BookPDF Available

Mediul geografic în Pleistocenul superior și Culturile paleolitice din România (The Geographic Environment in the Upper Pleistocene and the Palaeolithic Cultures in Romania)

Authors:
  • Valahia University of Târgoviste; Human Evolution and Technology Museum in Paleolithic, Târgoviște, Romania
A preview of the PDF is not available
... The emergence of Upper Paleolithic, essentially assimilated to a gradual adoption of blade technology, provides the paradigmatic example. With very few exceptions (Moros¸anMoros¸Moros¸an, 1938;Mogos¸anuMogos¸Mogos¸anu, 1978;Borziac and Chirica, 2008a), its local origin remained the dominant postulate, from the early investigations (Nicol aescu-Plops¸orPlops¸Plops¸or, 1938, 1954, 1956; Nicol aescu-Plops¸orPlops¸ Plops¸or et al., 1966;Bitiri, 1965;P aunescu, 1970, 1980Bitiri and Cârciumaru, 1978), to the most recent ones (P aunescu, 1980, 1999a, 2000Chirica, 1987Chirica, , 1995Cârciumaru, 1995Chirica et al., 1996;Dobrescu, 2008). Particularly the emergence of an "Early Aurignacian" from the local Mousterian survived in spite of views to the contrary, usually expressed by the few foreign specialists working in Romania (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
The key position held by Romania's territory for the available scenarios regarding the expansion of the Upper Paleolithic “cultural package” in Europe has been recently reinforced by the finds of the oldest European Homo sapiens sapiens remains in the Oase Cave (Southwestern Romania). However, in spite of its paradigmatic association to the first anatomically modern humans in Europe, the Aurignacian in Romania remained inadequately known and rarely referred to in the European literature. The poor descriptions of the Aurignacian-called lithic industries and their unusually young numerical chronology or geochronological estimations explain this caution. A brief evaluation of the available information regarding these issues is proposed. Based on a comparatively restricted definition of the Aurignacian variability as acknowledged in the recent European literature (e.g. numerical chronology, large retouched blades, bladelet production from carinated forms, bone industry), the present approach dismisses many postulates widely held in Romanian literature: the local origin, the wide occurrence and the late survival of the Aurignacian. However, given the lack of numerical dates and the fragmentary state of most archaeological collections, the precise timing of its emergence and the details of its regional evolution require further research.
... Dans une période dominée profondément par des tels concepts, nous avons fait, à partir de 1977, les affirmations suivantes (M. Cârciuumaru, 1977 b;1979;1980;1982;1985 b;1986 b;1987;1989;1994;1995;1999): ...
Article
Full-text available
La création de l'échelle chronostratigraphique du Pléistocène supérieur, par l'étude des dépôts archéologiques des principaux habitats humains paléolithiques, a créé les prémisses pour la réévaluation de la succession culturelle et pour certaines considérations importantes sur le rapport chronologique entre les cultures classiques du paléolithique de Roumanie. Une série de priorités et de particularités du paléolithique de cette région de l'Europe sont remises en question, tout comme la nécessité et les avantages de l'utilisation d'un système chronostratigraphique représentant les réalités d'une région particulière à traits caractéristiques par rapport au danger représenté par l'importation de systèmes similaires provenant de zones géographiques éloignées.
Book
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
The presence of glacial relief in the Romanian medium height massifs is still controversial. The medium height mountains, such as theLeaota Mountains (in the Bucegi group), with maximum altitudes of almost 2000 m andmedium altitudes of approximately 1250 m, can display traces of glacial relief dating from theUpper Pleistocene. The aim of this article is to provide evidence about the presence of theglacial morphology in the northern part of the Leaota Peak, the main orographic node in themassif with the same name. Thus, on the basis of field observations, of topographical mapanalysis and by using the geographic information systems which made possible a detailedmorphometric analysis, I was able to gather evidence proving the existence of a glacial cirquein the Leaota Mountains. The arguments put forward in this article show that the glacial reliefis represented in the Leaota Mountains through a small-size suspended glacial cirque, whichdisplays all the morphologic elements proving the existence of glaciation in this massif.
Article
Full-text available
The presence of glacial relief in the Romanian medium height massifs is still controversial. The medium height mountains, such as the Leaota Mountains (in the Bucegi group), with maximum altitudes of almost 2000 m and medium altitudes of approximately 1250 m, can display traces of glacial relief dating from the Upper Pleistocene. The aim of this article is to provide evidence about the presence of the glacial morphology in the northern part of the Leaota Peak, the main orographic node in the massif with the same name. Thus, on the basis of field observations, of topographical map analysis and by using the geographic information systems which made possible a detailed morphometric analysis, I was able to gather evidence proving the existence of a glacial cirque in the Leaota Mountains. The arguments put forward in this article show that the glacial relief is represented in the Leaota Mountains through a small-size suspended glacial cirque, which displays all the morphologic elements proving the existence of glaciation in this massif.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The absence of recognizable components after the archaeological digging represents a reality that does not have correspondence only in the thorough research on the Palaeolithic period. Actually retaking the diggings in Palaeolithic sites known throughout research reports and synthesis studies are raising a series of issues which can affect the final results of the archaeological research. This occurs also because of the lack of detailed plans regarding the placement of the area on which research was carried out and also relating them to identifiable points on the field. This is why, through using modern methods of noninvading prospection, the magnetometric research allows, at least at a theoretical level, to spot the area affected by previous archaeological digging and the concentration of materials that may be of anthropic origins. The total area of research through magnetometric prospects in the Palaeolithic establishment from Borşoşu hill is of 3404 m2 and it represents half of the surface on which one can identify Palaeolithic archaeological remnants. The magnetometric research went together with the execution of sections meant to point out the stratigraphy of the Palaeolithic site, the identification and recuperation of the Palaeolithic archaeological material from the site, taking thus the required evidence for the interdisciplinary analyses.
Article
Making use of analytical, chemical and mineralogical methods, this paper focuses on the analysis of inclusions in order to address the question of the provenance of prehistoric artefacts excavated in Gura Cheii-Râs¸novRâs¸Râs¸nov Cave (Romania). The study represents the first discovery of bitumen on lithic tools belonging to the Upper and Middle Palaeolithic in Europe. The material was identified through several analytical procedures, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCeMS) allows the analysis of bitumen and related compounds: resins and oils, tar and pitch, and waxes. Lipids extracted from the lithic artefacts showed that the main organic constituents were palmitic (C 16:0) and stearic (C 18:0) acids, together with minor saturated (myristic C 14:0 , pentadecanoic C 15:0 , palmitic C 16:0 , iso-C 16:0 C17:0) and unsaturated (palmitoleic C 16:1 and oleic C 18:1) fatty acids. The use of GCeMS also allows identifying C 15þ alkanes (such as C 23 H 48 e tricosane, C 24 H 50 e tetracosane, C 25 H 52 e pentacosane). All these hydrocarbons confirm that the black substance is highly weathered bitumen, the source of which remains unknown. The composition of this black substance suggests that the organic traces are remnants of a hafting material used by Palaeolithic people to glue handles onto their tools.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.