ArticlePDF Available

The Relationship between Employee Engagement, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and Counterproductive Work Behavior


Abstract and Figures

Organization have long been interested in the role of management on how employees think and feel about their jobs, as well as what employees are willing to dedicate to the organization. This study tested the relationship between employee engagement, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). The author administered 507 participants employee engagement scale, organizational OCB scale, and CWB scale of service industries in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Validity and reliability tests were used to evaluate the questionnaire contents. The result indicated a significant positive relation between employee engagement and OCB and a significant negative relation between employee engagement and CWB and between OCB and CWB This result also indicated no differences between employee engagement of female and male. This result shows that there is a different in mean score of OCB and CWB between male and female.
Content may be subject to copyright. International Journal of Business Administration Vol. 4, No. 2; 2013
Published by Sciedu Press 46 ISSN 1923-4007 E-ISSN 1923-4015
The Relationship between Employee Engagement, Organizational
Citizenship Behavior, and Counterproductive Work Behavior
Dorothea Wahyu Ariani
Dept. of Management, Atma Jaya Yogyakarta University
Jl Babarsari No. 43 Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Tel: 62-274-487-711 E-mail:
Received: October 27, 2012 Accepted: November 20, 2012 Online Published: March 14, 2013
doi:10.5430/ijba.v4n2p46 URL:
Organization have long been interested in the role of management on how employees think and feel about their jobs,
as well as what employees are willing to dedicate to the organization. This study tested the relationship between
employee engagement, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and counterproductive work behavior (CWB).
The author administered 507 participants employee engagement scale, organizational OCB scale, and CWB scale of
service industries in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Validity and reliability tests were used to evaluate the questionnaire
contents. The result indicated a significant positive relation between employee engagement and OCB and a
significant negative relation between employee engagement and CWB and between OCB and CWB This result also
indicated no differences between employee engagement of female and male. This result shows that there is a
different in mean score of OCB and CWB between male and female.
Keywords: Employee engagement, Organizational citizenship behavior, Counterproductive work behavior
1. Introduction
Organizations have long been interested in how employees think and feel about their jobs and what employees are
willing to dedicate to the organization. Researchers have argued that engagement, as a motivational variable should
lead to high levels of job performance (Kahn, 1990; Rich, Lepine, & Crawford, 2010; Christian, Garza, & Slaughter,
2011). Engagement is a motivational construct that can be also shared by employee in the workplace. Employee
engagement is fundamentally a motivational concept that represents the active allocation of personal resources
toward the task associated with a work role (Christian et al., 2011). Employee engagement has been found to be
positively related to individual job performance. Studies have found positive relationship between employee
engagement and organizational performance outcomes: employee retention, productivity, and profitability. Employee
engagement would be a predictor to organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and
may lead to intention to leave (Bhatnagar & Biswas, 2010).
Kahn (1990) formally defined engagement as “the simultaneous employment and expression of a person’s preferred
self in task behaviors that promote connections to work and to others, personal presence (physical, cognitive,
emotional) and active, full performances”. Based on the perspective of Kahn, employee engagement is the best
description of a multidimensional motivational concept reflecting the simultaneous investment of an individual’s
physical, cognitive, and emotional energy in active and full performance. Employee engagement is a positive attitude
held by the employee towards the organization and its value. When employees are engaged in their work, they
increase the occurrence of behaviors that promote efficient and effective functioning of the organization. These
behaviors are known as (OCB) which can be defined as individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly and
explicitly recognized by the formal reward system. OCB promote the efficient and affective functioning of the
organization as well as employee performance.
Employee performance or job performance is aggregated value to an organization of the set of behaviors that an
employee contributes both directly and indirectly to organization goals (Borman & Motowidlo, 1997). Job
performance consists of task performance or in-role performance and contextual performance or extra-role
performance. Several researchers e.g. Rotundo and Sackett (2002) and Viswesvaran and Ones (2000) have
speculated that overall job performance is a function not only of task performance but also of contextual behavior International Journal of Business Administration Vol. 4, No. 2; 2013
Published by Sciedu Press 47 ISSN 1923-4007 E-ISSN 1923-4015
such as OCB and counterproductive behavior (CWB). OCB and CWB have been linked in opposite directions. These
constructs are likely to be so strongly negatively related that they may be considered “opposites” (Bennet & Stamper,
2001; Organ & Paine, 1999). OCB will be increased when CWB is decreased, and vice versa.
Kahn (1990) did not explicitly outline a relationship between employee engagement and job performance, but
theoretical research has linked employee engagement to job performance. Employees who are highly engaged in
their work roles not only focus their physical effort on the pursuit of role-related goals, but are also cognitively
vigilant and emotionally connected to the endeavor (Kahn, 1990; Ashforth & Humprey, 1995). In contrast,
employees who are highly disengaged in their work roles withhold their physical, cognitive, and emotional energies,
and this is reflected in task activity that is at best, robotic, passive, and detached (Kahn, 1990). This study attempts to
examine the relationship between employee engagement, OCB and CWB of service organization in Yogyakarta,
Indonesia. Consequently, this study also examines relationship model of employee engagement to OCB, and CWB
of organizational members.
Many studies have been conducted in an attempt to establish the relationship between CWB and OCB, especially
since both of these are said to be dimensions of job performance. The previous researchers found that the relationship
between OCB and CWB have been contradictory. On one hand, OCB and CWB are said to be the extremes on a
single continuum; and this would be reflected by a strong negative correlation between them. If this is the case, then
it would suggest that that if an individual engages in OCB, she or he will not engage in CWB or vice versa. Based on
gender socialization and social role theory, suggested that women are inherently more relationship oriented than
success oriented and engage organizational citizenship than men (Cloninger, Ramamoorthy, & Flood, 2011; Farrel &
Finkelstein, 2007). But men are generally expected to be more heroic and perform more positive high-risk
citizenship behaviors than women (Lin, 2008). Therefore, the objective of this study is also to examine whether
gender affects employee engagement, OCB and CWB.
2. Literature Review and Hypotheses
Employee engagement is a person’s enthusiasm and involvement in his or her job. Kahn (1990) defined job
engagement as the harnessing of organization members’ selves to their work roles. In engagement, people employ
and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performance. Kahn’s engagement
concept is motivational because it refers to the allocation of personal resources to role performance and also to how
intensely and persistently those resources are applied. The engagement focuses on the positive aspects of a person’s
job. Employee engagement is employee willingness and ability to help their company succeed, largely by providing
discretionary effort on a sustainable basis (Little & Little, 2006). Employee is also defined as the involvement with
and enthusiasm for work.
Kahn (1990) found that these were three psychological conditions associated with engagement or disengagement at
work: meaningfulness, safety, and availability. Workers were more engaged at work in situations that offered them
more psychological meaningfulness and psychological safety, and when they were more psychologically available.
Employee engagement is a positive attitude held by the employee towards the organization and its value.
Engagement focuses on work performed at a job and represents the willingness to dedicate physical, cognitive, and
emotional resources to this work. As Kahn (1990), an engaged individual is one who approaches the task associated
with a job with a sense of self-investment, energy, and passion, which should translate into higher levels of in-role
and extra-role performance. Engaged employee will be more vigilant and more focused on their work or tasks, thus,
engagement should be positively related to task performance.
Engagement is a persistent and positive affective – motivational state of fulfillment in employees, characterized by
vigor, dedication, and absorption (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004). Vigor is high energy, resilience, a willingness to
invest effort on the job, the ability to not be easily fatigued, and persistence when confronted with difficulties.
Dedication is a strong involvement in work, enthusiasm, and sense of pride and inspiration. Absorption is a pleasant
state of being immersed in one’s work experiencing time passing quickly, and being unable to detach from the job.
