It has been established that carrying a pregnancy to full-term at an early age can protect against contracting cancer by up to 50% in later life. The trophoblast theory of cancer states that trophoblast and cancer tissue are very similar. New findings suggest that the loss of fetal cells during pregnancy resemble those cells responsible for causing metastasis in cancer. Fetal cells and spreading cancer cells are highly proliferative. They are similar to stem cells, exhibiting no or low hormone receptor expression, and require a hormone receptor independent mechanism for control. Control of membrane stability during pregnancy is of vital importance for a successful pregnancy and is mediated by androstenediol and 2-methoxyestradiol. 2-Methoxyestradiol has no hormone receptor affinity and elicits strong anticancer effects particularly against cancer stem cells and fetal cells, for which currently no treatment has yet been established. There is a discussion whether pregnancy reduces cancer stem cells in the breast. Soy isoflavones are structurally similar to both hormones, and elicit strong anticancer effects and antiangiogenesis via inhibition of NF-κB, even in hormone receptor independent breast cancers seen in epidemiologic studies. The trophoblast theory of cancer could help to explain why soy baby nutrition formulas have no effect on baby physiology, other than the nutritional aspect, although soy elicits many effects on the adult immune system. To survive the immune system of the mother, the immune system of the fetus has to be separated; otherwise, the reduction of the immune system in the mother, a necessary feature for the blastocyst to grow, would immediately reduce the immunity for the fetus and endanger its survival. Similar to a fetus, newly born babies show immune insensitive to Th1 and Th2 cytokines, which are necessary and crucial for regulating the immune system of the mother, thus raising the risk of the baby of developing allergies and neurodermatitis. Gene expression studies in vitro as well as in circulating tumor cells from patients consuming a fermented soy product support the antiangiogenic as well as antiproliferative effects of soy.