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The Open Access Initiative: A New Paradigm for Scholarly Communications

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Abstract

This paper gives an account of the origin and development of the Open Access Initiative (OAI) and the digital technology that enables its existence. The researcher explains the crisis in scholarly communications and how open access (CIA) can reform the present system. OA has evolved two systems for delivering research articles: CIA archives or repositories and OA journals. They differ in that CIA journals conduct peer review and CIA archives do not. Discussion focuses on how these two delivery systems work, including such topics as OAI, local institutional repositories, Eprints self-archiving software, cross-archives searching, metadata harvesting, and the individuals who invented CIA and organizations that support it.
฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀   ฀  ฀ 
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀฀ ฀
฀   ฀ 
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀฀ ฀ ฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀


 ฀  ฀ ฀  
฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀

฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ 

฀
฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
  ฀ ฀ ฀   ฀
 ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀   
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀   ฀   ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀     ฀  ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀

฀
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฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀

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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
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
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
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฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ 

฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀
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฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀

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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀
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฀฀฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀ ฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀
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฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ 
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฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ 
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฀ ฀ ฀  
฀  ฀
฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
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฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀

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฀ ฀ ฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ 

฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
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฀   ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀
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
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   ฀ 

฀  ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀  ฀
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  ฀  ฀  
  ฀ ฀   ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
  ฀ 

฀ ฀ 
   ฀  ฀  ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀ ฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀
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฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
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฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
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 ฀ ฀ ฀   ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀   ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀

 ฀฀฀฀฀฀ ฀฀ ฀
N
฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  
฀   ฀  
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀

฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
 

฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀

฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀ ฀ ฀฀
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฀฀
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฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀
฀ ฀  ฀  ฀ 


฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 

฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀ ฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀

฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀   ฀ ฀ ฀  
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀   ฀ ฀ ฀
 

฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀  ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀
฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀ 

฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀

฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀ ฀฀ ฀฀
 ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀    ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀  ฀ 

฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀฀ ฀
฀  

฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀
฀฀฀฀

฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 

 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀   ฀
฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀   ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀   ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
 ฀   ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀

N

   ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀ ฀฀ ฀฀฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀฀฀฀฀ ฀฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀ 
฀฀฀฀฀฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
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฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 

฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀

 ฀ ฀  ฀  ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 

฀฀
 ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀ ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀

 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀

 ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
 
 ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀

 
 ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
 
 ฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀

 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀

฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀

฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀

฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀
฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀฀

฀ ฀ ฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 

฀  ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀฀ ฀ ฀ ฀฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀

฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀

฀  ฀฀฀
฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀

฀  ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀

฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀

 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀฀฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ 

฀  
 ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀

฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀

฀ ฀ ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀

฀  ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀

 ฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀
฀  ฀ ฀ ฀฀ ฀ ฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀

฀  ฀ ฀฀ ฀ ฀฀฀฀ ฀

฀  ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀ ฀฀฀ ฀฀
฀
฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 

฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀
 ฀฀฀฀฀฀ ฀฀ ฀
฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀

฀  ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀  ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀

฀  ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀
฀  ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 

฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀

฀  ฀ ฀฀ ฀฀ ฀฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀

฀  ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀

฀  ฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀
฀฀
 ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀  ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 

฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀

฀  
฀  
฀  ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀  ฀ ฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀฀฀฀
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฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
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฀  ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
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... Scholars are recognizing the need for greater inclusion of underrepresented groups-not only as subjects of inquiry, but also as practitioners and researchers (Rao & Donaldson, 2015). In addition to writing popular press books, posting to social media, or creating informative websites for mainstream audiences, more scholars are adopting a model of open access, leveraging digital technology to make research literature publicly available online (Yiotis, 2005 In its focus on what is right with us, rather than fixation on what is not, positive psychology is uniquely poised to right wrongs and reframe perspectives. Building on the strengths of the past and leveraging present-day insights, researchers, scholars, and practitioners are expanding the applications of positive psychology and reconsidering the construction and scope of positive interventions (Pawelski, 2020). ...
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The stories we tell can shape our lives and our experiences. Unfortunately, many African American adolescents are often subjected to stereotypes and one-sided deficit narratives that can become self-fulfilling prophecies undermining their achievement, aspirations, and well-being. However, the college admission process offers an intervention opportunity to help these students tell a different story—their story. In this paper, the author presents an analysis of the threats and opportunities inherent in the college-admission process and a literature review on topics aligned to three pillars—beliefs, belonging, and becoming. The paper concludes with the application plan for an intervention that leverages the college admission essay and essay-writing process to reframe beliefs and shape positive personal narratives. Inspired by research from narrative psychology, social psychology, and positive psychology, OurStory challenges dominant deficit narratives and aims to improve academic outcomes, college matriculation rates, and adolescent flourishing and well-being.
... Repositories" (Yiotis, 2005). Nick (2011) highlights that in the result of electronic publishing, the landscape for disseminating scholarly literature has changed. ...
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Purpose – Open access is a new scholarly publishing model that has appeared in place of the commercial publishing model. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of awareness, use and attitudes of the Indian students in higher educational institutions about scholarly open access. Design/methodology/approach – Survey method was used in the study. The sample population of the study was 212 Indian students belonging to different higher educational institutions in India. Findings – The results of the study reveal a gloomy picture about the open access (OA) awareness and use among Indian students. Unfamiliarity with the OA journals and high publication fee were the main obstacles for the students not to publish in OA journals. However, a majority of the students reported their willingness to publish in OA journals in the future if the obstacles are removed. A very meager ratio of the respondents had published in OA journals so far. In addition, motivational factors for publishing in OA journals were also taken into consideration, and respondent’s indicated winning research grants, great impact, and higher citations as the main factors to publish in OA journals. Research limitations/implications – This study is geographically limited to the students of the higher educational institutions located in India. Practical implications – This study will help to understand the involvement and behavior of the Indian students toward scholarly open access. The study will also guide what measures need to be taken in the take up of open access movement. Originality/value – Institutional repositories appeared to be relatively a novel term for the respondents, and in order to get the citation advantages and higher visibility, librarians can make an effort to persuade students to publish their research work in open access journals and institutional/subject repositories. The study recommends that institutions need to take appropriate measures to inform students about the importance and overall benefits associated with using of OA platforms in their scholarly work.
... Due to a significant increase in journal subscription prices and the emergence of enabling Information and Communication Technologies, an alternative scholarly publishing system known as Open Access (OA) has emerged to increase the distribution of intellectual content to readers without price or other copyright restrictions (Björk, 2004;Yiotis, 2005;Möller, 2006). The OA movement started in 2002 when the Budapest Open Access Initiative brought together a diverse group of stakeholders and launched a global campaign to make all new peer-reviewed research OA. ...
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Purpose This study aims to analyze Open Access (OA) publishing trends and policy perspectives in India. Different aspects, such as the growth of OA journals, digital repositories, the proportion of OA availability to research literature and the status of OA mandates and policies are studied. Design/methodology/approach Data for analyzing OA trends were gathered from multiple data sources, including Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), OpenDOAR, SCImago and Web of Science (WoS) databases. DOAJ and OpenDOAR were used for extracting OA journals and digital repository data. SCImago Journal and Country ranking portal and WoS database were used to obtain Indian publication data for assessing the proportion of OA to research literature. ROARMAP was used to study OA mandates and policies adopted by universities, research institutions and research funders in India. OA mandates and policies of major regulatory bodies and funding agencies were also reviewed using secondary sources of information and related websites. Findings India ranks number 15 and 17 globally for OA journals and OA repositories, with 317 journals and 98 repositories. Although India’s proportion to OA publications is 23% (7% below the world average of 30%), the annual growth rate of OA publications is around 18%. Although the governing bodies and institutions have made efforts to mandate researchers to adopt OA publishing and self-archiving, its implementation is quite low among Indian researchers, as only three institutions (out of 18 listed in the ROARMAP) are defined the embargo period. Funding agencies in India do not provide financial assistance to authors for the payment of Article Processing Charges despite mandates that research is deposited in OA repositories. India lacks a national OA policy but plans to implement a “one nation one subscription” formula to provide OA to scientific literature to all its citizens. Research limitations/implications The study has certain limitations. Because much of India’s research output is published in local journals that are not indexed in WoS, the study recommends conducting further analyses of publications using Scopus and other databases to understand the country’s OA publishing proportion better. A further study based on feedback from different stakeholders through a survey may be conducted for formulating a national OA policy. Originality/value The study is the first that used multiple data sources for investigating different facets of OA publishing in India, including OA journals, digital repositories, OA research output and OA mandates and policies for publicly funded research. The findings will be helpful for researchers and policymakers interested in promoting OA adoption among researchers worldwide.
... This has now led to academic institutions considering ways of countering the high cost and copyright issues. The alternative options aim to get a wide range of scholarly content distributed, at no cost and with no copyright restrictions [3,29,54]. Moller [29] notes that the increased use of the internet and ICTs has improved the dissemination of and access to publications. Access to e-resources, e-books and e-journals implies that one does not always need to have geographical access to materials of interest. ...
