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Nostalgia Weakens the Desire for Money

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Abstract

Nostalgia has a strong presence in the marketing of goods and services. The current research asked whether its effectiveness is driven by its weakening of the desire for money. Six experiments demonstrated that feeling nostalgic decreased people's desire for money. Using multiple operationalizations of desire for money, nostalgia (vs. neutral) condition participants were willing to pay more for products (experiment 1), parted with more money but not more time (experiment 2), valued money less (experiments 3 and 4), were willing to put less effort into obtaining money (experiment 5), and drew smaller coins (experiment 6). Process evidence indicated that nostalgia's weakening of the desire for money was due to its capacity to foster social connectedness (experiments 5 and 6). Implications for price sensitivity, willingness to pay, consumer spending, and donation behavior are discussed. Nostalgia may be so commonly used in marketing because it encourages consumers to part with their money.

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... Extending this stream of research, we focus on emotional factors and identify nostalgia as a new antecedent of product shape preference. As a predominantly positive social emotion (Wildschut et al., 2006), nostalgia can foster social connectedness (Juhl et al., 2021;Lasaleta et al., 2014;Tilburg et al., 2018). Since people tend to maintain positive feelings of social connectedness while circular (vs. ...
... Prior research suggests that nostalgic memories typically involve relationships with important others such as family members and friends, and that nostalgia can bolster social bonds (Wildschut et al., 2006) and social connectedness (Lasaleta et al., 2014;Routledge et al., 2011;Zhou et al., 2012), enhance openness to experiences (van Tilburg et al., 2015), and increase perceived self-authenticity (Baldwin et al., 2015). These psychological reactions triggered by nostalgia have been examined in the fields of psychology and marketing and were found to influence consumer behavior in many aspects. ...
... These psychological reactions triggered by nostalgia have been examined in the fields of psychology and marketing and were found to influence consumer behavior in many aspects. For example, driven by social connectedness induced by nostalgia, consumers are more likely to seek help from others (Juhl et al., 2021), consume more indulgent foods (Wang et al., 2018), seek more risk in financial decision-making (Zou et al., 2019), are more attracted to majority-endorsed products (Fan et al., 2020), and exhibit less desire for money (Lasaleta et al., 2014). Though many researchers have examined the effect of nostalgia on consumer behavior, little research exists from a sensory perspective; specifically, how nostalgia influences product shape preference remains unaddressed. ...
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As an important marketing strategy, nostalgia marketing is widely used by enterprises to attract consumers and influence their decision‐making. Besides, feelings of nostalgia can be easily elicited in people's daily life and exert a great impact on them. Though the effect of nostalgia on consumer behavior has been extensively studied, whether and how nostalgia affects consumer preference for products with certain visual designs remain underexplored. Our research extends this domain by focusing on product shape preference as a new downstream consequence of nostalgia. Five studies (including one field experiment) demonstrate that nostalgia can increase consumer preference for circular‐shaped products, with social connectedness as the underlying driver. Moreover, the indirect effect of nostalgia on circular shape preference via social connectedness is moderated by consumers' current social connections, such that the effect holds true for consumers with a low number of current social connections but is eliminated for those with a high number of current social connections. Together, marketers seeking to increase the sales of circular‐shaped products may use nostalgic elements or cues in marketing campaigns.
... Alternatively, charitable organizations or nonprofit organizations could use nostalgia and appreciative joy to increase an individual's prosocial behavior. As nostalgia involves positive interpersonal memory that could weaken the desire for money [75]. ...
... Another reason could be due to this experiment did not manage to bring about a hedonic experience with empathy through recalling nostalgia events; Thus, participants in this current study may not feel inspired to help others [26]. Empathy is an important element that allows for altruistic behavior in general [83] and charitable behavior of expanding time to help others [75]. Therefore, say that without feeling hedonic experience with empathy, individuals would lack the motivation to perform or engage in prosocial behavior. ...
... Alternatively, charitable organizations or non-profit organizations could use nostalgia and appreciative joy to increase an individual's prosocial behavior. As nostalgia involves positive interpersonal memory that could weaken the desire for money [75]. ...
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The effect of maintaining mental wellbeing by conducting prosocial behavior has been established for quite some time and is supported by many theories. Nevertheless, prosocial behavior might not easily be done by individuals with negative feelings due to certain emotional burdens. The current study examined the mediating effect of appreciative joy in the relationship between nostalgia and prosocial behavior. There were 123 undergraduate students with an average age of 21.2 years old recruited from a Malaysian private university using the purposive sampling method. Employing an experimental single-factor independent design; the experiment was conducted online. Multiple regression analysis showed that only the relationship between appreciative joy and prosocial behavior is statistically significant in this study, without being mediated by appreciative joy. In conclusion, nostalgia did not significantly inflict any appreciative joy that eventually drove people to conduct any prosocial behavior. Further implications and suggestions are discussed.
... In the last decade, both academia and practitioners have grown increasingly interested in the role of emotional appeal in advertising (Chark, 2021;Taylor & Minton, 2021). As a typical way to evoke warm emotions from consumers (Chang & Feng, 2016), nostalgia has been utilized as an effective strategy by marketers to improve advertising effects (Hinsch et al., 2020;Lasaleta et al., 2014). Notably, nostalgia refers to an "individual's desire for the past or a liking for possessions and activities of days gone by" (Holbrook, 1993, p. 245). ...
... Notably, nostalgia refers to an "individual's desire for the past or a liking for possessions and activities of days gone by" (Holbrook, 1993, p. 245). Marketers connect consumers with their memories by adding a mix of nostalgic components or information to their product advertising (Lasaleta et al., 2014), ultimately affecting consumers' attitudes toward advertising and brands (Kessous et al., 2015). Some studies showed that nostalgic marketing has become a new marketing trend during the COVID-19 pandemic because it can bring about well-being (see, e.g., Chark, 2021;Wulf et al., 2021). ...
... Recalling the past may stimulate positive feelings, such as warmth, happiness, and affection (Holak & Havlena, 1998). Nostalgia has also been found to alleviate individuals' negative emotional experiences (e.g., pain perception and loneliness) (Kersten et al., 2020;Zhou et al., 2008) and facilitate positive emotional experiences, including an increased sense of belonging (Zhou et al., 2008), enhanced resistance to pain (Kersten et al., 2020), and a reduced personal desire for money (Lasaleta et al., 2014). Table 2 presents a summary of the key findings regarding the impact of nostalgia in different contexts in the current literature. ...
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Although the effect of temperature on consumers is ubiquitous, little is known about how temperature affects consumers’ attitudes toward nostalgic advertising. Drawing on embodied cognition theory, this study explores the effect of temperature on consumers’ attitudes toward nostalgic advertising through the mediator of the affective system. Based on two experiments involving personal and historical nostalgic advertising, our results show that when exposed to comfortable temperature, consumers follow the “assimilative effect” of temperature; warm temperatures trigger more positive attitudes toward nostalgic advertising when compared with cool temperatures. However, when exposed to uncomfortable temperatures, consumers follow the “complementary effect” of temperatures; cold temperatures lead to more positive attitudes toward nostalgic advertising than hot temperatures. Furthermore, the affective system plays a mediating role between temperature and consumers’ attitudes toward nostalgic advertising. This study contributes to the literature on temperature in marketing and provides a practical guide for companies to implement nostalgic advertising strategies.
... • Nostalgia as a psychological and social resource (Kessous, Roux & Chandon, 2015;Lasaleta, Sedikides & Vohs, 2014). ...
... Recent studies from the sentimentalist perspective, in general, seem to be more concerned with understanding how nostalgia affects the consumer and consumer relations than properly discussing nostalgia itself. For example, Lasaleta et al. (2014) concluded that nostalgia leads to charity behavior, as it sensitizes consumers to reduce their attachment to money in the face of a symbolic connection with a relevant "other" who shares a common past. Kessous, Roux and Chandon (2015) identified that consumers are more likely to collect and present loved ones with products from brands perceived as nostalgic. ...
... In general, the works from this perspective, despite being more numerous and constituting an older aspect in the field, dedicate more effort to test different effects of nostalgia on the consumer, assuming the seminal conceptual notions of the field, than to outline some new attempt to understand and conceptualize what it is. The only effort to review nostalgia within the sentimental perspective stems from studies that investigate the individual and socially positive aspects of nostalgia (Kessous et al., 2015;Lasaleta et al., 2014;Zhou, Wildschut & Sedikides, 2011). In this way, the crystallized notion in the field of Psychology is confronted that nostalgia is a predominantly negative, melancholic and alienating feeling (Routledge, 2016). ...
Article
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Nostalgia is a powerful marketing resource and has been introducing new forms and dynamics in the contemporary scene that challenge its classic interpretations. Considering that the understanding of the phenomenon of consumption has been revised, it is worth asking whether the current explanations of nostalgia adequately elucidate the phenomenon in the context of consumption. This study proposes new possibilities for investigating the phenomenon of nostalgia in the field of marketing from the perspective of the Practice Theories. The work presents two contributions: by revisiting the literature on nostalgia in the field, it conceptually organizes research into two approaches, sentimental and cultural; by discussing these approaches in light of Practice Theory, we reflect on possibilities for reinterpreting nostalgia research from sociomaterial perspective.
... Individuals reported feeling loved and protected after recalling nostalgic events (Wildschut et al., 2006). Nostalgia increases perceptions of social support (Zhou et al., 2008) and thus diminishes the desire for money (Lasaleta et al., 2014). ...
