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The Tourist: A new Theory of Leisure Class

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... Early research proclaimed both tourists and their destinations superficial at best (MacCannell, 1973) and utterly lacking in authenticity. For instance, MacCannell concluded that the perceived desire of tourists for authentic experiences influences the creation of a continuum of contrived and performative offerings of which only the discerning traveler is expected to be able to distinguish between what they are being sold/told as "authentic" and the truly authentic (MacCannell, 1976;McIntosh & Prentice, 1999). ...
... In the 45+ years since MacCannell (1973MacCannell ( , 1976 introduced the theory that tourism destinations are, by and large, staged and thus inauthentic, an extensive body of scholarship addressed questions regarding visitors' motives as well as tourism product offerings. Most scholars agree that the commodification of the tourist's experience results in various levels of inauthenticity (Boorstin, 1961;Halewood & Hannam, 2001;Redfoot, 1984). ...
... 1296) but the concept is listed here as constructivist authenticity in recognition of the creation or cocreation of the authentic by the actors involved in the authentication. Staged authenticity is an idea rooted in the original discussions of tourism authenticity birthed by MacCannell (1973MacCannell ( , 1976, whereby he argued that because tourism is performative (i.e., staged), it is by necessity inauthentic. Others countered this argument by introducing concepts related to front-and backstage (Daugstad & Kirchengast, 2013), or as Cohen and Cohen (2012a) referred to the idea of accessible and inaccessible experiences-hot and cool, whereby aspects of staged tourism experiences could indeed be (or be perceived as) authentic. ...
... The concept of authenticity was introduced by MacCannell (1973) in the tourism context and has been developed and extended by several later studies (McIntosh & Prentice, 1999;Wang, 1999;Kim & Jamal, 2007;Shepherd, 2015). Authenticity is associated with truth, history, traditions, places, their communities, and their culture (MacCannell, 1976;Aplet & Cooper, 2000;Waitt, 2000, Wang et al., 2020. The term "authentic" is generally related to something that is characterized by being "real, reliable, original, and its substance is true" (Barthel, 1996;, closely linked to traditional culture and its provenances, to what is assumed to be unique and genuine . ...
... Objects that constitute the heritage of a community, and that are considered authentic for their genuineness, are not produced for the purpose of satisfying tourists, but for the use of local people in their lives. However, this uniqueness and originality that characterizes them adds value to these objects, and the tourism industry makes use of this to meet the tourists' needs (MacCannell, 1976;Sharpley, 1999, Wang et al., 2020. In the tourism industry, tourists' needs are a central issue, as its general purpose focuses on meeting mass tourism, which for some authors, such as Boorstin (1992) and Sharpley (1999), is associated with the inauthentic, while niche tourism is associated with the authentic. ...
... According to MacCannell (1976), the quest for authentic experience is one of the central aspects of modern culture that has characterized tourism over the years. Thus, heritage is recreated and adapted from memories of the past to meet the needs of contemporary tourists. ...
Article
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Tourists are demanding authentic cultural experiences and unique local products, which can be seen as the answer to the globalization processes of tourism. It is intended to understand the role that the authentic local culture of a community, especially the intangible heritage, assumes in enhancing the tourist experience and later in its satisfaction. Additionally, it is intended to explore the importance of the authenticity of traditions and local culture in enhancing the experience in a medium-sized destination. This study contributes to the evaluation of the authenticity of festivities in its four main perspectives (objective, constructive, existential, and post-modern), the classification of the tourist experience in the four domains (educational, evasion, entertainment, and aesthetic) and the evaluation of the intentions of return and recommendation, verifying the existing relations between its different aspects. A questionnaire survey was applied to 299 tourists at the “Senhora da Agonia” festivities in Viana do Castelo. The main results show that a higher appreciation of authenticity corresponds to a positive evaluation of the tourist experience in the 4 domains, presenting a relationship between "objective and existential authenticity" and "tourist experience"; it can also be concluded that a better evaluation of the tourist experience corresponds to a higher level of satisfaction regarding the destination, presenting a relationship between "tourist experience" and "satisfaction". The study is an important contribution of analysis and reflection, allowing entrepreneurs and destination management organizations to plan and develop activities in order to promote authenticity in Viana do Castelo or similar cities, including proposals towards the improvement in terms of valuing and promoting the authenticity of the destination in the northern region, nationally and internationally.
... Si bien esta propuesta es muy amplia, aquí lo podemos aplicar a los estudios turísticos no favorecidos por esta disciplina y además concentrados en cierta mirada, como invitación a su inclusión de forma amplia y diversa. Ya que en general se trata de investigaciones de rasgos económicos y centrados en la desigualdad y explotación de esta actividad, la dependencia y dominación, así como la aculturación que comporta (Salazar, 2006), además de la escenificación y representación local de la autenticidad estereotipada que el turista busca (MacCannell, 1999;Urry, 2002), y una nueva forma de colonización o neocolonialismo (Salazar, 2006). Las formas de turismo alternativo también son criticadas aunque en forma más benévola (Sala- , 2006), sin embargo, se trata nuevamente de la mercantilización de la cultura (Santana, 1997) y de la naturaleza. ...
... Las necesidades y relaciones humanas, motivaciones y experiencias son propias del fenómeno turístico (MacCannell, 1999;Urry, 1990), mismas que se entroncan con el mundo emocional como veremos a continuación, y todo ello es parte de los estudios antropológicos en general, además de los turísticos aquí abordados. ...
... En el contexto de una sociedad de ensueño (Jensen, 1999) y donde se comercializan ya no solo productos y servicios, sino vivencias y sentimientos (Pine y Gilmore, 1999). Sin olvidar la insistencia en la importancia de lo diferente y auténtico en el turismo actual (MacCannell, 1999), lo pintoresco y grandioso (Santana, 1997). Y en esta búsqueda de la diversidad, diferencia, exotísmo y autenticidad, el turismo se asemeja a la antropología, no cabe duda. ...
Article
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Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Ciudad de México RECIBIDO: 4 OCTUBRE DE 2015; ACEPTADO: 4 DE MARZO DE 2016 Resumen: Este texto reflexiona sobre las emociones en la investigación y experiencia turística. Se centra en la revisión sobre el turismo de las emociones, la publicidad como atracción des-de la oferta turística, que origina la elección del lugar. El dónde y cuándo viajar como nece-sidad psicológica constituida por factores externos cognitivos-emocionales a través de la construcción mediática y los imaginarios sociales. Se centra también en las emociones del tu-rismo, de las y los turistas. Éstas tienen que ver con los factores de empuje en cuanto a mo-tivaciones del deseo de viajar y la decisión de hacerlo por diferentes cuestiones, desde motivos internos emocionales, necesidades físicas, psicológicas y de desarrollo personal, y las emociones en el lugar, esto es, mientras realizan su visita. Este trabajo se centra en el estudio de caso de Malinalco. Palabras clave: ocio, viajes, necesidades, deseos, antropología. Abstract: This text is a reflection of emotions in research and tourist experience. Focuses on the review on the tourism of emotions, advertising as attraction from the tourist offer, which originates the choice of the place. The where and when to travel as a psychological need cognitive-emotions external factors through the media construction and social imagi-naries. It also focuses on the emotions of the tourism, of the tourists. These have to do with factors push in terms of motivations for going and the decision to do it for different reasons, from internal reasons emotional, physical, psychological and personal development, and emotions in place, that is, during his visit. This Text focuses on the case study of Malinalco.
