, such as with one's family and friends, enhance one's sense of belonging, social connectedness, and expected and perceived emotional support (Hicks et al., 2010(Hicks et al., , 2012Lambert et al., 2013). ...
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Introduction Although work is a significant source of meaning for most people, the role of senior executive generates different meaning and well-being complexities than those experienced or faced by general employees. This study explored how meaning and anti-meaning components affect senior executives’ experiences of meaning in life and well-being. The findings enabled devising a pathway to enhance senior executives’ net experiences of meaning in life and well-being. Methods A cross-sectional, semi-structured interview study design was used to gather rich qualitative data. Eight participants from southern and eastern Africa, who had held the position of chief executive officer or managing director for at least five years, were interviewed. Results The findings demonstrated that senior executives’ work roles provide a significant source of meaning. However, the roles are accompanied by unavoidable anti-meanings, which are likely to generate additional anti-meanings if not tempered sufficiently, thus reducing the net meaning experienced. Discussion From the findings, a practical pathway was devised to assist top executives to deal with the bipolar relationship between meaning and anti-meaning. Consulting and counseling practitioners can utilize the pathway to guide, support, and counsel senior executives towards improved meaning, temper anti-meaning and improve well-being.
... Menurut Keputusan Menteri Negara Lingkunagn Hidup Nomor Kep-48/MENLH/11/1996 menetapkan baku tingkat kebisingan perkantoran dan perdagangan sebesar 65 dBA serta industri sebesar 70 dBA. Tingkat keterpaparan kebisingan cenderung tinggi pada negara berkembang seperti Indonesia daripada negara maju seperti Jerman karena pengendalian kebisingan secara teknik belum dilakukan secara meluas Status pernikahan merupakan salah satu faktor yang dapat mejadi faktor stress kerja pada pekerja.Pernikahan merupakan salah satu pediktor lingkungan yang memiliki pengaruh kuat terhadap kebahagiaan.4 Kenyataannya diindonesia sendiri tingkat kebahagiaan dalam pernikahan mengalami penurunan. ...
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Stres pekerjaan adalah tanggapan orang-orang pada saat tuntutan dan tekanan kerja tidak sesuai dengan pengetahuan dan kemampuan mereka dalam mengatasinya. Jumlah total kasus stress kerja, depresi atau cemas sekitar 488.000 kasus pada tahun 2015/2016 dan prevalence rate mencapai 1510 per 100.000 pekerja di Britania Raya. Jumlah pekerja yang mengalami stress kerja cenderung meningkat dari tahun ke tahun yang belum mendapatkan perhatian. Diketahui bahwa jumlah tenaga kerja yang mengalami stress kerja cenderung meningkat dari tahun ke tahun dan pada umumnya belum mendapat perhatian. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui Faktor yang berhubungan dengan stres kerja pada karyawan PT. Maruki Internsional Indonesia. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif karena data yang diperoleh nantinya hanya berupa angka dengan jenis pendekatan cross sectional pengambilan data focus pertama pengisian kuesioner dan pengukuran kebisingan. Penelitian ini yang dilakukan factory I di PT. Maruki Internasional Makassar dengan jumlah sampel 54 orang yang dilakukan dengan metode simple random sampling yaitu memberikan kesempatan yang sama bagi setiap anggota populasi untuk menjadi sampel penelitian. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada hubungan yang signifikan antara status pernikahan dengan stress kerja dengan nilai p= 0,451. Tidak ada hubungan yang signifikan antara upah kerja dengan stress kerja dengan nilai p= 0,997. Ada hubungan yang signifikan antara intensitas kebisingan dengan stress kerja dengan nilai p= 0,001.
... The findings supported the hypothesis and indicated that emotional distress improved among youth. This result suggests that engagement with textile art is a continual process involving goal setting, controlling external conditions, and meeting aims (Bailey & Fernando, 2012;Pöllänen, 2015). Based on the high completion rate, attendance rate, and significant scores collected from the study, although distressed youth tend to be uninterested in seeking help from adults (Riley, 2001), the retention rate was high, at 100%. ...