... Nostalgia's sociality function is particularly well-established. It has been shown that activating the need to belong increases the propensity for nostalgia (Lasaleta et al., 2014). The need to belong arising from social isolation during the pandemic would also trigger the onset of nostalgia . ...
... In turn, the heightened nostalgic state enhances the preference for heritage tourism. It is important to note that nostalgia does not change the actual state of social connection but only the perceived social connectedness (Lasaleta et al., 2014). Thus it is the nostalgic state arising from the heightened need to belong that is responsible for the preference for heritage tourism. ...
Article
Heritage tourism has attracted attention academically and in the industry. We study how preference for heritage tourism is motivated by individuals' need to belong, which varies as a result of differential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. In two studies, we measure this natural manipulation of need to belong and study its impact in a quasi-experimental manner. We find that need to belong affects preference for heritage tourism through its effect on nostalgic feeling. Individuals with higher need to belong have higher state nostalgia and prefer heritage tourism that may help satisfy their nostalgic yearning. In addition, we identify the moderating role of trait nostalgia proneness. Individuals who are more nostalgia-prone are more susceptible to this need-to-belong effect.
... Money enables people to obtain what they want from the society and the culture, a type of instrumental value that also underlies connections with others (Lasaleta & Vohs, 2013). Hence, it would be reasonable to argue that social connection and money are interchangeable with regard to people's striving for survival and success (See Lasaleta et al., 2014, for a similar idea). ...
... For example, Lasaleta and Vohs (2013) showed that participants who recalled instances of social support rated financial success and business skills (both related to the acquisition of money) as less important than those who recalled a number of facts they had learned. In another experiment, participants who were reminded of their friends scored lower on a money importance scale than did those reminded of facts, indicating that a surge in social connectedness may reduce the desire for money (Lasaleta et al., 2014). ...
... Prior research has shown that a feeling that social connection is plentiful decreased the desire for money (e.g. Lasaleta et al., 2014) and vice versa (e.g., Vohs, Mead, & Goode, 2006;Zhou, Vohs, & Baumeister, 2009). However, little research has empirically tested whether experiencing scarcity in social connection (i.e., social distancing) would increase the desire for money. ...
Article
Social distance regulations have been widely adopted during the global COVID-19 pandemic. From an evolutionary perspective, social connection and money are interchangeable subsistence resources for human survival. The substitutability principle of human motivation posits that scarcity in one domain (e.g., social connection) could motivate people to acquire or maintain resources in another domain (e.g., money). Two experiments were conducted to test the possibility that COVID-19 social distancing enhances the desire for money. Results showed that compared with controls, participants receiving social distancing primes (via recollection of experiences of social distancing or a Chinese glossary-search task) offered less money in the dictator game, showed lower willingness towards charitable donation (Experiment 1; N = 102), donated less money to a student fund, and rated money as having more importance (Experiment 2; N = 140). Our findings have far-reaching implications for financial decisions, charitable donations, and prosociality during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Thus it can be concluded that socially disconnected consumers have high propensities to engage in nostalgic consumption whenever possible. The larger the gap between one's need for belongingness and satisfaction with interpersonal relationships, the more likely one is to utilize nostalgia as an indirect way to cope with social disconnectedness (Lasaleta, Sedikides, and Vohs, 2014). Thus social disconnectedness sensitizes the effect of nostalgic appeal. ...
... Consumers may take the nostalgic consumption as an opportunity to feel reconnected socially. Lasaleta, Sedikides, and Vohs (2014) remarked that research along this line often concerns the antecedents of nostalgia-related preferences. Nostalgia is conceptualized as a social emotion with downstream consequences such as helping behavior (Zhou et al., 2012). ...
Article
We examine the role of social disconnectedness in the preference for historical nostalgia. This relates to the recent surge in nostalgic consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic when people are socially disconnected. In three studies, social disconnectedness is manipulated and measured. Consistently, we find that social disconnectedness contributes to consumers’ preferences for nostalgia. The social-disconnectedness effect is moderated by two factors. First, consumers with higher propensity to savor the past are more likely to exhibit the social-disconnectedness effect. Second, the effect depends on the extent to which consumers culturally identify with the nostalgia. The nostalgic appeal is more effective when consumers connect with the culture represented by the nostalgia. Further, state nostalgia mediates the effect of nostalgic appeal on preference for hospitality consumption among consumers high in trait savor the past. These findings identify a social perspective in understanding nostalgia preference and suggest ways to practitioners when nostalgic appeal works best.
... Hence, people may regard products for exercise activities as a means of enhancing the sense of connection between their past and present. Moreover, as nostalgia increases the sense of social connection, the desire for money is reduced, thereby increasing the willingness to pay for products (Lasaleta et al., 2014). This suggests that the stronger the nostalgic feelings that individuals experience, the more likely they would be to make impulsive purchases of products for exercise activities because the products may serve as a symbol connecting their past experience of exercise activities with the present, and nostalgic people tend to be less concerned about financial costs. ...
... While previous studies have established how the experience of boredom leads to compensatory consumption behaviours (Dahlen et al., 2004;Fahlman et al., 2013;Moynihan et al., 2017), boredom and nostalgia have not previously been studied for their effects on behavioural responses in terms of the impulsive purchase of products spanning a broad range of product categories for exercise activities. The role of nostalgia has been previously established in consumer behaviour research (Havlena & Holak, 1991;Holbrook, 1993;Hwang & Hyun, 2013;Lasaleta et al., 2014;Zhou et al., 2012). However, research investigating nostalgia as an emotion that triggers compensatory consumption behaviour is limited. ...
Article
During the COVID-19 pandemic, sport consumers have been deprived of many of their usual fitness activities due to social distancing measures. Individuals accordingly vary in perceptions, emotions, and behaviours regarding the COVID-19 situation. Thus, this study examined the interrelationships among the perception of COVID-19, boredom, nostalgia, and compensatory behaviours of sport consumers. Data were collected from 608 sport consumers in the United States and analysed using partial least squares structural equation modelling. Results showed that the perception of COVID-19 positively affected boredom and nostalgia. Boredom produced positive effects on nostalgia, browsing, and impulse buying behaviour with regard to fitness products. Nostalgia was positively associated with browsing, which was positively related to impulse buying behaviour. The present study revealed sport consumers’ compensatory responses to the distinctive emotions elicited by the perception of COVID-19.
... Consequently, we cannot provide empirical evidence in favor of our causal order, as suggested by methodological scholars (Spencer et al., 2005). While we acknowledge this limitation, our thinking is that it might not be necessary to manipulate additional variables because the relationship between state or elicited nostalgia and social outcomes is well established (Hepper et al., 2012;Cheung et al., 2013Cheung et al., , 2016Lasaleta et al., 2014;Reid et al., 2015;Sedikides et al., 2016;Abeyta et al., 2020; and at least 5 or 6 additional studies). Similarly, while it is recommended to test experimentally the influence of social outcomes on motivational outcomes, the relationship has been well-established empirically as well (see Routledge et al., 2011;Cheung et al., 2013Cheung et al., , 2016Lasaleta et al., 2014;and others) and some studies have tested alternative models, from motivational to social outcomes, without obtaining positive results (Cheung et al., 2013. ...
... While we acknowledge this limitation, our thinking is that it might not be necessary to manipulate additional variables because the relationship between state or elicited nostalgia and social outcomes is well established (Hepper et al., 2012;Cheung et al., 2013Cheung et al., , 2016Lasaleta et al., 2014;Reid et al., 2015;Sedikides et al., 2016;Abeyta et al., 2020; and at least 5 or 6 additional studies). Similarly, while it is recommended to test experimentally the influence of social outcomes on motivational outcomes, the relationship has been well-established empirically as well (see Routledge et al., 2011;Cheung et al., 2013Cheung et al., , 2016Lasaleta et al., 2014;and others) and some studies have tested alternative models, from motivational to social outcomes, without obtaining positive results (Cheung et al., 2013. We decided then not to conduct additional experiments and examined only the relationships between social and motivational outcomes. ...
Article
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In two experiments, we tested the influence of bringing to mind a memory of a special moment versus an ordinary moment on nostalgia and whether this elicited nostalgia was related directly to gratitude and the satisfaction of need for relatedness and indirectly to optimism and vitality. Participants from Mexico were first asked to state how the pandemic of COVID-19 has affected their lives. After, participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: Memory of special moment versus memory of ordinary recent moment (study 1) or memory of special moment versus or memory of ordinary moment from the same life period as the special moment (study 2). After, participants completed a battery of questionnaires assessing nostalgia, gratitude and optimism (study 1) or nostalgia, satisfaction of need for relatedness, and vitality (study 2). Results from study 1 showed a positive influence of bringing to mind a special moment on nostalgia. Nostalgia was positively related to gratitude, which was then related positively to optimism. Similarly, results from study 2 showed a positive influence of bringing to mind a special moment on nostalgia. Nostalgia was positively related to satisfaction of need for relatedness, which then had a positive relationship with vitality. In both studies, the indirect sequential effect of bringing to mind a special moment on optimism and vitality was significant.
... From that perspective, nostalgia can essentially be understood as "a preference (general liking, positive attitude, or favorable affect) toward objects (people, places, or things) that were more common (popular, fashionable, or widely circulated) when one was younger (in early adulthood, in adolescence, in childhood, or even before birth)" (Holbrook & Schindler, 1991, p. 330). The marketing literature shows that advertising that has a nostalgic appeal has positive effects such as enhancing attitudes toward products and brands, strengthening purchase intent (Ju, Kim, Chang, & Bluck, 2016;Muehling et al., 2014), eliciting greater willingness to pay for products (Lasaleta et al., 2014), and increasing charitable giving (Ford & Merchant, 2010;Merchant et al., 2011). Previous nostalgic advertising studies have focused on comparing the effects of past-focused advertisements (childhood, e.g., "remember when you were a kid": Muehling et al., 2014; or general past times, e.g., "looking back on the years," "the good old days": e.g., Youn & Jin, 2017) versus those of present-focused advertisements. ...