... The literature on travel motivation is rather fragmented and consists of many individual studies and approaches since the 1970s. The notion concerning quests for authenticity or authentic experiences implicates the idea that the tourist seeks genuine experiences in a simpler and seemingly unchanged world, one that differs from one's own overly structured and industrialised society (Carreira et al., 2022;MacCannell, 1976;Olsen, 2002). Boorstin (1977), however, stressed the opposite and noted that tourists rarely look for authenticity whilst other scholars argued that holidays are a form of escapism from the paramount reality of everyday life (Cohen & Taylor, 1976;Rojek, 1993). ...
... While this finding reaffirmed Crompton's (1979) push factor relating to the desire to strengthen family and kinship relationships, it also forced us to probe deeper into the notion of travel as a primarily western phenomenon to create space for other geographical and cultural contexts (Cohen & Cohen, 2015;Park & Yoon, 2009). The study's findings also question the dominant positions in tourism studies that the desire to travel is fundamentally associated with personal and individual gain (Pearce & Caltabiano, 1983), as well as being commonly associated with desires for authentic encounters with material culture and genuine experiences in other societies (MacCannell, 1976;Olsen, 2002). For many Pacific Islanders, however, authentic encounters and experiences may well be localised within a familiar landscape, determined by kinship, ethnicity and culture. ...
Article
The mobility patterns and travel motivations of Pacific Islanders have largely been neglected by discourses and discussions on Asia-Pacific tourism. To examine the travel preferences and travel motivations of Pacific Islanders, we administered surveys (n = 1100) across the five Pacific Island States and Territories of Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa and Solomon Islands. The research offers a comparative analysis across national boundaries by highlighting commonalities and differences among the five groups. Family, kinship and religious dimensions stand out as shared and crucial factors influencing travel preferences and travel motivations across the region. Nonetheless , the research identified differences between the Pacific communities which can be explained with each country's level of socioeconomic development, political structure, geography, cultural context and globalisation. The study advances knowledge on the mobilities and travel motivations of non-Western tourists by con-ceptualising the Pacific Islands from the perspective of a tourism-generating region. K E Y W O R D S outbound tourism, South Pacific, tourism mobilities, travel motivations
... The authenticity of cultural experiences in tourism venues, the culture of the local community and their consumption by tourists, and the staging of local elements and activities (Maccannell, 1976) have made commodification inevitable. ...
... Sembolik mekanlar kent içerisinde deneyim mekanlarını meydana getirmektedir ve bu mekanlar toplumsal anlamlarla yüklüdür (Smith, 2017 (Maccannell, 1976) metalaşmayı kaçınılmaz kılmıştır. ...
... The first stream of research has focused on understanding tourism phenomenon by self-identity theory (e.g., Wang, Tsai, & Tsai, 2014;Xie & Zhu, 2019). For example, the concept of self-identity has been applied to effectively explain such tourist behaviours as overspending and green consumption (Hibbert, Dickinson, & Gössling, 2013), the evaluation of tourism advertisements (Maccannell, 1976), and the emergence of "Qiongyou" (Xie & Zhu, 2019), an independent travel style of Chinese youth. In addition, focusing on the relationship between self-identity and geographical preference in destination choice, Neumann (1992) recognized that a tourism attraction is the place where tourists find themselves either moving towards self-realization, or making efforts to make up for the experience gap in everyday life. ...
... In addition, focusing on the relationship between self-identity and geographical preference in destination choice, Neumann (1992) recognized that a tourism attraction is the place where tourists find themselves either moving towards self-realization, or making efforts to make up for the experience gap in everyday life. In other word, tourism is regarded as a way to improve tourists' self-awareness (Maccannell, 1976). ...
Article
Isolation and anomie caused by the modern life has created multiple identity threats. Tourists’ destination experience has long been considered as a unique way of identity construction. However, little research has investigated whether and how environmental restoration qualities in the tourism context can possibly reinforce self-identity and counteract the effect of identity confusion. Guided by the Attention Restoration Theory, this study aims to develop and test a model to examine the relationships between the dimensions of perceived destination restorative qualities (PDRQs) and tourist self-identity with two tourist samples in China collected in two distinctive destinations (Sample 1, n = 361; Sample 2, n = 323). Results show that in both samples, the PDRQs dimensions of compatibility and mentally-away positively contributed to self-identity, while the dimension of physically-away had no significant effect on self-identity. In addition, the dimensions of extent and fascination had differentiated effects on self-identity across the two samples. This study provides empirical evidence to show that destinations have the potential to promote tourist identity reconstruction.
... Thus, digitalization and technology innovation have profoundly influenced what is considered to be tourist experience [3]. Traditionally, tourist experience was thought to involve escaping from everydayness [4], gazing upon exotic cultures and landscapes [5], seeking authenticity [6], and feeling the heightened moment of being a tourist [7]. This traditional concept of tourist experience inherently requires a physical trip to a destination and the spatial apprehension of immediate surroundings. ...
... According to Urry [41], the tourist experience inherently involves some type of tourist gaze as the process of objectifying and interpreting the place where tourists visit. MacCannell [6] postulated that tourists consistently collect the meanings and structures of a tourist destination by recognizing markers (a piece of information about the space) to organize their touristic experience. As symbols or spatial cues, markers provide tourists the information about the structure of the place. ...
Article
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The current pandemic is accelerating the wide-spreading popularity of digital tourism. Given that technology innovation has broadened the horizon of tourist experiences to the realm of virtual environments, this study aims to (re)conceptualize travel experience and develop a theoretical framework to examine media technology effects on virtual travel experience, destination image, and tourists’ well-being. As a conceptual work, this study adopts technological perspectives on online travel media to decompose technology attributes and articulate distinctive effects of technology-centric variables. The proposed framework illustrates five propositions that specify and explain the relationships among technology-centric variables (modality, agency, interactivity, and navigability), three groups of moderators (user-centric, content-centric, and situation-centric variables), virtual travel experience, destination image, and psychological wellbeing. By adopting the variable-centered approach to decompose online travel media, this study provides a new theoretical lens to understand the psychological mechanism of media technology effects in digital tourism. The framework will serve as useful methodological guidelines to conduct experiments to investigate the distinctive effect of a particular affordance or a specific technical feature. The potential benefits of digital tourism to enhance tourists’ wellbeing are discussed by highlighting the environmentally friendly and inclusive aspects.
... [16,17] Tourism has been increasing because of the rise in religious tourism or because of other segments of tourism? [18][19][20][21][22] The growth of the religious tourism sector is linked exclusively to religious motivations or to other factors? [17,21] Which are the main motivations that lead individuals to travel (religious, cultural, leisure, business, social pressure, cultural attractions, personal, educational, and cultural development, knowledge of other nations' culture and religion)? ...
