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Evaluation of the yield and some components in the fruit of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea var. edulis Turcz. Freyn.)


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The experiment was carried out in the Garlica Murowana Experimental Station of University of Agriculture in Krakow, Poland, between 2005 and 2008. Fruit yield, mass of 100 berries, content of total soluble solids, vitamin C, anthocyanins and titratable acidity were estimated. It was shown that ‘Atut’ honeysuckle started vegetation, flowering and cropping periods earlier than ‘Duet’. However, greater marketable yield and mass of 100 berries were obtained for ‘Duet’. ‘Atut’ fruit revealed a significantly higher content of anthocyanins. The studied honeysuckle cultivars did not differ if estimated on the basis of total soluble solids and vitamin C content in the fruit.
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Published by the Polish Society
for Horticultural Science since 1989
Folia Horticulturae Ann. 22/1 (2010): 45-50
The experiment was carried out in the Garlica Murowana Experimental Station of University of Agriculture in Krakow,
Poland, between 2005 and 2008. Fruit yield, mass of 100 berries, content of total soluble solids, vitamin C, anthocyanins
and titratable acidity were estimated. It was shown that ‘Atut’ honeysuckle started vegetation, owering and cropping
periods earlier than ‘Duet’. However, greater marketable yield and mass of 100 berries were obtained for ‘Duet’. ‘Atut’
fruit revealed a signicantly higher content of anthocyanins. The studied honeysuckle cultivars did not differ if estimated
on the basis of total soluble solids and vitamin C content in the fruit.
Key words: mass of berries, anthocyanins, vitamin C
Evaluation of the yield and some components in the fruit
of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea var. edulis Turcz. Freyn.)
Monika Małodobry, Monika Bieniasz, Ewa Dziedzic
Department of Pomology and Apiculture
Faculty of Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Krakow
29 Listopada 54, 31-425 Kraków, Poland
A growing interest has been observed in cultivation and
breeding of blue honeysuckle - Lonicera caerulea var.
edulis Turcz. Freyn. The majority of Lonicera species
have inedible or even poisonous fruit. The plants bearing
edible fruit belong to the caerulea Red. section. There
are many differing opinions on the number of species
belonging to the Lonicera genus and subgenus caerulea
(Plekhanova and Rostova 1994, Marková 2001).
According to Solovyeva and Plekhanova (2003), the
diploid and tetraploid forms of L. edulis are distinct
karyotypes while the 2× and 4× races of the same species
are not.
The bushes of that species have been cultivated since
1950. Wild material has been collected from Russia,
Japan and China and it is now preserved at the United
States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research
Service, National Clonal Germplasm Repository
in Corvallis, Oregon (Hummer 2006). Thompson
introduced the Japanese selections to the U.S. in 2000
and is carrying out an outstanding breeding programme
in Corvallis (Thompson and Chaovanalikit 2003). More
recently, breeding work is also being carried out by Bors
(2009) at the University of Saskatchewan in Canada.
Many experiments with honeysuckle are being carried
out in the Czech and Slovak Republics (Antaliková et al.
2007) and in Estonia (Arus and Kask 2007).
Blue honeysuckle is a long-living bush, with the
earliest ripening fruit at the end of May. According to
Plekhanova (1996, 2000) the bushes of that species are
tolerant to low temperatures (-45°C), however, other
authors also report that there was no injures of plants
after a winter with frost and temperatures reaching -35°C
(Golis and Gwozdecki 2007). The owers can withstand
temperatures of even -8°C and were not injured by low
temperature during owering. The dark purple fruit esh
is aromatic, juicy, sweet and sour, and their taste resembles
that of bilberry. Sometimes the taste of the fruit is slightly
bitter. The fruit are a valuable crop, mostly owing to
the content of nutritional values (sugars, acids, macro
and microelements) and anthocyanins (Małolepsza and
Urbanek 2000, Kawecki et al. 2001, Lipecki et al. 2003,
Thompson and Chaovanalikit 2003, Zadernowski et al.
2005, Misaki et al. 2006). The fruit extract has the benet
and promising effects of oncostatic therapy. L. caerulea
extract reduced the tumour volume, when administrated
46 Yield and quality of honeysuckle berries
continuously during the tumour growth and development
progress (Gruia et al. 2008). The potential of L. caerulea
berries to prevent chronic diseases such as diabetes
mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer seems to
be related above all to their phenolic content (Svarcova
et al. 2007). The major anthocyanins in L. caerulea
fruit are glucosides and rutinosides like cyanidin,
peonidin, dephinidin and pelargonidin. These berries
seem to be prospective sources of health supporting
phytochemicals that exhibit benecial activities such as
anti-adherence, antioxidant and chemoprotective, thus
they may provide protection against a number of chronic
conditions, e.g. cancer, diabetes mellitus, tumour growth
or cardiovascular diseases (Svarcova et al. 2007). In
Lonicera edulis the ratio of three anthocyanins, cyanidin-
3-glucoside, cyaniding-3,5-diglucoside, and peonidin
– 3,5-diclucoside, is 89:4:7 (Máriássyová et al. 1999).