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Recent years have seen increased interest in early intervention in and prevention of mental health difficulties during adolescence. In this pilot study, a structured expressive textile art and fashion based (ETAFB) intervention was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects on personal well-being and social interaction of youth with emotional distress. A one-group pretest-posttest pilot study was conducted among 18 youth with emotional distress. All the participants attended four sessions of ETAFB intervention. All the participants were subjected to a preintervention test and a 4-week postintervention test using the Personal Wellbeing Index – School Children (PWI-SC), 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). The study findings revealed that the ETAFB intervention was associated with significant improvements in some of the measurements. This information provides the groundwork for a further study to investigate the effect of the ETAFB intervention on the relationship between youth well-being and facilitators.
... Consumer happiness was assessed using a two-item scale fromVan Boven and Gilovich (2003), which has been validated in the spectator sports context(Jang et al., 2017). Overall happiness was measured by a three-item measure of general happiness(Bailey & Fernando, 2012). The survey items for all three latent constructs (seeSupporting Information: Appendix A) were measured on a 7-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree; 7= strongly agree). ...
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Although the marketing literature has extensively studied consumer‐brand identification, scholars have not fully explored its well‐being benefits. Drawing from the social identity approach and the bottom‐up theory of subjective well‐being, we examine how consumer‐brand identification can be a source of happiness in experiential consumption settings. We conduct two studies to test the proposed research model. In Study 1, results from 322 fans of a professional football team show that consumer happiness positively mediates the association between consumer‐brand identification and overall happiness. We subsequently conduct a partial‐least‐square multigroup analysis with three groups (nonpurchase, one‐time‐purchase, and repeat‐purchase) based on purchase frequency during the season. The results reveal that the path coefficient between consumer‐brand identification and consumer happiness is stronger in the one‐time‐purchase group than in the nonpurchase group. In Study 2, we reexamine the proposed model while accounting for the effects of core product quality. Results from 500 fans of a professional baseball team support Study 1's findings. Overall, our findings add to the knowledge surrounding the well‐being benefits of consumer‐brand identification and demonstrate the role of experiential consumption in facilitating happiness.
... However, the routine seems to reassure individuals by giving them a feeling of light-heartedness and serenity arising from habit (Osgood et al., 1996) and nostalgia (Holak et al., 2007). Such routines can be defined as the set of customs and personal habits, but during the pandemic, individuals may lose these routines (Bailey and Fernando, 2012). Not surprisingly, after a state of disorientation in the initial phase of the lockdown, many individuals gradually tried to reconstruct a new daily routine comprising gestures, actions, and moments that became reassuring precisely because they were constantly repeated over the days. ...
The health crisis due to the recent pandemic influenced our lives and, consequently, our consumption. Despite prior investigations on exogenous crises and their effects on consumption, no studies to date have examined consumers' coping strategies to health crises that require social distancing and, more particularly, responses to such crises by focusing on Generation Z. The present study fills this gap by exploring how consumption evolved during a lockdown as a consequence of these consumers' attempts to cope with the crisis. Through a qualitative approach based on grounded theory and projective techniques, findings shed light on new meanings of resilience and nostalgia, which seem to characterize Generation Z's consumers' desires during a lockdown. Importantly, we introduce the concept of responsible hedonic consumption, which stems from Generation Z consumers' desire to search for experiences that are pleasant but also compatible with personal and societal wellbeing.