... [23,24] The most visited destinations in Portugal are linked to its historical-cultural heritage or to the religious sphere? [13,14,[18][19][20] Are the cultural attractions of a destination the main reason for choosing it? [18,19] How could the planning of activities lead to the boosting of tourism in Portugal, namely around the heritage associated to convents and monasteries? ...
Conference Paper
The creation of cultural and tourism routes and itineraries are important resources, which allow the enhancement and dynamization of destinations, particularly from an economic perspective, by increasing tourism demand. As such, it is a differentiating and unique product, offered to visitors and tourists, and that has observed a considerable demand. Although the dimension of religious and cultural tourism is widely studied by several authors, the tourist and cultural routes and itineraries to boost and enhance the historical and cultural heritage are not sufficiently studied, so the aim of this paper is to extend the scientific knowledge on this topic. The general objective of this research is to evaluate the role of Portugal’s historical and cultural heritage in the context of the creation of the monasteries route, focusing on Northern Portugal. The method applied in this research was the qualitative methodology, with data being collected through semi-structured interviews. Ten interviews were applied to the representatives of several entities. According to the exhaustive and detailed analysis of the information and data provided, it can be proven that UNESCO’s attribution of the World Heritage designation to destinations and sites gives them greater recognition and an exponential increase in tourists; the historical and cultural heritage is one of the main factors for the choice of a destination; the historical and cultural heritage is positively leveraged by public and governmental entities; the role of pilgrimages positively influences the increase of the tourism sector in Portugal bringing several advantages mainly in the hotel and restaurant sector; the creation of a tourism and cultural itinerary fosters knowledge, the preservation of the historical and cultural legacy and, finally, repercussions in the economy of Portugal; convents and monasteries are one of the dimensions that are targeted by national policies of preservation of the historical and cultural heritage.
... Consuming tourism products is akin to conspicuous consumption in terms of the symbolic values that people use to display their superiority to a social audience (Correia et al., 2020;MacCannell, 1976). People enjoy visiting places with prestigious attributes (e.g. ...
... According to MacCannell [55], a tourist attraction comprises three essential elements: a tourist or human element, a central or core element, and a marker or informational element. In this way, a tourist attraction arises when these three elements are interconnected. ...
Article
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Full accessibility to people with reduced mobility, applied to tourism, is difficult to achieve and should not be seen in an absolute way, but as a concern to make tourism services more accessible and focused on the specific and individual needs of people as tourists. National and regional entities should adopt good practices to build a tourism of all, for all. The Delphi method was used in order to verify the accessibility and attractiveness of the city of Lisbon as a tourist destination by addressing the following objectives: to analyse the competitiveness of a destination for people with reduced mobility, to analyse if Lisbon is attractive and inclusive, considering its infrastructures, services, hospitality, tourist attractions and accessibility. The results obtained in the study show that Lisbon’s factors and resources are increasingly accessible to people with reduced mobility. Our findings reveal that entertainment, general and tourism infrastructures, accommodation, the various activities and cultural resources and the quality of services present greater accessibility for people with reduced mobility. The factors with less importance were: marketing of a destination, accessibilities, and natural resources.
... Travel to Tibet similarly epitomises the rise of aesthetic consumption. As MacCannell (1999) notes, in a highly alienated, industrialised, and mechanised society, individuals seek authenticity to reclaim the rich and non-static experiences of existence, and travel has become a metaphor for self-discovery. In reform-era China, the Han society has undergone a profound transformation in their perception of Tibet: from a barbaric, uncivilised, and unknowable frontier to a holy land with spiritual fullness and authentic cultures (Qian and Zhu, 2016b). ...
Article
In post-reform China, Han Chinese urbanities traveling to Tibet have contributed to a new literary genre that documents tourist mobility as a means of self-finding and self-exploration. The sample of data in this study consists of 28 book-length travel writings by Han travellers, and the primary research question addresses the relationships between tourism mobility and self-making, a widely debated issue in cultural and tourism geog-raphies. Engaging with the conceptual tension between an essential self and a socially constructed self, this study argues that while Han writers' travels to Tibet are germane to the hunt for an essential self as a hidden treasure to be redeemed, the self is by no means merely introspective, but intrinsically relational and constituted by social, embodied and materially mediated practices. For the purpose of reconciling and synthesizing the two theoretical positions, this study proposes an alternative concept known as the 'assemblage self', which tries to capture how the more-than-human and more-than-representational dimensions of mobilities can speak back powerfully to the phenomenology of the self. This concept is relational and performative in the sense that it is constituted by networks of discourses, practices, and materialities. We develop this concept by engaging with the recent literature on more-than-representational mobility as a conceptual nexus connecting the concepts of the essential self and the socially constructed self.
... Despite numerous definitions, tourism literature still cannot explain what authenticity in tourism truly is. Is it the objectifiable, genuine and fundamental property of the tourist attraction (objective authenticity) founded on the modernist, objectivist causality that if the object is authentic, then the tourist experience of it must also be authentic (MacCannell, 1976)? Is it a perceptual or constructed representation of individually authenticated reality (constructive authenticity) derived from the constructivist premise that even if the object is not authentic, the resultant tourist experience can be (Cohen, 1979)? ...
Article
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The recent advance of transformatory experience into a foremost mega-trend in tourism attracted considerable scholarly interest. Building on Pung et al.'s (2020) model of transformatory experience, the article revisits the statistical results of the original 2013 model of the authenticity of transformatory experience. The results prove the radical theoretical hypothesis that transmodernism, not postmodernism, is the appropriate paradigm for conceptualising current transformatory experience discourse. The model is founded on the transmodern open centre flat ontology, the epistemology of transformative knowledge co-creation, and the philosophy of Speculative Realism. This quantitative study is based on a survey (N=406) using questionnaires, following a theory-building theory-testing sequential research design. The results of multiple regression analysis (MRA) confirmed the goodness of fit and simplicity of the model informed by only two independent variables (objective and constructive authenticity). The t-test and Mann Whitney-U test results revealed that many respondents are Cultural Creatives identifying transformatory experience as a core experience. The newly proposed concept of ontological transformation best describes transformatory experience as a transmodern phenomenon. The empirical and theoretical validation of the revised model of the authenticity of transformatory experience represents a valuable scholarly contribution to an emerging transformational tourism discourse.
... Creating a tourist-friendly image and tourist facilities can be considered impossible without proper preparation. (Cohen, 1988;MacCannell, 1999;Nguyen & Cheung, 2016). Therefore, the opportunity to highlight the salt of Bario should be fully utilized to develop the tourism sector, especially in Bario, Sarawak. ...
