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Dust Resulting from Tire Wear and the Risk of Health Hazards

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The present study examined the effects of air pollutants on people’s health, focusing on dust produced from automobile tires while cars drive on roads. The annual volume of dust resulting from tire wear, calculated based on the number of automobiles registered in Japan, was 1747245.4 m3. To put it simply, this translates to approximately 1.4 times the volume of the Tokyo Dome, a famous Japanese baseball stadium. Particulate substances are categorized into three groups depending on their size, and dust resulting from tire wear is classified into the coarse particle mode along with mold spores, pollen, and dust produced from brake pads. This study examined whether or not tire dust causes health damage similarly to pollen, a particulate substance in the same group. There were 38/cm2 dust particles resulting from tire wear on a busy road in Osaka Prefecture, and this number was larger than that of cedar pollen/cm2 (35), a cause of hay fever, identified in Hokkaido. The results suggest that tire dust may also adversely affect the health of people if any of its constituents has a toxicity or causes allergies.
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Journal of Environmental Protection, 2013, 4, 509-515
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jep.2013.46059 Published Online June 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/jep)
509
Dust Resulting from Tire Wear and the Risk of Health
Hazards
Masakazu Yamashita, Shohei Yamanaka
Department of Environmental Systems Science, Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan.
Email: myamashi@mail.doshisha.ac.jp
Received April 12th, 2013; revised May 13th, 2013; accepted June 10th, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Masakazu Yamashita, Shohei Yamanaka. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons
Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is
properly cited.
ABSTRACT
The present study examined the effects of air pollutants on people’s health, focusing on dust produced from automobile
tires while cars drive on roads. The annual volume of dust resulting from tire wear, calculated based on the number of
automobiles registered in Japan, was 1747245.4 m3. To put it simply, this translates to approximately 1.4 times the
volume of the Tokyo Dome, a famous Japanese baseball stadium. Particulate substances are categorized into three
groups depending on their size, and dust resulting from tire wear is classified into the coarse particle mode along with
mold spores, pollen, and dust produced from brake pads. This study examined whether or not tire dust causes health
damage similarly to pollen, a particulate substance in the same group. There were 38/cm2 dust particles resulting from
tire wear on a busy road in Osaka Prefecture, and this number was larger than that of cedar pollen/cm2 (35), a cause of
hay fever, identified in Hokkaido. The results suggest that tire dust may also adversely affect the health of people if any
of its constituents has a toxicity or causes allergies.
Keywords: Tire Dust; Automobiles; Health; Allergy
1. Introduction
In Japan, the automobile industry was established after
World War II. Approximately 60 years have passed since
its establishment, and the Japanese automobile industry
is now the global leader in this field.
With the development of the Japanese automobile in-
dustry, the problem of air pollution caused by automo-
biles has become serious, and detailed environmental
standards have been established in accordance with the
law. For example, there are also emission standards for
environmental protection, and automobile-related com-
panies, including manufacturers, have implemented ef-
forts to comply with them. However, exhaust gas is not
the only substance emitted from automobiles. As a car
runs, friction between the tires and road produces dust,
and the brake pad is worn each time the brake is applied.
Exhaust gas may be cleaned using a catalyst or filter.
However, is there any method to prevent tires and brake
pads, which are constantly subject to friction and worn
out, from producing dust? Although there is agreement
that this type of dust is always being produced, adequate
research has not been conducted to examine its effects on
the human body.
There are approximately 79 million automobiles in
Japan, along with a significant number of motorcycles,
and, needless to say, these vehicles have rubber tires. The
tires, almost always in contact with the surface of the
road, are worn out while driving and each time the car
turns and brakes are applied due to friction. When a car
has run approximately 20,000 to 30,000 km, a sign will
appear on the tread of the worn tires to warn of a slip
hazard and prompt a tire change. Naturally, tires, similar
to rubber erasers, constantly wear out while being used.
Dust and “rubber shavings” are generated as the tires
constantly wear out while automobiles drive on public
roads. The F1 and other race courses are a good example
in which you can see the tread of a tire as it wears out. As
the friction coefficient of a race course is significantly
higher than that of a public road, a number of rubber
shavings, which resemble large eraser shavings, are left
on the sides of the race course.
Although we cannot directly identify rubber shavings
on public roads while driving a car, the tires of 79 mil-
lion automobiles and motorcycles produce a substantial
amount of dust every day. However, throughout the world
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JEP
Dust Resulting from Tire Wear and the Risk of Health Hazards
510
including Japan, which has adopted strict environmental
standards, little attention has been focused on air pollu-
tion due to dust produced from tires, which include syn-
thetic rubber made of petroleum and other substances, as
well as antipollution measures [1].
The revision of automobile-related laws, in addition to
improvements in car production technology, have prompted
automobile manufacturers to produce vehicles that com-
ply with the current strict regulations, including envi-
ronmental standards on exhaust gas emitted from diesel
engines—a long-term social issue. On the other hand, the
tires of automobiles, which directly contact the surface of
the road, continue to generate dust due to friction. There
has been an increase in the number of automobiles, and,
unsurprisingly, an increasing amount of tire dust.
Therefore, it is necessary to calculate the amount of
dust particles resulting from the friction between the tires
and surface of the road at present, and discuss their
effects on people’s health.
2. Dust Resulting from Tire Wear
2.1. Tires and Constituents
A tire refers to a ring-shaped object around a wheel that
touches, through its tread, the surface of the road or
ground and rolls on it. In 1867, rubber was attached to
the rim of a wheel for the first time, which caused a shift
from metal and wooden rims. Since the development of
an air tire for bicycles by Dunlop of Britain in 1888 and a
car tire by Michelin brothers of France in 1895, there has
been considerable growth in the popularity of air tires, as
well as an improvement in their quality, including the
capabilities to provide a comfortable ride, grip the ground
firmly, and maintain stability.
