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The Importance of Convenience in Consumer Purchasing

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Abstract

Both commodity and convenience costs influence consumer patronage. One key to understanding shopping behavior is the increased importance consumers are attaching to convenience considerations. The trend toward higher consumer valuations of ten convenience forms is identified. Four aspects of place convenience are analyzed. The planned shopping-center movement and other related adjustments in the metropolitan retail structure are discussed, as well as the possible effects of the higher consumer assessment of convenience considerations.

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... In a resulting exertion, a substance investigation led by Berry et al. [3] included that the advantages of administration accommodation comprise sparing time as well as exertion, though the weights of burden involve sitting around idly and additionally exertion. In spite of the fact that there are particular contrasts among products and administration comfort in some writing [3], [5] have noticed that all organizations surely offer administration for their clients, so benefit accommodation applies to the two merchandise suppliers and specialist co-ops. Further, Enginkaya [6] presumed that web architecture and its operational flawlessness is of basic significance for meeting the exclusive standards of online buyers, while [7] analyzed people's dependence states of mind towards electronic showcasing and practices. ...
... To approve the reasonable model and the proposed theories, this exploration use an online review for information accumulation in term of its advantages in sparing time and costs for the creator, so to reach quickly countless. The survey was produced dependent on acknowledgment written works of data frameworks contemplates for testing theories, estimated on a five-point Likert scale moored at emphatically deviate (1) and unequivocally concur (5). Interim scaling as a numerical scale was chosen as the most proper to quantify all factors of the examination [15]. ...
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Over the previous decades, the fast development in data and correspondence innovation or in other words information and communication technology (ICT) has prompted the improvement of current methodologies of dispersing merchandise and enterprises in the advanced time. The Internet innovation alongside online shopping is a remarkable marvel quickly used as a shopping stage by online retailers. Electronic online shopping framework in this way is always growing for a long time has replaced customary models. Blasting the online shopping space is raising the consideration of most brokers as an exceptional domain, because of the absence of physical cooperation among venders and clients. Advanced promoting used by organizations and the online shopping patterns has increased substantial dissemination over the world through giving numerous highlights to the customers and organizations. It is critical to have the capacity to react to customer needs in the best and opportune way. In this way, there is a need to distinguish factors that persuade clients and raise their aim towards the utilization of virtual advertising. The fundamental motivation behind the investigation is to set the potential conspicuous components influencing the online shopping system (OSS) utilization inside new model called Technology Acceptance Factors (TAF), which thusly impacts client tendencies toward this innovation. The model was additionally approved and tried inside an example comprise of 825 members picked haphazardly from the general public. The surveys were handled and broke down with the factual program SPSS. The discoveries of the examination uncover that all referred to factors in the proposed model, for example, simplicity to utilize, value, accommodation, mindfulness, trust and security, and nature of the Internet include critical effect inside making a positive climate for boosting the utilization of OSS.
... Convenience has been considered a critical factor in determining consumer purchase decision making, since it involves cost, time, energy and money in obtaining or possessing an intended product or service (Kelly, 1958). Convenience can be in the form of time, place, quantity, selection, credit, packaging, readiness, form, automated operations and combination (Kelly, 1958). ...
... Convenience has been considered a critical factor in determining consumer purchase decision making, since it involves cost, time, energy and money in obtaining or possessing an intended product or service (Kelly, 1958). Convenience can be in the form of time, place, quantity, selection, credit, packaging, readiness, form, automated operations and combination (Kelly, 1958). According to Berry et al. (2002), the perception of a service's convenience affects consumers' overall evaluation of that service. ...
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Waqf creates great benefits not only for the endower but also for the whole society. Endowment of waqf is generally known in terms of porperty but little attention given to endowment of cash waqf. This paper aims to investigate antecedents and consequences of Muslim attitude towards participation in cash waqf in Malaysia. The findings of this paper are based on 386 samples. Descriptive analysis, exploratory factor analysis and regression analysis are used to analyse the data. The results indicate that individual religiosity, trust in awqaf institutions and convenience to endow are antecedents of Muslim attitude towards participation in cash waqf, which consequently leads to individual intention to participate in the practice. The study provides a useful source of information to related parties for instance the waqf institution and Islamic regulatory body in executing effective startegy to promote cash waqf as well as reinforcement of systematic collection procedures that can benefit the community.
... Early definition of convenience denotes that it is an attribute of the product itself that allows the customers to buy it easily from the shelf where the product can be located by the customer in the least amount of time [32] . As argued by [33] , both the cost of the goods and the cost of convenience in obtaining the goods or services will influence the customers purchasing patronage. Thus, this aspect of convenience cost has led [33] to place emphasis on the notion of "place convenience" which deals with the full utilization of space and distance that would lead to the maximization of convenience cost saving. ...