Article
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This article describes the process of digitizing traditional methods of Bario salt extraction based on documentation and experiences during a field trip to Pa' Umor, Bario, Sarawak. The process of making salt is described in an orderly manner, beginning with the extraction of the salt water, and ending with the packing process. Bario salt is extracted from a salt spring by boiling the brine in a large pot until the salt forms a gray layer, and then collecting the salt from the bottom. This process is still practiced today. However, the production of Bario salt is not widely known because it is a lengthy and laborious process. Moreover, the conventional methods of information transfer are no longer relevant to current technological developments. Therefore, through an interdisciplinary and visual experience approach, all images are recorded in a digital documentation using the latest digital tools and then analyzed through the art of formalism. The result is a short video production and digital interactive poster called ID-Poster that uses the augmented reality application. It is hoped that this article will provide new ideas and visual insights that can help in promoting rural tourism. Keywords: Bario Salt; Visual Experience; Interdisciplinary; Digital Documentation; Rural Tourism
... The idea that the tourist gaze (Urry, 2002) is constructed in contrast to 'home' has been widely acknowledged, accepted and adopted by tourism researchers and research continues to show that people go away on holiday in order to have meaningful and memorable experiences (MacCannell, 1999;McCabe, 2002), thus more or less implicitly suggesting that anything resembling 'home' does not enable people to experience extraordinariness. This has led Quan and Wang (2004:297) to conclude that "the tourist experience has for a long time been one-sidedly understood as either the peak experience or the consumer experience". ...
Conference Paper
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Nowadays tourism industry has changed into an influential phenomenon in the world economy, in a way that most countries consider this as the main source of income, occupation, development in the private sector, and development in fundamental structures. Meanwhile, urban tourism is the most popular and eminent kind of tourism, in a way that considering cities special position in most successful countries in the field, the city is the foundation and basis for tourism development. The present investigation tries to evaluate and analyze existing challenges of tourism, and provide appropriate solutions based on the country's economical, cultural and social conditions through the contrastive study of scientific findings regarding urban tourism in Iran, especially in the Tabriz metropolis.
... La ciudad es objeto de visita por parte del turismo cultural, por lo que la revisión del perfil del turista y del sistema turístico (Gurria, 2007) tiene lugar bajo esta premisa, se realiza también un acercamiento a la opinión del turista, no solo a los servicios en el destino sino de sus percepciones y experiencias en su visita, como por ejemplo, lo que gusta o disgusta -esto último a menudo de lo que huye en su lugar de origen y encuentra en el que visita al tratarse de una ciudad-, lo que le falta para ser cómoda y atractiva, todo ello en el marco del ya mencionado turismo cultural (Santana, 1997) que remarca la experiencia y la emoción, que valora el patrimonio, la historia y la cultura, lo auténtico y distinto, tal como el idealizado pasado (MacCannell, 1999). ...
Article
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Este texto presenta un panorama de las características y miradas del turismo de la ciudad de México. Describe quienes son los turistas, las características del viaje y la estancia, así como, su evaluación de los servicios turísticos y de la ciudad.
... Hacer turismo proporciona, así, el descanso y la distracción, la libertad y la tranquilidad, hechos que se obtienen a través de la visita, desde el escape como factor de empuje, hasta el encuentro con uno mismo, como se expresa aquí en los testimonios recabados. La relajación y exploración del yo son parte de la huida hacia el relax y el juego, la necesidad de ocio y salud física y mental (MacCannell, 1999). 9. Disponible en: http://dle.rae.es/?w=diccionario (consulta: 5 febrero de 2017). ...
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Resumen: El turismo cultural está en auge en el mundo y en México. Se trata de un fenómeno multicausal. Hoy parecen claras algunas motivaciones y satis-facciones que esta actividad produce. Este trabajo se centra precisamente en las tendencias, motivaciones y gustos del turismo cultural según los turistas y los habitantes de un pueblo del estado de Morelos llamado Tlayacapan, ubica-do en el centro del país. A través de entrevistas a visitantes y habitantes se han elaborado las tendencias del turismo cultural para este estudio de caso concre-to, que puede ser compartido con otras localidades de similares características. Entre los resultados queda clara la búsqueda de la autenticidad y la tranquilidad, la naturaleza, la cultura y las emociones. Abstract: Cultural tourism is increasing around the world, including in Mexico. It is a multi-causal phenomenon. Today, some of the motivations and satisfactions of this activity are apparent. This paper is focused on trends, motivations and tastes in cultural tourism according to tourists and inhabitants in a village named Tlayacapan in the state of Morelos, located in central Mexico. Through interviews with visitors and inhabitants, cultural tourism trends have been developed specifically for this case study, and are also applicable to other localities with similar characteristics. From the results, it is clear that there is typically a desire for authenticity, tranquility, nature, and emotion.
... The informative element refers to the marketing information that arouses resonance in the mind of the tourist. Leiper's conception dated back to MacCannell's (1976) understanding of attraction. The latter proposed that attraction comes into being with the interconnection between the tourist, the sight, and the marker. ...
Conference Paper
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Prior to the pandemic, Malaysia ranked 22nd tourism destination in the world. However, the number of tourist arrivals in 2020, decreased by -83.4% compared to 2019. Malaysia has the potential to be one of the top destinations for travellers due to different cultural attractions, heritage, and natural attractions. Considering the importance of international tourism to Malaysia’s economic growth, and the image of the country current research applies a mixed-method approach to explore the reasons for international tourists' intention to visit and revisit Malaysia and provide practical implications for the further development of international travel in Malaysia for the Covid-19 recovery.
... Issues related to sustainable tourism are related to modern Western society. Given that tourism is a central part of modern industrialization and urbanized societies, for example the issue of sustainability, it is not surprising that sustainability issues are increasingly mentioned and affect tourism (Gössling, 2002;MacCannel, 1976). ...
Thesis
Tourism in biosphere reserves is recognized as a method of providing a way to develop small and locally anchored tourism based on natural values, with the ambition to minimize negative environmental impacts, as a way to encourage nature and local community engagement in sustainable ways and enable learning to achieve sustainability. This thesis represents the literature review on sustainable tourism. It defines the term biosphere reserves and the basic characteristics of sustainable tourism. The natural and social characteristics of the researched area are presented, the case study, the number of visitors and accommodation capacities of Bačko Podunavlje are described. Then, all three functions of the "Backo Podunavlje" Biosphere Reserve have been explained. In the methodological part, the tools, procedures, and sample surveys, together with working hypotheses related to primary research - attitudes of the local population, and then research methods for secondary research - analysis of Danube water quality, are presented. Throughout the results and discussion, the hypotheses are confirmed, partially confirmed or refuted, using statistical calculations and other methods of testing. On the other hand, in the conclusion of the paper, a scientific and practical contribution to the theory and field studies, as well as the limitations of the research have been shown. Also, ideas and proposals for future research and practical advice are presented, which aim to suggest and motivate the initiation of changes that can lead to the sustainable tourism development of the Bačko Podunavlje Biosphere Reserve.
... Cultural tourism has therefore moved on from being a pilgrimage to the noted attractions of modernity (MacCannell, 1976), to being a loosely related set of social practices focussed on the cultural attributes of places (Richards, 2021b). If culture is everywhere, and perhaps all tourism can be considered cultural in some way, what does cultural tourism actually mean? ...
Preprint
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The growth of 'mass cultural tourism' has been stimulated by the growing numbers of tourists consuming cultural attractions, particularly in historic cities. Whereas in the past destinations had the challenge of trying to sell themselves to visitors and generate interest among a broad public, just before Covid-19 the challenge became trying to manage a growing flood of tourists in search of culture. Cities also had to change their thinking about marketing (cultural) tourism, as residents in many places began to complain about 'overtourism', or even became 'tourismphobic'. This presentation considers the implications of the growing overlap between tourism and culture in recent decades, and asks whether we need to develop a new understanding of what cultural tourism is, and analyses the growing range of cultural practices it embraces.