Article
Research has suggested that advertisements framed in reference to the reminiscence bump (i.e., adolescent and early adulthood years) are more effective than advertisements that focused on other periods within a U.S. sample. The current study examines whether the bump effect varies across culture (the United States vs. South Korea). Using a 3 (time frames: bump advertisements, non-bump past advertisements, present-focused advertisements) × 2 (nations: the U.S. and South Korean participants) between-subjects design, our results showed that the effectiveness of the reminiscence bump-framed advertisements was not affected by nations. Across the United States and South Korea, the reminiscence bump-framed advertisements elicited a greater feeling of positive nostalgia, more positive attitude toward the advertisement, and stronger purchase intention. In addition, the positively evoked nostalgia mediated the effect of the bump-framed advertising on both ad attitude and purchase intention.
... This assumption also suggested that even though the basic of getting a reward (money) is fixed, that is, through salary, the difference in the way through which they achieve those rewards can shape an employee's desire for that reward, and it affects their perception of valuing that reward, as in the case of money the value they give to money is greater when achieved through the performance-based system than money achieved through a fixed payment system. These studies are consistent with the past studies that discuss how an individual's responsibility for certain objects is established and maintained through further reinforcement (Lasaleta et al., 2014). ...
Article
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This study indicates that the performance incentives increase individuals' desire for money and inculcate materialism in individuals' expose to them. Sales agents from different companies were taken as a sample, where half of the agents were getting fixed pay and half were getting Performance-based pay. The required data was collected through survey questionnaires. Two scales, i.e., material values scale and desire for money, were used to collect the data. Analysis was done applying linear regression analysis. The results showed that the desire for money and materialism increases in individuals through the administration of performance incentives. Next, the two groups of sales agents were compared, which showed a greater desire for money and materialism in performance-based sales persons as compared to individuals who were getting fixed pay.
... Human behavior is heavily influenced by emotion (Vitell et al., 2013) and nostalgia has become an increasingly important psychological resource that enhances the sense of meaning in existence and promotes prosocial behavior among individuals. Nostalgia is positively correlated with prosocial behaviors (Lasaleta et al., 2014;Stephan et al., 2014). In addition, participants who viewed nostalgic advertisements were more willing to make charitable donations than those who viewed non-nostalgic advertisements and were more likely to volunteer and donate to charitable organizations (Zhou et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Although extensive research has been conducted on promoting pro-environmental behaviors among consumers, little is known about whether and how negative anthropomorphic message framing (NAMF) and nostalgia affect pro-environmental behavior. To provide a framework for explaining pro-environmental behavior, this study integrates protection motivation theory, the stimulus-organism-response model, and message framing. To create the model of the influences on pro-environmental behavior, NAMF was employed as the external stimulus; the sense of environmental responsibility, environmental empathy, perceived threat, and perceived vulnerability as the psychological and cognitive response factors; pro-environmental behavior as the final decision of consumers; and nostalgia as the moderating variable. An online questionnaire was distributed and 380 usable questionnaires were collected using convenience sampling and analyzed using two complementary approaches: partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and necessary condition analysis (NCA). PLS-SEM results showed that pro-environmental behavior was significantly affected by NAMF (β = 0.313, t-value = 5.583), environmental responsibility (β = 0.207, t-value = 3.994), and perceived threats (β = 0.252, t-value = 4.889). Meanwhile, an increase in nostalgia increased the effect of NAMF and environmental responsibility on pro-environmental behavior. The NCA results revealed that NAMF (d = 0.108, p < 0.001) and perceived threat (d = 0.209, p < 0.001) were key factors of pro-environmental behavior. In addition, for high level of pro-environmental behavior (>80%), NAMF (12.1%) and perceived threat (39.6%) are required. Finally, we offer several suggestions based on the results of our empirical research. For example, marketing and service offerings should be tailored to the needs of masses with different nostalgic tendencies to enhance their pro-environmental behaviors.
... Kasser (2016) proposed three approaches to reducing materialism: activating selftranscendent values, removing materialistic cues in the social environment and improving one's sense of security. In principle to the approaches, previous studies have reported successful interventions (Stillman et al., 2012;Brown et al., 2009;Buijzen, 2007;Chaplin and John, 2007;Clark et al., 2011;Lasaleta et al., 2014), while few studies have explored whether proenvironmental behaviour can decrease materialism. Given that green consumption provides a sense of self-worth among consumers (Tezer and Bodur, 2020), we believe that proenvironmental behaviour may activate self-transcendent values, which is a possible way to reduce materialism (Kasser, 2016). ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to explore the potential that acting proenvironmentally protects adolescents from developing materialistic value. Design/methodology/approach Convenience sampling was adopted to collect data from two randomly selected secondary schools in central China. A total of 784 participants were included in the survey. Findings The mediation analysis revealed that adolescent proenvironmental behaviour was negatively associated with materialism. The results of the moderated mediation model showed that psychological entitlement mediates the association between adolescent proenvironmental behaviour and materialism, and that family socioeconomic status acts as a moderator in the association between proenvironmental behaviour and psychological entitlement. Practical implications The current results advise educational practitioners on alleviating adolescent materialism. Policy makers and schools can add more environmental practice to the curriculum and extracurricular activities. Moreover, identifying the personal benefits of proenvironmental behaviour can motivate young people to act proenvironmentally, which not only factually reduces over-consumption but also attracts more attention from young people to the environment. Originality/value Previous studies rarely explored the individual belief or perception accounting for the negative association between proenvironmental behaviour and materialism. Therefore, the authors adopt psychological entitlement, a belief reflecting the dark side of individual perception, to explain why proenvironmental behaviour reduces materialism.
... When individuals do not have access to what was available in the past (Hunt & Johns, 2013;Zhou et al., 2012a), nostalgia maintains physiological comfort. Nostalgia temporally fills the void (Valis, 2000) and increases an individual's relationship with other people (Lasaleta et al., 2014). When the void is filled, individuals' affective response is positive and elated emotions come into picture (Wildschut et al., 2006). ...
Article
Sport nostalgia has been identified as a key factor to understand sport tourists' revisit intention. This study is among the first to establish a conceptual model that links sport nostalgia, discrete positive emotions, positive electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM), and revisit intention in the sport tourism context. The conceptual model is based on Stimulus-Organism-Response (SOR) model, because of its theoretical importance. As such, it is a rare attempt to explain the role of upbeat / elation, serenity / calm, warm / tender emotions, and positive eWOM in sport tourism research. This conceptual model will help to understand how sport tourists' revisit intention can be enhanced and will assist sport marketers and policy makers to establish appropriate marketing strategies related to sport nostalgia. Designing unique, tailor-made and, memorable experiences can increase sport nostalgia, and, particularly, discrete positive emotions, and positive eWOM, in the sport tourism context. A methodological approach is also suggested to empirically test the hypotheses proposed in the study.
... Marketers allow consumers to go back and relive a cherished moment that happened in the past which forms the basis for nostalgia marketing (Srivastava et al., 2019;Huang et al., 2016).To bring out the positive emotions and feelings of nostalgia,marketers can expose consumers to the product itself or nostalgic advertising themes. Past research studies indicate that nostalgia discourages consumers from worrying about spending money and encourages favourable purchase decisions (Lasaleta et al., 2014). ...
Article
Factors influencing mobile shopping intention have been discussed very frequently in the literature. However, the effect of psychological reasons like loneliness on mobile shopping intention has received little attention in the consumer behaviour literature. Especially, there is a dearth of studies regarding how lonely consumers respond to mobile shopping intention when exposed to nostalgic advertising. Grounded on the Uses and Gratification Theory (UGT), this article conceptualizes that lonely consumer when exposed to nostalgic advertising may enter the flow state and eventually engage in mobile shopping. Consistent with prior literature, the authors consider four distinct dimensions of advertising-evoked personal nostalgia: past imagery, positive emotions, negative emotions, and physiological reactions. Marketers face considerable challenges when appealing to lonely consumers to engage in mobile shopping. This article provides a framework to aid marketers to successfully develop marketing strategies to engage lonely consumers in mobile shopping. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
... Research with Western samples has established that nostalgia can be triggered by phenomena from one's past. These phenomena include objects or events experienced in childhood (Holbrook & Schindler, 1996;Schuman & Scott, 1989), momentous events from one's life (e.g., graduation, wedding, birth of a child; Wildschut et al., 2006), close others (e.g., friends, relatives, partners; Newman et al., 2020;Wildschut et al., 2006), smells (Reid et al., 2014), tastes, or foods (Supski, 2013;Zhou et al., 2019), song lyrics, songs, or music (Cheung et al., 2013;Routledge et al., 2011), and visual stimuli such as adverts, reading materials, or social media (Lasaleta et al., 2014;Marchegiani & Phau, 2013;Wildschut et al., 2018). In addition, nostalgia can be triggered by discomforting states like negative affect (Barrett et al., 2010;Wildschut et al., 2006), loneliness (Wildschut et al., 2006, procedural injustice in the workplace (Van Dijke et al., 2015), meaninglessness (Routledge et al., 2011(Routledge et al., , 2012, disillusionment (Maher et al., 2021), death cognitions , selfdiscontinuity (i.e., a sense of disconnect between one's past and one's present self; , boredom (Van Tilburg et al., 2013), and social exclusion (Seehusen et al., 2013;Wildschut et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for one's past, has been garnering keen empirical attention in the psychological literature over the last two decades. After providing a historical overview, we place the emotion in cross-cultural context. Laypeople in many cultures conceptualize nostalgia similarly: as a past-oriented, social, self-relevant, and bittersweet emotion, but more sweet (positively toned) than bitter (negatively toned). That is, the nostalgizer reflects on a fond and personally important event—often their childhood or valued relationships—relives the event through rose-colored glasses, yearns for that time or relationship, and may even wish to return briefly to the past. Also, triggers of nostalgia (e.g., adverts, food, cold temperatures, loneliness) are similar across cultures. Moreover, across cultures nostalgia serves three key functions: it elevates social connectedness (a sense of belongingness or acceptance), meaning in life (a sense that one's life is significant, purposeful, and coherent), and self-continuity (a sense of connection between one's past and present self). Further, nostalgia acts as a buffer against discomforting psychological states (e.g., loneliness) similarly in varied cultural contexts. For example, (1) loneliness is positively related to, or intensifies, nostalgia; (2) loneliness is related to, or intensifies, adverse outcomes such as unhappiness or perceived lack of social support; and (3) nostalgia suppresses the relation between loneliness and adverse outcomes. Additionally, nostalgia facilitates one's acculturation to a host culture. Specifically, (1) nostalgia (vs. control) elicits a positive acculturation orientation toward a host culture; (2) nostalgia (vs. control) amplifies bicultural identity integration; and (3) positive acculturation orientation mediates the effect of host-culture nostalgia on bicultural identity integration. We conclude by identifying lacunae in the literature and calling for follow-up research.