People who are highly engaged in their jobs identify personally with the job and are motivated by the work itself.
They tend to work harder and more productively than others and are more likely to produce the results their
customers and organizations want.
Employee engagement is a construct that captures the variation across individuals and the amount of energy and
dedication they contribute to their job (Kahn, 1990). Employee engagement has been defined in many different ways
and the definitions and measures often sound like other better known and established constructs like organizational
commitment and OCB, but they are different. Employee engagement is related to organizational commitment, but
the two have important differences (Robert & Davenport, 2002). Job commitment is most commonly defined in International Journal of Business Administration Vol. 4, No. 2; 2013
Published by Sciedu Press 48 ISSN 1923-4007 E-ISSN 1923-4015
terms of an individual’s identification with the organization’s goals and values, willingness to exert effort for the
organization and desire to continue as part of the organization. People who are engaged in their jobs tend to be
committed to their organizations, and vice versa. Organizational commitment differs from engagement in that it
refers to a person’s attitudes and attachment towards their organization. Engagement is not an attitude.
In theory, employee engagement and job satisfaction are distinct constructs although these are evidence for overlap
in the definition. The main difference is that engagement emphasizes the cognitive aspect of involvement with job
task, whereas satisfaction focuses on affect (Wefald & Downey, 2009). A stronger theoretical rationale for
explaining employee engagement is found in social exchange theory (SET). SET provides a theoretical foundation to
explain why employees to become more or less engaged in their work and organization. Engagement is the degree to
which an individual is attenuate and absorbed in the performance of their roles (Saks, 2006).
As a relatively new construct, employee engagement is becoming a frequent topic of research ranging from job
performance and organizational commitment to job resources and job burnout (Babcock-Roberson & Strickland,
2010). The focus of engagement is ones formal roles performance rather than extra-role and voluntary behavior
(Saks, 2006). Recent research has found that employee engagement is related to increased job performance (Hakanen,
Baker, & Schaufeli, 2006). Organizational researchers have traditionally focused on task or in-role performance
which represents the extent to which employees effectively perform their official job duties (William & Anderson,
1991; Bowling, 2010). Individual job performance consists of distinct sets of activities that contribute to an
organization in different ways. The narrow aspect of job performance is task performance and contextual
performance. Recently, attention of researchers has been given to extra-role or contextual performance, which refers
to behavior not included as part of an employee’s official job duties that affect the well-being of the organization or
its members.
Contextual performance is the less formal “emergent” behaviors that contribute to organizations less directly
(Motowidlo, Borman, & Schmitt, 1997). These types of behaviors do not contribute directly to organization’s
technical core, but rather, they contribute to the organization by fostering a social and psychological environment
conducive to the accomplishment of work involved in the organization’s technical core. When individuals invest
energy into their work roles, they should have higher contextual performance, which relates to an individual’s
propensity to behave in ways that facilitate the social and psychological context of an organization (Borman &
Motowidlo, 1997). Engagement is thought to be an indicator of employee willingness to expend discretionary effort
to help the employer. Contextual performance was defined as performance that is not formally required as part of the
job but that helps shape the social and psychological context of the organization (Borman & Motowidlo, 1997).
There are two performance related behavior that go beyond the assigned tasks and responsibilities the positive and
negative behavior (Miles, Spector, Borman, & Fox, 2002). On the positive side, researchers have looked at voluntary
behavior that goes beyond the core tasks which are labeled OCB and contextual performance. On the negative side,
there is independent stream of research concerning detrimental, potentially destructive acts that hurt organization or
coworkers, which are labeled CWB. Perceptions of the work environment relate to positive emotion which is
positively correlated with the occurrence of OCB. Conversely, negative perception of the work environment relate to
negative emotion, which is positively correlated with the occurrence of CWB.
OCB involves voluntary and informal behaviors that can help coworkers and the organization. Recent researches
also indicate that OCB are important parts and predictors of employee engagement in that OCB is conceptualized as
positive behavior and willingness to exert energy for success of the organization. Most researchers have found that to
lead employee engagement are non-financial in their nature. In fact, performance should be linked with reward, but
human resource is not motivated by money alone. OCB can benefit coworkers or the organization’s effectiveness by
influencing the social and psychological commitment of the organization. OCB is behavior that contributes to goals
of the organization by contributing to its social and psychological environment (Rotundo & Sackett, 2002).
OCB contribute indirectly to the organization through the maintenance of organization’s social system that supports
task performance (Organ, 1997). OCB has been the many topics of empirical works (LePine, Erez, & Johnson, 2002),
however, the taxonomy of OCB throughout the years has not been completely consistent. Constructs that have
overlapped with OCB include prosocial organizational behavior (Brief & Motowidlo, 1986); contextual performance
(Motowidlo, 2000); organizational spontaneity (George & Brief, 1992); and extra role behavior (Mayfield & Taber,
2010). OCB is behavior that is voluntary and not part of formal role requirements and not directly recognized by the
formal reward system. OCB has been known to enhance an organization’s effectiveness, efficiency, and overall
performance by lubricating the social machinery of the organization, reducing friction and increasing efficiency International Journal of Business Administration Vol. 4, No. 2; 2013
Published by Sciedu Press 49 ISSN 1923-4007 E-ISSN 1923-4015
(Podsakoff & Mac Kenzie, 1997; Borman & Motowidlo, 1997; Smith, Organ, & Near, 1983). Research from a social
exchange perspective has viewed OCB as a contribution to the organization (Organ & Paine, 1999).
Konovsky and Organ (1996) identified five dimensions belonging to OCB: altruism, courtesy, sportsmanship, civic
virtue, and generalized compliance. Altruism refers to voluntary actions that help another person with a problem.
Courtesy includes efforts to prevent a problem with others and to avoid abusing the rights of others. Sportsmanship
refers to any behavior demonstrating tolerance of less than ideal circumstances without complaining. Civic Virtue
refers to constructive behaviors indicating a willingness to participate responsibly in the life of the organization.
Finally, generalized compliance involves discretionary actions beyond the minimum requirements of the
organization in areas of attendance. Empirical and conceptual work in this area suggests two broad categories:
OCBO-behaviors and OCBI-behaviors (William & Anderson, 1991). OCBO is behaviors that benefit the
organization and OCBI is behaviors that immediately benefit specific individuals. The dimensions of OCBO are
generalized compliance and civic virtue, whereas the dimensions of OCBI are altruism, courtesy, and sportsmanship.
This study uses three of five dimensions from Organ and Konovsky (1989) that we can be defined as OCB.
Employee engagement has been examined as a potential predictor in several OCB studies (Rich et al., 2010). One
explanation for why employee engagement related to OCB based upon social exchange theory and the principle of
reciprocity. Employees may perform OCB because it includes an emotional component (Bennett & Robinson, 2000).
This possibility is consistent with models suggesting that extra role behavior is the direct result of employee emotion
(Miles et al., 2002). The social exchange and the emotion-based explanations may be related, because the desires to
reciprocate and positive emotion are both the result of favorable treatment from one’s organization (Rhoades &
Eisenberger, 2002). Employee engagement is one of the potential predictor of OCB. Individual who are high in
employee engagement have a tendency to engage in constructive and responsible behavior at work (i.e. OCB).
Extra-role behavior consists of OCB and CWB, but they are different. OCB is extra-role behavior that helps
organizations and their members, CWB is extra-role behavior that are performed with the intention of harming
organizations and/ or their members. OCB has been defined as employee behavior that is at least somewhat
volitional and that improve the functioning of an organization (Organ & Paine, 1999); whereas CWB is defined as
volitional employee behavior that harms, or at least is intended to harm, the legitimate interests of an organization
(Dalal, Lam, Weiss, Welch, & Hulin, 2009). Those individuals who engage in OCB are unlikely to engage in CWB
and vice versa. CWB refers to negative employee behavior that is harmful to the organization or other employees
(Lee & Allen, 2002).