... Outro fator importante ocasionado por conta dessa (BOORSTIN, 1964). Enquanto na França, também no século XIX, as visitas a necrotérios/cemitérios eram um elemento incluído nas excursões parisiense (MACCANNELL, 1989;SHARPLEY, 2005). ...
Chapter
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Motivos individuais originados dos gêneros Sol, Mar e Areia já foram amplamente discutidos na literatura acadêmica. Mas, ao longo dos anos, a oferta turística continuou a evoluir. Os motivos para consumir bens turísticos sombrios são complexos e diversos e ao redor do mundo, lugares como a Casa de Anne Frank, em Amsterdã, o Memorial do 11 de Setembro em Nova York e o campo de concentração de Auschwitz-Birkenau na Polônia, têm recebido turistas em números crescentes nos últimos anos. O Memorial do Campo de Concentração de Dachau, na Alemanha, recebe cerca de 800.000 turistas por ano, sendo um dos locais de vítimas do regime nazista mais visitados. Mas quais são os principais motivações das pessoas que vão a estes lugares? O objetivo do presente trabalho é por meio da discussão teórica acerca do Tanaturismo e Turismo sombrio; de uma metodologia híbrida de pesquisa quantitativa e qualitativa, através de entrevistas guiadas por questionário semiestruturado ao visitantes no Campo de Concentração de Dachau; e da sondagem dos resultados, chegar a possíveis motivações dos visitantes da localidade em questão. Através do estudo, chegamos à conclusão que as forças de atração mostraram uma resposta muito maior entre os entrevistados do que as de impulsão e que a educação foi o principal destes fatores que levaram os visitantes ao Memorial. Assim, indicamos como pesquisas futuras abordagens no local como em relação a ética e moral dos visitantes, os motivos de não retorno dos mesmos e por que a maioria dos visitantes eram mulheres.
... The emergence of mass tourism is the result of escaping modernity [1][2][3][4]. Modern urbanites have been looking for ideal tourism destinations [5][6][7]. Ancient villages, with the spatial attributes of 'earthbound-culture' have become popular destinations for urbanites to escape to [8,9]. ...
Article
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As the spiritual homeland marker of modern urbanites, ancient villages have grown into popular tourist attractions. However, the existing literature lacks a conceptually valid and psychometrically sound scale to measure the existential value of ancient villages that meet the material and spiritual needs of tourists. Guided by the concept of genius loci in architectural phenomenology, this study developed and validated a scale to measure the genius loci of ancient villages from the perspective of tourists experience in the Chinese context. Following multistage scale development and validation procedures, tourists in two World Cultural Heritage ancient villages were sampled in two stages (Study 1, n = 214; Study 2, n = 228) to establish the psychometric properties of a genius loci scale. A three-dimensional (earthbound atmosphere, architectural culture, and spiritual homeland) genius loci measurement with 10 items was identified, and the scale showed good reliability and validity. This study extends the current ancient village tourism literature and provides a measurement tool for further investigation by academics and tourism professionals.
... Other tourism scholars advance the ethno-symbolism variant of nationalism (Smith, 1986(Smith, , 1991 by emphasising that the cultural identities of human groups play a prominent role in their articulation of nation, and relies on the argument of tourism as a form of cultural expression (MacCannell, 1999;Rojek & Urry, 1997;Urry, 1994). They have shown that the icons and imagery of tourism play a role in the articulation of national culture and identity (Palmer, 1999;Pitchford, 1995Pitchford, , 2008Light, 2001;Pritchard & Morgan, 2001;Henderson, 2001). ...
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Tourism is a place for articulating intercultural exchange and social interaction. Many nations have used tourism as a medium for assertive expressions of cultural authenticity and national identity. This exploratory study applies critical discourse analysis of interviews and icons, images and texts used in the tourism media to examine the discourses that inform the mobilisation of the markers of national identity in tourism. It argues that the use of national symbols in tourism is an example of commercial nationalism in which the ‘nationalist’ narrative is mobilised to challenge the conditions that undermine the perceived national autonomy. The paper provides some useful insights into the tensions of tourism when negotiating the political realms that lie outside the state structure.
... Reflecting on these observations, we also found a different level of transparency among alternative farmers and conventional farmers. Namely, conventional farmers generally structured their farm into "front and back stages" [49], inviting visitors only to a section of their farm specifically designed to be tourist-ready. In these farm front-stages, the conventional farmers provided authentic hands-on experiences (e.g., harvesting produce) and also more "staged" experiences (e.g., petting zoos, hay rides). ...
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Agritourism has been promoted primarily as a way to mitigate economic challenges faced by small-scale family farmers, but it may also foster land stewardship and promote agricultural literacy. There has been very little research on these relationships. We employed a primarily qualitative approach to assess how farmers’ involvement in agritourism microentrepreneurship shapes their stewardship of small-scale farmlands in southeastern North Carolina. Furthermore, we examined how farmers’ involvement in social structures, summarized in measures of collective action, supported or hindered this relationship. We find that reasons for participation in agritourism differed greatly between conventional farmers and alternative farmers. While both groups expressed a desire to reduce agricultural illiteracy among the public through agritourism, conventional farmers were motivated primarily by sociocultural reasons (e.g., community and youth development) while alternative farmers wanted to educate visitors about land stewardship and environmentally sustainable food production. Involvement in agritourism microentrepreneurship did not directly influence land stewardship by either group of farmers. Alternative farmers expressed that collective action was important in helping them promote land stewardship, but they felt restricted by sociocultural and geographic barriers preventing them from developing trust within their community. Conversely, conventional farmers reported deeper cultural roots in the community. Thus, participation in agritourism does not have a generalizable impact on farmers’ land stewardship; instead, agritourism becomes a stage through which farmers try to demonstrate their pre-existing land ethics.
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This paper focuses on the role of humour as a persuasive tool of tourism destinations' communication and as a means of creating the destination's image and uniqueness in tourism discourse. According to Aristotle's appeals, humour belongs to pathos, which is-besides ethos and logos-an essential means of persuasion in successful communication. In the introductory part, the paper offers a short theoretical insight into the functions of tourism discourse and the role of humour in it, further on examples of online promotional texts about Montenegro are analysed and discussed using discourse analysis. The findings confirm that successful promotion can only occur through the efficient use of tourism discourse which addresses the needs of potential tourists and that humorous texts about destinations are appealing to readers. Based on the analysis, it can be established that branding of tourism destinations, products and services with elements of humour may be outstanding in positive ways, and consequently employed in promotional texts as a successful means of communication.
