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Russia's Forests Dominating Forest Types and Their Canopy Density

Authors:
  • Greenpeace Russia

Abstract

Map of Russian forests
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Arkhangelsk
Petrozavodsk
Naryan-Mar
Syktyvkar
Northern Dvina River
Saint Petersburg
Pskov
Novgorod
Smolensk
Bryansk
Kursk
Voronezh
Tula
Ryazan
Yaroslavl
Vologda
Tver
Nizhni Novgorod
MOSCOW
Kazan
Perm
Ufa
Ekaterinburg
Chelyabinsk
Samara
Ulianovsk
Penza
Izhevsk
Kirov
Khanty-Mansysk
Tumen
Kurgan
Omsk
Novosibirsk
Barnaul
Gorno-Altaysk
Novokuznetsk
Kemerovo
Tomsk
Abakan
Krasnoyarsk
Irkutsk
Ulan-Ude
Chita
Yakutsk
Khabarovsk
Birobidzhan
Magadan
Naltchik
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Wrangel Island
Saint Lawrence Island
(USA)
Komandor Islands
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LAPTEV SEA
EAST SIBERIAN
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Sakhalin Island
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Murmansk
Arkhangelsk
Petrozavodsk
Naryan-Mar
Syktyvkar
Northern Dvina River
Saint Petersburg
Pskov
Novgorod
Smolensk
Bryansk
Kursk
Voronezh
Tula
Ryazan
Yaroslavl
Vologda
Tver
Nizhni Novgorod
MOSCOW
Kazan
Perm
Ufa
Ekaterinburg
Chelyabinsk
Samara
Ulianovsk
Penza
Saratov
Volgograd
Orenburg
Izhevsk
Kirov
Salekhard
Khanty-Mansysk
Tumen
Kurgan
Omsk
Novosibirsk
Barnaul
Gorno-Altaysk
Novokuznetsk
Kemerovo
Tomsk
Abakan
Krasnoyarsk
Kyzyl
Irkutsk
Ulan-Ude
Chita
Yakutsk
Vladivostok
Khabarovsk
Birobidzhan
Blagoveshchensk
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Magadan
Petropavlovsk-
Kamchatskiy
Anadyr
Rostov-on-Don
Krasnodar
Stavropol
Naltchik
Makhatchkala
Elista
40°
50°
40°
50°
60°
20° 30° 40° 50° 60° 70° 80° 100° 120° 140° 150° 160° 180° 170 °
JAPAN
CHINA
MONGOLIA
KAZAKHSTAN
GEORGIA
AZERBAIJAN
UKRAINE
BELORUS
POLAND
LITHUANIA
LATVIA
ESTONIA
FINLAND
SWEDEN
Scale 1:14 000 000
Azimuthal projection
Baykal Lake
Astrakhan
Closed canopy
forests
40-100%
L E G E N D
Open canopy
forests
10-39%
Percent Tree Cover
This work was supported by the John D. and Catharine T. MacArthur Foundation
Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy
of Sciences (RAN)
Forest Ecology and Production Center of the
Russian Academy of Sciences (RAN)
Global Forest Watch Greenpeace Russia
Spruce and Fir Forest
Spruce and Fir Forest
Spruce, fir and Siberian pine dominate, often with presence of birch, aspen,
pine and larch. Other broadleaved deciduous species and Korean pine are
present along the southern border of European Russia and in the south of
the Russian Far East.
Pine Forest
Scotch pine dominates, usually with presence of spruce, birch and aspen
and/or larch at the northeastern edge.
Larch Forest
Larch of different species dominates, often with presence of birch and
aspen. Other species (pine, spruce, Siberian pine) may be mixed along the
southern and western borders of Russia. In the mountains of the Russian
Far East larch species often have undergrowth of Siberian pine.
Broadleaved Deciduous Forest
Broadleaved deciduous species dominate (oak, lime, ash, maple, elm and in
southern European Russia also beech, chestnut and hornbeam). In
mountainous areas (Caucasus, Southern Ural, Sikhote-Alin) with
significant presence of conifers such as spruce, fir and Korean pine.
Stone Birch Forest
Stone birch dominates, often with presence of larch trees or patches of
trees. In Kamchatka this forest has undergrowth of mountain pine, and in
the mountains of Primorye and Sakhalin with presence of spruce and fir.
Dwarf Pine Forest
Dwarf pine dominates in patches or shrubby forest, often with a sparse
upper storey of larch or stone birch.
Birch-Aspen and Mixed Forest
Birch, aspen and gray alder dominate, with presence of coniferous trees or
patches of trees. In most cases, this forest follows logging, clearing or
forest fires.
Areas of Potential Forest
Agricultural and other non-forest ecosystems in which climate and soils
are suitable for forest growth.
Pine Forest Larch Forest
Stone Birch Forest Dwarf Pine Forest Birch-Aspen Forest
Broadleaved Deciduous Forest
Areas of Potential Forest
Russia's Forests
Dominating Forest Types and Their Canopy Density
References
1. Bartalev S.A., Belward A.S., Erchov D.V., Isaev A.S. A New SPOT4-VEGETATION Derived
Land Cover Map of Northern Eurasia. - International Journal of Remote Sensing. - 2003. -
Vol.24. - No.9 - P. 1977-1982