The aim of the study was to evaluate the fruit yield,
mass of the fruit and chemical composition (total soluble
solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, anthocyanins) of
two honeysuckle cultivars, ‘Atut’ and ‘Duet’.
The bushes of ‘Atut’ and ‘Duet’ were planted in 2003
in the Garlica Murowana Experimental Station of
University of Agriculture in Krakow, Poland. The
experimental station is placed 270 m above sea level
(latitude N = 50°09’, longitude E = 19°55’). Weather
conditions such as mean monthly temperature and total
monthly precipitation during the years 2005-2008 are
given in Table 1.
The bushes were planted at the spacing of 1 × 1 m
in a eld covered with black non-woven mulch. The
randomized block experimental design was used with
ve replicates (four bushes per plot). The plants were
irrigated during drought. The honeysuckle berries were
collected fully ripened in several successive harvests
(fruit were uniformly coloured and softened and they
were easily separated from stalk). The determination of
vitamin C, anthocyanins and total soluble solids content
(TSS), as well as titratable acidity was performed directly
after harvest.
Total soluble solid content was determined by
refractometer measurement (PN–EN 12143:2000),
juice pH (potentiometric measurement according to
PN-90/A-75101/06), titratable acidity according to
PN-EN 12147:2000 expressed as equivalents of citric
acid, L-ascorbic acid content – according to PN-A-
04019:1998, and anthocyanins by differentiated pH
according to Giusti and Wrolstad (2000). The results
obtained were subjected to analysis of variance, and
means separation by Student t test at p = 0.05.
Mean monthly temperature and total monthly
precipitation in 2005-2008 in Garlica Murowana were
placed in Table 1. In spite of the noted low temperature
(-6°C) during the owering period in 2007, no injured
owers were observed (data not presented).
It was found that the number of days calculated from
the beginning of owering to the rst fruit harvest was
nearly the same in each year for both cultivars, and
has changed depending on the year. The earliest fruit
harvests was in 2007 at the end of May (Tab. 2). In
warmer climatic regions fruit harvest may take place
even earlier, i.e. from 15 May, as reported for South
Moravia by Řezniček (2007).
In successive years the length of the cropping periods
was different for the honeysuckle cultivars. The longest
period of fruit harvest was noted in 2006 in the ‘Atut’
cultivar (22 days), while the fruits of ‘Duet’ were collected
for 18 days in 2007 (Fig. 1). In each year, ‘Atut’ began
the vegetation, owering and fruiting period earlier than
‘Duet’. In the north part of the U.S. the beginning of fruit
ripening took place about 18-28 June (Hummer 2006).
Near the region of St. Petersburg, in Russia, fteen
Table 1. Mean monthly temperature and total monthly precipitation in 2005-2008 in the Garlica Murowana Experimental Station
Year Mean monthly temperature (°C)
2005 -0.5 -3.9 0.5 9.1 13.4 15.9 18.8 16.9 14.6 9.0 1.9 -1.2
2006 -8.3 -5.8 0.0 9.1 13.1 16.2 21.0 16.6 15.3 10.1 4.8 2.5
2007 2.8 0.6 5.9 9.3 14.6 18.0 18.3 18.6 11.9 7.2 0.2 -1.5
2008 0.9 2.1 3.5 8.7 13.1 17.7 18.1 18.1 12.3 9.6 4.8 1.0
Total monthly precipitation (mm)
2005 72.2 15.6 18.6 23.3 70.4 66.8 104.8 100.6 21.4 3.0 33.5 74.2
2006 25.9 29.2 58.8 38.0 42.0 84.3 24.6 127.8 48.1 21.3 72.3 16.5
2007 73.4 51.0 61.3 21.4 49.5 63.5 69.4 65.7 294.1 77.2 83.0 23.0
2008 30.0 6.6 55.2 31.2 29.5 14.2 117.4 74.6 68.4 46.8 24.1 32.4
Monika Małodobry, Monika Bieniasz, Ewa Dziedzic 47
cultivars of blue honeysuckle started to ripen in a similar
season of the year, 12-28 June (Plekhanova 2000).
The blue honeysuckle bushes started cropping in
2005. Berries were collected several times because of
successive ripening. The fruit of ‘Atut’ were collected six,
seven, six and six times, whereas the fruit of ‘Duet’ were
collected seven, six, eight and seven times, respectively,
in the years 2005-2008. The marketable yield of ‘Duet’
fruit was higher than that of ‘Atut’ in each year of the
experiment (Tab. 3). The fruit yield of ‘Atut’ calculated
per bush ranged from 0.26 kg (2005) to 0.96 kg (2007),
whereas the fruit yield of ‘Duet’ ranged from 0.34 kg
(2005) to 1.24 kg (2008). Fruit dropping was very low
and amounted to several percent of total fruit yield. In
2008, the fourth season of fruit bearing, fruit yield from
one hectare of honeysuckle plantation ranged from 8 to
12 t ha-1 for ‘Atut’ and ‘Duet’, respectively. According to
several authors, fruit yield from one bush can range from
2 to 6 kg (Plekhanova 2000, Hummer 2006).