CWB refers to voluntary behavior in that employees either lack motivation to conform to or become motivated to
violate. CWB also means that employee is not motivated to conform and/ or is motivated to act against accepted
organizational norms. These CWB acts at work can take different forms, for example theft, fraud, sabotage,
absenteeism, physical aggressive and verbal aggressive. Robinson and Bennett (1995) argued that an important
distinction between types of deviance was whether the deviance was directed or targeted at either the organization
(organizational deviance) or at members of the organization (interpersonal deviance).
CWB is overlapped with antisocial behavior, counterproductive behavior, dysfunctional behavior, and organizational
misbehavior (Sacket, 2002; Bennett & Robinson, 2000). CWB is also defined as voluntary behavior that violates
significant organizational norms and in so doing threatens the well being of organizations, its members, or both.
Social exchange theory and reciprocity theory also provide possibility explanation. Employees who are have low
employee engagement might engage in CWB as means of retaliating against their employees for proving an
unpleasant work environment. Employees who are low in employee engagement care relatively little about losing
their jobs and are willing to engage in behaviors that could potentially jeopardize their employment. Based on that
literature review and the previous researches, I can say that the higher employee engagement, the higher OCB and
the lower CWB. Therefore hypotheses can be concluded as below:
H1: The relationship between employee engagement and OCB is positive
H2: The relationship between employee engagement and CWB is negative
H3: The relationship between OCB and CWB is negative
According to the gender socialization theory, women tend to be more relationship oriented. From a social-role theory
perspective, men value success whereas women value relationship. Females cooperated much more than males and
more likely to act in prevent harm and to help around negative outcomes. The results of Kong’s study show that there
exist differences in employee engagement between male and female employees in the company (Kong, 2009).
Female employees value more their jobs than male ones. Research has suggested that the level of employee International Journal of Business Administration Vol. 4, No. 2; 2013
Published by Sciedu Press 50 ISSN 1923-4007 E-ISSN 1923-4015
engagement is general is affected by demographic characteristics, the work place, and job demand (Kahn, 1990;
Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004). Female employees value more their jobs than male ones. Sarwar and Arwan (2010)
found that there was significant difference in male workplace deviation, and organizational deviation of male and
female primary school teachers. Based on that literature review and the previous researches, a hypothesis can be
concluded as below:
H4: There is no significant gender difference in all variables in this research
3. Method
3.1 Sample and Procedure
This study use self administered questionnaires were distributed to collect individual data on the respondents. The
survey took approximately three months. The sample consisted of 507 employees (with response rate 92 %) of 550
employees from service industries in Yogyakarta Indonesia. The demographic profile characteristics under
investigation include the gender. Of the 507 respondents, 276 were female and 231 were male. Respondents of the
service industries in Yogyakarta Indonesia received pen-and-paper surveys. Respondents were assured of anonymity
and completed the survey during working hours.
3.2 Measures
The instruments were designed for individual level unit of analysis. Each respondent in the study was required to
complete three measures: OCB, CWB, and employee engagement. Questionnaire on the OCB and CWB is taken
from those developed by previous researchers, such as Dalal et al. (2009) and Organ and Konovsky (1989).
Employee engagement was measured using items from Schaufeli, Bakker, and Salanova (2006) and Salanova, Agut,
and Piero (2006). All of the scales were measured on 5-point Likert Scale ranging from 1.
3.3 Reliability and Validity Analysis
To assess the reliability of the measurement items of all the variables, an internal consistency check was carried out.
The Cronbach alpha from the test yielded a record of 0.7330 for employee engagement, 0.7537 for OCB, and 0.6676
for CWB, which is far above the cut-off line of reliability as recommended by Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson, and
Tatham (2006). Content validity that is used to assess for the measurement instruments was done in the pre-tested
stage by soliciting the expert opinions of two professors from a university who are research specialists in quantitative
methodology and organizational behaviour disciplines. The scale was then pre-tested on 30 respondents who were
the employees that have similar characteristics to the target population as suggested by Sekaran and Bougie (2010).
Factor analysis (FA) was also performed on the construct under study. Factor extraction was executed and any
Eigenvalue that is greater than one (1) will be adopted. To further simplify the interpretation and seek a simpler
structure, the Orthogonal technique and the Varimax rotation was then performed. The varimax rotated principal
components factor revealed one structure factor. The factor loading recorded loading of between 0.538 and 0.729.
Given all the items extracted were recorded above 0.5, three (3) items were deleted. With varimax rotasion and factor
loading of minimum 0,5 as suggested by Heir et al. (2006) the results of construct validity testing are practically
4. Result
This research uses a questionnaire that is developed by some previous researchers by translating from and
retranslating it to the original language. Factor analysis is carried out to test construct validity. Then, with varimax
rotation and factor loading the minimum of 0.5 as suggested by Hair et al. (2006) are achieved as a result of construct
validity test which is practically significant. Then, the items that have the construct validity with the use of factor
analysis are tested for their reliability. Based on theoretical and empirical estimations relationship between employee
engagement and OCB is positive, relationship between employee engagement and CWB and relationship between
OCB and CWB are negative. Means, standard deviation, scale reliabilities, and inter correlations between all
variables are provided in Table 1.
The result of validity and reliability test show that six items of employee engagement, six items of CWB, and eight
items of OCB are valid with the loading factor were higher than 0.5. The internal consistency reliabilities were
0.7330 for employee engagement, 0.7537 for OCB, and 0.6676 for CWB. Correlation between OCB and employee
engagement was positive and significant (r = 0.312, p < 0.01). As shown in the table, hypothesis 1 was supported.
Correlation between employee engagement and CWB was negative and significant (r = 00.179, p < 0.01). As shown
in the table, hypothesis 2 was supported. Correlations between CWB and OCB was negative and significant (r =
-0.245, p < 0.01). As shown in the table, hypothesis 3 was supported. The low correlation between these variables is International Journal of Business Administration Vol. 4, No. 2; 2013
Published by Sciedu Press 51 ISSN 1923-4007 E-ISSN 1923-4015
caused by characteristics of variables. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the discriminant
validity of the study variables. Specifically, I tested a three-factor model in which the employee engagement, OCB,
and CWB items each loaded onto separate latent factors. As expected, this three factor model yielded good fit [χ2
(N= 507)= 27.391; p < 0.000; GFI= 0.966).
<Insert Table 1 Here>
An independent sample t-test was conducted to determine whether there are any significant differences in the mean
scores of the respondents in three variables. T-tests were also conducted to see if gender has any bearings on
employee engagement, OCB, and CWB, and the results are shown in Table 2. Interestingly, it was found that gender
has not effect on employee engagement, but gender has an effect on OCB and on CWB. It was found that females
tend to engage in higher OCB (t (231) = 22.669, p < 0.05) and male tend to engage in higher CWB (t (276) = 4.359,
p < 0.05). As shown in the table, hypothesis 4 was partially supported.
<Insert Table 2 Here>
5. Discussion
This finding is at adds with the belief that engagement is predominantly associated with OCB are extra role behavior.
This is because, engaged employees experience a high level of connectivity with their work tasks. Employees strive
toward task-related goals that are intertwined with their in role definitions and scripts. Engaged employees are likely
to perform extra role behavior because they are able to “free up” resources by accomplishing goals and performing
their task efficiently, enabling them to pursue activities that are not part of their job descriptions. Engaged employees
also consider all aspects of work to be part of their domain, and then, they step outside of their roles to work toward
their goals.
Employee engagement covers the basic dimensions of intrinsic motivation, which ensures goal oriented behavior.