Since tires use rubber as their primary raw material,
the following paragraphs describe rubber and other con-
stituents of a car tire to examine the adverse effects on
health of tire dust: natural and synthetic rubber, sulfur,
zinc oxide, and carbon black; the present paper discuss
tires that contain these substances:
Synthetic rubber
Synthetic rubber is made from petroleum. Crude oil is
classified depending on the boiling point: heavy oil
(350˚C or higher), light oil (240˚C to 350˚C), kerosene
(170˚C to 250˚C), and gasoline (approximately 110˚C or
lower). Naphtha, also distilled from crude oil, is the pri-
mary ingredient of synthetic rubber, and its boiling tem-
perature is between 30˚C to 230˚C. Ethylene, propylene,
and butadiene are derived from the pyrolysis of naphtha
at around 1000˚C, and synthetic rubber is produced by
isolating, distilling, extracting, and polymerizing them.
Natural rubber
Natural rubber (NR) is a material whose primary in-
gredient is cis-polyisoprene [(C5H8)n], contained in the
sap of gum trees. Latex, soluble organic constituents,
included in the sap, is collected, distilled, coagulated, and
dried to produce gum. Tire rubber consists of synthetic,
and natural rubber at a ratio of 1:1.
Sulfur
Adding a few percent of sulfur to rubber and heating it
increases its elasticity because of a cross-linking effect.
A larger volume of sulfur produces harder rubber. Heat
produced by sulfur cross-links the molecules of rubber to
enhance its elasticity and strength.
Zinc oxide
Zinc oxide mainly serves as a vulcanization accelera-
tor (helping sulfur vulcanize rubber). About 40,000 tons
of zinc oxide is used annually to produce rubber in Japan.
Zinc oxide is used for all kinds of natural synthetic rub-
ber.
Carbon black
Carbon black refers to carbon micro-particles with a
diameter of 3 to 500 nm as an industrial product whose
quality is controlled, or soot in a broad sense. Tires are
black because carbon black, a common rubber-strength-
ening agent, is used.
Several kinds of raw material are mixed to manufac-
ture rubber products. A typical example is a mixture of
rubber (100), carbon (50), zinc oxide (5), and sulfur (2).
2.2. Number of Tires Currently Used for
Vehicles, Calculated Based on the Number
of Vehicles
The study calculated the number of tires that are cur-
rently used for vehicles, based on the number of automo-
biles owned by people in Japan at present. The Japan
Automobile Tire Manufacturers Association publishes
data on the number of tires sold each year [2]. As auto-
mobile tires are consumables, the sales figures are esti-
mated to be significantly larger than the actual number of
tires currently used for automobiles driving on the roads.
Therefore, the study calculated the number of tires used
at present based on the number of automobiles. Accord-
ing to the Automobile Inspection & Registration Infor-
mation Association [3], the number of automobiles owned
by people in Japan in 2012 was 79,882,112. This number
has been predicted to grow.
Vehicles are classified into automobiles for cargo and
public transportation, passenger vehicles, automobiles for
special purposes, and motorcycles. In general terms, they
are grouped into large, medium, and small trucks, buses,
passenger and light cars, and emergency vehicles.
As of the end of December 2012, there were approxi-
mately 79 million automobiles in Japan, including some
16.5 million cargo transportation vehicles, 230,000 pub-
lic transportation cars, 57.5 million passenger cars, 1.6
million automobiles for special purposes, and 3.4 million
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Dust Resulting from Tire Wear and the Risk of Health Hazards 511
motorcycles. Tires are classified into four groups accord-
ing to their size: tires for light automobiles, normal vehi-
cles, trucks and buses, and trailers. Table 1 shows the
numbers of automobiles in each class [3].
The number of tires used for a vehicle varies depend-
ing on the automobile type. The present study assumed
that two tires are used for one motorcycle, four tires for a
light or ordinary vehicle, ten for a truck or bus, and four-
teen for a trailer.
The total numbers of tires of each type used as of 2012
were calculated based on Table 1:
Motorcycle: 2 × 3,402,405 = 6,806,810
Light vehicle: 4 × 24,756,432 = 99,025,728
Normal vehicle: 4 × 43,350,396 = 173,401,584
Truck/Bus: 10 × 2,790,562 = 27,905,620
Trailer: 14 × 2,463,607 = 34,490,498
The total volumes of dust emitted from each type of
tire were calculated based on these values.
3. Calculation of the Volume of Tire Dust
The numbers of tires of each size for 2012 were calcu-
lated, as shown in the preceding paragraph. Based on
these values, the volume of tire dust was calculated—the
total amount of dust produced from tires until they are
replaced with new ones.
The Japanese Road Trucking Vehicle Law stipulates
that automobiles must pass an automobile safety inspect-
tion and are allowed to run on the roads in Japan only
when the tread depth of the tires is at least 1.6 mm. The
tread depth of a new tire is between 7 and 9 mm depend-
ing on the brand of tire. The study assumed that new tires
had an 8-mm tread depth and they were replaced when
the depth was 1.6 mm or smaller. As the mean life ex-
pectancy of tires is approximately five years, the volume
of tire dust emitted was calculated for a period of five
years.
To calculate the volume of dust produced from one tire
due to friction, the sizes of tires of motorcycles, light and
normal vehicles, trucks, buses, and trailers were meas-
ured (shown in Table 2). Varying sizes of tire are avail-
able for each type of automobile. In the present study,
standard-sized tires were selected. Figure 1 shows tire
sizes expressed in metric units [4], based on which the
volume of tire dust was calculated using the following
method:
Table 1. Number of automobiles with tires of different sizes.