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This paper focuses on the role of humour as a persuasive tool of tourism destinations' communication and as a means of creating the destination’s image and uniqueness in tourism discourse. According to Aristotle’s appeals, humour belongs to pathos, which is - besides ethos and logos – an essential means of persuasion in successful communication. In the introductory part, the paper offers a short theoretical insight into the functions of tourism discourse and the role of humour in it, further on some examples of online promotional texts about Montenegro are analysed and discussed using discourse analysis. The results, presented in the conclusion, confirm that successful promotion can only occur through the efficient use of tourism discourse which addresses the needs of potential tourists and that humorous texts about destinations are appealing to readers. Based on the analysis, it can be established that branding of tourism destinations, products and services with elements of humour may be outstanding in positive ways, and consequently employed in promotional texts as a successful means of communication.
Article
Within the theoretical framework of discourse analysis, we analyze how the enchantment concept (Réau / Poupeau 2007; Winkin 2002) finds its way on travel blog productions. To do so, we work on a corpus of 114 posts, 115 photos and 345 comments. We shed light on the discursive, enunciative and semiotic strategies implemented by authors to immerse readers in an imaginary world where reality gives way to the marvellous. How, in travel blog situations, do bloggers seduce web users? And in what way their audience seems to respond to these attempts? How does denial of market and social realities work in online travel stories? After having placed this scientific work within the current research trends which question discourses and travels, we describe the methodology we use to identify, in the bloggers’ productions and their readers’ comments, the mechanisms the authors deploy to create the illusion of a perfect destination before revealing some of our linguistic and semiotic findings. Eventually, we demonstrate that readers are far from being the naive interlocutors one might assume.
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The book is an introduction to tourism studies and discusses various aspects of tourism and an important component of tourism, ocean cruising.
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Turizm sektöründe son yıllarda turistlerin zevk ve tercihlerinin gözle görülür bir şekilde değiştiği görülmektedir. Turistler yalnızca başka insanların deneyimlerini bilmek istemekle kalmayıp aynı zamanda yeni ve kişisel deneyimlerin arayışı içindedirler. Dolayısıyla turizmin bu değişen zevklere uyum sağladığını söylemek mümkündür (Millán vd., 2021). Karanlık turizm de bu değişimin ürünlerinden biri olmuştur. Karanlık turizmin yirminci yüzyılda ortaya çıkmasında, yapılan çeşitli tanımların büyük katkısı olmuştur. En önemlilerinden biri Central Lanceshire Üniversitesinin (İngiltere) Karanlık Turizm Araştırma Enstitüsüne aittir. Enstitünün tanımına göre “karanlık turizm”, gerçek veya canlandırma ölüm, ıstırap veya ana tema olarak görünüşte ürkütücü turistik yerlerin, mekânların veya sergilerin ziyaret edilmesi faaliyetidir. Eski savaş alanlarına turist ziyaretleri, kölelik tarihi açısından önemi olan yerler, hapishaneler, mezarlıklar, bazı müze sergileri, Holokost ve felaket yerlerinin tümü karanlık turizmin geniş kapsamını oluşturmaktadır (Millán vd., 2019). Karanlık turizm, son dönemde turizm sektörünün önemli bir dalı hâline gelmiştir. Turistlerin karanlık turizm destinasyonlarına olan ilgisi giderek artmaktadır. İnsanların ölüm olayları, felaket olayları, paranormal faaliyetler, gizem ve kanlı efsanelerle ilgili mirası, tarihi keşfetme, öğrenme ve merakını giderme fırsatını bulmaları karanlık turizm türünü giderek daha çekici hâle getirmektedir (Schneider vd., 2021). Karanlık turizm, gerek turistlerin gerekse yerel halkın üzerinde pozitif etkiler yaratmaktadır. Bunun temel nedeni karanlık turizmin duygusal ve psikolojik faydaları kadar, turizm gelirlerini arttırıcı ve altyapıyı iyileştiren gelir yaratımı gibi ekonomik faydalarının da bulunmasıdır (Buye, 2021). Bu çalışmada karanlık turizm kavramı ele alınarak ekonomik etkileri üzerine teorik bir inceleme yapılmıştır. Karanlık turizm-ekonomi ilişkisine literatürde çok fazla değinilmediğinden dolayı bu konunun ele alınmasına ihtiyaç duyulmuştur. Çalışma şu şekilde detaylandırılmıştır: Birinci bölümde karanlık turizm kavramıyla ilgili literatür taraması yapılmıştır. İkinci bölümde karanlık turizmin temel ilkeleri ve sınıflandırılması konularına değinilmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde karanlık turizmin ekonomik etkileri ele alınmıştır. Son olarak sonuç ve değerlendirme kısmı yer almaktadır.
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This book provides students, educators, trainers and industry professionals with interesting, relevant, international case studies that can be used in a variety of courses and/or training sessions. The cases are derived from ethical issues in a range of operational situations and are based on diverse theoretical frameworks, allowing students and trainees to grapple with a multitude of issues related to hospitality and tourism. This collection comprises cases from several different countries, but the topics transcend borders and the details in the cases focus on complex issues that encourage ethical decision-making practices which are meaningful to all those connected to hospitality and tourism education and the industry. The cases are particularly useful for educators and trainers because they are set up to be used by teams or individual students or trainees. For example, each case is accompanied by several questions to address in either a group discussion or written format. Plus, some of the cases are supplemented by recommendations for further readings, with links to websites and videos connected to the issues discussed in the cases, as appropriate. In addition, the authors have offered points of discussion and recommended follow-up activities related to the case topics, making the book a valuable teaching, training, and learning tool. Cynthia S. Deale, Ph.D. Professor School of Hospitality Leadership College of Business East Carolina University USA Past President, ICHRIE
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2020). Turismo, imagen urbana y arquitectura en las políticas públicas. México en las primeras décadas del siglo XX. Morelia, México: Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo. ISBN: 978-607-542-169-8 El turismo contemporáneo, el patrimonio, y la imagen conforman una triada con vínculos tan entreverados que es difícil entender por separado cualquiera de los tres fenómenos (Alvarado-Sizzo, 2021). Es precisamente la interacción entre las tres dimensiones, el eje articulador de esta obra de Eugenio Mercado López, investigador del grupo "Historia y Conservación del Arte y la Arquitectura" de la Facultad de Arquitectura de la Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo (México). El trabajo que nos ocupa en esta reseña es el libro Turismo, imagen urbana y arquitectura en las políticas públicas. México en las primeras décadas del siglo XX. Morelia, México: Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo. 2020. ISBN: 978-607-542-169-8. El autor, gracias a su gran experiencia en la academia y en la administración pública, logra conjugar dos visiones que suelen estar en constante conflicto y con escaso diálogo. Así, desde su experiencia con el servicio público Mercado López conoce de primera mano la visión institucional sobre el patrimonio y el turismo que prevalece en México y particularmente en el estado de Michoacán. Al mismo tiempo, su experiencia académica se ha enfocado a profundizar en lo que podríamos llamar "historia de las ideas a través del patrimonio". A lo largo del estudio introductorio, los cuatro capítulos y la reflexión final, a modo de epílogo, que integran el libro, esa relación se va desvelando a través de fuentes históricas, hemero-blibliográficas así como un amplio y valioso acervo de imágenes que no sólo ilustran sino que son en sí mismas elementos de los que pueden partir nuevas investigaciones/ reflexiones.