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The study investigated the awareness and use of open access (OA) channels for scholarly publishing by researchers at selected universities in Kenya. A sample of 341 faculty members, from three public universities, was selected for the study. A questionnaire was used as the main data collection instrument. The findings revealed that there is a considerably high level of awareness among the researchers; librarians were the main channel with regard to creating awareness; the OA channels that are more frequently used by researchers are OA journals, OA institutional repositories and OA e-books; the researchers mostly published/disseminated theses and dissertations, conference proceedings and workshop/seminar presentations through OA channels; and searching and accessing research articles, developing research proposals and formulating research problems were among the main reasons why researchers used open access channels. There are several reasons why researchers sometimes do not use OA channels for research. The study makes several recommendations for the adoption and effective use of OA channels in the selected universities and beyond.
... This period was followed by the announcement of policies supporting OA by research institutes, universities, and academic associations in each country. In the academic communities, research on the concept and philosophy of open access (Yiotis 2005) began, but the concept of open access had not yet been established as an independent research topic. As shown in Table 2, keywords with high centrality in the first period were electronic publishing (0.50), document delivery (0.47), world wide web (0.42) and digital library (0.36). ...
Article
This study captured intellectual structures of open access by time frame using the pathfinder keyword network analysis method. 1998 papers published on Web of Science from 2005 to 2019 were divided into 3-year units, and keyword pathfinder networks were analyzed in five time segments. Thus, this study examined the time series changes of intellectual structure and keyword centrality. In addition, by analyzing the correlation index of keyword centrality between time segments, this study examined how long the similarities of the intellectual structure persisted and how it has changed. As a result, a weak correlation (r = 0.10 ~ r = 0.49) was obtained from the observations in 2005 for 9 years; however, the correlation decreased sharply since 2014 (r = − 0.06 ~ r = 0.00). New research topics have emerged that have not been highlighted in centrality, such as article processing charge, altmetrics, and research data. The scope of research has changed as subjects such as document delivery that showed high centrality initially, disappeared.
Article
Research and Development is an essential activity in Society for technology, industrial, andsocial progress. Based on the historical review, higher education institutions focus on basic,conceptual, explorative, empirical, and analytical research methods whereas industries focuson new products and new processes development. It is also known that the end of everypiece of research of HEIs and Research Institutions is the scholarly publication and havingthe copyright of such basic or conceptual invention/innovation whereas the end of everypiece of research of industries is acquiring a patent in inventor/company name. In this paper,based on a survey on closed and open access scholarly publications, a new ScholarlyPublication based Research Journals Classification model is proposed by defining an idealscholarly publication process, analysing scholarly publication process, determiningnecessary and sufficient conditions to call an article as Scholarly article, identifying andanalysing various factors affecting Journal classification, and developing a new model called“Researcher centric Scholarly Journals grading”. The developed model of journalclassification is compared with existing Journal grading models and some suggestions madeon scholarly publications and citations from different stakeholders’ points of view.
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Introduction: This study examined the use of open access journals by librarians in Ghana. The objectives were to establish the familiarity, attitude and benefits of open access journals among librarians in Ghana. Method: This study uses a survey research design. A web-based questionnaire was used to seek information on respondents’ demographics, awareness, use, attitudes and benefits of open access journals. Analysis: Descriptive statistics was used to analyze survey results. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for the analysis of data collected from 103 librarians who are members of the Ghana Library Association. Results: All the respondents were aware of open access journals and to a greater extent, they showed positive attitude towards open access journals. Many of them, however, are not fully committed to publishing their articles in open access journals. It is recommended that librarians should be willing to publish more of their research works in open access journals for them to be ambassadors and advocate for open access. Conclusion: Knowledge of open access journals and related content among librarians is crucial not only in disseminating research quality but also in weeding out poor content.
Chapter
This chapter provides a history of the scholarly publishing system,and explains how it has evolved to benefit corporate publishers to the detriment of faculty, universities, and the public. It offers the open access movement as a potential remedy for the publishing crisis, and describes the policy environment surrounding these new forms of communication.
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A heterogeneous data aggregation system, e.g. developed within the frame of the GRADLC project, allows for a flexible expansion by connecting new data storages, as well as providing researchers a fast and aggregated access to heterogeneous data from independent (astroparticle physics) projects, while reducing the load on the original data storages. However, this flexibility requires balancing user requests in the queue with respect to various request processing times for the distributed storages, taking into account the different data processing policies on each particular storage. In order to attack this problem, a mathematical model of the data aggregation system was developed, and approaches to optimization of the request ordering in the processing queue are proposed and investigated by performing a numerical experiment. Based on this results, a job shop scheduling algorithm was revealed which gives benefit in mean request processing times compared to the well-known first in, first out (FIFO) model.
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This study investigated strategies employed by universities in Kenya for managing scholarly content. The study was underpinned by the Conversation Theory and the Knowledge Management Process Model and was based on the post-positivist paradigm. A survey was conducted within a multiple case study design. The population of the study consisted of academic staff, postgraduate students, university librarians and representatives of university research units from six universities in Kenya. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from academic staff and postgraduate students while key informants were interviewed. The results revealed that while the respondents generated theses, journal articles and conference papers, the majority did not participate in knowledge generation in the period from 2010 to 2014. The results further revealed that most respondents documented research procedures, backed up information, and used printouts to preserve scholarly content; however, they hardly used digital archives and university servers. The results suggested heavy reliance on modern technology-enabled communication techniques and face-to-face interactions for communication amongst scholars, whereas institutional repositories (IRs) were hardly used. The results revealed inadequate institutional support for research and scholarly communication including funding, material and physical infrastructure, mentorship, and information and communications technology (ICT) facilities. The study concluded that strategies for managing scholarly content at universities in Kenya are weak, impacting negatively on the quality, quantity and visibility of scholarly content; and that a policy framework encompassing the different facets of managing scholarly content is necessary. The study recommended developing specific strategies and policies to enhance scholarly content management; institutionalising mentorship programmes; increasing funding to strengthen universities’ research capacity; and strengthening research niches.