Tire type Number of automobiles
Motorcycle 3,402,405
Light vehicle 24,756,432
Normal vehicle 43,350,396
Truck/Bus 2,790,562
Trailer 2,463,607
Table 2. Tire sizes in metric units.
Type of vehicle Tire size in metric units
Motorcycle [5] 100/90, 16
Light vehicle [6] 165/55, 15
Normal vehicle [7] 225/45, 18
Truck/Bus [8] 295/80, 22.5
Trailer [8] 315/80, 22.5
Oblateness (%) = H (cross-sectional height)/W (cross-sectional width) × 100
Figure 1. Metric system.
The volume of tire dust was calculated using the
following formula:
[Decrease in the volume] = [Volume of a new tire]
[Volume of the tire at the time of renewal]
Volume of a new tire: 3.14 × [Diameter of the tire]2 ×
[Width of the tire]
Volume of the tire at the time of renewal: 3.14 ×
[Diameter of the tire at the time of renewal]2 × [Width of
the tire]
As the volume of a tread differs from tire to tire, on
calculating the volume of tire wear, it was assumed that
the depth of the tire tread was zero when it was replaced.
The difference in the volume of a tire was calculated for
each type between when it was brand new and immedi-
ately before renewal:
Motorcycle: 1136 cm3;
Light vehicle: 1780 cm3;
Normal vehicle: 2880 cm3;
Truck/Bus: 5484 cm3;
Trailer: 5973 cm3.
The volume of tire dust was calculated for each type
using the number of tires, calculated based on the num-
ber of vehicles:
Motorcycle: 7733 m3;
Light vehicle: 176,266 m3;
Normal vehicle: 4,993,966 m3;
Truck/Bus: 1,666,803 m3;
Trailer: 1,891,459 m3.
A total of 8,736,227 m3 (1,747,245 m3 per year) of tire
dust is produced over a five-year period (life-span of a
tire adopted in the study). This is equivalent to approxi-
mately seven times the volume of Tokyo Dome, a base-
ball stadium in Tokyo.
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Dust Resulting from Tire Wear and the Risk of Health Hazards
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JEP
512
4. Risk of Health Hazards The distribution of the diameters of atmospheric parti-
cles, as shown in Figure 2, is represented by a curve with
three peaks called modes: 1) coarse particle mode con-
sisting of particles with a diameter of 5 to 30 μm that are
usually produced through a crushing process; 2) accu-
mulation mode of particles with a diameter of 0.15 to 0.5
μm that are generated in the process of condensation or
coagulation; and 3) nucleation mode of micro-particles
with a diameter of 0.015 to 0.04 μm that are created dur-
ing combustion. Dust particles resulting from tires, brake
pads, and the surface of roads, mold spores, and pollen
whose diameter is 5 to 30 μm (coarse particle range) are
classified into the coarse particle mode. Table 3 de-
scribes the characteristics of particulate substances clas-
sified into the coarse particle mode. There are various
shapes and purposes of tires, and the diameter of a tire
dust particle is usually between 5 to 30 μm (coarse parti-
cle range), although harder dust particles are estimated to
have a smaller diameter. As tire dust particles do not eas-
ily dissolve in water, once absorbed into the human body,
they are accumulated there. The distance traveled by at-
mospheric particles classified into the coarse particle
4.1. Diameter of a Particulate Substance
In Japan, as environmental efforts to regulate particulate
substances, environmental standards were established in
1973, including the definition of suspended particulate
substances as particles with a diameter of 10 μm or less
that stay airborne for a relatively long period and are
absorbed by the respiratory system, and general measures
for atmospheric environment conservation have been
implemented. In recent years, there has been concern
over the adverse health effects of microscopic particles
with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (SPM 2.5) among sus-
pended particulate matter because they can easily enter
deep into the respiratory system and a variety of harmful
constituents are absorbed by them or attached to their
surface. Western countries are considering setting envi-
ronmental targets for not only common suspended par-
ticulate matter, but also microscopic particles [9]. First,
this paper discusses the particle diameter of tire dust,
suspended particulate matter, to examine the adverse
health effects of dust resulting from tire wear.
Figure 2. Atmospheric particle modes.
Table 3. Characteristics of particulate matter classified into the coarse particle mode.
Process of production Destruction of a large object
Methods of production Destruction using machines (spallation and pulverization)
Floating of dust particles
Particulate substances classified into the mode Mold spores, pollen, and dust resulting from worn brake pads, tires, and roads
Water solubility Nearly insoluble and non-hygroscopic
Travel distance One to several dozen kilometers
Dust Resulting from Tire Wear and the Risk of Health Hazards 513
mode is considered to be one to ten kilometers.
4.2. Retention and Deposition
As an ascending current of warm air flows into an upper
layer of cold air, particulate substances contained in the
warm air usually move away from the source. However,
the opposite sometimes occurs—a layer of cold air is un-
der a warm air current. This phenomenon occurs when a
warm air mass moves over a cold air mass or ground, or
when the air close to the cold ground is cooled during the
night. If a cold air mass cannot ascend and flow into an
upper layer of warm air for several hours or even days,
particulate substances released into the air will also stay
near the surface of the ground. This phenomenon, re-
ferred to as an inversion layer, occurs in places such as
valleys and the spaces between tall buildings in large
cities. It may frequently occur or continue for a long pe-
riod of time under specific geographical and climate
conditions. Therefore, the concentration of tire dust in a
large city that has tall buildings is assumed to be higher
than that in a place without such buildings when there is
no difference in the traffic volume because of the inver-
sion layer phenomenon [10].
