Article

A New Species of Marsupial Frog (Hylidae: Gastrotheca) from Colombia and Ecuador

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Abstract

Gastrotheca dendronastes is a large, long-legged, new species of arboreal marsupial frog from the cloud forests on the Pacific slopes of the Andes in southern Colombia and Ecuador. It is related to other species on the Pacific lowlands of Ecuador and Colombia and on the Caribbean slopes and lowlands of Panama. Gastrotheca bufona is recognized as a distinct species, whereas G. ceratophrys is considered to be a synonym of G. cornuta.

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... Subsequent to the description of Gastrotheca ruizi by Duellman and Burrowes (1986), only two authors have discussed this species. In an assessment of the conservation status of the species, Estupiñan (2004) designated it to the Endangered category of the International Conservation of Nature (IUCN, 2010). ...
... Little information is available about reproduction. A brooding female obtained on 25 February 1984 gave birth to 134 tadpoles on 7 March 1984 (Duellman andBurrowes, 1986). A brooding female was found by JEP in January 2012 (Fig. 1) and Burrowes, 1986; M-C = Mueses-Cisneros, 2005. ...
... A brooding female obtained on 25 February 1984 gave birth to 134 tadpoles on 7 March 1984 (Duellman andBurrowes, 1986). A brooding female was found by JEP in January 2012 (Fig. 1) and Burrowes, 1986; M-C = Mueses-Cisneros, 2005. In the locality column, the name of the municipality is followed by the locality. ...
Article
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Gastrotheca ruizi is an anuran species restricted to the Sibundoy Valley in southern Colombia, where it is reasonably abundant in agricultural areas. Its occurrence in anthropogenic habitats and apparent maintenance of a constant population level are significant evidence that the species is not threatened, as previously suggested; therefore, its conservation status should be changed to Last Concern.
... These marsupial frogs inhabit the inter-Andean valleys and Andean slopes of Colombia, Ecuador and northern Peru. Besides the detailed study on the vocalization behaviour of G. riobambae (Juraske, 1992), our knowledge on advertisement calls of members of this species group is limited to mostly phonetic transcriptions like "moderately loud 'bonk-bonk-bonk' repeated in intervals of 14-20s" in G. orophylax (Duellman and Pyles, 1980) and in G. plumbea (Auber-Thomay et al., 1990) or "the call consists of a single primary note 'wraack' usually followed by two or three secondary notes 'ack-ackack'" in G. ruizi (Duellman and Burrowes, 1986). Obviously the taxonomic and phylogenetic potential of bioaoustics has not been adequately explored yet in the G. plumbea group. ...
... In contrast to the bioacoustically homogeneous G. marsupiata group with long pulsed advertisement calls, the spontaneously given calls of the fi ve members of the G. plumbea group are structurally rather divergent, as already known from the phonetic transcriptions (Duellman and Pyles, 1980;Duellman and Burrowes, 1986;Auber-Thomay et al., 1990). Long pulsed calls similar to those of the G. marsupiata group and additionally series of short pulse groups are present in G. espeletia, G. riobambae and G. ruizi which form a subclade within the G. plumbea group (Duellman and Hillis, 1987). ...
... These marsupial frogs inhabit the inter-Andean valleys and Andean slopes of Colombia, Ecuador and northern Peru. Besides the detailed study on the vocalization behaviour of G. riobambae (Juraske, 1992), our knowledge on advertisement calls of members of this species group is limited to mostly phonetic transcriptions like "moderately loud 'bonk-bonk-bonk' repeated in intervals of 14-20s" in G. orophylax (Duellman and Pyles, 1980) and in G. plumbea (Auber-Thomay et al., 1990) or "the call consists of a single primary note 'wraack' usually followed by two or three secondary notes 'ack-ackack'" in G. ruizi (Duellman and Burrowes, 1986). Obviously the taxonomic and phylogenetic potential of bioaoustics has not been adequately explored yet in the G. plumbea group. ...
... In contrast to the bioacoustically homogeneous G. marsupiata group with long pulsed advertisement calls, the spontaneously given calls of the fi ve members of the G. plumbea group are structurally rather divergent, as already known from the phonetic transcriptions (Duellman and Pyles, 1980;Duellman and Burrowes, 1986;Auber-Thomay et al., 1990). Long pulsed calls similar to those of the G. marsupiata group and additionally series of short pulse groups are present in G. espeletia, G. riobambae and G. ruizi which form a subclade within the G. plumbea group (Duellman and Hillis, 1987). ...