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Actualmente el Perú recibe un gran flujo de turistas extranjeros que recorren en forma permanente Cuzco, Puno, Arequipa, Lima y otros puntos del país. Mientras que en fines de semana largos o en periodos vacacionales millones de peruanos viajan por el territorio nacional. ¿Pero fue siempre así? En este libro innovador, Fernando Armas Asín narra la historia del turismo en el Perú, desde sus orígenes en el siglo XIX, pasando por su difícil y complejo desarrollo a lo largo del siglo XX, hasta llegar al año 2000. Viajes a caballo, en autos, carreteras, hoteles y aviones pasan por estas páginas; centrándose el autor en aspectos relevantes como la lenta y progresiva formación de los destinos turísticos, las políticas públicas para su fomento, el rol del empresariado turístico, o las problemáticas asociadas con los turistas y su efecto transformador.
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O cinema, primeiro meio de comunicação a conciliar imagem e som, exerce grande influência no imaginário das pessoas, cria e recria estéticas, sendo algumas delas apropriadas pelo campo do turismo. A partir dessa analogia, pretende-se estabelecer a relação entre as duas áreas, analisando especialmente seus pontos de convergência. Ao se pensar na busca do turista contemporâneo pela autenticidade, entende-se que, de certa forma, ela também será uma construção pautada por produtos culturais como o cinema. Apoiado no campo da Estética, o estudo compreende o turismo como criação. Assim, a partir da compreensão dos elementos que compõem a estética cinematográfica e sua relação com a realidade, discutiremos a problemática que envolve os reality tours. Como cenário, destacaremos o produto turístico designado como “turismo em favela”, pelo seu vertiginoso crescimento no Brasil, e por terem sido as favelas cariocas várias vezes retratadas em filmes brasileiros. A presença da favela nos filmes da Retomada do cinema brasileiro, a partir dos anos 1990, será imprescindível para encontrarmos muito da favela cinematográfica na favela turística.
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between owner-manager control and nonfamily member employees’ affective commitment in small family business. It is frequently stated in the family business literature that family business is different from nonfamily business, and that these differences can significantly impact outcomes. Based on this assumption, this study examines the extent to which that is true in the case of managerial control and its relationship to employees’ affective commitment. The research design incorporated a quantitative correlational approach using survey data. The study uses a survey with a 177-sample population of the non-family employee who works at the small family business in the foodservice sector located across Victoria, Australia. The results show that there is a positive correlation between managerial capability controls, the relationship quality (LMX), and the affective commitment.
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Turistik talep, belirli hedef bölgelerde kısıtlı dönemlere ve alanlara doğru aşırı yoğunluk gösterebilmektedir. Hedef bölgelerin taşıma kapasitesini aşan turizm eylemi ve aşırı kalabalıklaşma, doğal çevrede bozulmanın yanında, yerel halkın kendi yaşam alanlarının işgal edildiğini düşünmesi ve yaşam doyum düzeylerinin azalmasına neden olmaktadır. Yerel halkın turizme ve ziyaretçilere karşı duyduğu rahatsızlığın açık protestolar ve düşmanca tavır biçiminde kendini gösteren toplumsal hareketlere dönüşmesi pek çok aşırı turizm durumunda görünmektedir. Bu durumlarda, olumlu bir yerel halk – ziyaretçi etkileşimi için hedef bölge yönetiminin aşırı turizmi önlemesi ya da yönetmesi gerekmektedir. Yerel halkı kapsayıcı, reaktif bir turizm planlaması, hedef bölge tanıtım ve marka stratejisini yeniden yapılandırma, turistik ürün çeşitlendirme ve benzeri yöntemler bu amaca yönelik olarak etkili olacaktır. Foça’da yaşanan aşırı turizm durumunda, yerel halkın yoğunluk dönemlerinde evlerinden hiç çıkmadıkları, özellikle toplu taşıma sayesinde bölgeyi ziyaret eden çok sayıda günübirlikçiden rahatsızlık duyduğu saptanmıştır. Bölgeye yönelik çok yüksek talep ve imar düzenlemesi nedeniyle kapasitenin çok sınırlı olması, taşınmaz fiyatlarının, işyeri ve (özellikle dönemlik) ev kiralarının aşırı artmasına neden olmuştur. Bu nedenle yaşanan yoğunluktan girişimciler memnun görünmekle birlikte, yerel halk şikâyetçidir. Çalışmada, bölgede yaşanan aşırı turizmin önlenmesine yönelik önerilere ulaşılmaya çalışılmıştır.
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Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) drives economic growth and rural development in different provinces in Zimbabwe. The commodification of indigenous dance practices in the tourism industry has been practised since the colonial era to the present day in Zimbabwe. Cultural tourism has had positive and negative implications on indigenous communities and their cultural heritage. The performance of indigenous dances at Great Zimbabwe Monuments in the Shona Village promotes sustainability by transforming the dance and music practices into economic goods for consumption by tourists and, to some extent, sustaining the culture bearers' livelihoods. This article explores the issues of staged authenticity, commoditisation of indigenous dance, and the exploitation of cultural workers in the development and practice of cultural tourism in Zimbabwe. Furthermore, the article also examines the opportunities and challenges of exchanging indigenous dances for money at Great Zimbabwe Shona Village. It also provides perceptions on how the Karanga dance and music practitioners re-enact and reclaim their perceived authentic cultural legacy of "Karanga-ness" through performances that attempt to contest European cultural imperialism and the long history of mythologising the indigenous people such as the Karanga people.
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تهدف هذه الورقة البحثية إلى الرد على الانتقادات التي وجهت مؤخرا لمجال الرياضة والسياحة وذلك من منظور جغرافي لتسليط الضوء على تساؤلات واتجاهات بحثية فريدة من نوعها برزت ضمن دراسة الرياضة والسياحة داخل هذا العلم من العلوم الاجتماعية (الجغرافيا)، فالمفاهيم الجغرافية المتمثلة في الحيز المكاني والمكان والبيئة تم توظيفها وتطبيقها لدراسة الرياضة والسياحة بحيث حددت هذه المفاهيم الجغرافية الرئيسية أبرز المناقشات وعددا من الاتجاهات البحثية، والتي ينبغي على الباحثين التركيز عليها من أجل بناء إطار معرفي متماسك ومداخل منهجية من الممكن تطبيقها لتحقيق تقدم ملموس في هذا المجال البحثي حول الرياضة والسياحة. This article responds to recent criticism of research serving the field of sport and tourism (Weed, 2005a, 2005b). It adopts a geographical perspective to highlight the unique research questions and directions that emerge in the study of sport and tourism within this particular field of the social sciences. The geographic concepts of space, place, and environment are reviewed and applied to the study of sport and tourism. Drawing upon these key concepts, a number of research directions are highlighted and discussed . It is argued that these research directions, among others, should be systematically addressed by researchers so as to build coherent bodies of knowledge. Consideration is also given to methodological approaches that might be applied to effectively advance this area of research in sport and tourism.