Berries of ‘Duet’ were bigger (mass of one berry
varied from 1.6 to 1.9 g), whereas the mass of ‘Atut’
berry hardly achieved 1.06 g (Tab. 3). Fruit mass of other
Table 2. The phenophases of honeysuckle cultivars in 2005-2008
Cultivar Phenophases 2005 2006 2007 2008
Beginning of owering April 19 May 5 April 16 March 31
Beginning of harvesting June 6 June 9 May 26 June 2
Number of days between end of owering
and beginning of harvesting 48 35 40 63
Beginning of owering April 21 May 8 April 19 April 8
Beginning of harvesting June 8 June 13 May 29 June 6
Number of days between end of owering
and beginning of harvesting 48 36 40 59
May June
29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
Figure 1. Period of cropping of two honeysuckle cultivars in 2005-2008 (rst and last harvest)
Table 3. Marketable yield and mass of 100 berries of two honeysuckle cultivars
Marketable yield per plot
Mass of 100 berries
2005 2006 2007 2008 2005 2006 2007 2008
‘Atut’ 1.04 a* 2.31 a 3.85 a 3.24 a 80.0 a 104.6 a 105.1 a 106.0 a
‘Duet’ 1.35 b 2.87 b 4.96 b 4.94 b 160.0 b 190.6 b 187.3 b 168.0 b
*Means followed by the same letters do not differ signicantly at p = 0.05
48 Yield and quality of honeysuckle berries
Polish honeysuckle cultivars range from 0.88 to 1.03 g
(Ochmian and Grajkowski 2007). Some authors reported
that the mass of 100 berries could be slightly lower (0.5
-1.5 g) (Plekhanova 2000, Marková 2001, Hummer 2006),
whereas Thompson and Chaovanalikit (2003) inform
that the mass of one berry may achieve 3 g. According to
Bors (2009), the mass of one berry of Canadian cultivars
varied from 1.4 to 1.6 g, and Russian cultivars from 0.5
to 0.8 g. The berries of fruit mass above 1 g are regarded
to be of dessert value. In this study, the fruit mass from
early and last harvest ‘Atut’ and ‘Duet’ honeysuckle did
not differ (data not published). In addition, Skupień et al.
(2009) reported that berries of the ‘Czarna’ honeysuckle
from the earlier harvests were bigger but less rm.
The total soluble solid (TSS) content in the fruit of
both cultivars was not differentiated in the years of the
study. The level of TSS in ‘Atut’ fruit ranged from 10.3
to 11.6%, whereas in ‘Duet’ fruit, 10.4-11.5% (Tab. 4).
The higher value of juice pH was determinate for ‘Duet’
fruit in each year of the study. The titratable acidity of
‘Atut’ berries was signicantly higher compared to
‘Duet’, and total acid content achieved the value of 2.6 g
100 g-1 (2005) and 3.1 g 100 g-1 (2008). For late-ripening
‘Czarna’ honeysuckle, a similar level of TSS and
titratable acidity was noted (Ochmian and Grajkowski
2007). Plekhanova and Streltsyna (1998) determined
that the titratable acidity of Lonicera fruit ranged from
2.7% to 4.8%.
The honeysuckle fruit was found to be rich in vitamin
C. Only in 2005 the content of vitamin C in ‘Atut’ fruit
signicantly exceeded the content of vitamin C in ‘Duet’
fruit, 44.5 and 36.0 mg 100 g-1, respectively (Tab. 5). In
the successive three years of the study the amounts of
vitamin C in the fruit of the two cultivars did not differ
from one another. Tanaka and Tanaka (1998) found the
content of that compound on a similar level (44.3 mg
100 g-1). According to Hummer (2006), the content of
L-ascorbic acid in the fruit of seven cultivars ranged
from 45 to 83 mg 100 g-1. Meanwhile, Plekhanova and
Streltsyna (1998) showed the great differences in the
content of that vitamin depending on the cultivar (30.5
-103.5 mg 100 g-1). Marková (2001) revealed that vitamin
C content may range from 20 to 170 mg 100 g-1. Ochmian
and Grajkowski (2007) have found much higher levels
of vitamin C (55-106 mg 100 g-1) for Polish cultivars
‘Wojtek’, ‘Zielona’ and ‘Czarna’. Skupień et al. (2007)
have found smaller content of vitamin C (42.7 mg 100
g-1) in ‘Zielona’ honeysuckle fruit. Pauloviscová et al.