2. Hansen M.C., DeFries R.S., Townshend J.R.G., Carroll M., Dimiceli C., Sohlberg R. A.
Global Percent Tree Cover at a Spatial Resolution of 500 Meters: First Results of the MODIS
Vegetation Continuous Fields Algorithm (http://modis.umiacs.umd.edu/productvcf.htm).
3. The Forests of the USSR: Map Scale 1:2500000, prepared by the department of the forest
cartography of Souzgiprosleskhoza. M.G. Garsia, ed. Moscow: GUGK, 1990.
4. Vegetation of the USSR (for higher educational institutions): Map Scale 1:4000000.
T.I. Isachenko, ed. Minsk: GUGK, 1990.
5. Digital chart of the world. Environmental Science Research Institute, 1999.
Bartalev S.A., Ershov D.V., Isaev A.S.,
Potapov P.V., Turubanova S.A., Yaroshenko A.Yu.
Russia's Forests
Dominating Forest Types and Their Canopy Density
Scale 1 : 14 000 000
Moscow, 2004
Forests are defined as areas with at least 10% tree
cover, according to the Global Percent Tree Cover
map (Reference 2). Areas with 10% to 39% are con-
sidered open canopy forests, while closed canopy for-
ests have greater than 40% tree cover. Dominating
species and species groups are shown according to
the map of the forests of the USSR (Reference 3),
published in 1990, except for those places where a
comparison with the land cover map of Northern
Eurasia (Reference 1), published in 2003, indicates
that the species composition has changed. Areas
where deciduous or mixed forest has replaced coni--
ferous forest are categorized as "birch-aspen and
mixed forest." Areas with other types of species
change (rare in comparison with the previous case)
are classified based on expert interpretation of the
two compared maps (References 1 and 3).
Potential forest areas, consisting mainly of agricultu-
ral and other non-forest managed ecosystems, are
shown according to the map "Vegetation of the
USSR" (Reference 4). Boundaries of this category are
uncertain and determined based on expert opinion.
The map is intended for educational use.
Latin names of trees, that are mentioned in legend:
ash - Fraxinus sp.; aspen - Populus tremula; beech - Fagus
sp.; birch - Betula sp.; stone birch - Betula ermanii;
chestnut - Castanea sativa; elm - Ulmus sp.; fir - Abies sp.;
gray alder - Alnus incana; hornbeam - Carpinus betulus;
larch - Larix sp.; lime - Tilia sp.; maple - Acer sp.; oak -
Quercus sp.; pine - Pinus sp.; Siberian pine - P. sibirica;
Korean pine - P. koraiensis; Scots pine - P. sylvestris; dwarf
pine - P. pumila; spruce - Picea sp.
Photos: Dahno T.V., Kantor V.A., Kiritchok E.I.,
Piskareva S.B., Potapov P.V.
... More accurate approaches for image classification are also available in [26,27]. However, it seems to be inapplicable for studying the current issue, both due to the lack of high-resolution remote sensing data on the territory of interest and due to the limited accuracy of the available data on fire polygons (1000 m) [28] and vegetation maps (250-500 m) [8,29]. ...
... Current estimates suggest that up to 30% of burned forests of the region are killed by high-severity fire [16], which, however, does not take into account the variability associated with the resistance of certain forest-forming species to fires such as pine (Pinus sylvestris) [4,31,32]. Hence, the classification of fire impact needs to be quantified in relation to dominant tree stands and combinations of vegetation cover in boreal forests of eastern Siberia [8,29]. In this research, we discuss results on the classification of burned areas in 2021 in terms of low, moderate, and high degrees of fire impact on vegetation in relation to the dominant forest stands, close tree stands, and sparse stands and tundra of eastern Siberia. ...
... as pine (Pinus sylvestris) [4,31,32]. Hence, the classification of fire impact needs to b tified in relation to dominant tree stands and combinations of vegetation cover i forests of eastern Siberia [8,29]. ...
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Quercus sp.; pine -Pinus sp.; Siberian pine -P. sibirica; Korean pine -P. koraiensis; Scots pine -P. sylvestris; dwarf pine -P. pumila; spruce -Picea sp
  • S A Bartalev
  • D V Ershov
  • A S Isaev
Digital chart of the world. Environmental Science Research Institute, 1999. Bartalev S.A., Ershov D.V., Isaev A.S., Quercus sp.; pine -Pinus sp.; Siberian pine -P. sibirica; Korean pine -P. koraiensis; Scots pine -P. sylvestris; dwarf pine -P. pumila; spruce -Picea sp. Photos: Dahno T.V., Kantor V.A., Kiritchok E.I., Piskareva S.B., Potapov P.V.