High level of engagement increase proactive work behaviors in the sense of personal initiative such as proactive
behavior (Salanova & Schaufeli, 2008). Employees, when they engaged, will be more likely to create a social context
that is conducive to teamwork, helping, voice, and other discretionary behaviors that can lend to organizational
effectiveness (Podsakoff, Whitting, Podsakoff, & Blume, 2004). Engagement should be positively related to OCB
because employees who are engaged in their job should not only fulfill their formal role requirements, but should put
forth extra effort to perform other activities that extend beyond their formal role requirement. Engaged employee
works with passion and is more committed to the organization. Employee engagement is the extent to which people
enjoy and believe in what they do, and feel valued by doing it.
Employee engagement focuses on work performed at a job and represents the willingness to do dedicated physical,
cognitive, and emotional resources to this work. An engaged individual is one who approaches the tasks associated
with a job with a sense of self-investment, energy, and passion which should translate into higher levels of in-role
and extra-role performance (Christian et al., 2011). When individuals invest energy into their work roles, they should
have higher contextual performance. Employee engagement is one of the indicators of an employee’s willingness to
expend discretionary effort to help the employer. Employee engagement is predominantly with extra-role behavior.
Engaged employees are likely to perform extra-role behaviors perhaps because they are able to accomplish goals and
to perform their tasks efficiently, enabling them to pursue activities that are not part of their job descriptions.
Rioux and Penner (2001) examined the motivation for OCB and identified three underlying motives: prosocial values
motives, organizational concern motives, and impression management motives. Prosocial values motive is a desire to
help others, be altruistic, and gain acceptance. Organizational concern motive is a pride in and care for the
organization. Impression management motive is a desire to create and maintain a positive image and avoid negative
perceptions from others. Each of these motivational factors includes some kind of reward for the individual, thus
supporting the belief that employees engage in OCB because they believe that such behavior will result in a
favorable outcome for themselves (Finkelstein & Penner, 2004). Rioux and Penner (2001) argued that individuals
choose to engage in OCB because actions meet their own needs and enable them to attain desired outcomes. Motives
to perform OCB are one’s pride in their organization.
Using social exchange theory and organizational support theory as a theoretical basis, the researcher hypothesized
that employees who feel that their place of employment is providing a safe are more likely to become engaged and
display OCB. Social exchange theory provides a theoretical foundation to explain why employees choose to become
more or less engaged in their work and organization. Employee engagement has positive and negative consequences
for organizations. There is some empirical research that has reported relationships between engagement and work
behavior. Employee engagement has been found to be positively related to OCB and negatively related to CWB. International Journal of Business Administration Vol. 4, No. 2; 2013
Published by Sciedu Press 52 ISSN 1923-4007 E-ISSN 1923-4015
A relationship between employee engagement and CWB is likely to exist. Employees are likely to demonstrate
deviant behavior in response to negative perceptions of the work situation (Judge, Scott, & Illes, 2006). Positive
perceptions of the work situation were negatively related to workplace deviance. Individuals who are engaged in
their job maintain a positive perception of the work (i.e. proud, enthusiastic, interested) whereas, individuals who are
not engaged may have negative perceptions of the work situation (i.e. hostile, upset, irritable). When employee have
unfavorable perceptions of their situations at work, they are more likely to engage in CWB (Colbert, Mount, Harter,
Witt, & Barrick, 2004). Employee engagement as a positive affective state should be negatively related to CWB.
Engaged individuals are likely to show more positive and less deviant work behaviors (Den Hartog & Belschak,
2012). Employee engagement comes with high levels of energy and activities as vigor is an important component of
engagement. This energy encourages proactive behavior like OCB. Employee engagement is a positive emotional
state that increase level of OCB and decrease level of CWB. OCB and CWB are separate constructs and that it is
indeed possible to engage in both types of behavior at any one time. This result clearly shows a negative relationship
between OCB and CWB, but also that the magnitude of the relationship is relatively small. The research finding is
consistent with the findings of Dalal (2005), Kelloway, Loughlin, Barling, and Nault (2002), and Sackett, Berry,
Wiemann, and Laczo (2006), where all of these researches found only a moderate negative relationship between the
two constructs.
Previous studies on gender differences provided inconsistent findings. For example, Schaufeli, Bakker, & Salanova
(2006) found a weak but vague relationship between work engagement and gender. Previous researchers have also
pointed out that men are socialized to promote themselves whereas women are socialized to be modest in this regard
(Farrell & Finkelstein, 2007). The result of this study said that there is no gender difference was observed in
employee engagement in service industries in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In our study, there are significant differences
in mean score of male and female were found in OCB and CWB. Mean score of male’s OCB is higher than mean
score of female’s OCB. Bolino (1999) said that the more individual engages in OCB the more likely he or she is to
be seen as good soldier. Men employees are better soldier than women employees in service industries in Yogyakarta,
Indonesia. In the present study we found male employees more dedicated than female. Mean score of male’s CWB is
also higher than mean score of female’s CWB. There is a significant difference in mean score of male and female
employees. This is the Indonesian culture that male is more courageous to do the deviant behavior in the work than
Employee engagement research can benefit from methodological refinements especially with regard to time. Within
person studies need to be conducted to better understand state engagement, and longitudinal research is needed to
measure employee engagement. Future research should continue to expand work engagement’s nomological network,
in particular with regard to work-related criteria. My findings also have potential implications for practice. I have
illustrated that employee engagement might indeed help employers to improve or maintain their competitive
advantage. My results show that employee engagement has positive significant relation with OCB and has negative
significant relation with CWB.
This finding is at odds with the belief that employee engagement is predominantly associated with extra-role
behavior. This in because engaged employee experience a high level of connectivity with their organization.
Managers might be able to increase engagement by designing jobs that include motivating characteristics,
particularly with regard to the significance and variety the task performance. Future research could investigate
whether engagement simultaneously leads to task and contextual performance, or whether engaged employees tend
to prioritize in-role task. In order to shed light on the compound relationship between employee engagement, OCB,
CWB, and gender, there are need for empirical studies that use diverse research methods (e.g. qualitative research,
quantitative research, action research) in conjunction with the study of comprehensive theoretical models including
power relations and cultural patterns, using gender as analytical framework.
6. Conclusion
Employee engagement is a positive attitude held by the employee towards the organization and its values. Practices
engagement among employees can improve OCB. My research provides one answer in that employees who
exhibited higher levels of engagement were found to contribute to their organizations with higher levels of individual
OCB and lower levels of CWB. Employee engagement is related positively to OCB and negatively to CWB. OCB
and CWB are the separate constructs. Organizationally directed OCB and CWB are different types of behavior.
CWB is opposed to OCB. Relationship between OCB and CWB requires further research to truly understand and
explain the relationships between these two extra-role behaviors. Gender affects OCB and CWB, but not employee
engagement. My research result may partly be influenced by common method variance because self-report International Journal of Business Administration Vol. 4, No. 2; 2013
Published by Sciedu Press 53 ISSN 1923-4007 E-ISSN 1923-4015
questionnaires were used to measure employee engagement, OCB and CWB. Therefore, it is likely that method
variance inflated the relationships among these variables. The primary limitation of the study is its reliance on a
small sample size. The small sample size of respondents may limit the generalization of my results. My respondents
came from a variety of organizations as opposed to a sample drawn from a single organization.
Ashforth, B. E., & Humphrey, R. H. (1995). Emotion in the Workplace: A Reappraisal. Human Relations, 48,
Babcock-Roberson, M.E., & Strickland, O.J. (2010). The relationship Between Leadership, Work Employment, and
Organizational Citizenship Behavior. The Journal of Psychology, 144(3), 313-326.
Bennett, R.J., & Robinson, S.L. (2000). Development of Measure of Workplace Deviance. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 85, 349-360.
Bhatnagar, J., & Biswas, S. (2010). Predictors and Outcomes of Employee Engagement: Implications of the
Resource-Based View Perspective. The Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 46(2), 273-288.