Chapter
In multi-cultural contexts, tourism and cultural industries have been involved in historic urban quarters, creating a multitude of cultural symbols that cater to consumers, the authenticity of recreated heritages is in doubt. In order to reveal the roots of the spatial evolution, the author takes Tianjin Old City Hall as an example to study the logic of spatial redesign and reconstruction, concentrating on the characteristics of spatial evolution in both the humanities and applied science with the method of comparative study. The results showed that governments, invaders, and capitalists dominated the three spatial reconstructions of Tianjin Old City Hall respectively. The original spatial texture has disappeared from the site and transformed into an “archaized commercial urban quarter” redesigned by planners guided by modern urban concepts. The author summarizes the spatial problems as follows: gentrification, superficiality, and capitalization. The paper proposes to value the field of cultural production theory and puts forward the authenticity of historic urban quarters redesign. In order to explore the cultural roots of cities and the spirits of social space in the multi-cultural context, it encourages multiple sectors to carry out high-quality design and creative policy intervention.
Article
Which are among the most important touristic attractions of Konya have constantly been subjected to change and conversion especially with neoliberal policies applied since 1980. The reproduction of the markets which are in the historical city centre hasn't only changed the markets but also changed the tradesmen's relationship and customer's attitudes. The change experienced in the social space has reflected the consumption culture and it's included the fund through space and meta. The pattern of phenomenology which is one of the methods of quantitative research is used on this research in order to fathom the process occured during the research and analyze the results. I had an interview with 10 tradesmen who have been working in the area for a long time as a sample in order to perceive the change and conversion process. According to the findings of the interview with the participants, the inadequacy of the participants' numbers on the applied change and conversion caused that they don't have the right to comment on it, the process has always remained on the agenda that it's turned it into a uncertain situation. The meanings attributed to the space has changed due to the conversion activities that have been experienced. The usage of "Mevlana" factor as meta used on the city image and its identity has brought with the commodification due to the space's being seen as fund and an important tourist attraction.
Article
El trabajo analiza los procesos por los cuales el cerro San Bernardo (Salta) deviene un punto de observación turística (atendiendo a acondicionamientos materiales, imágenes y prácticas). Para ello se relevó y sistematizó información respecto de la promoción del cerro como punto de observación (y de la ciudad como atractivo); se procedió a la observación y registro de las actividades de los turistas en su cima; y se llevaron adelante entrevistas con actores del sector público y privado vinculados con el turismo en la ciudad. Se concluye que las formas de apreciación visual desde la cima recuperan algunos usos ya instalados en el turismo respecto de qué hacer y cómo en localizaciones en altura (miradores), al tiempo que se señala la necesidad de pensar estos ámbitos y las prácticas de observación en el conjunto de actividades que definen la visita a estos lugares.
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This paper aims to conceptualize the pilgrimage and tourism relationship in the contemporary world. As the boundaries between pilgrimage and tourism have become blurred, there is a need to find a more holistic way to understand the nuances of the pilgrimage-tourism relationship. This conceptual paper argues that pilgrimage offers a stage for rejuvenation in the contemporary era. In the 21st Century, the concept of pilgrimage travel has re-emerged in tourism with a new identity that goes beyond the idea of pilgrimage as a journey to a sacred place. Building on this recognition, this paper provides a conceptual framework that emphasizes the linkages between pilgrimage and contemporary tourism using three core elements: meaning, ritual, and transformation. This framework allows broader interpretations of pilgrimage travel in different phenomena of tourism in the contemporary era.
Thesis
O trabalho almeja propor uma reflexão sobre a construção e a manutenção da alteridade na cidade brasileira do Rio de Janeiro. Para isso, nos concentramos sobre os casos de imigrantes internacionais (europeus e africanos) que residem dentro de um espaço caraterístico: a favela. Traçamos primeiramente uma gênese das categorias usadas, recorrendo a uma abordagem sociohistórica. Enquanto ao trabalho etnográfico, nos concentramos sobre dois assentamentos: a Vila do Pinheiro, uma localidade do conjunto de favelas da Maré, na zona Norte da cidade; e o morro Pereira da Silva, em Laranjeiras, na zona Sul. Procuramos com isso identificar as implicações sociais desvendadas pela presença de dois grupos específicos de estrangeiros no seio de um espaço (a favela) que permanece considerado como estranho à própria cidade moderna. A observação de estrangeiros em tal âmbito urbano - historicamente marginalizado, embora ligado ao resto da cidade por múltiplos elos - permite lançar um olhar novo sobre as questões habituais de diferenciação urbana; isso em relação às lógicas de exclusão e de estigmatização, bem como às dinâmicas cosmopolitas e de fluidificação das relações mercantis. Tentamos assim captar e abranger um emaranhamento de temas sociais que têm em comum as ideias de pertencimento, de separação e de alteridade. Os resultados da observação empírica são mobilizados para destacar algumas questões consideradas como significativas, situadas na intersecção de conflitos simbólicos e políticos que podem entrar em ressonância com a história social nacional e algumas dinâmicas em curso em um plano mais global.
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La tesis propone comprender el proceso de génesis y desarrollo del campo de los estudios turísticos tomando como referencia el caso argentino dentro del contexto latinoamericano. En este sentido, condensa una serie de decisiones teórico-metodológicas en tres niveles analíticos. El primero está referido a la reconstrucción genealógica en articulación con los principales aportantes disciplinares: geografía, economía y antropología del turismo. En segundo lugar, se analiza la creciente autonomía del campo dentro del contexto latinoamericano. De tal modo, se incorpora la dimensión del poder y se articulan distintas problemáticas históricas a partir del diseño de matrices analíticas. Finalmente, en el tercero se recupera el proceso de institucionalización y profesionalización del turismo en Argentina, así como las características que asume en el sistema científico contemporáneo. En este sentido, con un abordaje pluralista desde el punto de vista metodológico así como interconectado en virtud de las coordenadas temporales y espaciales desplegadas, se reflexiona sobre el carácter rizomático y desigual que adquiere el campo. De este modo, la tesis se presenta como una contribución teóricapráctica en un marco de escasez de reflexividad disciplinar, no solo por problematizar los presupuestos de cientificidad sino, también, por reflexionar sobre una sociología de los productores y las producciones.
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Identifying the behavioral patterns of applicants and suppliers of tourism products in different destinations is considered as one of the most important marketing tools. Therefore, This study sought to develop a model for investigating the supply and demand behavior in tourism based on the developments made in the capitalist system. Accordingly, to identify and classify the factors regarding the behavioral changes in the supply and demand system within the tourism industry with regard to the capitalist system's developments, the relevant literature was systematically reviewed using the meta-synthesis approach. The statistical population of the study comprised all studies published in reliable scientific databases related to this study's topic. The findings of the study indicated that the supply and demand behavior in the tourism industry has changed in line with the developments made in the capitalist system from Fordism to Post-Fordism. Accordingly, behavioral changes in the tourism demand can be defined based on three components, namely planning, tourism products, and features. Also, the behavioral changes of tourism supply can be defined based on four components including the economy, planning, tourism products, structure, and function. This study prepared the ground for identifying the behavioral pattern of supply and demand in tourism by measuring and evaluating the behavioral model of supply and demand in tourism based on the capitalist system's developments, directing the development of tourism in different regions.
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