(2009) indicated that ascorbic acid content in the edible
honeysuckles is predominantly inuenced by climatic
In the presented study the contents of anthocyanins
in honeysuckle fruit were calculated in terms of cyanidin
3-glucosid (the predominant anthocyanin). Excluding
the rst year of the study, the anthocyanin content in
‘Atut’ berries was signicantly higher than in ‘Duet’ fruit
(Tab. 5). The highest amount of those pigments (235.4
mg 100 g-1) was determined in ‘Atut’ fruit in 2006. The
chemical analysis carried out six months later revealed
an increase of about 30% in the content of anthocyanins
(data not published). Matuškovič et al. (2009) found
a correlation between anthocyanins and ascorbic acid
content in honeysuckle fruit; this type of correlation
was year-dependant. These authors reported a high
level of vitamin C and anthocyanins within Lonicera
kamtschatica and their 22 clones (56.1 and 1221 mg
100 g-1, respectively). Oszmiański et al. (1995), using
HPLC, identied four anthocyanins in Lonicera
kamtschatica fruit: the cyanidin derivatives as 3-glucoside,
3-rutinoside, 3.5-diglucoside and malvidin 3-glucoside.
The major pigment, cyanidin 3-glucoside, accounted for
91% of the total pigment (332.4 mg%) content. Skupień
Table 4. Total soluble solids and titratable acidity of honeysuckle fruit
Total soluble solids
(%) Juice pH Titratable acidity
(g 100 g-1)
2005 2006 2007 2008 2005 2006 2007 2008 2005 2006 2007 2008
‘Atut’ 11.6 a* 11.1 a 10.7 a 10.3 a 3.4 a 3.2 a 3.2 a 3.2 a 2.6 b 3.0 b 2.7 b 3.1 b
‘Duet’ 11.5 a 11.3 a 10.5 a 10.4 a 3.8 b 3.4 b 3.4 b 3.4 b 1.8 a 2.1 a 1.8 a 2.2 a
*Explanations: see Table 3
Table 5. Vitamin C and anthocyanin content in the honeysuckle fruit of ‘Atut’ and ‘Duet’
Vitamin C
(mg 100 g-1 )
(mg 100 g-1)
2005 2006 2007 2008 2005 2006 2007 2008
‘Atut’ 44.5 b* 35.9 a 34.3 a 35.6 a 202.0 a 235.4 b 135.4 b 136.8 b
‘Duet’ 36.0 a 34.0 a 41.8 a 31.9 a 206.0 a 126.1 a 96.3 a 105.2 a
*Explanations: see Table 3
Monika Małodobry, Monika Bieniasz, Ewa Dziedzic 49
et al. (2009) reported that the late ripening berries of the
‘Czarna’ cultivar and seedling ‘N’ showed an enhanced
level of soluble solids and total polyphenols accompanied
by a decrease of titratable acidity and L-ascorbic acid
content. The blue honeysuckle fruit of the ‘Zielona’
cultivar showed a high amount of total acid (2.98 g 100
g-1) and low total sugar content (4.64 g 100 g-1). Skupień
et al. (2007) identied anthocyanins as the predominating
group (84.5%) among phenolic compounds in ‘Zielona’
fruit at the level of 269.8 mg 100 g-1. Most researchers
reported high content of anthocyanins in honeysuckle
fruit (in mg 100 g-1): 900-1400 (Marková 2001), 116-339
(Thompson and Chaovanlikit 2003), 690 (Lipecki et al.
2003), 321 (Frejnagel 2007), and 750-950 (Deineka et al.
2005). Hummer (2006) indicated the anthocyanin content
for three cultivars (in mg 100 g-1): 122 for ‘Magadan’,
172.5 for ‘Sinajaptica’ and 338.3 for ‘Zamitsa’.
Chaovanalikit et al. (2004) detected six anthocyanin in
Lonicera fruit. Bąkowska-Barczak et al. (2007) revealed
the presence of cyanidin 3-glucosid at the level of 1081
mg 100 g-1, but Paulovicsová et al. (2009) reported very
low content of anthocyanins in Lonicera kamtschatica
1. Upon the beginning of owering and harvesting,
‘Atut’ honeysuckle can be regarded as an earlier
cultivar than ‘Duet’.
2. A higher marketable yield and mass of berries was
noted for the ‘Duet’ cultivar compared to the ‘Atut’
3. The fruit of ‘Atut’ contained higher amount of
anthocyanins comparing to the ‘Duet’ cultivar,
whereas the vitamin C and total soluble solid contents
were at a similar level in fruit of both honeysuckle
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Streszczenie : Doświadczenie prowadzono w latach
2005-2008 w Stacji Doświadczalnej Uniwersytetu
Rolniczego w Krakowie, w Garlicy Murowanej. Oceniano
plon, masę 100 jagód oraz zawartość w owocach kwasu
askorbinowego, ekstraktu, antocyjanów, a także pH oraz
kwasowość ogólną soku owoców. Wykazano, że odmiana
‘Atut’ wcześniej rozpoczynała wegetację, kwitnienie
i owocowanie w porównaniu z odmianą ‘Duet’.
Odmiana ‘Duet’ odznaczała się większym plonem
handlowym i masą 100 jagód. W owocach odmiany
‘Atut’ wykazano większą zawartość antocyjanów,
natomiast nie stwierdzono różnic w zawartości ekstraktu
oraz witaminy C w owocach obu odmian.