Bolino, M.C. (1999). Citizenship and Impression Management: Good Soldiers or Good Actors? Academy of
Management Review, 24(1), 82-98.
Borman, W.C., & dan Motowidlo, S. J. (1997). Task Performance and Contextual Performance: The Meaning For
Personnel Selection Research. Human Performance, 10(2), 99-109.
Bowling, N.A. (2010). Effects of Job Satisfaction and Conscientiousness on Extra-Role behaviors. Journal of
Business Psychology, 25(1), 119-130.
Brief, A.P., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1986). Prosocial Organizational Behavior. Academy of Management Review, 11(4),
Christian, M.S., Garza, A.S., & Slaughter, J.E. (2011). Work Engagement: A Quantitative Review a Test of Its
Relations with Task and Contextual Performance. Personnel Psychology, 64(1), 89-136.
Cloninger, P.A., Ramamoorthy, N., & Flood, P.C. (2011). The Influence of Equity, Equality, and Gender on
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors. S.A.M. advanced Management Journal, 76(4), 37-47. [Online] Available: 923757319?accountid=44396
Colbert, A.E., Mount, M.K., Harter, J.K., Witt, L.A., & Barrick, M.R. (2004). Interactive Effects of Personality and
Perceptions of The Work Situation on Workplace Deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 599-609.
Dalal, R. S. (2005). A Meta-Analysis of The Relationship between Organizational Citizenship Behavior and
Counterproductive Behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1241–1255.
Dalal, R.S., Lam, H., Weiss, H.M., Weich, E.R., & Hulin, C.L. (2009). A Within-Person Approach to Work
Behavior and Performance: Concurrent and Lagged Citizenship-Counter Productivity Association and Dynamic
Relationship With Affect and Overall Job Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 52(5), 1061-1068.
[Online] Available: 199835901?accountid=44396
Den Hartog, D.N., & Belschak, F.D. (2012). Work Engagement and Machiavellianism in The Ethical Leadership
Process. Journal of Business Ethics, 107, 35-47.
Farrell, S.K., & Finkelstein, L.M. (2007). Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Gender Expectations and
Attributions for Performance. North American Journal of Psychology, 9(1), 81-96. [Online] Available:
gr13&b data=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=buh&AN=24646185
Finkelstein, M.A., & Pennner, L.A. (2004). Predicting Organizational Citizenship Behavior Integrating the
Functional and Role Identity Approaches. Social Behavior and Personality, 32(4), 383-398. International Journal of Business Administration Vol. 4, No. 2; 2013
Published by Sciedu Press 54 ISSN 1923-4007 E-ISSN 1923-4015
George, J.M., & Brief, A.P. (1992). Feeling Good, Doing Good: A Conceptual Analysis of the Mood of
Organizational Spontaneity Relationship. Psychological Bulletin, 112(2), 310-329.
Hair, J.E., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E., & dan Tatham, R.L. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis (6th
ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International Inc.
Hakanen, J.J., Baker, A.B., & Schaufeli, W.B. (2006). Burnout and Work Engagement among Teachers. Journal of
School Psychology, 43, 445-513.
Judge, T. A., Scott, B. A., & Ilies, R. (2006). Hostility, Job Attitudes, and Workplace Deviance: Test of a Multilevel
Model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(1), 126–138.
Kahn, W.A. (1990). Psychological Conditions of Personal Engagement and Disengagement of Work. Academy of
Management Journal, 33(4), 692-724.
Kelloway, E. K., Loughlin, C., Barling, J., & Nault, A. (2002). Self-Reported Counterproductive Behaviours and
Organizational Citizenship Behaviours: Separate but Related Constructs. International Journal of Selection and
Assessment, 10(1-2), 143-151.
Kong, Y. (2009). A Study on the Job Engagement of Company Employees. International Journal of Psychological
Studies, 1(2), 65-68. [Online] Available: http://search.proquest. com/docview/840751735? accountid=44396
Konovsky, M.A., & Organ, D.W. (1996). Dispositional and Contextual Determinant of Organizational Citizenship
Behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17(3), 253-266.<253::AID-JOB747>3.0.CO;2-Q
Lee, K., & Allen, N.J. (2002). Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Workplace Deviance: The Role of Affect
and Cognitions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 131-142.
LePine, J.A., Erez, A., & Johnson, D.E. (2002). The Nature and Dimensionality of Organizational Citizenship
Behavior: A Critical Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 52-65.
Lin, C.P. (2008). Clarifying the Relationship between Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Gender, Knowledge
Sharing in Workplace Organizations in Taiwan. Journal of Business Psychology, 22, 241-250.
Little, B., & Little, P. (2006). Employee Engagement: Conceptual Issues. Journal of Organizational Culture,
Communication, and Concept, 10(1), 111-120.
Mayfield, C.O., & Taber, T.D. (2010). A Prosocial Self-Concept Approach to Understanding Organizational
Citizenship Behavior. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(7), 741-763.
Miles, D.E., Spector, P.E., Borman, W.E., & Fox, S. (2002). Building An Integrative Model of Extra Role Work
Behavior: A Comparison of Counterproductive Work Behavior with Organizational Citizenship Behavior.
International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10(1/2), 51-57.
Motowidlo, S.J. (2000). Some Basic Issues Related To Contextual Performance and Organizational Citizenship
Behavior in Human Resource Management. Human Resource Management Review, 10(1), 115-126.
Motowidlo, S.J., Borman, W.C., & Schmit, M.J. (1997). A Theory of Individual Differences in Task and Contextual
Performance. Human Performance, 10(2), 71-83.
Organ, D. W., & Paine, J. B. (1999). A New Kind of Performance for Industrial and Organizational Psychology:
Recent Contributions to The Study of Organizational Citizenship Behavior. International Review of Industrial and
Organizational Psychology, 14, 337–368.
Organ, D.W. (1997). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: It’s Construct Clean-Up Time. Human Performance,
10(2), 85-97.
Organ, D.W., & Konovsky, M.A. (1989). Cognitive versus Affective Determinant of Organizational Citizenship
Behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(1), 151-164. International Journal of Business Administration Vol. 4, No. 2; 2013
Published by Sciedu Press 55 ISSN 1923-4007 E-ISSN 1923-4015
Podsakoff, N.P., Whiting, S.E., Podsakoff, P.M., & Blume, B.D. (2009). Individual and Organizational Level
Consequences of Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Meta- Analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1),
Podsakoff, P.M., & MacKenzie, S.B. (1997). Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational
Performance: A Review and Suggestions For Future Research. Human Performance, 10(2), 133-151.
Rhoades, L., & dan Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived Organizational Support: A Review of the Literature. Journal
of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 698-714.
Rich, B.L., Lepine, J.A., & Crawford, E.R. (2010). Job Engagement: Antecedents and Effects on Job Performance.
Academy of Management Journal, 53(3), 617-635.
Rioux, S.M., & dan Penner, L.A. (2001). The Causes of Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Motivational
Analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(6), 1306-1314. [Online] Available:
13&bdata =JnNpdGU9ZW hvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=buh&AN=12129188
Robert, D.R., & Davenport, T.O. (2002). Job Engagement: Why It’s Important and How to Improve It. Employment
Relations, 24(3), 21-29.
Robinson, S., & Bennett, R. (1995). A Typology of Deviant Workplace Behaviors: A Multi-Dimensional Scalling
Study. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 555-572.
Rotundo, M., & Sackett, P.R. (2002). The Relative Importance of Task, Citizenship, and Counterproductive
Performance to Global Ratings of Job Performance: A Policy-Capturing Approach. Journal of Applied Psychology,
87(1), 66-80.