... L. Zhou et al. (2013) Existential and social consumers' insecurity increases their preference for nostalgic products. Lasaleta et al. (2014) Feeling nostalgic decreases people's desire for money. ...
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Recent research views nostalgia as a valuable resource that can be accessed in times of distress and discomfort. The present work complements this literature by examining novel and previously uncovered triggers and downstream consequences of nostalgia in the consumer domain: disease‐threat and protective behavior. The current paper argues that nostalgia functions as such a psychological resource with buffering qualities and is used as a coping mechanism to maintain comfort when experiencing disease threat—the perception of a potential threat posed by an infectious disease. Using an archival data set and five experiments, the authors demonstrate that when facing a disease threat, but not an actual occurrence of disease, consumers experience a higher need for nostalgia and show an increased preference for nostalgic products. That is, internet searches for nostalgic products rise during flu season as well as COVID‐19 pandemic (Study 1), disease threat induces increased levels of experienced nostalgia (Study 2), which translate into increased preferences for nostalgic products (Study 3 and Study 5), mediated by disgust (Study 4). Finally, the authors show the resource value of product‐induced nostalgia, demonstrating the ironic effect that it can compensate for disease‐protective behavior (Study 6). The results provide important practical implications for marketers and policy‐makers who could focus on promoting nostalgic products or incorporating nostalgic cues in product design and communication that would generate positive consumer evaluations when the threat of illness or disease is salient.
... Bu yaşam olayları bazen olumlu his bırakabilecek anılar olduğu gibi bazen olumsuz etkiler yaratabilen anılar da olabilmektedir. Bu anılar kişinin daha çok çocukluk, ergenlik gençlik veya genç yetişkinlik dönemlerine ait olup onlar için oldukça değerlidir (Lasaleta, Sedikides ve Vohs, 2014;X. Zhou, Van Tilburg, Mei, Wildschut ve Sedikides, 2019;Van Tilburg, Sedikides, ve Wildschut, 2018;Zauberman, Ratner ve Kim, 2008). ...
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... Conforme apresentado na seção anterior, mesmo existindo uma diversidade de abordagens sobre o tema, nenhuma outra interpretação sobre o fenômeno foi apresentada senão a de que a nostalgia trata-se de um sentimento misto de prazer e dor em relação ao passado. Buscou-se identificar o efeito da nostalgia nas preferências de consumo (Holbrook & Schindler, 1993); os componentes emocionais da nostalgia (Holak & Havlena, 1998); a natureza dos estímulos publicitários nostálgicos e resposta do consumidor (Stern, 1992); como a nostalgia ajuda o consumidor a construir seu self (Belk, 1990;1991); como a nostalgia comunal facilita atua no relacionamento com marcas (Brown, Kozinets & Sherry, 2003) e as potencialidades sociais e psicológicas da nostalgia (Lasaleta, Sedikides & Vohs, 2014). Contudo, a noção de que a nostalgia se manifesta somente na forma de sentimento e de confrontação entre passado e presente parece permear todas essas pesquisas. ...
Conference Paper
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A história da nostalgia demonstra que o fenômeno primeiramente considerado no domínio da medicina como uma patologia passou a ser interpretado como um sentimento na era industrial pelas ciências sociais. Na era pós-industrial, novas percepções sobre tempo e espaço se constroem a partir da expansão do sistema de marketing e da tecnologia. No campo do marketing, contudo, a interpretação moderna da nostalgia como um sentimento continua sendo adotada de modo praticamente hegemônico, como se o fenômeno nostálgico continuasse com as características da era industrial. O objetivo deste ensaio é discutir o fenômeno da nostalgia sob uma perspectiva cultural e histórica, bem como propor uma agenda de pesquisa em comportamento do consumidor que leve em consideração suas premissas. O interesse do campo do marketing pelo fenômeno da nostalgia parece ter surgido por volta dos anos de 1990. Questões relacionadas à influência da nostalgia nas preferências do consumidor (Holbrook & Schindler, 1996), aos tipos de respostas a estímulos publicitários nostálgicos (Stern, 1992) e como a nostalgia associada aos objetos cria um senso de identidade do consumidor (Belk, 1990; 1991) começaram a figurar entre os interesses de pesquisadores de comportamento do consumidor. A noção de que a nostalgia é um sentimento de perda que mistura prazer e dor predomina em tais estudos. Estudos recentes vem apresentando evidências de que a evolução tecnológica e o avanço do sistema de marketing têm modificado o modo como o consumidor se relaciona com o passado, de modo que o sentimento de perda e o confronto passado versus presente cede lugar a uma apreciação estética de elementos do passado no presente, dando origem a categorias como o "vintage" e o "retrô" (Higson, 2014; Cross, 2017). Se o modo como o consumidor experimenta o passado por meio do consumo vem mudando, novas abordagens teóricas e metodológicas se fazem necessárias para a revisão das premissas cristalizadas no campo a respeito da relação entre consumo e nostalgia.
... There are two main conceptualizations of nostalgia in the literature: a preference for things or objects in the past and an emotion that arises from reflection on one's past (Lasaleta et al., 2014). Most (if not all) tourism studies on nostalgia and its implications follow the former to explain travel behavior and preferences (e.g., destinations with historical attractions, film nostalgia, sports nostalgia). ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has hampered consumers’ psychological well-being and the travel industry. Secondary evidence suggests a revenge travel phenomenon. This study theorizes and empirically demonstrates that nostalgia helps consumers cope with pandemic distress and cultivates the desire for leisure travel. Drawing on the Stimulus-Organism-Response (SOR) framework, consumer perceived severity of COVID-19 (stimulus) triggers nostalgia (organism), which increases the desire for leisure travel (response). The effect of nostalgia on desire to travel is robust when manipulated via a marketing communication (ad-hoc experiment). This study further explains travel pursuit heterogeneity with the interaction of a consumer’s approach-avoidance motivation system and traveler personality.
... Directing marketing activities with a certain socio-historical nostalgia style, brands create magical values on consumption (Hartmann & Brunk, 2019). Nostalgia has also positive effects on feelings of social connectedness (Lasaleta et al., 2014). In terms of relevance, the notion that the way something is consumed matters more than what is consumed (Holt, 1997). ...
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The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of the away game involvement, community identification, and autobiographical memory towards the satisfaction of away games in the context of professional football (soccer). Unlike previous studies, which relied on the participation behavior of fans and their team identification, this study is based on the autobiographical memory of fans who attend away games in Turkey. A total of 204 fans were reached who had minimum one away game experi-ence. The data were subjected to reliability, validity, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling procedures. In order to test the structural model created for the purpose of the research, a questionnaire study was carried out with football fans. Results indicated that there were significant relationships between team identification and away game involvement (R2 = .80, p < 0.01). Additionally, the relationship between away game involvement and autobiographical memory was significant (R2 = .95, p < 0.01). This study showed that autobiographical memory has an important effect on game satisfaction (R2 = .89, p < 0.01), while giving sports marketers a more active role in the engagement process through nostalgic cues. Our study has significant implications as to how well sports team managers design sports marketing and fan engagement strategies based on autobiographical memory.
... Hence, social support should be provided to vulnerable patients, in addition to medical treatments. For example, recollections of people close to the patient reduce the effects of social distancing by instilling a feeling of connectedness (Lasaleta, Sedikides, & Vohs, 2014). In addition, pharmacological agents could be prescribed for people suffering due to COVID-19 social distance regulations. ...