Received December 14, 2009; accepted July 22, 2010
... Nevertheless, their TMAC values were manifold times higher; for example, 87.5 g COG kg −1 in 2014 (more sunshine) and 29.0 g COG kg −1 in 2016 (more precipitation) in Morena berries if compared with the established values of 4.21 and 2.58 g COG kg −1 in Morena from Lednice and Žabčice, respectively. Furthermore, a smaller content of TMAC in berries harvested in Poland in 2005-2008 was monitored in an opposite trend than in this study-the highest TMAC content of 2.04 g COG kg −1 and 1.81 g COG kg −1 was reported in berries harvested in 2005 and 2006, the years with the high amount of precipitation, in contrast to 1.16 g COG kg −1 and 1.21 g COG kg −1 in berries harvested in 2007 and 2008, the years with a low precipitation level [32]. These divergences are remarkable since anthocyanins are synthesized via the phenylpropanoid pathway requiring a light stimulation of many enzymes and transcription factors which leads to higher anthocyanin contents [23,29]. ...
... g kg −1 in berries from Canada [31] and 0.34-0.41 g kg −1 in berries from Poland [32]; in both cases depending on the cultivar with the unconvincing effect of the climatic conditions. Similarly, low content of vitamin C was detected in berries grown in Portugal in the amount of 0.25 g kg −1 fw [4], as well as in berries from Poland ranging between 0.03-0.32 ...
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Honeysuckles are frost tolerant plants providing early-ripening fruits with health-promoting properties which have been used in traditional medicine in China. This study evaluates the impact of the climatic conditions of two areas on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity (AOA; by DPPH—2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and photochemiluminescence assays) of eight cultivars of honeysuckle berries (Lonicera caerulea L. var. kamtschatica Pojark) of various ripening times. Expectedly, chemical composition and AOA values varied depending on the cultivars, locality and selected methods. Berries from Lednice (the area with more sunshine) showed higher average contents of total monomeric anthocyanins (TMAC; pH differential absorbance method), vitamins C and E and total phenolics (high-performance liquid chromatography). In contrast, berries from Žabčice (the area with more rain) performed higher average contents of total phenolics and flavonoids (UV/VIS spectroscopic analyses). Interestingly, fundamental amounts of chlorogenic acid were determined irrespective of the locality. Regarding TMAC and vitamin C content, early ripening Amphora from both areas has been assessed as the best cultivar; concerning the content of phenolic compounds, Fialka from both areas and Amphora from Lednice is considered as the most valuable. The obtained results may facilitate the selection of the most valuable cultivars for both producers and consumers.
... The average TAC expressed in cyanidin-3-glucoside (the predominant anthocyanin) equivalent was 317.6 ± 5.0 mg/100 g (Table 3). A lower amount of these pigments expressed through cyanidin-3-glucoside (235.4 mg/100 g) was reported from Poland [5]. From the study in Canada, it was found that TAC varied between 70 and 314 mg/100 g FW expressed in cyanidin-3-O-glucoside equivalents [28]. ...
... mg/g DM [9]. Another study reported that ascorbic acid contents in berries of blue honeysuckle varied from 31.9 to 44.5 mg/100 g depending on cultivar and year [5], which coincides with the results obtained by our study. Meanwhile, Plekhanova and Streltsyna reported some bigger differences in the contents of ascorbic acid, falling into a range of 30.5-103.5 mg/100 g [32]. ...
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The aim of the study was to evaluate 11 cultivars of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) for bioactive compounds, antioxidant capacity, and the antibacterial activity of berries. Total phenolic contents (TPCs) and total anthocyanin contents (TACs) were established by using ethanolic extracts. For contents of organic acids and saccharides, aqueous extracts were used, and vitamin C was determined by using oxalic acid solution. DPPH• radical scavenging capacity was evaluated by using ethanolic extracts; antibacterial activity was assessed by using both ethanolic and aqueous extracts. The TPC varied from 364.02 ± 0.41 mg/100 g in ‘Vostorg’ to 784.5 ± 0.3 mg/100 g in ‘Obilnaja’, and TAC ranged from 277.8 ± 1.1 mg/100 g in ‘Čelnočnaja’ to 394.1 ± 8.4 mg/100 g in ‘Nimfa’. Anthocyanins comprised 53.8% of total phenolic contents on average. Among organic acids, citric acid was predominant, averaging 769.41 ± 5.34 mg/100 g, with malic and quinic acids amounting to 289.90 ± 2.64 and 45.00 ± 0.37 mg/100 g on average, respectively. Contents of vitamin C were 34.26 ± 0.25 mg/100 g on average. Organic acids were most effective in the inhibition of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. In conclusion, berries of L. caerulea are beneficial not only for fresh consumption, but also as a raw material or ingredients of foods with high health-promoting value.
... Farmers, breeders, and scientists have been showing an increased interest in investigating the biological diversity of various genotypes of blue honeysuckle. This is due to its many desired and unique traits, including tolerance to low temperatures (even below -40°C), different sizes, shapes, colors, and weight of fruits, ease of processing, and above all, the high content of macro-and microelements, flavonoids, phenolic acids, ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and other active substances (Frejnagel 2007;Małodobry et al. 2010;Sochor et al. 2014;Ochmian et al. 2013). ...