Sacket, P.R. (2002). The Structure of Counterproductive Work Behaviors: Dimensionality and Relationships with
Facets of Job Performance. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10, 5-11.
Sackett, P. R., Berry, C. M., Wiemann, S. A., & Laczo, R. M. (2006). Citizenship and Counterproductive Behaviour:
Clarifying Relations between The Two Domains. Human Performance, 19(4), 441-464.
Saks, A.M. (2006). Antecedents and Consequences of Employee Engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology,
21(7), 600-619.
Salanova, M., & Schaufeli, W.B. (2008). A Cross-National Study of Work Engagement as a Mediator between Job
Resource and Proactive Behavior. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(1), 116-131.
Salanova, M., Agut, S., & Peiro, J. M. (2005). Linking Organizational Resources and Work Engagement to
Employee Performance and Customer Loyalty: The Mediation of Service Climate. Journal of Applied Psychology,
90, 1217–1227.
Sarwar, M., & Awan, R.N. (2010). Location and Gender Differences in Deviant Behavior among Primary School
Teachers. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(12), 97-101. [Online] Available:
Schaufeli, W.B., & Baker, A.B. (2004). Job Demands, Job Resources, and The Relationship with Burnout and
Engagement: A Multi-Sample Studies. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 293-315.
Schaufeli, W.B., Bakker, A.B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The Measurement of Work Engagement with a Short
Questionnaire: A Cross-National Study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(4), 701-716.
Smith, C.A., Organ, D.W., & Near, J.P. (1983). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature and Antecedents.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(4), 653-663.
Viswesvaran, C., & Ones, D. S. (2000). Perspectives on Models of Job Performance. International Journal of
Selection and Assessment, 8, 216–226. International Journal of Business Administration Vol. 4, No. 2; 2013
Published by Sciedu Press 56 ISSN 1923-4007 E-ISSN 1923-4015
Wefald, A.J., & Downey, R.G. (2009). Construct Dimensionality of Engagement and Its Relation with Satisfaction.
The Journal of Psychology, 143(1), 91-111.
Williams, L.J., & dan Anderson, S.E. (1991). Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment as Predictors of
Organizational Citizenship and In-Role Behaviors. Journal of Management, 17(3), 601-617.
Table 1. Means, standard deviations, and inter correlations among the study variables
Mean SD α 1 2 3
OCB 3.9246 0.42768 0.7537 1.000 -0.245** 0.312**
CWB 2.5750 0.51682 0.6676 1.000 -0.179**
Employee Engagement 3.0947 0.57413 0.7330 1.000
Notes: correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
Table 2. t-test analysis for employee engagement, OCB, and CWB based on gender
Domain Gender N Mean SD df t Sign.
Employee Engagement Male
505 0.994 0.319
OCB Male
505 22.669 0.000
CWB Male
505 4.359 0.037
... In this continuance commitment, the calculate value of working with current organization is higher than moving to other organizations. Organizational commitment is related to the employee engagement, but the visible difference is organizational commitment mentioned about personal attitudes and attachment towards the organization, but engagement is not about attitude (Ariani, 2013). Meyer and Allen (1987) described that organizational commitment can be categorized into three groups such as "affective", "continuance" and "normative" commitment. ...
... They have high expectations for organization as Landesa be a normative organization in terms of implementing its aims and objectives and sustaining amidst the crisis. It is clear that organizational commitment is about the personal attitudes and attachment towards the organization (Ariani, 2013). ...
Full-text available
The global pandemic and political situation in Myanmar disrupted the country's economy and put at risk of gradual economic progress. Ongoing programs for the rural communities are facing adversities and Landesa Myanmar is no exception. The reactions of employees and organization are critical for organizational sustainability and employees need to understand the factors governing the resilience and applications of those factors in organizational resiliency. The research was conducted to co-create the roadmap of organizational resiliency by using quick SOAR analysis to discover the strengths of the employees and to explore the shared aspirations of employees. In this study, qualitative method with phenomenology research approach was applied, and data were gathered via structured interviews. Fifteen employees from different level positions were horizontally selected to participate in the research. Data from interviews were analyzed by using content analysis with three coders consists of the researcher, another coder from outside of the organization and one from the respondents. The MAXQDA 2020 software was also used to double checking the relevancy of the results. The findings show that strengths and aspirations are core elements to achieve resilient organization towards the sustained organization. The components of strengths include three stages of resilience, Employee Engagement, Organizational Commitment and Appreciative Resilience practices of leadership built from AI. The aspirations include future of organization, employees' contributions, success of organization and difference between now and after crisis. Finally, the roadmap of organizational resilience is generated based on the strengths and aspirations of employees for enhancing organizational resilience and sustainability.
... All these attributes highly impact the ability and strength of the employees to get associated with the work that is allocated to them at the workplace. Ariani (2013) declares that dedication is viewed as another aspect that is responsible for engaging the employees at the workplace. Dedication provides mental and emotional strength to the individuals to carry out work. ...
... The wide variations in defining Employee Engagement also gets it associated with "Job Involvement" but if we are to contras it, then employee engagement is more about how engaged an employee is while delivering his performance for achieving company goals whereas job involvement is more about being emotionally and psychologically attached with one's job (Mark Gatenby, 2008).Amongst the quo of such related terms, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has also been considered similar as employee engagement however (OCB) can be taken as an analyst of employee engagement which is demonstrated by an employee once he socially and psychologically creates a bond with its organization and delivers towards the organizational goal without an intend for any monetary rewards. (Ariani, 2013). ...
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to identify the impact of generational differences on employee preferences for engagement-enablers and drivers at feroze1888 mills ltd. To conduct this research, Employee Engagement Drivers have been identified through the research paper named as 'The Drivers of Employee Engagement: a diagnostic model' which was presented by Institute of Employment Studies in 2003, while the Employee Engagement Enablers have been extracted from the research paper 'Engaging for Success: Enhancing performance through employee engagement' published in 2009 by MacLeod and Clarke. The identified variables in terms of Enablers and Drivers have then been evaluated with respect to preferences of three generations for them which includes Baby Boomers, Gen X and Gen Y. Stratified Random Sampling has been used for this research resulting in a total sample size of 208 respondents comprising of 3 strata groups based on the 3 generations. For data Integration and analysis, one-way ANOVA has been used to find out the results in categorical form for the purpose of creating a comparison between the three groups. Having some of its hypothesis rejected while majority getting excepted, the research has concluded that 'yes there do exist some difference amongst the 3 generations in their preferences for the Enablers and Drivers'. This research can be useful for organizations who consider the Engagement of each of their employees equally important regardless of the age bracket to which they belong. This research can provide them an insight about which areas of Employee Engagement are to be kept in focus to engage their young, middle aged and senior employees.
... Engagement generates energy in employees alternate to vigor, an important factor of engagement. This energy leads to organizational citizenship behavior (prosocial behavior) which is supportive and positive emotional state necessary for the enhancement of OCB and decrease level of Counterproductive behavior (Sackett et al, 2006: Ariani, 2013. ...
Full-text available
Aim of this research study is to explore the association between prosocial behavior and work engagement of rescue workers moderated by social and emotional competence. Cross-sectional and correlational research designs were used. 385 research participants (Operational rescue workers) were selected in order to participate in this research through purposive sampling technique with minimum age range of 25 years. Data is collected from 385 male rescue workers from four adjacent districts of Peshawar, Kohat, Hangu and Karak. Prosocial behavior scale for rescue workers, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and Social and Emotional Competencies Questionnaire were used for data collection. Significant positive association between rescue workers' prosocial behavior and their work engagement while non-significant moderation effect of social and emotional competence on the association was noted of rescue workers' prosocial behavior and work engagement. It was concluded that rescue workers with high prosocial behavior will show more helping attitude and prosocial motivation to help those in trouble as well as their colleagues and friends in the organization.