Article
Social distance regulations have been widely implemented to control the global COVID‐19 pandemic. Individuals have thus been experiencing social pain through social distance regulations. Prior research has shown that social and physical pains share a common neural alarm system. Hence, COVID‐19 social distancing should enhance sensitivity to physical pain. Two laboratory studies were conducted to test the spillover effect of COVID‐19 social distancing on physical pain. The findings supported our hypothesis by showing that participants who were reminded of COVID‐19 social distancing reported a higher level of pain perception in response to immersion in hot water (Experiment 1, N = 102) and expressed a lower pain threshold measured by a pressure algometer than did those of controls (Experiment 2, N = 140). This may be the first experimental evidence demonstrating that people primed with COVID‐19 social distancing have increased sensitivity to physical pain. Our findings suggest that people might be more likely to experience physical pain under the impact of COVID‐19 social distancing. The association between a heightened sense of social disconnection in a global pandemic and increased sensitivity to physical pain should receive more attention.
... A six-item money desire scale was completed (α = .76) by the samples (Lasaleta, Sedikides, & Vohs, 2014). Moneyrelated attitudes (e.g., "Frankly speaking, having money is something that I value.") ...
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The present study examined the distinct relationships between immediate/chronic death threat and money attitude in the real-world context. Immediate threats led to a stronger desire for money, whereas chronic threats had not such an effect.
... Nostalgia is a powerful tool for creating an emotional connection with your audience. Research showed that almost all people tend to spend money at the time they are feeling nostalgic [8]. As the nostalgia has been a technique in marketing for just about forever. ...
... In sum, feeling socially disconnected generates desire for nostalgia, whereas feeling nostalgic fosters social connectedness. Hence, social connectedness works as both a key consequence and an antecedent of nostalgia (Lasaleta, Sedikides, & Vohs, 2014;Seehusen et al., 2013). All these arguments support the major function of nostalgia reinforcing relational bonds. ...
... The accumulated evidence suggests that nostalgia increases preference for slower (vs. expedited) services (Huang et al., 2016), charitable giving (Zhou et al., 2012), and positive attitudes toward healthy food (Lasaleta et al., 2021) and decreases people's desire for money (Lasaleta et al., 2014). In this research, we extend this stream of research and ask a counterintuitive question: Do people longing for the past like to embrace the new? ...
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Existing research has mostly focused on the salutary impact of nostalgia on nostalgia-related products (e.g., childhood products, classic brands). The current research examines whether this effect can extend to nostalgia-unrelated products: new products. We demonstrate that nostalgia fosters social support, which in turn encourages consumers to adopt new products, and this effect is weakened when individuals have independent self-construal. Three studies provide support for these predictions. Study 1 revealed that nostalgia increases new product adoption. Study 2 demonstrated that this positive effect of nostalgia on new product adoption is mediated by social support. Study 3 showed that this salutary effect occurs only when consumers’ interdependent self is activated. The marketing implications of these findings are discussed.
... From the supply side of experiential purchases, nostalgia has important implications for consumer behavior (Lasaleta et al., 2014) and branding (Brown, 2018). Marketers could capitalize on the opportunity to make these purchases even more memorable so consumers would be willing to repeat them in the near future. ...
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In three studies, we examined the effect of experiential purchases on nostalgia by influencing the construal of experiential purchases as more meaningful life moments than their material counterparts. In study 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to an experiential or a material purchase condition. After, participants answered a battery of questionnaires assessing nostalgia, construal of meaningful life moments and memories, pride, repurchase intention, materialism, and preference for experiential buying. Results showed that recalling an experiential purchase led to higher nostalgia than recalling a material purchase by influencing the construal of experiential purchases as more meaningful life moments and memories. In addition, experiential purchases also had an indirect, positive effect on repurchase intention. In study 3, we manipulated the proposed mediator and found that participants who were asked to recall a purchase that presented a meaningful moment reported higher nostalgia than participants who were asked to recall a purchase that represented an ordinary moment. The indirect effect of the experimental condition on repurchase intention was also significant. The implications of the results were discussed.
... Various studies have been done in terms of rational appeals which include the information contest of advertisement, comparative advertisement, promotions and functions of product or services (Panigrahi et al., 2010;Kalro et al., 2010;Joseph and Sivakumaran, 2011). While few empirical studies also focused on the emotional appeals such as nostalgia, empathy and pride, shock and guilt (Lasaleta et al., 2014;Aaker and Williams, 1998;Dahl et al., 2003;Huhmann and Brotherton, 1997). ...
Article
The television advertisement tool is considered as the most useful tools in integrated marketing communication. The television advertisement is the most effective tool to reach the target audience. The recall of television advertisement presents the most crucial determinant which can measure the effectiveness of television advertisement. The emotional and functional appeal achieved significant attention in the formation of television advertisement more efficient and attractive. The present empirical research based on the cause and effect analysis. The objective of the present empirical research is to understand the role of emotional and utilitarian appeal in the recall of television advertisement including brand name, celebrity in the advertisement, brand logo, product or service characteristics and other brand elements such as brand jingle, brand tag line etc. The objective of present research has been achieved with the help of SEM path model analysis. The appropriate sample has been chosen from the population to fulfil the objective of the present research. The study presents the importance of emotional and utilitarian appeal in terms of the television advertisement and also demonstrates the effect of emotional and utilitarian appeal on the recall of television advertisement. The output of research presents the significant implication for the marketers.
... Nostalgia marketing has a positive effect especially on the purchasing behavior of consumers (Nathasia and Nasution, 2016). For example, Lasaleta et al. (2014) found that when consumers feel nostalgic it decreases their desire for money and that they are willing to pay more for the products. Hence, nostalgia proneness may have a strong effect on the purchase intention of consumers. ...
... Holbrook & Schindler, 2003;Rindfleisch & Sprott, 2000) and another conceptualisation that focuses on personal experiences and their outcomes (e.g. Braun-LaTour et al., 2007;Brocato et al., 2015;Holak & Havlena, 1998;Lasaleta et al., 2014). Goulding (2001) identifies two types of nostalgic experience: existential and aesthetic. ...
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Studies of the ideological underpinnings of retail stores have improved our understanding of consumers’ retail experiences in brand and national ideology contexts. In retailing, ideology is manifested in retail spatial settings through tangible and intangible cues in servicescapes. This study expands our knowledge on ethical retail ideology by exploring how servicescapes convey cues that shape consumption experiences and foster ethical consumption. Data from an ethnographic study highlight how consumption experiences in physical retail spaces embedding a particular ethical ideology can be thematised as aesthetics, nostalgia and care. We show that the material and discursive aspects in servicescapes conveying an ethical ideology influence embodied consumption experiences. This study thus contributes to the understanding of retail ideologies and the connections between sustainable consumption and the servicescape.
... Perhaps the broadest avenue for future research lies in exploring other ramifications of the other-avoidance motive induced by disease threat. For example, since social connections and monetary resources are often interchangeable (Lasaleta, Sedikides, and Vohs 2014), disease threat, because it leads to people avoidance, should conversely enhance the value of money (and thereby lead to lower spending). Another interesting implication of the otheravoidance motive is that disease threat should lower liking for anthropomorphized products (because of their resemblance to humans). ...
Article
This article examines how exposure to disease-related cues influences consumers’ preference for typical (vs. atypical) product options. Merging insights from evolutionary psychology with research on preference for typicality in consumer products, we predict that disease salience decreases relative preference for typical versus atypical options, because typical products are implicitly associated with many people, misaligning them with the people-avoidance motive triggered by disease cues. We further build on this conceptualization to identify situations in which this preference shift might be eliminated. Specifically, we argue that the focal effect will not manifest when the disease in question is explicitly described to be noncontagious, or when an anti-infection intervention is introduced, or when the decision context involves minimum infection. Results from six studies provide support for our predictions, advancing basic knowledge on the evolutionary strategies guiding disease avoidance, while also documenting how such strategies can affect consumer preferences.
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This research investigates how reminiscing a society's past can encourage risk taking for the society. In one field study and four experiments, we show that encountering objects or appeals linked to their society’s past can lead individuals to become more risk taking and to choose less certain but potentially better options in decisions for society. This effect is mitigated when the reminiscence concerns one’s personal past and when the decisions concern personal welfare. It can also be mitigated by heightening or suppressing the belief that society has progressed. Our findings validate belief in progress as a novel explanation, suggesting that the thoughts evoked in reminiscence supplement their emotional counterparts such as nostalgic and upbeat feelings in altering how decisions are made. This investigation has pragmatic implications for designing past-linked appeals in advertising and branding as well as in advocacy for social change or innovation.
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This study tested the joint effect of nostalgia appeals and product types on receivers’ purchase intention. The current study also tested the roles of mixed thoughts and mixed emotions as mediators in explicating the processing of nostalgia-themed messages based on heuristic-systematic model (HSM). The results from an online experiment showed that when a public product was promoted, exposure to personal nostalgia-themed advertising led to a higher level of intention to purchase through increased mixed emotions and favorable attitude toward advertising relative to exposure to historical nostalgia-themed advertising. Theoretically, the findings in the currents study are valuable in that the current study empirically examined one of the untested propositions taking rest in the prior literature. That is, the current study opens up a new avenue to examine the effect of nostalgia appeals in the realm of prior literature on advertising message processing. Practically, the findings are contradictory to the stated but untested proposition, which alerts scholars in the academic world and advertisers and marketers in the real world to take into account age-segmented communication strategies for nostalgia-themed strategic messages.