Conference Paper
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The advertisement calls of fi ve species (G. espeletia, G. monticola, G. plumbea, G. orophylax, G. riobambae) which pertain to the G. plumbea group (Andes of Ecuador) were bioacoustically analysed for taxon-specifi c differences. Multivariate analyses supported the specifi c status of all taxa with each taxon showing a unique combination of advertisement call features. The dichotomic phylogenetic arrangement of the G. plumbea group in two subclades based on allozymic data is strongly supported by parallel differences in the advertisement call structure.
... Both of these, G. espeletia and G. ruizi, are like G. phalarsoa in having inclined, protruding snouts in profile, digits on the fingers barely wider than adjacent segments of digits, and interorbital distances that are equal to, or only slightly greater than width of the eyelids; however, they differ from G. phalarosa by having smooth skin on the dorsum without pustules. Furthermore, the venter is uniformly dark gray in G. ruizi, a species known only from southern Colombia (Duellman and Burrowes, 1986); the venter is cream with dark gray flecks or weak mottling in G. espeletia, a species known only from the Andes of extreme northern Ecuador and adjacent Colombia (Duellman and Hillis, 1987 ). Gastrotheca peruana is like G. phalarosa in having a convexly inclined, protruding snout in profile , interorbital distance about equal to width of eyelid, and pustular skin on the dorsum. ...
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We describe a new species of Ischnocnema from upper montane rainforest in La Paz, Bolivia. Unlike its congeners, the new species possesses notched ungual flaps, a short dorsolateral fold, and a small axillary gland. The new species resembles I. sanctaecrucis and is the third species of Ischnocnema known from Bolivia. UNTIL the 1970's, the genus Ischnocnema was represented by I. quixensis from the Upper Amazon and I. verrucosa from the Atlantic rainforests of Brazil. Recently, addi-tional species of Ischnocnema have been dis-covered in the Andean foothills. Lynch (1974) described I. simmonsi from the Cordillera del Condor, Ecuador, and Duellman (1990) dis-covered I. saxatilis in San Martín, Peru. Harvey and Keck (1995) first reported the genus from Bolivia when they described I. sanctaecrucis from cloud forests of Parque Nacional Amboró , Santa Cruz. Ischnocnema verrucosa has rarely been collected (Lynch and Schwartz, 1971) and is known only from the Atlantic rainforests of Brazil. Duellman (1978, 1990), Lynch (1972, 1974), Lynch and Lescure (1980), and Toft and Duellman (1976) published distributional data for I. quixensis in upper Amazonia. Recently collected specimens extended the range of this species to Cusco and Madre de Dios in south-ern Peru (Harvey and Keck, reported I. quixensis from Pando in northern Bolivia, but did not give more precise locality information (the speci-men came from San Sebastian; Reserva Tahua-manu; 11.407228 S, 69.01758 W, S. Reichle, I. De la Riva, personal communication). Additional specimens of I. sanctaecrucis were later found in Cochabamba (Reichle, 1999), and Reichle (1999) described this species' call. During the last ten years, M. B. Harvey and field parties from the Colecció n Boliviana de Fauna made several expeditions to the Serra-nía de Bella Vista, a humid ridge covered in upper montane rainforests in the foothills of La Paz, Bolivia. An earlier paper (Harvey and Noonan, 2005) reported centrolenids collected at this locality. Among the rocky seeps in rainforests on the lower slopes of the serranía, Harvey collected specimens of a distinctive new Ischnocnema, which we describe herein.
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Document that include an advanced analysis of the diversity of amphibian species in a region of southwestern Colombia, very important in biological diversity. The central idea of this work was to a limited space pages, make a synopsis of a number of species that were at risk in natural populations. This book is written in Spanish and freely available to researchers interested in these issues
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Three patterns of superficial mandibular musculature are described in hemiphractine hylid frogs. One of these is unique to the morphologically bizarre Hemiphractus. A second pattern is found in Flectonotus and also occurs in some species of Gastrotheca and Stefania. A third pattern involves a differentiated apical element of the m. intermandibularis and is found in Cryptobatrachus, many species of Gastrotheca, and one species of Stefania. Evidence supports the plesiomorphic state of an undifferentiated m. intermandibularis and two derived states of differentiation of that muscle. One of these is the development of supplementary posterolateral elements characteristic of the Phyllomedusinae, whereas the differentiation of an apical element has occurred in at least six independent lineages--the entire Pelodryadinae, three unrelated genera of Hylinae, and two genera of Hemiphractinae. Gastrotheca and Stefania are the only anuran genera known to include species possessing, and others lacking, differentiation of the m. intermandibularis. Vocal sacs and apertures are absent in Cryptobatrachus, Hemiphractus, Stefania, and six species of Gastrotheca.