... The concept of employee commitment and engagement to work and the workplace has been at the centre of business and research interest since the 1990s [14][15][16][17][18][19]. Kahn [20] defined engagement as "the harnessing of organisation members' selves to their work roles; in engagement, people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances". ...
Full-text available
Similarity between two fuzzy values, sets, etc., may be defined in various ways. The authors here attempt introducing a general similarity measure based on the direct extension of the Boolean minimal form of equivalence operation. It is further extended to hierarchically structured multicomponent fuzzy signatures. Two versions of this measure, one based on the classic min–max operations and one based on the strictly monotonic algebraic norms, are proposed for practical application. A real example from management science is chosen, namely the comparison of employee attitudes in two different populations. This example has application possibilities in the evaluation and analysis of employee behaviour in companies as, due to the complex aspects in analysing multifaceted behavioural paradigms in organizational management, it is difficult for companies to make reliable decisions in creating processes for better social interactions between employees. In the paper, the authors go through the steps of building a model for exploring a set of different features, where a statistical pre-processing step enables the identification of the interdependency and thus the setup of the fuzzy signature structure suitable to describe the partially redundant answers given to a standard questionnaire and the comparison of them with help of the (pair of the) new similarity measures. As a side result in management science, by using an internationally applied standard questionnaire for exploring the factors of employee engagement and using a sample of data obtained from Hungarian and Lithuanian firms, it was found that responses in Hungary and Lithuania were partially different, and the employee attitude was thus in general different although in some questions an unambiguous similarity could be also discovered.
... It is the strength, efficacy and potency used in achieving a particular goal. It is a high energy, resilience, a willingness to invest effort on the job, the ability to not be easily fatigued, and persistence when confronted with difficulties (Ariani, 2013). ...
Full-text available
Purpose: this work examined the place of OC in determining employees’ engagement in the libraries of publicly owned universities in Anambra State. Specifically, the study ascertained the nexus between Support Climate and Vigour in the studied institutions. Design/methodology/approach: survey research design was deployed for the study which was carried out in Anambra State, Nigeria. The population of the study consisted of 107 Library Staff in Nnamdi Azikiwe University and Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Anambra State. A complete enumeration method was deployed to capture all the opinions of the respondents. The data collection was done through a structured questionnaire, A total of 107 copies of the questionnaire was distributed, 97 was collected, but only 95 copies were used for the analysis Data analysis was done using simple regression, and hypothesis tested at a 5% level of significance. Findings: the result revealed that a positive relationship exists between Support Climate and Vigour (R = .982). It is indicated that a 96% change in Vigour is explained by changes in the Support Climate in the selected libraries in Anambra State, Nigeria (R-Square = .964; F-statistics = 2471.410 P-value < 000). Originality/Value: This study concludes that for the Staff of libraries in the studied schools to perform their duty with vigour, they have to perceive that the institutions and their management truly cares, supports and shows concern for the employees. This is therefore, the value this study adds to literature and research as it concerns libraries in Anambra State, Nigeria.
... As a consequence, the company atmosphere becomes more comfortable. Finally, task performance is employee performance related to the ability of employees to carry out tasks to achieve company goals such as the desire to maintain high performance, willingness to handle work, high morale at work, willingness to complete work well, and the desire of other employees to improve task performance (Ariani, 2013). This study provides empirical evidence that the performance achieved by the company is included in the good category for the three types of employee performance. ...
Full-text available
This study aims to test the role of transformational leadership in moderating the relationship between work conflict and employee performance at Railway Company. The sample in this survey is 150 employees of a railway company’s operations management center selected using a non-random sampling method. The data were collected through an online survey through WhatsApp and email. Partial Least Square–Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) was implied to explain the relationship among the conceptualized variables in this study. The results revealed a negative relationship between. The results show that there is a negative link between work conflict and employee performance. In addition, transformational leadership has been found to negatively ease the relationship between work conflict and employee performance. This study also finds that there is a positive relationship between transformational leadership and employee performance. Based on the results, this study therefore concluded that transformational leadership is a variable conceptualized to partially ease the relationship between work conflict and employee performance. This study also describes the theoretical and practical implications, as well as future research opportunities.
The management of InterContinental Bali Resort applies two policies, which are organizational justice and employee engagement that expected to be able to improve organizational citizenship behavior in ought to increase employee performance, especially those dealing directly with guests, one of it is F&B Service Department. This study aims to analyze the influence of organizational justice and employee engagement on organizational citizenship behavior partial and simultaneous F&B Service Department employees at InterContinental Bali Resort. Determination of samples using saturated sample techniques totaling 78 respondents. Data collection techniques used were questionnaires. This research was conducted using multiple linear regression analysis techniques, t-test, F-test and determination coefficient analysis (R2) with the help of SPSS version 22. The results of the analysis showed that (1) organizational justice (X1) had a positive and significant effect partial to organizational citizenship behavior (Y), (2) employee engagement (X2) has a positive and significant effect partially on organizational citizenship behavior (Y), and (3) organizational justice (X1) and employee engagement (X2) positive and significant influence simultaneously on organizational citizenship behavior (Y). The results of the coefficient of determination analysis (R2) show that organizational justice and employee engagement have an effect of 59.7% on organizational citizenship behavior, while the remaining 40.3% is influenced by other variables not discussed in this study.
Behavior at the workplace is one of the most important factors that distinguishes one organization from another. The current study attempts to test two pathways through which positive and negative behavior at the workplace can be predicted. The positive path leading to positive behavior (i.e., task performance, organizational citizenship behavior [OCB]) is shaped by positive perceptions (i.e., perceived organizational justice, perceived organizational support, perceived organizational identity) and positive attitudes (i.e., organizational commitment, work engagement), while the negative path leading to negative behavior (i.e., counterproductive work behavior [CWB], turnover intentions) is shaped by negative perceptions (i.e., perceived organizational politics, perceived abusive supervision, perceived overqualification) and negative attitudes (i.e., job stress, job burnout). Data were collected from 1344 individuals working in various companies in the public sector (e.g., industrial, service, health, education) in Iraq. To achieve the purpose of the study, 16 hypotheses were tested. The results of the study supported positive and negative pathways of perceptions, attitudes, and behavior. The results also indicated that positive perceptions and attitudes are good predictors of negative behavior, while negative perceptions and attitudes also predict positive behavior. This indicates that obtaining the best results of behavior in the workplace should be through strengthening the package of positive variables and reducing the package of negative variables. Based on the results, the study discussed a number of theoretical and practical implications and offered a set of recommendations.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
ÖZET: Örgütlerin sağlıklı bir şekilde varlıklarını sürdürebilmeleri ve hedeflerine ulaşabilmeleri için, kuşkusuz çalışanların örgütlerine yönelik tutum ve davranışları oldukça önem taşımaktadır. Bu noktada, üretkenlik karşıtı iş davranışları istenmeyen işyeri davranışları niteliği taşırken, çalışanların örgütsel bağlılıkları da sağlıklı bir örgüt ortamı ve işleyişini sağlamaya katkı sağlıyor olması açısından arzu edilen bir çalışan tutumu olarak değerlendirilebilecektir. Bu iki kavram arasındaki bağ, son dönemde yapılan araştırmalara konu olmaya başlamıştır. Örgütsel bağlılık ile üretkenlik karşıtı iş davranışları arasındaki ilişkinin, sosyal mübadele kuramı açısından açıklanması mümkün olabilmektedir. Bu kuram ışığında, adaletli muamele ve tatmin edici çalışma şartlarının oluşturulması gibi koşullara karşı örgüte yönelik bağlılığın artması ve örgütsel vatandaşlık gibi olumlu rol ötesi davranışlar sergilenmesi söz konusu olabilmektedir... Aksi koşullarda ise, düşük örgütsel bağlılık geliştiren bireylerin, misilleme, devamsızlık, işten ayrılma gibi olumsuz rol ötesi davranışlar sergilemeleri daha olasıdır. Literatür incelendiğinde örgütsel bağlılığın birçok değişken ile ilişkisini ölçmeye yönelik oldukça fazla çalışmaya rastlanmaktadır. Üretkenlik karşıtı iş davranışlarına ilişkin araştırmaların ise, oldukça az sayıda olduğu görülmektedir. Yabancı literatürde örgütsel bağlılık ile üretkenlik karşıtı iş davranışları arasındaki ilişkiyi ölçen az sayıda çalışma bulunurken, Türkiye'de ise, bu iki kavram arasındaki ilişkiyi ölçen ampirik bir çalışmaya rastlanamamıştır. Bu çalışmada, özellikle beyaz yakalı çalışanların üretkenlik karşıtı iş davranışları ve örgütsel bağlılık algılarının belirlenmesi amaçlanmaktadır.