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This article presents a systematic review of the nostalgia literature (205 articles) using PRISMA protocols. It dwells on three questions: What do we know about nostalgia? What do we need to know about nostalgia? and Where should we be heading? The article examines the evolution of nostalgia, analyzes the definitions of nostalgia (past–memory–yearning–ambivalent emotion), and extends the nostalgia typology of Havlena and Holak (1996 Havlena, W. J., and S. L. Holak. 1996. “Exploring Nostalgia Imagery through the Use of Consumer Collages.” ACR North American Advances 23 (1):35–42. [Google Scholar]). The article also delineates the nostalgic advertising literature; identifies antecedents, moderators, and consequences of nostalgic advertising; and highlights research gaps. Finally, this work offers propositions on nostalgic ad appeals (those that emphasize the attractiveness of and yearning for the past in a bittersweet way) based on four themes: self-restoration, continuity, social relationships, and culture. Specifically, the propositions offer new moderators, such as ads’ emotional flow, gender identity, purchase and consumption situation, perceived interactivity, and culture type, that could make some types of nostalgic appeals more effective than others. Our work contributes by being more comprehensive and broad based, extending the typology framework and delineating propositions that lay out a research roadmap for nostalgic advertising.
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This research examines how consumers evaluate the fairness of price increases during collective stress situations. Across three collective stress situations (COVID-19, Black Lives Matter protests, and economic downturn), the authors confirm that a collective stress situation evokes feeling of nostalgia as a coping mechanism. When the collective stress situation is more severe, it heightens feelings of nostalgia, which then enhances consumer empathy, such that people tend to infer benevolent motives for a price increase. That is, consumers perceive the price increase as more fair. This research also reveals how a consumer’s political identity can moderate the impact of the perceived severity of the collective stress situation on nostalgia and thus price fairness. As a collective stress situation becomes more severe, conservatives (vs. liberals) experience greater nostalgia, leading to higher perceived fairness of price increases.
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As theme parks seek more opportunities in using intellectual properties to redesign their services, this study explores the potential impacts of such modifications on consumers’ attitudes towards the theme parks. More specifically, it investigates the joint effects of service redesign, nostalgia, and consumer expertise on consumers’ brand love for theme parks. The results suggest when theme parks undergo service redesign, nostalgia may play a negative role in predicting consumers’ brand love. Moreover, nostalgia and consumer expertise may have joint negative effects on brand love when theme parks undergo service redesign. This study contributes to the hospitality literature by contrasting past studies that display the positive effects of nostalgia in influencing consumer behaviors and suggests the potential drawbacks of nostalgia in the service industry. It also illustrates nostalgia is an intricate marketing tool for the industry.
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While the focus for many advertising academics and practitioners has been on nostalgia, there is a dearth of research on future-focused appeals. We introduce a new concept, forestalgia, or a consumer’s yearning for an idealized future. To understand the impact of nostalgia and forestalgia, qualitative background interviews were conducted with creative directors and other advertising creatives from numerous nationally recognized advertising agencies. Building on the insights from the interviews and using construal level theory as our foundation, we explore consumer response to hedonic and utilitarian products when appeals employ far-past, near-past, near-future, and far-future framing. Thus, we examine whether nostalgia or forestalgia is better suited for certain products. We find utilitarian products are better received with a temporal distance that is far from the present with hedonic products better suited for appeals framed in the far past and near future. Managerial and theoretical implications are discussed, along with future research considerations.
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In the wake of the ability to analyze big customer data, personalized pricing is an interesting way for firms to increase profits. However, consumers often perceive these pricing practices as unfair, especially upon learning that they have paid more than other consumers. Thus, managers can either avoid personalized pricing altogether or attempt to mitigate such consumer perceptions. The present research proposes and finds that consumer nostalgia plays a mitigating role that firms might utilize when engaging in personalized pricing. Two lab experiments and one online experiment examine situations in which consumers become aware of disadvantageous personalized pricing for themselves when compared to other lower paying customers. The results provide evidence that the negative effect of disadvantageous personalized pricing (vs. equal pricing) on price fairness perceptions is counteracted by high consumers’ nostalgia proneness via their perceptions of loneliness.
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A nostalgia é um poderoso recurso de Marketing e vem apresentando novas formas e dinâmicas no cenário contemporâneo que desafiam suas interpretações clássicas. Considerando que o próprio entendimento do fenômeno do consumo vem sendo revisto, cabe questionar se as explicações atuais sobre nostalgia explicam adequadamente o fenômeno no contexto do consumo. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é refletir e propor novas possibilidades de investigação do fenômeno da nostalgia no campo do Marketing a partir das Teorias da Prática. O artigo apresenta duas contribuições principais: ao revisitar a literatura sobre nostalgia no campo, organiza conceitualmente as pesquisas em duas abordagens, a sentimentalista e a cultural. Por fim, o texto também reflete sobre possibilidades de releitura da pesquisa sobre nostalgia a partir das Teorias da Prática. https://doi.org/10.1590/1679-395120200109
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In the field of entrepreneurship, the creation of future goods and services inextricably binds the fate of new ventures to the influence of time throughout the entrepreneurial process. In recent work, scholars have taken important steps to account for the unique role of time in theories of entrepreneurial action. Our research builds on these approaches by delving deeper into the interplay between entrepreneurs and the temporal contexts in which they act. Our primary contribution is to advance novel theory regarding the agentic practices enacted by entrepreneurs to address the constraining and enabling influences of temporal structures throughout the entrepreneurial process. Central to our approach is a re-conceptualization of time not simply as the medium of entrepreneurial agency, but its target. Extending and enhancing existing work, we posit six types of temporal manipulation: conversion, inversion, subversion, diversion, perversion, and reversion. We ground our framework in common business venturing practices, discussing the wide-ranging implications of how the manipulation of time provides novel means for entrepreneurs to mitigate uncertainty in their attempt to achieve desired outcomes.
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Backgrond and rationale Social distance regulations have been suggested as one of the best ways to control and prevent the spread of COVID-19. Social connection and food are intertwined because both have played critical evolutionary roles in human survival. We tested whether the substitutability hypothesis in human motivation applies here in that cues signaling scarcity in one domain (e.g., social connection) might enhance the desire to acquire resources in another domain (e.g., food). Methods We recruited 140 adults from Kaohsiung City (the largest city in southern Taiwan) to participate in a laboratory experiment. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either social distancing or neutral primes via an emotional-event recollection technique. The amount of ice cream eaten during a taste test and the self-reported likelihood of binge eating served as the dependent measures. Results We found that, compared with controls, participants primed with social distancing consumed more ice cream in a taste test and reported a greater likelihood that they would engage in binge eating if they were placed in home quarantine. Conclusions We may be the first to provide experimental evidence that social distancing can enhance the desire for food. The link between social distancing and the desire for food is pertinent to understanding how strongly social distance regulations may influence weight gain. Our findings have far-reaching implications for weight control under social distance regulations for prevention and control of COVID-19.
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Television is historically a generative site for examining media nostalgias. Within the ever-widening landscape of reboots, remakes and revivals across genres and platforms in the post-network era in the United States, an impulse to ‘redo’ live programming on network television has also emerged in the on-going battle for consumer attention. Steadily gaining momentum over the past decade, this article questions the roles that nostalgia plays in structuring the surprising return of fictional event-based television. The evolution of this phenomenon is traced by first examining the wave of live network musical productions (2013–19), followed by the restaging of Norman Lear’s classic sitcoms in Live In Front of a Studio Audience (ABC 2019). Nostalgia’s connection to positive emotion is a powerful marketing tool that is manipulated across industries, and specifically leveraged through airing reperformances of these popular and identifiably nostalgic texts. However, despite reaching new levels of nostalgic indulgence, the live televisual remake opens-up new opportunities for collectivity and critical reflection for viewers in the digital age.
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Integrating the theories of nostalgia, brand personality, and consumer‐brand relationships, this research examined the power of nostalgia in explaining brand personality dimensions and five relational constructs. Online survey data across two separate studies (n = 374 for both studies) with two different sets of nostalgic and non‐nostalgic brands was collected via Amazon MTurk with U.S. based participants to unravel relationships between constructs. The data analysis revealed that nostalgic brands received stronger ratings on the brand personality dimensions of sincerity, excitement, and competence in both studies. In other words, the nostalgic status of brands served as a differentiator to account for the strength of brand personality dimensions. Nostalgic brands also showed stronger brand attachment, self‐brand connections, separation distress, relationship quality, and brand engagement behaviors on social media rather than non‐nostalgic brands. These findings provide the utility of nostalgia as a marketing communication tactic that can enhance important brand‐related outcomes. Furthermore, the sincerity and excitement brand personality dimensions appeared to be important mediators to explain the link between the nostalgic status of brands and relational outcomes in both studies. Theoretically, this research advances our knowledge of the theoretical mechanism behind how the nostalgic status of brands elucidates consumer‐brand relationships by exploring the mediating role of perceived brand personality. Practically, the findings provide strategic insights into the power of channeling nostalgia in retro‐marketing campaigns by maintaining or emphasizing brand personality (e.g., sincerity, excitement, or competence), which leads to desired relational marketing outcomes.
Chapter
In the era of big data, individuals have to face a fast-paced lifestyle. Nostalgia as an emotional appeal, to a certain extent, can affect individuals’ purchase behavior. Through the guidance of nostalgia, businesses can awaken people’s good memories of the past, and then release this emotional appeal through consumption. Besides, brand identification has always been regarded as an important medium for the influence of nostalgia on consumers’ purchase intention. This paper divides brand identification into two dimensions, namely cognitive attitude and emotional identification, trying to explore the relationship between nostalgia and consumers’ purchase intention. This paper focuses on the influence mechanism of three types of nostalgia on consumers’ purchase intention. This research aims to enrich the research on nostalgia marketing and provide practical ideas for enterprises’ nostalgia marketing.