As just described, the time period particles remain in
the air is significantly influenced by the climate and other
conditions. Atmospheric particles released from the source
of generation are lost from the air through dry deposition
when they are near the surface of the ground, and wet
deposition if it is raining. Whereas the life span of at-
mospheric particles in the troposphere is considered to
four to five days or one week, particles may stay in the
stratosphere for one week or longer.
4.3. Comparison of Substances with the Same
Particle Diameter
To examine whether or not tire dust causes health dam-
age to the human body, this study focused on the diame-
ter of dust particles—a characteristic of a particulate sub-
stance. The distance traveled by a particulate substance
and its effects on the human body, including the respire-
tory system, vary depending on its diameter.
The characteristics of tire dust particles and particulate
substances, both classified into the coarse particle mode,
were compared to examine the effects of tire dust on
health.
The above-mentioned Table 3 includes pollen—a par-
ticulate substance that causes hay fever; there has been
an increase in the number of hay fever patients. Hay fe-
ver is an allergic reaction or inflammation caused by
plant pollen attached to the mucosa of the nose, throat,
and conjunctiva. When people inhale airborne plant pol-
len, some of them acquire immunity to the pollen, and an
excessive immune response or allergic reaction is caused
when they are exposed to the pollen later. Table 4 shows
the amount of cedar pollen per area in different prefec-
tures [11]. Hokkaido, Tokyo, Aichi, Nara, and Osaka
Prefectures were selected, taking into consideration the
maximum and minimum amount of pollen and traffic
volume.
To compare the amounts of tire dust and cedar pollen,
both were classified into the coarse particle mode, and
the volume of tire dust per road area was first calculated.
The volume of tire dust in Osaka Prefecture was selected
because the number of registered automobiles is large
and the total area of roads has been determined.
According to the Automobile Inspection & Registra-
tion Information Association, the number of registered
automobiles in Osaka Prefecture as of 2012 was 3,773,365.
The total area of roads in Osaka Prefecture, published by
the prefectural government in 2003, was 148.75 km3 [12].
These data were used to compare the amount of tire dust
and pollen.
As described in Chapter 3, the law stipulates that
automobiles must pass an automobile safety inspection
and are allowed to run on Japanese public roads only
when the tread depth of the tires is 1.6 mm or larger. The
study assumed that new tires had an 8-mm tread depth
and they were replaced when the depth was 1.6 mm or
smaller.
(Decrease in the volume) = (Volume of a new tire)
(Volume of the tire at the time of renewal);
(Volume of a new tire): 3.14 × (Radius of the tire)2 ×
(Width of the tire);
(Volume of the tire at the time of renewal): 3.14 × (Its
radius at the time of renewal)2 × (Width of the tire).
Using these formulas, the volume of dust produced
from the tires of automobiles that ran in Osaka Prefecture
was 77,226 m3, or 15,445 m3/per year. As the volume of
a tread differs from tire to tire, in the calculation of the
volume of tire wear, it was assumed that the depth of the
tire tread was zero when it was replaced.
Comparison of the amounts of pollen and tire dust in
Osaka Prefecture
Table 4. Amount of cedar pollen per area in different pre-
fectures.
Prefectures Place of measurement* Measurements in 2012
Hokkaido Asahikawa City 35
Sapporo City 46
Tokyo Chiyoda Ward 1514
Aichi Nagoya City 1739
Nara Kashihara City 7811
Osaka Higashi-osaka City 2536
The unit of volume of cedar pollen was [the number of particles/cm2] (from
the end of January to May). *See Figure 3.
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Dust Resulting from Tire Wear and the Risk of Health Hazards
514
Figure 3. Place of measurement.
According to a measurement conducted in 2012, the
amount of cedar pollen in Osaka Prefecture was 2536/cm2,
as shown in Table 4. To compare this with the amount of
tire dust, the volumetric unit of tire dust (15,445/m3) was
changed.
With an assumption that the diameter of pollen and tire
dust is 30 μm, the volume of a tire dust particle was
calculated as 2.7 × 1014 m3. As the total area of roads in
Osaka Prefecture was 148.75 km3, the amount of tire dust
per area was calculated as 38, as shown in the following
formula:
Volume of tire dust produced per year (m3)/Total area
of roads in Osaka Prefecture (m3) × Number of dust
particles/2.7 × 1014 (m3) = 38/cm2.
The number of tire dust particles was significantly
smaller compared to that of cedar pollen (2536/cm2), a
cause of hay fever, contained in the air of Osaka Prefec-
ture—the proportion was 1.5%. However, as shown in
Table 4, the amount of cedar pollen per area in Asahi-
kawa City, Hokkaido (35 cm2) was smaller than that of
tire dust particles in Osaka Prefecture (38 cm2).
Table 4 shows that the amount of cedar pollen in
Hokkaido is significantly smaller compared to that of
other prefectures. Basically, cedar trees do not grow in
Hokkaido, and some cedar pollen produced on the island
of Honshu is assumed to be blown to Hokkaido. Since
some people in Hokkaido, in which the amount of cedar
pollen is relatively small, also suffer from hay fever, dust
resulting from tire wear is predicted to significantly af-
fect people’s health.
4.4. Adverse Health Effects from the Viewpoint
of Particle Size
The respiratory system of humans has a function to pre-
vent the entry of foreign substances, such as dust; rela-
tively large-sized dust cannot pass through the nose, and
fine dust particles are blocked at the trachea and by
bronchial cilia. However, as dust particles with a diame-
ter of 10 μm or less are not blocked, they reach the alve-
oli. Even after reaching the alveoli, most of the dust is
exhaled, but some dust particles remain in the alveoli. As
a person continues to inhale air containing a high con-
centration of dust, particles accumulate in the alveoli.