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Due to its value and economic importance, the genome of Lonicera caerulea L. has been widely studied in various fields of science. In this study the genetic structure and relationships between 24 accessions of L. caerulea of different origins were assessed. A total of 692, 814, and 258 loci were amplified using 43 RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA), 40 ISSR (intersimple sequence repeat), and 20 R-ISSR (RAPD+ISSR) primers, respectively. Among the amplified loci, 66-78% were polymorphic and 12-20% were private. Selected R-ISSR sequences were detected in Lonicera japonica transcripts. Cluster and STRUCTURE analyses performed for each of the techniques revealed the existing differences and unknown similarities between the genotypes. The r-factor values calculated in the Mantel test indicated highly significant positive correlations between the Nei distance matrices, similar to the FST values (FST_RAPD=0.223, FST_ISSR=0.279, FST_R-ISSR=0.363) determined in the analysis of molecular variance. It was found that 78%, 72%, and 64% of the genetic variations were related to the differences observed within the populations, which suggest that the variations are mainly reflected in the differences among the genotypes. The principal coordinate analysis showed greater differences between the mean distances of the Lonicera genotype pair and the actual distances of the same pairs on the Nei matrix compared to multidimensional scaling. These differences were 45%, 56%, and 42% higher for RAPD, ISSR and R-ISSR, respectively.
... Numerous studies are underway in European countries, such as Czech Republic (Antalikova and Matuskovic, 2006), Estonia (Arus and Kask, 2007), Poland (Dziedzic, 2008;Małodobry et al., 2010;Smolik et al., 2010;Ochmian et al., 2012;Kaczmarska et al., 2014), Slovakia (Jurikova et al., 2012a), Romania (Truta et al., 2013), Lithuania (Naugzemys et al., 2014). ...
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It is known that a polymorphic population consisting of a large number of genotypes adapts more rapidly to the environment conditions. The availability of a large gene pool predetermines the success of the introduction and further breeding of new cultivars with economically valuable features. Morphometrics is a classical tool for studying the amplitude of the variability of cultivated plants and evaluating the genotypic diversity of the artificial population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphological parameters of Lonicera caerulea L. fruits for 26 genotypes from the population introduced in the M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden (Kyiv). Morphological characteristics (weight, width, and length) were analyzed in L. caerulea fruits using multivariate analysis. Evaluated morphometric parameters were the following: fruit weight from 0.73 to 1.60 g, fruit length from 16.42 to 27.29 mm, fruit diameter from 7.77 to 12.34 mm. The shape indexes of fruits varied from 1.51 to 3.52. The fruit weight (14.09%–34.50%) and fruit diameter (6.68%–22.76%) are the most valuable characteristics important for further selection. According to their three properties, the 26 genotypes of L. caerulea grouped into two groups and five subgroups. Using the PC analysis (PC1 = 71.60%, PC2 = 25.16%, and PC3 = 3.23%), L. caerulea genotypes were separated into groups with similar morphological parameters.
... The genus Lonicera L. (Caprifoliaceae Juss.) (haskap or honeysuckle) includes a large number of plant species occurring in the Northern hemisphere from temperate to subarctic climate zones [1]. The cultivation of honeysuckle is carried out in several countries, including Poland, Estonia, Romania, but the leaders are Russia and Canada [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. Breeding programs often concern cultivar selection in terms of such traits as fruit production, fruit size, low fruit shedding tendency, no bitterness, taste, sugar-acid ratio or resistance to gray mould [10][11][12][13]. ...
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BACKGROUND: Haskap (Lonicera L.) is as a new perspective berry species for growing in temperate region climate. According to nowadays knowledge haskap is absolutely self-sterile species hence the studies on pollination mode are required. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate new haskap cultivars of Canadian and Russian origin in terms of their matching for cross-pollination. METHODS: The overlapping of flowering time of cultivars for mutual cross pollination was selected. The effectiveness of pollination was assessed: in terms of pollen tube overgrowth through the pistil tissue and the quality of set fruit. RESULTS: The Russian cultivars bloomed much earlier than the Canadian cultivars. The stigma is most receptive in the freshly open flower stage and directly after the anther burst. The minimum qualitatively acceptable weight of a berry is 1 g, which corresponds to the formation of about 6 seeds in the fruit. The most compatible pairs of cultivars were: ‘Aurora’בJugana’, ‘Aurora’בSinij Utes’ and ‘Aurora’בVostorg’. CONCLUSION: The Russian cultivars bloomed much earlier than the Canadian cultivars, the stigma is most receptive in the freshly open flower, minimum qualitatively acceptable weight of berry is 1 g (what represents 6 seeds in fruit), best mutual pollinating cultivars are the cultivars within the same breeding group (Russian x Russian and Canadian x Canadian)
В тексте приведены данные исследовательской работы, проведенной с целью изучения влияния биопрепаратов «Agro-MIX», «Agrarka» и Эпин на физиологический рост видов Pinus sylvestris L., Lonicera edulis L. и Rubus idaeus L. Исследования проводились в лесном питомнике расположенного в городе Щучинске Бурабайского района Акмолинской области. В 2022 году посадку и посев проводили со второй половины мая. Для исследования были взяты следующие концентрации водного раствора препарата: аgro-mix - 2%, 6% и 10%; аgrarka - 0,5%, 1,5% и 2,5%; эпин - 0,1%, 0,2% и 0,3%. Сеянцы и саженцы обработанные водой, служили контролем. В этом году собирали и обрабатывали данные физиологических, фенологических, биохимических и почвенных методов в течение всего вегетационного периода. По динамике всхожести проростков после обработки семян P.sylvestris растворами биопрепаратов: наибольшая энергия прорастания зафиксировано вобразцах обработанные с биопрепаратом Agrarka 2,5 % - 67,8 и наибольшая всхожесть Agrarka 2,5 % - 91,2 %, наибольшая всхожесть Agro-MIX 0,5 % - 3,75± 0,45 см, а самый длинный корень 10,6±1,05 см – зафиксировано в образцах, обработанных Agrarkа 10%. Данные с тестовых полей собираются каждую неделю в течение сезона, проводились методы наблюдения, измерения, расчета и т.д. Обработку статистических данных проводили с помощью пакета программ Microsoft Excel 2010, SPSS, STATISTICA 13, SNEDECOR.