... As argued by [33] , both the cost of the goods and the cost of convenience in obtaining the goods or services will influence the customers purchasing patronage. Thus, this aspect of convenience cost has led [33] to place emphasis on the notion of "place convenience" which deals with the full utilization of space and distance that would lead to the maximization of convenience cost saving. ...
Conference Paper
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Despite the overwhelming prediction of increasing trends for mobile shopping activities among customers based on the advantages provided by the mobile shopping channel, there is an urgent need for the re-assessment on the roles of technology adoption models and theories in explaining the adoption of mobile shopping among customers. Moreover, there is a lack of empirical testing for investigating the influence of the multidimensional convenience construct on customers’ mobile shopping adoption based upon the utilitarian motivations, where convenience is one of the main antecedents for utilitarian-based customers to use a particular shopping channel. The objective of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework that attempts to explain the mobile shopping adoption of customers by focusing on the unique advantages of mobile devices over PC that allows for better online shopping experience for customers. This study will look into the possibility of synthesizing different adoption models (TAM, UTAUT and IDT) and their constructs into a single cohesive theoretical framework that would be able to explain the mobile shopping channel adoption of customers through the unique characteristics that the channel possess over PC-based online shopping. The paper has identified several theories and concepts (Lazy User Theory, utilitarianism and utilitarian shopping motivations) which fit such requirements. Furthermore, this paper will also employ the multidimensional construct of convenience within the framework in order to explain the mobile shopping adoption intention of customers.
... Bottled water however remains the most trusted in terms of quality in Ghana and the sector will continue to grow in response to the growing demands. Price is another major determinant of food and drinking water choices (Darnton 2010;Goulding et al. 2020;Kelley 1958;Li et al. 2019;Qian 2018). Consistent with this, affordability was the most popular reason given by the sachet water group for their preference. ...
... Convenience also plays a major role in consumer choices (Kelley 1958;Pham et al. 2018) and has played an important role in the growth of other sectors in Ghana such a street hawking (Meng et al. 2014). Convenience is also one characteristic of modern times when everything is fast-paced and plays a very important role in marketing. ...
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Single-use plastic waste have become ubiquitous in the natural environment globally. In Ghana, the drinking water sector has become heavily dependent on packaged water in the form of sachet and bottled water. This has resulted in increased generation of single-use plastic waste littered in the natural environment. Waste sachets, though still major a challenge, have received some attention over the years in terms of identifying solutions for sustainable management. On the other hand, limited studies have focused on waste plastic bottles in terms of their generation, disposal and options for sustainable management. This study sought to explore the socio-demographic and attitudinal drivers of bottled water consumption in Ayawaso West Municipal Area located in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. The results showed that increasing income levels, perceptions of hygiene and safety as well as convenience were the main factors driving the patronage of bottled water. Bottled water consumption is expected to continue to rise in coming years in response to rising income levels. Residents showed willingness to engage in waste segregation of their plastics however limited waste collection systems are available to support this. It is important to prioritize the waste plastic bottles in the waste management agenda and offer households waste collection options that will make segregation of waste worthwhile and sustainable.
... Convenience is defined as the time and effort customers use in purchasing a product (Brown 1989;Kelley 1958). The importance of shoppers' perceptions of shopping convenience and its effects on retailer evaluations has long been of interest to consumer behavior researchers (e.g., Kelley 1958;Seiders et al. 2000;Seiders et al. 2005). ...
... Convenience is defined as the time and effort customers use in purchasing a product (Brown 1989;Kelley 1958). The importance of shoppers' perceptions of shopping convenience and its effects on retailer evaluations has long been of interest to consumer behavior researchers (e.g., Kelley 1958;Seiders et al. 2000;Seiders et al. 2005). Retailers understand that it is critical to enhance the convenience of the overall shopping experience, given that convenience is linked to customer satisfaction and intentions to shop the store in the future, as well as the overall attitude toward the shopping experience (e.g., Jih 2007). ...
Article
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There has been widespread use of auto-ID technologies. With the increasing diffusion of smartphones, the potential to serve content to shoppers using auto-ID technologies is starting to receive interest. Using a design science approach, we design and build, theorize about, and compare six shopping assistance artifacts by manipulating the hardware design-barcode scanner versus radio frequency identification (RFID) reader- and content design-product information versus product review versus both. We theorize about how these artifact conditions will compare to a control condition (no shopping assistance artifact available) across three sets of outcomes: technology adoption, security beliefs, and shopping. We tested our propositions in two experiments-wherein the task was varied: general browsing and shopping (n = 227) versus goal-directed shopping (n = 221)-conducted in a retail store laboratory. The RFID reader was most favorably received in terms of technology adoption outcomes and shopping outcomes, although it was most negatively viewed in terms of security beliefs. We also found that the content design conditions (i.e., product information, product reviews, and both) were perceived favorably. In a post hoc analysis, we found a two-way interaction of hardware and content designs such that content fueled by RFID was perceived most favorably in terms of technology adoption and shopping outcomes, whereas it was most negatively viewed in terms of security beliefs. Interestingly, the two-way interaction was most pronounced in the goal-directed shopping condition such that the most positive effects were observed for RFID in combination with both product information and reviews.