The University of Kansas; MCZ = Mu-seum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard Uni-versity
  • Inderena De Recursos Naturales
  • Bogota
  • Ku
  • Museum
INDERENA = Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales, Bogota; KU = Museum of Natural History, The University of Kansas; MCZ = Mu-seum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard Uni-versity; MLS = Museo La Salle, Bogota;
Ecuador: No specific locality, CAS 123981 (skeleton), 123982. Imbabura: Intag, 1,200 m, BMNH 1946.9.7.28 (holotype) Napo: 1 km SW Santa Barbara, 2,690 m, USNM 163380. Pichincha: Mindo 1,260 m, UMMZ 55524; Quebrada Zapadores, 5.5 km ESE Chiriboga
  • Other Specimens
  • Amphignathodong
OTHER SPECIMENS EXAMINED Amphignathodong guetitheri. Ecuador: No specific locality, CAS 123981 (skeleton), 123982. Imbabura: Intag, 1,200 m, BMNH 1946.9.7.28 (holotype). Napo: 1 km SW Santa Barbara, 2,690 m, USNM 163380. Pichincha: Mindo 1,260 m, UMMZ 55524; Quebrada Zapadores, 5.5 km ESE Chiriboga, 2,010 m, KU 164224-26, 164227 (skeleton), 164228, 173112, 178464; "Quito" (?), ZMC 1469;
about 1 km "above" mouth, MCZ 92995 Pichincha: 1 km N, 2 km E Santo Domingo de los Colorados, 620 m, KU 178498. Tinalandia, 16 km E Santo Domingo de los Colorados, MCZ 90343
  • Rio San
  • Miguel
Rio San Miguel, about 1 km "above" mouth, MCZ 92995. Pichincha: 1 km N, 2 km E Santo Domingo de los Colorados, 620 m, KU 178498. Tinalandia, 16 km E Santo Domingo de los Colorados, MCZ 90343. Panama: Bocas del Toro: 4.8 km W Almirante, 40 m, KU
KU 101535; Rio Changuinola, near Quebrada El Guaybo, 90-170 m, AMNH 107251-53; Rio Claro, near junction with Rio Changena
  • Rio Changena
Rio Changena, 830 m, KU 101535; Rio Changuinola, near Quebrada El Guaybo, 90-170 m, AMNH 107251-53; Rio Claro, near junction with Rio Changena, 910 m, KU 101536-37, 104361 (skeleton).
Cocle: Continental divide N El Cope, 600 m, AMNH 98361-62, UMMZ 147827, 148010, 167312. Dari6n: south base Cerro Tacarcuna
  • Chiriqui
Chiriqui: no specific locality, KU 172418. Cocle: Continental divide N El Cope, 600 m, AMNH 98361-62, UMMZ 147827, 148010, 167312. Dari6n: south base Cerro Tacarcuna, Rio Pucuro, 640 m, AMNH 90980-84, 90985 (embryos);
KU 77016; Tacarcuna Village, 1,000 m, USNM 141795. San Bias: Camp Summnit, 300-400 m, KU 116350-52. Panama: upper Rio Pequeni
  • Laguna
Laguna, 820 m, KU 77016; Tacarcuna Village, 1,000 m, USNM 141795. San Bias: Camp Summnit, 300-400 m, KU 116350-52. Panama: upper Rio Pequeni, USNM 47705 (holotype of H!la ceratophrys).
An account of the reptiles and amphibians collected by
  • Literature Cited Boulenger
LITERATURE CITED BOULENGER, G. A. 1898. An account of the reptiles and amphibians collected by Mr. W. F. H. Rosen-berg in western Ecuador. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1898:107-126.
Frogs of Colombia The hylid frogs of Middle America. Mono. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas 1. 1974. A reassessment of the taxonomic status of some neotropical hylid frogs A new species of Hyla from Cerro Colorado, and other tree frog records and geographical notes from west-ern Panama
  • D M Cochran
  • C J And
  • Goin
  • W E Duellman
  • C W Myers
  • W E And
  • Duellman
COCHRAN, D. M., AND C. J. GOIN. 1970. Frogs of Colombia. Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 288. DUELLMAN, W. E. 1970. The hylid frogs of Middle America. Mono. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas 1. 1974. A reassessment of the taxonomic status of some neotropical hylid frogs. Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas 27. MYERS, C. W., AND W. E. DUELLMAN. 1982. A new species of Hyla from Cerro Colorado, and other tree frog records and geographical notes from west-ern Panama. Amer. Mus. Novit. 2752. STEJNEGER, L. 1911. Descriptions of three new ba-trachians from Costa Rica and Panama. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 41:285-288.