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Nostalgia is a prominently used emotion in marketing. This work adds to the burgeoning literature on how feelings of nostalgia influence consumption behavior by investigating how nostalgia influences eating attitudes and behaviors. Two experiments showed that people consumed more and reported more favorable attitudes towards healthy food when feeling nostalgic (versus neutral). Nostalgia also diminished the consumption of unhealthy food. Process evidence revealed that nostalgia's differential influence on the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods is due to increased perceptions of social support. Since perceptions of social support increase self-control resources, individuals were better able to make healthier food choices when in a nostalgic (versus neutral) state. The findings provided behavioral evidence that nostalgia positively influences healthy eating attitudes and behavior, and established perceived social support as an important mechanism underlying these effects. This work suggests that nostalgia can be a useful tool not only in our commercial marketing efforts, but also in public policy, in that it can help promote healthy food intake and well-being.
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This article discusses the potential role archives play in supporting commercial activity in everyday non-institutional settings. It is based around an exploratory case study of archives’ presence and characteristics in neighborhood bars and restaurants in a large Midwestern city. Using unobtrusive field observations and incorporating concepts and frameworks from the business and marketing psychology fields related to authenticity and nostalgia, the study offers insight into the decision-making processes around the use and value of archives, history, and heritage as a business strategy. The findings, based on observations and data gathering at select business locations, indicate extensive use of archival materials in a wide variety of visually engaging formats. The archival materials contribute to a history-informed aesthetic that gives each subject location a distinctive character. This study lays the groundwork for continued inquiry into business utilization and value of archives and recommends further research into the perceptions of business owners and customers on the role of archives in public commercial spaces.
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Although many previous researchers have examined how nostalgia influences consumer purchasing behavior, little is known about whether and how nostalgia affects pro-environmental behavior. Hence, in this paper, we focus on a specific type of pro-environmental behavior, namely, recycling behavior. We suggest that nostalgia induces a sense of meaning, which in turn encourages customers to recycle more. In addition, we hypothesized that both state nostalgia (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and nostalgic products (Study 3) can increase consumer recycling intentions and behavior. More specifically, Study 1 (in a cafeteria) and Study 2 (in a lab) showed that nostalgia elicited by nostalgic music increased recycling behavior, while Study 3 found that nostalgia induced by nostalgic product designs improved recycling intentions. Finally, Study 4 indicated that nostalgia triggered by nostalgic memories augmented recycling intentions, and uncovered the underlying mechanism, a sense of meaning.
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Nostalgia is a bittersweet—albeit predominantly positive—self-relevant and social emotion that arises from reflecting on fond and meaningful autobiographical memories. Nostalgia might facilitate successful aging by serving as a socioemotional selectivity strategy in the face of limited time horizons. Four studies tested the role of nostalgia in maintaining psychological wellbeing across the adult lifespan and across differing time perspectives. In Study 1, community adults (N = 443, age 18-91) completed measures of nostalgia proneness and six psychological wellbeing dimensions. Age was more positively related to wellbeing for those high than low on nostalgia proneness: High-nostalgic individuals showed a maintenance or increase in psychological wellbeing with age, whereas low-nostalgic individuals did not. In Study 2 (N = 35, age 18-25), experimentally inducing a limited time perspective—a core trigger of socioemotional selectivity—in young adults prompted greater nostalgia. In Study 3 (N = 93, age 18-33) and Study 4 (N = 376, age 18-55), experimentally inducing a limited time perspective reduced some aspects of wellbeing among those who recalled an ordinary (Study 3) or lucky (Study 4) autobiographical memory, but this effect was eliminated among those who recalled a nostalgic memory. Nostalgia buffers perceptions of limited time and facilitates the maintenance of psychological wellbeing across the adult lifespan. Study 1 also shows that nostalgia is frequent across ages in the UK, with over half of people in every age group between 18-90 experiencing nostalgia at least once a week. Nostalgia proneness peaks in emerging adulthood and older adulthood.
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Traditionally, nostalgia has been conceptualized as a medical disease and a psychiatric disorder. Instead, we argue that nostalgia is a predominantly positive, self-relevant, and social emotion serving key psychological functions. Nostalgic narratives reflect more positive than negative affect, feature the self as the protagonist, and are embedded in a social context. Nostalgia is triggered by dysphoric states such as negative mood and loneliness. Finally, nostalgia generates positive affect, increases self-esteem, fosters social connectedness, and alleviates existential threat.
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In 4 studies, the authors examined interpersonal perceptions as a function of self-construals and ego threats for those with high and low self-esteem. Previous research (T. F. Heatherton & K. D. Vohs, 2000a) found that after threat, high self-esteem people were rated as less likable by an unacquainted dyad partner, whereas low self-esteem people were rated as more likable. Study 1 showed that after threat, high self-esteem people seek competency feedback, whereas low self-esteem people seek interpersonal feedback. Study 2 showed that high self-esteem people become more independent after threat, whereas low self-esteem people become more interdependent. Study 3 linked differences in independence versus interdependence to interpersonal evaluations. Study 4 found that differences in independent and interdependent self-construals statistically accounted for differences in likability and personality perceptions of high and low self-esteem people after threat. Thus, the combination of threat and self-esteem alters people's focus on different self-aspects, which consequently leads to different interpersonal appraisals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Nostalgic memories can be pleasant, albeit bittersweet, and have been found beneficial for well-being. This study demonstrated that for individuals who habitually worry, nostalgia may not be such a nourishing experience. Nostalgia was experimentally induced using a visual imagery task and resulted in positive affect. Although this was also the case for participants who habitually worry, these individuals subsequently showed more signs of anxiety and depression than habitual worriers in a control condition. The findings fit within a control theoretical perspective; as habitual worriers’ actual chronic state of anxiety contrasts with nostalgic memories of a carefree past, this may instigate further rumination leading to distress. A more present-oriented time perspective, such as mindfulness, is discussed as being beneficial for habitual worriers.
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This study draws on differences between men and women's attitudes about sex, either as an end in itself (men) or as inextricably linked to relationship commitment (women) to understand attitudes toward the gratuitous use of sex in advertising. In line with predictions, four experiments showed that women's spontaneous dislike of sexual ads softened when the ad could be interpreted in terms of commitment- related resources being offered by men to women. In contrast, men's positive attitudes toward sexual ads were relatively unaffected by the salience of relationship commitment cues. These results not only offer insights into consumer reactions to sexual advertising but also inform theories on how men and women conceptualize sexual behaviors and relationships.
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Who is the nostalgia-prone person? The 'sociality view' sees an individual who frequently recalls meaningful memories rich in social content. The 'maladaptation view' sees an emotionally unstable, neurotic individual. In four studies, we integrated these contrasting views. We hypothesized that the link between neuroticism and nostalgia proneness arises because (a) neuroticism is associated with the need to belong and (b) the need to belong triggers nostalgia, with its abundant social content. Consistent with this hypothesis, Studies 1-2 found that the correlation between neuroticism and nostalgia proneness was eliminated when controlling for the need to belong. The need to belong predicted increased nostalgia proneness, above and beyond neuroticism. Specifically, Study 2 revealed that a deficit-reduction (rather than growth) belongingness orientation predicted increased nostalgia proneness. When the role of this deficit-reduction belongingness orientation was controlled, the positive correlation between neuroticism and nostalgia disappeared. Studies 3-4 showed that experimental inductions of a belongingness deficit augmented nostalgia, providing support for its compensatory role.
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In light of its role in maintaining psychological equanimity, we proposed that nostalgia-a self-relevant, social, and predominantly positive emotion-regulates avoidance and approach motivation. We advanced a model in which (a) avoidance motivation triggers nostalgia and (b) nostalgia, in turn, increases approach motivation. As a result, nostalgia counteracts the negative impact of avoidance motivation on approach motivation. Five methodologically diverse studies supported this regulatory model. Study 1 used a cross-sectional design and showed that avoidance motivation was positively associated with nostalgia. Nostalgia, in turn, was positively associated with approach motivation. In Study 2, an experimental induction of avoidance motivation increased nostalgia. Nostalgia then predicted increased approach motivation. Studies 3-5 tested the causal effect of nostalgia on approach motivation and behavior. These studies demonstrated that experimental nostalgia inductions strengthened approach motivation (Study 3) and approach behavior as manifested in reduced seating distance (Study 4) and increased helping (Study 5). The findings shed light on nostalgia's role in regulating the human motivation system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Nostalgia is a frequently-experienced complex emotion, understood by laypersons in the United Kingdom and United States of America to (1) refer prototypically to fond, self-relevant, social memories and (2) be more pleasant (e.g., happy, warm) than unpleasant (e.g., sad, regretful). This research examined whether people across cultures conceive of nostalgia in the same way. Students in 18 countries across 5 continents (N = 1704) rated the prototypicality of 35 features of nostalgia. The samples showed high levels of agreement on the rank-order of features. In all countries, participants rated previously-identified central (vs. peripheral) features as more prototypical of nostalgia, and showed greater inter-individual agreement regarding central (vs. peripheral) features. Cluster analyses revealed subtle variation among groups of countries with respect to the strength of these pancultural patterns. All except African countries manifested the same factor structure of nostalgia features. Additional exemplars generated by participants in an open-ended format did not entail elaboration of the existing set of 35 features. Findings identified key points of cross-cultural agreement regarding conceptions of nostalgia, supporting the notion that nostalgia is a pancultural emotion.