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Objective: To explore the relationship between the sense of meaning in life and crisis vulnerability of undergraduate nursing student and the chain mediating effect of socialist core value identification and positive psychological capital on the relationship between the two. Methods: A total of 330 undergraduate nursing students (M±SD = 19.68±1.31 years old) from traditional Chinese medicine colleges in Yunnan ethnic minority areas were measured bythe Sense of Life Scale, Socialist Core Values Identity Scale, Sense of Life Scale and Crisis Vulnerability Questionnaire. Results: The sense of meaning in life was negatively correlated with crisis vulnerability, positively correlated with socialist core values identification and positive psychological capital, negatively correlated with crisis vulnerability, positively correlated with socialist core values identification and positive psychological capital, and positively correlated with socialist core values identification. The chain mediation effect analysis shows that the sense of meaning in life can predict crisis vulnerability through three indirect pathways: the mediating effect of socialist core value identification, the mediating effect of positive psychological capital, and the chain mediating effect of socialist core values and positive psychological capital. Conclusion: The sense of meaning in life may be a remote variable of the crisis vulnerability of undergraduate nursing students, which can reduce individual crisis vulnerability by enhancing the level of socialist core value identification and positive psychological capital.
The serious leisure perspective (SLP) aligns with humanistic counseling principles. A most significant professional implication is that humanistic counselors can create optimal leisure lifestyle strategies linked to the AHC principles of discovering meaning and purpose, developing deep connections with people and nature, moving toward growth and change, maintaining a holistic approach to humanity, and developing creativity. Future research implications and practical steps that humanistic counselors can use in professional practice to connect the SLP to humanistic counseling principles are elucidated.
This book provides an overview of the phenomenon of volunteer tourism, its sources and its development as a concept; and focuses on the potential positive social and environmental benefits of volunteer tourism, and the prerequisites for a successful experience. Chapter 2 examines alternative tourism experiences and how tourists themselves construct them, then conceptualizes the concept of volunteer tourism within those boundaries of alternative tourism and, subsequently, mass tourism. Chapter 3 examines one of the 60 environmental projects undertaken by Youth Challenge International (YCI) between 1991 and 1995, which provides a microsocial context for the examination of the Santa Elena Rainforest Reserve experience of YCI participants. Chapter 4 presents the data obtained from the in-depth interviews with participants from Australia, over the 3 years of the Costa Rica project. Chapter 5 examines the elements of ecotourism, volunteerism and serious leisure in conjunction with the themes that emerged from the participant's definitions of the experience and links them to related information in the interviews and the literature. Chapter 6 focuses on the centrality of the natural environment. Chapter 7 explores how volunteer tourism experiences actually contribute to the development of self, framing the experience in the very words of the participants. Chapter 8 examines the growing convergence of aims between local communities and the tourism sector. Chapter 9 argues that the alternative tourism experiences should not be reduced to a dialogic model of impossible realities related to dialectal materialism. Instead, its understanding should be grounded in human interactions and the concrete social reality in which it takes place.
This book addresses the issue of managing outdoor recreation to protect park resources and the quality of the visitor experience. The book is organized into three parts. Part I comprises five chapters that draw on the scientific and professional literature in parks and outdoor recreation to develop a systematic and creative approach to outdoor recreation management. Part II of the book presents a series of 20 case studies in managing outdoor recreation in the US National Parks. The 20 case studies span a considerable range of outdoor recreation-related problems and management practices, and a wide spectrum of national parks. Part III consists of a single chapter designed to extract an emerging set of principles that can be used to guide management of outdoor recreation.
There is more than one kind of consumer involvement. Depending on the antecedents of involvement (e.g., the product's pleasure value, the product's sign or symbolic value, risk importance, and probability of purchase error), consequences on consumer behavior differ. The authors therefore recommend measuring an involvement profile, rather than a single involvement level. These conclusions are based on an empirical analysis of 14 product categories.
This paper outlines antecedents of involvement and mediating roles of developmental processes leading to participants' behavioral loyalty (i.e., involvement → psychological commitment → resistance to change → behavioral loyalty). We propose that individuals go through sequential psychological processes to become loyal participants including: (a) the formation of high levels of involvement in an activity, (b) the development of psychological commitment to a brand, and (c) the maintenance of strong attitudes toward resistance to change preferences of the brand. Furthermore, because not all individuals show the identical processes in the development of participants' loyalty, we propose that both personal characteristics and social-situational factors moderate the developmental processes.