Moreover, the inhalation of dust over a long period of
time will damage the alveoli and related organs.
Whereas suspended particulate matter is defined as
particles with a diameter of 10 μm or less, tire dust and
other substances classified into the coarse particle mode
have a diameter of 5 to 30 μm. According to this defini-
tion, the range of the particle diameter is 25 μm. Dust
particles, suspended particulate matter, with a diameter
of 10 μm or less, are also produced from some types of
tire.
A common respiratory disorder caused by dust is
pneumoconiosis. It is usually caused by inhaling dust
from soil, metal particles, and other inorganic substances,
or mineral dust while working over a long period of time.
These dust and fine particles accumulate in the lung,
serving as nuclei, and cause fibroplasia and pulmonary
fibrosis. In patients with pneumoconiosis, fibrous tissues
are formed and the tissues of the alveoli, bronchioles, and
blood vessels are destroyed. Patients develop dyspnea,
and become vulnerable to pulmonary tuberculosis, sec-
ondary bronchitis, and other complications. Agents re-
sponsible for causing pneumoconiosis and occupations
associated with it are listed in Table 5 [13]. Talc, black
lead, and carbon, shown in Table 5, have been reported
to cause pneumoconiosis in the process of producing raw
materials of tires. As professionals work, these sub-
stances accumulate in their bodies little by little every
day, and they eventually amount to an enormous volume.
In general, the volume of accumulated tire dust is not
large enough to cause pneumoconiosis, although the
concentration of tire dust contained in the air above
heavy traffic roads may be high enough to cause chronic
bronchitis and bronchial asthma.
5. Conclusions
The present study examined the effects of air pollutants
on people’s health, focusing on dust produced from
automobile tires while cars drive on roads.
Table 5. Substances that cause pneumoconiosis and related
occupations.
Causative agents Occupations
Talc
Talc pulverization, drug production, rubber
processing, yarn manufacturing, paper
manufacturing, textile production
Black lead
Black lead refining, pencil production, preparation
of casting materials, lubricant production, rubber
products manufacturing
Carbon Ink production, carbon black production
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JEP
Dust Resulting from Tire Wear and the Risk of Health Hazards
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JEP
515
The annual volume of dust resulting from tire wear,
calculated based on the number of automobiles registered
in Japan, was 1747245.4 m3. To put it simply, this
translates to approximately 1.4 times the volume of the
Tokyo Dome, a famous Japanese baseball stadium.
Particulate substances are categorized into three groups
depending on their size, and dust resulting from tire wear
is classified into the coarse particle mode along with
mold spores, pollen, and dust produced from brake pads.
This study examined whether or not tire dust causes
health damage similarly to pollen, a particulate sub-
stance in the same group. There were 38/cm2 dust par-
ticles resulting from tire wear on a busy road in Osaka
Prefecture, and this number was larger than that of cedar
pollen/cm2 (35), a cause of hay fever, identified in Hok-
kaido. The results suggest that tire dust may also ad-
versely affect the health of people if any of its constitu-
ents has a toxicity or causes allergies.
Finally, the study discussed the possible effects of tire
dust absorbed into the human body. Tire dust particles
with a small diameter enter the human body. As particu-
late substances of 10 μm or smaller reach the alveoli,
they may cause a variety of respiratory disorders, such as
bronchitis and bronchial asthma.
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http://kanagawa-roudoukyoku.jsite.mhlw.go.jp/hourei_sei
do_tetsuzuki/anzen_eisei/tetsuzuki/jinpai02.html
... In developed countries like Japan, the law stipulates that automobiles must pass an automobile safety inspection and are allowed to run on Japanese public roads only when the tread depth of the tyres is 1.6 mm or larger [9]. For tyres seeming to be brand new, those above 6 years from the date of manufacture should not be comfortably used because of the ageing effect and the high risk of causing accidents. ...
... Additionally, the Zambia Bureau of Standards reveled that they only inspected brand new tyres to check for the standards by measuring their tensile strength before they could be allowed to be sold or used on the roads. The standard which is used to test for tyres is called Pneumatic tyres specification ZF-437 [9]. However, they further confirmed that they did not check second hand tyres because the country had no standards for them at the time of the study. ...
... The treads and the markings should be visible and the tread depth should not be less than 1.6 mm Yamashita and Yamashita [9] and Zambia Bureau of Standards [14]. When checking for wear and tear. ...
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The study evaluated the effects of driving second hand degraded tyres and their contribution to accidents in Zambia. A triangulation method was adopted which consisted of case studies on the dangers of using second hand tyres and the use of secondary data from Zambia Police. Structured interviews were applied and a questionnaire was distributed randomly to a sampled population of 46 respondents from distributed 66. Data from Zambia Police and Road Transport and Safety Authority was used to analyze recorded accidents that occurred in the period 2006–2015. Results revealed that users and second hand tyre dealers are ignorant of the tyre quality expectations and that they had never been inspected by Zambia Bureau of Standards which did not have standards on the use of second hand tyres at the time of the study. The study suggested the need for authorities to improve safety for all road users by ensuring that imported second hand tyres meet the manufacturer’s minimum recommendation.