Full-text available
The purpose of this research was to develop broad, theoretically derived measure(s) of deviant behavior in the workplace. Two scales were developed: a 12-item scale of organizational deviance (deviant behaviors directly harmful to the organization) and a 7-item scale of interpersonal deviance (deviant behaviors directly harmful to other individuals within the organization). These scales were found to have internal reliabilities of .81 and .78, respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis verified that a 2-factor structure had acceptable fit. Preliminary evidence of construct validity is also provided. The implications of this instrument for future empirical research on workplace deviance are discussed.
Full-text available
We theorize that engagement, conceptualized as the investment of an individual's complete self into a role, provides a more comprehensive explanation of relationships with performance than do well-known concepts that reflect narrower aspects of the individual's self. Results of a study of 245 firefighters and their supervisors supported our hypotheses that engagement mediates relationships between value congruence, perceived organizational support, and core self-evaluations, and two job performance dimensions: task performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Job involvement, job satisfaction, and intrinsic motivation were included as mediators but did not exceed engagement in explaining relationships among the antecedents and performance outcomes.
Full-text available
Purpose – Employee engagement has become a hot topic in recent years among consulting firms and in the popular business press. However, employee engagement has rarely been studied in the academic literature and relatively little is known about its antecedents and consequences. The purpose of this study was to test a model of the antecedents and consequences of job and organization engagements based on social exchange theory. Design/methodology/approach – A survey was completed by 102 employees working in a variety of jobs and organizations. The average age was 34 and 60 percent were female. Participants had been in their current job for an average of four years, in their organization an average of five years, and had on average 12 years of work experience. The survey included measures of job and organization engagement as well as the antecedents and consequences of engagement. Findings – Results indicate that there is a meaningful difference between job and organization engagements and that perceived organizational support predicts both job and organization engagement; job characteristics predicts job engagement; and procedural justice predicts organization engagement. In addition, job and organization engagement mediated the relationships between the antecedents and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, intentions to quit, and organizational citizenship behavior. Originality/value – This is the first study to make a distinction between job and organization engagement and to measure a variety of antecedents and consequences of job and organization engagement. As a result, this study addresses concerns about that lack of academic research on employee engagement and speculation that it might just be the latest management fad.
Full-text available
The construct of prosocial organizational behavior is defined and 13 specific forms are described. They vary according to whether they are functional or dysfunctional for organizational effectiveness, prescribed or not prescribed as part of one's organizational role, and directed toward an individual or organizational target. Potential predictors and determinants drawn from the social psychological literature suggest an agenda for research in organizational settings.
The authors reviewed more than 70 studies concerning employees' general belief that their work organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being (perceived organizational support; POS). A meta-analysis indicated that 3 major categories of beneficial treatment received by employees (i.e., fairness, supervisor support, and organizational rewards and favorable job conditions) were associated with POS. POS, in turn, was related to outcomes favorable to employees (e.g., job satisfaction, positive mood) and the organization (e.g., affective commitment, performance, and lessened withdrawal behavior). These relationships depended on processes assumed by organizational support theory: employees' belief that the organization's actions were discretionary, feeling of obligation to aid the organization, fulfillment of socioemotional needs, and performance-reward expectancies.
Recent research suggests that women are more likely to participate in the helping dimension of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) whereas men are more likely to participate in the civic virtue dimension. Three laboratory studies were conducted to test the hypotheses that observers expect employees to participate in gender-congruent OCBs and that, when exhibited, observers are more likely to attribute gender-incongruent OCBs than gender-congruent OCBs to impression management motives. Results indicated that OCBs in general were expected more of women than of men. Only under specific conditions were OCB-civic virtue behaviors expected more of men. Additionally, participants were more likely to attribute men's OCB than women's OCB to impression management motives. Implications and future research suggestions are discussed.
This study began with the premise that people can use varying degrees of their selves. physically. cognitively. and emotionally. in work role performances. which has implications for both their work and experi­ ences. Two qualitative. theory-generating studies of summer camp counselors and members of an architecture firm were conducted to explore the conditions at work in which people personally engage. or express and employ their personal selves. and disengage. or withdraw and defend their personal selves. This article describes and illustrates three psychological conditions-meaningfulness. safety. and availabil­ ity-and their individual and contextual sources. These psychological conditions are linked to existing theoretical concepts. and directions for future research are described. People occupy roles at work; they are the occupants of the houses that roles provide. These events are relatively well understood; researchers have focused on "role sending" and "receiving" (Katz & Kahn. 1978). role sets (Merton. 1957). role taking and socialization (Van Maanen. 1976), and on how people and their roles shape each other (Graen. 1976). Researchers have given less attention to how people occupy roles to varying degrees-to how fully they are psychologically present during particular moments of role performances. People can use varying degrees of their selves. physically, cognitively, and emotionally. in the roles they perform. even as they main­ tain the integrity of the boundaries between who they are and the roles they occupy. Presumably, the more people draw on their selves to perform their roles within those boundaries. the more stirring are their performances and the more content they are with the fit of the costumes they don. The research reported here was designed to generate a theoretical frame­ work within which to understand these "self-in-role" processes and to sug­ gest directions for future research. My specific concern was the moments in which people bring themselves into or remove themselves from particular task behaviors, My guiding assumption was that people are constantly bring­ ing in and leaving out various depths of their selves during the course of The guidance and support of David Berg, Richard Hackman, and Seymour Sarason in the research described here are gratefully acknowledged. I also greatly appreciated the personal engagements of this journal's two anonymous reviewers in their roles, as well as the comments on an earlier draft of Tim Hall, Kathy Kram, and Vicky Parker.
This paper extends the resource based view of the firm to employee engagement and explores linkages with firm performance. It argues that employee engagement interacts with other intangible variables such as the sense of justice and psychological contract which an individual feels and expects, respectively. The individual's psychological contract is shaped by organizations' HR policies along with many social cues from the work environment. This may affect the employee engagement. Further, there may be a positive effect of Employee Engagement on Organizational Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. The entire equation may lead to high firm performance which in turn may affect Employee Engagement. It proposes a conceptual model of these intangible variables and their linkage with the tangible variable of firm performance.
This study examines the relationships between organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and knowledge sharing using gender as a moderator. In the proposed model, five components of OCBs—altruism, courtesy, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, and civic virtue—influence knowledge sharing. Gender stereotypes have a moderating effect on each path and a main effect on each antecedent. These moderating effects are simultaneously examined using data obtained from employees at various companies who attend evening college classes for advanced study in Taiwan. A moderating test reveals that the influence of altruism on knowledge sharing is stronger for women than for men, while the influences of courtesy and sportsmanship on knowledge sharing are stronger for men than for women. Lastly, the influences of conscientiousness and civic virtue on knowledge sharing are similar between women and men. Implications of empirical findings are also discussed.