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Lonicera caerulea L. and its subspecies Lonicera caerulea subsp. edulis (Turcz. ex Freyn) Hulten and Lonicera caerulea subsp. altaica Pall. belong to the genus Lonicera L. family Caprifoliaceae Juss., they are valuable fruit plants that are used in medicine, food industry, agriculture. The value of these species lies in the early ripening of fruits and a high content of vitamin C and other biologically active compounds. The aim of the study was the qualitative and quantitative determination of the main groups of biologically active substances – organic acids and tannins, in the fruits of three species of the genus Lonicera from the collection of the South Ural Botanical Garden-Institute and the selection of the most promising species. For analysis, honeysuckle fruits were collected in the full ripening phase and dried to an air-dry state. Phytochemical studies were carried out according to generally accepted methods. As a result of the study, it was found that all the studied honeysuckle samples contain citric, malic, succinic, oxalic, ascorbic acids, and tartaric acid in Lonicera caerulea subsp. edulis. According to the quantitative content of ascorbic acid and the sum of organic acids, a species is distinguished in Lonicera caerulea subsp. edulis, whose fruits contain 174 and 1723 mg/100 g respectively, and in Lonicera caerulea subsp. altaica and Lonicera caerulea their content is below. The analysis of fruits for the content of tannins showed, that they are dominated by substances of condensed nature, which are based on catechism, and in a larger amount they accumulate in Lonicera caerulea – 426 mg/100 g in a smaller amount – in Lonicera caerulea subsp. edulis – 171 mg/100 g. The obtained data allow us to recommend the studied species of the genus Lonicera as a promising source of raw materials for the creation of medicinal plant products based on them, enriched with vitamins and other valuable biologically active substances on their basis.
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Anthocyanins is a natural edible pigment with many health benefits. The aim of this work was the identification of anthocyanins present in Aronia melanocarpa using mass spectrometric features. The anthocyanins of the A. melanocarpa were analyzed by UV-Vis, HPLC-DAD and LC-EIS/MS methods. The four important anthocyanins were identified as follows: cyanidin-3-galactoside (68.68%), cyanidin-3-arabinoside (25.62%), cyanidin-3-glucoside (5.28%) and cyanidin-3-xyloside (0.42%). Among the four anthocyanin monomers, three anthocyanins with the highest content of A. melanocarpa were selected, and the antioxidant activity was studied with the total anthocyanins. The antioxidant capacity was cyanidin-3-galactoside > total anthocyanin > cyanidin-3-arabinoside > cyanidin-3-glucoside. The activity of the four anthocyanin samples was greater than ascorbic acid. The methodology described in this study will provide an effective tool for anthocyanins identification. Our results suggested that anthocyanins from A. melanocarpa exhibited effective antioxidant activity. These findings may be crucial in future research concerning chokeberry based functional food products.
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Haskap ( Lonicera caerulea ), also known as honeyberry, is a relatively new fruit crop in North America. To date, most academic activity and research in North America involving haskap has focused on cultivar development and health benefits, with relatively few field experiments providing information to guide field planning and harvest management for the recently released cultivars. In 2020, we documented preharvest fruit drop (PHFD) rates for 15 haskap cultivars planted in a randomized block design at our research center in western Montana with the aim of preliminarily determining whether certain cultivars may be prone to this phenomenon. Additionally, we evaluated two plant growth regulators (PGRs) to reduce PHFD in two cultivars previously observed to have high rates of PHFD. Results suggest cultivar-specific variations in PHFD near berry maturation. Because haskap harvest indices are not well-defined and may be cultivar-specific, we share our 1-year study results as preliminary information and as a call for further research. Cultivars Aurora, Boreal Blizzard, Borealis, Indigo Gem, Kapu, and Tana all had PHFD rates less than 12% of yield, where yield is the weight of berries lost to PHFD plus marketable yield and marketable yield is fruit remaining on the shrub at harvest. Cultivars Chito, Kawai, and Taka had the highest rates of PHFD, although marketable yields were still relatively high, especially for Kawai. We note that ease of fruit detachment is an important consideration in mechanical harvest, and this characteristic could be advantageous if managed appropriately. The PGRs evaluated (1-napthaleneacetic acid and aminoethoxyvinylglycine) did not influence PHFD rates; however, our study was limited by the sample size and by the lack of information regarding haskap abscission physiology. In summary, the haskap cultivars evaluated exhibited variable PHFD rates in the year of the study, and further research is needed to understand haskap fruit maturation, harvest indices, and abscission.