... Over the last decades many researchers aimed to estimate, calculate, model or measure flows and releases of microplastic particles towards the environment to better understand the quantities and consequently the potential risks for the environment, organisms or humans (e. g. Baensch-Baltruschat et al., 2021Hillenbrand et al., 2005;Leifheit et al., 2021;Luo et al., 2021;Sieber et al., 2020;Unice et al., 2019;Yamashita and Yamanaka, 2013). Release models have been developed on many geographical scales, e.g. on a Science of the Total Environment 830 (2022) 154655 regional basis as for Switzerland (Kawecki and Nowack, 2019), or on a global scale where the quantities of plastic reaching the oceans were estimated (Lebreton et al., 2017). ...
... A third, non-measurement based approach, was used by Yamashita and Yamanaka (2013) who calculated the volume of tread which will abraded during the use phase of the tire assuming a tread depth decrease from 8 mm to 1.6 mm. Finally, they used representative tire widths and diameters for different vehicle categories and multiplied the volume with the material density, the number of tires per vehicle and the number of cars registered in the analysed country (Japan). ...
Article
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Tire wear particle (TWP) emissions are gaining more attention since they are considered to contribute a major share to the overall microplastic emissions and are suspected to be harmful to flora, fauna and humans. Hence, recent studies derived country-based TWP emissions to better understand the significance of the problem using either tire emission factors (EF) or a material flow analysis (MFA) of tires. However, all 14 country-based TWP emission studies found and published since the year 2000 base their calculation on other studies rather than own measurements. Therefore, we started to search for the actual TWP measurements which the 14 studies would rely on. As a result, we found a network of 63 studies which were used to derive TWP emissions in different countries and regions. Only in few cases (12%) TWP emission studies reference directly to a measurement study to derive TWP emissions, but mostly (63%) they rely on reviews or summarizing studies. Additionally, we could not obtain 25 studies in the analysed network. In total we found nine studies which actually measured TWP emissions. Out of these four studies originate from the 1970s, one analysed only light vehicles and one only considered buses. Thus, only three non peer-reviewed studies were considered to show trustful results which were cited a maximum of three times in the network. The obtained 14 country-based studies suggest TWP emissions of about 1.3 kg capita-1 year-1 for the EF approach and 2.0 kg capita-1 year-1 for the MFA approach (overall range: 0.9-2.5 kg capita-1 year-1). Consequently, we call for an urgent need to minimize uncertainties of TWP emission estimates to better understand the contribution of TWP to the overall microplastic pollution of the environment. A better understanding about quantities could also help to better address the risk of environmental pollution by TWP.
... m 3 (1.747.245 m 3 per year) of rubber powder is produced from a single tire [7]. ...
... In previous studies, it has been observed that not only the size of the PM but also the qualitative properties, such as shape and chemical composition, influence the ability of tire rubber particles to induce an inflammatory response in exposed human subjects and cultured macrophages. Tire particles may exert harmful effects on health and/or the environment, attributable to the various components of the rubber used for the production of tires, to metals found in formulation mixtures that come into contact with our respiratory system or are deposited primarily onto the road surface [7][8][18][19][20]. In this work, we have been able to see that both types of rubber particles (passenger and truck) have a biological effect in vitro estimated by the induction of genotoxicity, inflammatory response and cytotoxicity. ...
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A number of studies have shown variable grades of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in in vitro cell cultures, laboratory animals and humans when directly exposed to particle debris generated from tires. However, no study has compared the effects of particles generated from passenger tires with the effects of particles from truck tires. The aim of this study was to investigate and relate the cyto- and genotoxic effects of different types of particles (PP, passenger tire particles vs. TP, truck tire particles) in vitro using the phagocytic cell line RAW 264.7 (mouse leukaemic monocyte macrophage cell line). The viability of RAW 264.7 cells was determined by the 3- (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -5- (3-carboxymethoxyphenyl) -2- (4-sulfophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay following exposure for 4, 24 and 48 hours to different particle concentrations (10 μg / ml, 25 μg / ml, 50 μg / ml, 100 μg / ml). The effects of particles of passenger and truck tires on cell proliferation and genotoxicity were evaluated by means of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay following exposure for 24 hours to different particle concentrations (10 μg / ml, 25 μg / ml, 50 μg / ml, 100 μg / ml). In MTS assay, after 24 hours, it was found that PP induced a 30% decrease in metabolic activity at a concentration of 10 μg/ml, while TP caused reductions of 20% and 10% at concentrations of 10 μg/ml and 50 μg/ml, respectively. At 48 hours after the treatments, we observed increased metabolic activity at 50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml for the PP while only at 50 μg/ml for the TP. The CBMN assay showed a significant increase in the number of micronuclei in the cells incubated with PP in all experimental conditions, while the cells treated with TP showed a meaningful increase only at 10 μg /ml. We utilized the TNF-α ELISA mouse test to detect the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in RAW 264.7 cells. The effect of passenger and truck particles on TNF-α release was evaluated following exposure for 4 and 24 hours. After 4 hours of incubation, the cells treated with PP and TP at 100 μg / ml showed a slight but significant increase in TNF-α release, while there was a significant increase in the release of TNF-α after 24 hours of incubation with both tire samples in the cells treated with 50 and 100 μg / ml PP. The data obtained show a higher cytotoxic, clastogenic/genotoxic and inflammatory effects of passenger compared to the truck tire particles.
... Par ailleurs, plusieurs études ont montré que les émissions qui proviennent des pneus peuvent également avoir un effet sur la santé humaine, étant donné que ses constituants peuvent être toxiques (Yamashita and Yamanaka, 2013). Le silicium (Si), élément abondant dans la composition des particules de pneus, peut induire une inflammation pulmonaire grave et une toxicité cardiovasculaire (Cho et al. 2007;Du et al. 2013). ...