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Purchases fall along a continuum from ordinary (common or frequent) to exceptional (unusual or infrequent), with many of the largest expenses (e.g., electronics, celebrations) being the most exceptional. Across seven studies, we show that, while people are fairly adept at budgeting and predicting how much they will spend on ordinary items, they both underestimate their spending on exceptional purchases overall and overspend on each individual purchase. Based on the principles of mental accounting and choice bracketing, we show that this discrepancy arises in part because consumers categorize exceptional expenses too narrowly, construing each as a unique occurrence and consequently overspending across a series of discretely exceptional expenses. We conclude by proposing an intervention that diminishes this tendency by helping consumers consider their spending on exceptional items as part of a larger set of purchases.
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Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for a personally experienced and valued past, is a social emotion. It refers to significant others in the context of momentous life events and fosters a sense of social connectedness. On this basis, the authors hypothesized that (1) nostalgia promotes charitable intentions and behavior, and (2) this effect is mediated by empathy with the charity’s beneficiaries. Five studies assessed the effect of nostalgia on empathy, intentions to volunteer and donate, as well as tangible charitable behavior. Results were consistent with the hypotheses. Study 1 found that nostalgia increases charitable intentions. Study 2 showed that this salutary effect of nostalgia on charitable intentions is mediated by empathy (but not by personal distress). Studies 3 and 4 corroborated these finding for different charities and in diverse samples. Finally, study 5 demonstrated that nostalgia increases tangible charitable behavior. By virtue of its capacity to increase empathy, nostalgia facilitates prosocial reactions.
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We report research implicating nostalgia as an intrapersonal means of warding off the stigmatization of persons with mental illness. We hypothesized and found that nostalgia about an encounter with a person with mental illness improves attitudes toward the mentally ill. In Experiment 1, undergraduates who recalled an encounter with a mentally ill person while focusing on central (vs. peripheral) features of the nostalgia prototype reported a more positive outgroup attitude. This beneficial effect of nostalgia was mediated by greater inclusion of the outgroup in the self (IOGS). In Experiment 2, undergraduates who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary) interaction with a mentally ill person subsequently showed a more positive outgroup attitude. Results supported a serial mediation model whereby nostalgia increased social connectedness, which predicted greater IOGS and outgroup trust. IOGS and outgroup trust, in turn, predicted more positive outgroup attitudes. We ruled out alternative explanations for the results (i.e., mood, perceived positivity, and typicality of the recalled outgroup member). The findings speak to the intricate psychological processes underlying the prejudice‐reduction function of nostalgia and their interventional potential. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This research examined the proposition that nostalgia is not simply a past-oriented emotion, but its scope extends into the future, and, in particular, a positive future. We adopted a convergent validation approach, using multiple methods to assess the relation between nostalgia and optimism. Study 1 tested whether nostalgic narratives entail traces of optimism; indeed, nostalgic (compared with ordinary) narratives contained more expressions of optimism. Study 2 manipulated nostalgia through the recollection of nostalgic (vs. ordinary) events, and showed that nostalgia boosts optimism. Study 3 demonstrated that the effect of nostalgia (induced with nomothetically relevant songs) on optimism is mediated by self-esteem. Finally, Study 4 established that nostalgia (induced with idiographically relevant lyrics) fosters social connectedness, which subsequently increases self-esteem, which then boosts optimism. The nostalgic experience is inherently optimistic and paints a subjectively rosier future.
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Although a substantial amount of research has examined the link between money and happiness, far less has examined the link between time and happiness. This paper argues, however, that time plays a critical role in understanding happiness, and it complements the money-spending happiness principles in Dunn, Gilbert, and Wilson (2011) by offering five time-spending happiness principles: 1) spend time with the right people; 2) spend time on the right activities; 3) enjoy the experience without spending the time; 4) expand your time; and 5) be aware that happiness changes over time.
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The present research explores how people's place in a power hierarchy alters their representations of valued objects. The authors hypothesized that powerlessness produces an accentuation bias by altering the physical representation of monetary objects in a manner consistent with the size-to-value relationship. In the first three experiments, powerless participants, induced through episodic priming or role manipulations, systematically overestimated the size of objects associated with monetary value (i.e., quarters, poker chips) compared to powerful and baseline participants. However, when value was inversely associated with size (i.e., smaller objects were more valuable), the powerless drew these valued objects smaller, not larger. In addition, the accentuation bias by the powerless was more pronounced when the monetary value associated with the object was greater, increased when the object was physically present, and was mediated by differences in subjective value. These findings suggest that powerlessness fosters compensatory processes that guide representations of valued objects.
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Accession Number: 2011-17498-001. First Author & Affiliation: Dubois, David; Northwestern University, Kellogg School of Management, Evanston, IL, US. Release Date: 20111024. Publication Type: Journal, (0100); Peer Reviewed Journal, (0110); . Media Covered: Electronic. Document Type: Journal Article. Language: English. Major Descriptor: Dominance Hierarchy; Money; Values; Interpersonal Control. Minor Descriptor: Monetary Rewards. Classification: Social Perception & Cognition (3040) . Population: Human (10); Male (30); Female (40); . Location: US. Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300) . Methodology: Empirical Study; Quantitative Study. References Available: Y.. Page Count: 7.. Issue Publication Date: Jul, 2010. Copyright: The Author(s). 2010.;
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The development of a self-report measure of subjectively assessed social support, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), is described. Subjects included 136 female and 139 male university undergraduates. Three subscales, each addressing a different source of support, were identified and found to have strong factorial validity: (a) Family, (b) Friends, and (c) Significant Other. In addition, the research demonstrated that the MSPSS has good internal and test-retest reliability as well as moderate construct validity. As predicted, high levels of perceived social support were associated with low levels of depression and anxiety symptomatology as measured by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Gender differences with respect to the MSPSS are also presented. The value of the MSPSS as a research instrument is discussed, along with implications for future research.
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This research tested whether nostalgia serves as a positive resource for the self. In Experiment 1, nostalgia was induced and the accessibility of positive self-attributes was assessed. Participants who thought about a nostalgic experience, relative to those who thought about a positive future experience, evidenced heightened accessibility of positive self-attributes. In Experiment 2, participants received negative or positive performance feedback and then thought about a nostalgic or ordinary past experience. Subsequently, they were given the opportunity to make internal attributions for their performance. Participants displayed a typical pattern of self-serving attributions if they were not given the opportunity to engage in nostalgia. Nostalgic engagement, however, attenuated this effect. Nostalgia indeed functions as a positive resource for the self.
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This research documents an intriguing empirical phenomenon whereby states of relaxation increase the monetary valuation of products. This phenomenon is demonstrated in six experiments involving two different methods of inducing relaxation, a large number of products of different types, and various methods of assessing monetary valuation. In all six experiments participants who were put into a relaxed affective state reported higher monetary valuations than participants who were put into an equally pleasant but less relaxed state. This effect seems to be caused by differences in relaxed and non-relaxed individuals’ mental construals of the value of the products. Specifically, compared to less-relaxed individuals, relaxed individuals seem to represent the value of products at a higher level of abstraction, which increases their perceptions of these products’ value. The phenomenon appears to reflect an inflation of value by relaxed individuals rather than a deflation of value by less-relaxed individuals.
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Baron and Kenny's procedure for determining if an independent variable affects a dependent variable through some mediator is so well known that it is used by authors and requested by reviewers almost reflexively. Many research projects have been terminated early in a research program or later in the review process because the data did not conform to Baron and Kenny's criteria, impeding theoretical development. While the technical literature has disputed some of Baron and Kenny's tests, this literature has not diffused to practicing researchers. We present a nontechnical summary of the flaws in the Baron and Kenny logic, some of which have not been previously noted. We provide a decision tree and a step-by-step procedure for testing mediation, classifying its type, and interpreting the implications of findings for theory building and future research. (c) 2010 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..
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In three experiments we tested whether nostalgia bolsters meaning in life relative to two other modes of autobiographical thought: imagining a desired future experience and recalling a positive past experience. In Experiment 1 participants thought about a nostalgic or desired future experience and then completed a presence of meaning scale. Thinking about a nostalgic (compared to desired future) experience increased perceived presence of meaning. In Experiment 2 we examined whether nostalgia can additionally reduce the search for meaning. Participants thought about a nostalgic, desired future or recent positive experience, and then completed a search for meaning scale. Nostalgia, relative to both comparison conditions, decreased the search for meaning. Finally we tested whether, by virtue of its capacity to increase meaning, nostalgia can mitigate threats to meaning. In Experiment 3 participants were exposed to either absurd or representational art, under the guise that they would later have to interpret its meaning, and then thought about either a nostalgic or a recent positive experience. Meaning was subsequently measured. The absurd art interpretation condition decreased the perceived presence of meaning but nostalgic reflection attenuated this effect.
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Nostalgia fulfills pivotal functions for individuals, but lacks an empirically derived and comprehensive definition. We examined lay conceptions of nostalgia using a prototype approach. In Study 1, participants generated open-ended features of nostalgia, which were coded into categories. In Study 2, participants rated the centrality of these categories, which were subsequently classified as central (e.g., memories, relationships, happiness) or peripheral (e.g., daydreaming, regret, loneliness). Central (as compared with peripheral) features were more often recalled and falsely recognized (Study 3), were classified more quickly (Study 4), were judged to reflect more nostalgia in a vignette (Study 5), better characterized participants' own nostalgic (vs. ordinary) experiences (Study 6), and prompted higher levels of actual nostalgia and its intrapersonal benefits when used to trigger a personal memory, regardless of age (Study 7). These findings highlight that lay people view nostalgia as a self-relevant and social blended emotional and cognitive state, featuring a mixture of happiness and loss. The findings also aid understanding of nostalgia's functions and identify new methods for future research.