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The aim of this work was to assess the regeneration capacity of Amelanchier alnifolia var. cusickii and Lonicera kamtschatica cv. ‘Jugana’ from different types of explants under various hormonal treatments. The whole leaves, petioles, and internodal segments of in vitro plants were examined as explants. Several plant growth regulators (cytokinins and auxins) were evaluated for their ability to induce adventitious regeneration. Direct and indirect organogenesis was achieved under certain culture conditions in both species. The frequency of shoot regeneration was strongly dependent on concentrations of plant growth regulators in the induction media (L.kamtschatica ‘Jugana’) or concentrations of plant growth regulators in the induction media and type of explant (A. alnifolia var. cusickii). Results showed that leaves were not suitable explants for A. alnifolia var. cusickii. Both species were able to regenerate shoots from internodal segments and petioles. The highest induction of shoots was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium enriched with 2 mg/L thidiazuron (TDZ) and 0.5 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for Amelanchier alnifolia and with 1 mg/L TDZ and 0.2 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) for L. kamtschatica ‘Jugana’. Obtained adventitious shoots were further proliferated in order to investigate their multiplication capacity. The multiplication of shoots was successful in all cultivars, with the best results reported in A. alnifolia var. cusickii (7.07 shoots/explant on average).
Cultivars of blue honeysuckle, Lonicera caerulea L., have been recently introduced into North America from Russia. In addition, wild material has been collected from Russia, Japan and China and is now preserved at the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Corvallis, Oregon. Blue honeysuckle has potential as a commercial berry crop for northern latitudes. Russian cultivars were released in the 1980's and 1990's and are now available in North America. These cultivars bloom and ripen early in the season, and can yield between 2 and 3 kg/plant. The berry shape is similar to an elongated or cylindrical blueberry and the fruit flavor ranges from tart sugar/acid to bland. The fruit varies from about 1 to 2 g/berry, has high Vitamin C levels, and high antioxidant content. This crop could provide an additional opportunity for small fruit growers in high latitudes and colder climates to diversify their production for high-end specialty crop markets.
For the first time blue honeysuckle was mentioned as a horticultural plant in 1894. By 1998 the number of commercial cultivars in Russia has reached 60. This crop spread widely in private and commercial gardens of Northern and Central Russia, in the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. Major positive features of blue honeysuckle are extra-early ripening, high content of ascorbic acid and bioactive flavonoides in fruits, and outstanding frost resistance of plants and flowers. Collecting missions by the N.I.Vavilov Research Institute of Plant Industry (VIR) have composed a unique collection numbering over 500 accessions. By morphological, anatomical, biochemical and DNA analyses, as well as ploidy studies and geographical mapping of blue honeysuckle genetic resources, it has been found that in Eurasia genetic diversity of the crop is represented by four species, that are the diploid endemic ones L. edulis Turcz. ex Freyn, L. boczkarnikowae Plekh., L. iliensis Pojark and the tetraploid L. caerulea L. Only L. caerulea has been domesticated. A long-term program for honeysuckle breeding and corresponding methods have been developed. Priorities of the program are as follows: high productivity, deep dormancy, fruit quality, high content of ascorbic acid and bioactive flavonoides. As a result of investigations, genetical control of ripening, non-shattering and fruit size have been elucidated. The VIR's collection has been successfully screened for the sources of 18 valuable breeding characters. By now, 15 cultivars have been bred at VIR.
Hasukappu (Lonicera caerulea L.), belonging to Caprifoliaceae, is perennial shrub and is naturally distributed in Hokkaido, Sakhalin and Siberia. Since 1973, it has been cultivated in Hokkaido. In order to develop processed food for Hasukappu, the chemical composition and characteristics, ie., Brix, pH and a berry weight, of three strains and two samples on the market in Hokkaido were investigated. The berries contained calcium (38.4 mg/100g), iron (0.61 mg/100g), vitamin C (44.3 mg/100g), cr-tocopherol (1.07 mg/100g) and dietary fiber (2.15 g/100g), The berries contained much more of those components than any other berries and fruits. Vitamin C was stable during frozen storage over a period of a year. Citric acid was the major organic acid, and the total amount of organic acids was 2.92 g/100g. The average pH and weight of a berry were 2.77 and 0.9g, respectively. Positive correlations between ash and potassium, and ash and magnesium were recognized on dry matter bases.