Thesis
Les particules émises hors échappement (PHE), provenant de l’usure des freins et du contact pneu-chaussée, contribuent significativement à la dégradation de la qualité de l’air et présentent un risque majeur pour la santé humaine. Ces émissions proviennent de sources multiples et sont actuellement mal décrites. De plus, les méthodes utilisées pour les appréhender sont souvent inadaptées. Pour tenter d’affiner cette problématique, ce travail de thèse s’est attaché à caractériser la physico-chimie des PHE ainsi que leurs dynamiques d’émission. Des expérimentations complémentaires ont été menées au moyen de grands équipements scientifiques et dans différents environnements. Celles réalisées au laboratoire, sur un banc à rouleau, se sont focalisées sur les particules d’usure des freins. Des mesures embarquées, effectuées avec un véhicule instrumenté sur une piste d’essais et sur route, ont permis d’étudier les particules émises par le contact pneu-chaussée. Finalement, des campagnes de mesures ont été effectuées en bord de route afin d’évaluer la contribution des PHE dans l’atmosphère proche des axes routiers.Un des principaux résultats met en lumière que les PHE appartiennent non seulement au mode grossier, prépondérant en masse, mais également aux modes fin et ultrafin prépondérants en nombre. Les émissions des nanoparticules émises par l’usure des freins dépendent de la température de l’interface plaquettes-disque et par conséquent de la force et de la fréquence de freinage. Les émissions des particules du contact pneu-chaussée augmentent avec la vitesse et les variations brutales de celle-ci. À l’image des sources, la composition chimique des PHE est très diverse. Elle est fortement liée à la composition des plaquettes et du disque des freins, des pneus, de la chaussée et de l’ensemble de contaminants déposés sur la route et remis en suspension. Ces PHE sont néanmoins souvent formées par des composés carbonés, avec une teneur importante en métaux et autres minéraux (ex. Fe, Cu, Al, Si, S, Ca…etc.). En fait, il existerait un lien entre émissions de PHE des freins et du contact pneu-chaussée : les premières modifient la dynamique d’émission de secondes via la constitution d’un troisième corps abrasif déposé sur la chaussée. Ceci a été exploré et discuté en relation avec l’influence de la remise en suspension ; étant une source majeure de PHE. Un intérêt de ce travail est, entre autre, d’estimer l'exposition aux PHE fines et ultrafines à proximité des grands axes routiers. Il permet aussi d’évaluer l’influence des principaux paramètres contrôlant les émissions des PHE et, au-delà, d’émettre des recommandations visant à réduire ces émissions et à améliorer la mobilité durable
Thesis
La pollution atmosphérique par les particules fines (PM2,5) constitue un enjeu sanitaire et environnemental majeur. Avec une composition chimique présentant une grande variabilité, les particules fines (PM2,5) sont dominées par des sels d’ammonium (jusqu’à 40%), parmi eux, le nitrate d’ammonium. Ce dernier est formé majoritairement par la combinaison d’ammoniac, dont 80% des émissions en Europe proviennent des activités agricoles, avec de l’acide nitrique gazeux à température ambiante (<20°C). La mesure des particules de nitrate d’ammonium par les moyens habituels déployés pour la mesure des particules atmosphériques est une tâche lourde et coûteuse. En outre, les seuls capteurs optiques de particules qui existent n’informent en aucun cas sur la nature chimique des particules. Ainsi, l’objectif de cette thèse est de développer de nouveaux capteurs à faible coût capables de mesurer spécifiquement la concentration des particules de nitrate d’ammonium. La méthode de mesure repose sur la thermo-décomposition des particules de nitrate d’ammonium en acide nitrique gazeux et ammoniac. Ce dernier est quantifié à l’aide d’une couche sensible à base de matériaux nanocomposites conducteurs constitués de la polyaniline dopée (PANI), élément réactif, et d’une matrice en polyuréthane (PU). La concentration en ammoniac libéré est corrélée à la concentration massique des particules de nitrate d’ammonium. Les capteurs développés au cours de ce projet ont montré une réponse à l’ammoniac gazeux à des concentrations inférieures ou égales à 20 ppb avec une sensibilité de 0,35% ppb-1, ce qui répond aux objectifs attendus en air ambiant et permettrait d’envisager des mesures du nitrate d’ammonium particulaire. Les capteurs ont également démontré une bonne répétabilité et reproductibilité de leur réponse à ce gaz. L’impact de la température (23-50°C) et l’humidité relative (30%-90%) sur la sensibilité des capteurs à ce gaz est étudié afin d’évaluer la capacité des capteurs à mesurer l’ammoniac issu de la thermo-décomposition des particules de nitrate d’ammonium à des températures et à des taux d’humidité propices à leur décomposition. Certaines formulations de surfaces sensibles continuent de présenter des réponses concluantes à l’ammoniac même dans ces conditions particulières. Par ailleurs, les capteurs ont montré une sensibilité à l’acide nitrique gazeux seul à 50°C (-4,85% à 195ppb). Malgré cette interférence, les capteurs ont été capables de mesurer des concentrations en nitrate d’ammonium particulaire de l’ordre de 265 µg.m-3 avec une sensibilité de 1,82.10-3%.µg-1.m3 à 50°C. Ces résultats prometteurs démontrent la capacité des capteurs à mesurer le nitrate d’ammonium particulaire selon la méthode proposée. En revanche, l’interférence de l’acide nitrique gazeux pourrait réduire la sensibilité des capteurs à ces particules.
Article
Tire wear particles (TWPs) were one of the source categories of microplastics, and some countries consider it the largest. In the case of Korea, the number of vehicles per a kilometer of road is the highest among 30 OECD countries. Therefore, the concentration of TWPs is considered high. This study aims to estimate TWPs emission factor by using warranty period of tire, driving distance per vehicle per day, weight of tire, and ratio of weight loss of tire, and then, suggests TWPs emission amount by using annual driving distance and emission factor of TWPs of each type of vehicle. As a result, the emission factor of TWPs in Korea appeared as in the following: 45–57 mg/vehicle·km (average 51.1 mg/vehicle·km) for passenger cars, 224 mg/vehicle·km for lightweight trucks, 799 mg/vehicle·km for buses, and 949 mg/vehicle·km for heavyweight trucks. The total amount of TWPs to be generated in a year was calculated as 51,795–54,581 tonnes/year (average 53,188 tonnes/year). The amount of TWPs appeared in the order of heavyweight trucks, buses, passenger cars, and lightweight trucks; the contribution of tires of each type of vehicles, to the emitted amount of TWPs, appeared with insignificant differences.
Article
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In this paper, the current knowledge on tyre and road wear particles (TRWP) is compiled regarding all environmental and health aspects. TRWP generated on roads during driving processes contribute to airborne non-exhaust emissions and are discussed in connection with the microplastic pollution. The major amount of TRWP consists of coarser heterogenous particles released to road surface, soils and aquatic compartments. The extensive compilation of annual emissions of tyre wear for numerous countries shows per-capita-masses ranging from 0.2 to 5.5 kg/(cap*a). Ecotoxicological studies revealed effects on aquatic organisms, but test concentrations and materials do not reflect environmental conditions. Contribution of tyre wear to PM10 accounts for up to approx. 11 mass %. A recent thorough risk assessment indicates the risk for human health via inhalation to be low, but no information is available on the risk caused by intake via the food chain. Data on degradation is scarce and most studies do not use realistic materials and conditions. The only published degradation study performed under environmental conditions implies a half-life of tyre rubber particles in soils of 16 months. For truck tyres, which mainly contain natural rubber, shorter periods were observed under optimum conditions in laboratory tests. Concentrations of tyre wear compiled from environmental monitoring studies show highly variable concentrations in road runoff, road dust, roadside soils, river sediments and river water, with a general decrease following the transport paths. However, the behaviour of TRWP in freshwater referring to transport, degradation, and sedimentation is still unclarified. Environmental monitoring of TRWP is still hampered by challenges for analytics. Thus, data on environmental concentrations is rare and has mainly exemplary character. Further research is needed with regard to emission factors, development of analytical methods for environmental matrices, long-period monitoring, fate in surface waters and soils, (eco)toxicological impacts and degradation under realistic conditions.
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The petroleum fuel supply chain in Zimbabwe has been faced with multiplicity of challenges from perennial erratic fuel supplies to poor product lead times. Despite introduction of direct importation scheme for private players, erratic fuel supplies have remained persistent. The study aimed at identifying factors affecting petroleum fuel supply chain and propose strategies to National Oil Infrastructure Company for the improvement of the petroleum fuel supply chain performance in Zimbabwe. The study exploited a descriptive case study through a mixed method approach in which semi-structured interviews and self-administered structured questionnaire were used to collect primary data from 110 respondents constituting 100% response rate. Findings indicated that petroleum fuel sector is highly fragmented with sub-optimal use of the pipeline in the transportation hence negatively affecting supply. The study concluded that poor performance of the petroleum fuel supply chain had significant downstream effects curtailing the productive capacity of other sectors.
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Though strategy appears to be the most mentioned attribute for firms’ competitive advantage, the success strategies for competitive advantage of firms in the Ghanaian construction industry in not known. This Delphi study identified the success strategies for competitive advantage in the Ghanaian construction industry and determined the relative impact of each of the success strategies. It used structured questionnaire in soliciting views from 15 experts. Data was analysed using the median, mean, and standard deviation. In all 14 success strategies were identified to impact competitive advantage with service differentiation strategy and being technologically independent ranking 1st among the strategies. It is recommended that firms should highly prioritize service differentiation strategy, and be technologically independent since these strategies recorded a very high impact on competitive advantage. The findings of this study will form the basis for future competitive advantage studies and inform policy direction in the Ghanaian construction industry.
Chapter
Leadership succession is vital for the construction industry, and now, with the generation z and baby boomers entering the age of retirement, the industry must place greater endeavour in planning for succession amongst the current workforce. The study aimed to establish the influence of different succession planning factors on leadership development in the construction industry. The study adopted the Delphi survey system of data collection to examine the study objective. Delphi experts (Construction specialists and researchers) were engendered from peer-reviewed conference proceedings and the South African construction industry professionals’ database. The evaluation of different succession planning factors was done by identifying the influence of each succession factor on leadership development; these factors were measured between no influence and very high influence. Data collected were analysed using mean item score and interquartile deviation. Of the different succession planning attributes evaluated, ability to understand organisational long term vision had a high influence on developing succession planning attributes for leadership development in the construction industry. The article contributes to the frame of knowledge on leadership development and succession planning in the construction industry.
Jidousha Sangyo Heno Teian
  • U Sakurayama
U. Sakurayama, "Jidousha Sangyo Heno Teian," Bungeish, Tokyo, 2007, pp. 11-25.
Osaka Prefectural Government Statistic Information
"Osaka Prefectural Government Statistic Information," Osaka Prefectural Government, 2013. http://www.pref.osaka.jp/toukei/nenkan/tn10-mokuji.html
The Ministry of Health
"Pneumoconiosis, Kanagawa Labor Bureau," The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, 2013. http://kanagawa-roudoukyoku.jsite.mhlw.go.jp/hourei_sei do_tetsuzuki/anzen_eisei/tetsuzuki/jinpai02.html