... Within the tourism and hospitality context, revisit intention refers to visitors' desire to frequently revisit the same destination/ attraction (Kozak, 2011) and continuously stay in the same accommodation type every visit (Kozak, 2011;Han & Kim, 2010). The physical environment attributes emphasises reducing the non-monetary aspects (price) of goods and services such as time and effort (Kelley, 1958;Kotler & Zaltman, 1971). Hence, a convenience-oriented customer is defined as the one who seeks to accomplish a task in the shortest time with the least expenditure of human energy (Morganosky, 1986:37). ...
Article
Umrah is an optional holy ritual that is highly rewarded when performed in the month of Ramadan. Hence, managing such an event is a challenging mission facing stakeholders. However, limited studies have examined the quality of services provided in the Umrah site (i.e., the Holy Mosque in the city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia) from the pilgrims’ perspective. The current study examines the influence of religious servicescape on service convenience and investigates whether service convenience matters to pilgrims. Further, the study tests the role of religious attractiveness (i.e., of the Kaaba) on pilgrims’ behavioural outcomes (i.e. intention to revisit and Positive Word of Mouth (PWOM). A Mixed-method approach is followed to collect rich data (i.e., quantitative and qualitative). The findings demonstrate that religious servicescape has a critical impact on service convenience. The results also show that service convenience is also a significant mediator between servicescape and PWOM. However, service convenience does not mediate the relationship between religious servicescape and intention to revisit. Consequently, service convenience in the religious context matters to pilgrims and the service provider. Further, Kaaba attractiveness creates a ‘halo’ effect.
... Convenience is considered to be beneficial for consumers in terms of allowing them to save time and effort related to planning, buying and/or using products (Berry et al., 2002). According to Kelley, (1958), convenience costs include the expenditure of time, money and physical energy required to overcome the obstacles of time and space, so as to obtain possession of a good or service. When consumers consider convenience costs as minimal, they may well decide to proceed to a purchase of a given light good, too. ...
... Clearly, automation of marketing and consumer processes primarily enables value creation through convenience, which is typically a function of customers' perceived investments of time and effort (Kelley, 1958). In this sense, convenience encompasses everything that promotes a state of physical or mental ease (adds comfort) or that simplifies fulfilment of customers' functional needs or instrumental goals (saves work) (Rintamäki, Kanto, Kuusela, & Spence, 2006). ...
Article
Consumers have traditionally made purchase decisions at the store shelf, giving institutional brick-and-mortar retailers great power to learn about and influence behaviors and preferences. With the rise of e-commerce, mobile shopping, and most recently smart technologies, new competitors threaten this long-standing supremacy. Adopting a value-creation perspective, we analyze how digitization started the erosion of institutional retailing as the primary interface to the customer. We develop a framework that identifies five new sources of value creation and propose how these advance and transform competition for this interface. Depending on the importance of the new sources of value creation (in different purchase situations), stationary retailing may prevail as an important interaction point in a multichannel decision journey. However, increasing diffusion of branded-product platforms including connected devices and online retail platforms is shifting this authority to new players. For the parties involved in this multilayered competition, acknowledging the changes and actively managing their position in the evolving ecosystems is crucial.
... Further, consumers are demanding the convenience of self-service retailing systems (Demirkan and Spohrer, 2014), often due to situational factors (Hand et al., 2009). Convenience as a consumer motivation was originally associated with products and consumer ease of use (Berry et al., 2002;Pham et al., 2018), particularly related to product dimensions, shelf life, packaging or design, all of which contributed to reduce time and effort on the part of the consumer (Anderson and Shugan, 1991;Kelley, 1958). Berry et al. (2002) added to this by providing an advanced discussion about the distinction between services and goods in terms of service convenience but, nonetheless, researchers generally agree that time and savings efforts are the major factors that define convenience for the consumer (Anderson and Shugan, 1991;Anderson, 1971;Berry et al., 2002;Brown, 1989). ...
Purpose-It has generally been anticipated that the growth of Internet technology and e-commerce would result in virtual grocery shopping (VGS) becoming a normal way of life for consumers worldwide. However, the adoption of VGS, except in China and other Asian countries, has been quite slow and there is little understanding for this reason. Using Canada as a research context, the purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of consumers towards VGS with a focus on their technological readiness and the impact of the optimisation of consumer learning. Design/methodology/approach-A quantitative research methodology was undertaken using cluster analysis with descriptive statistics to segment the different groups of consumers from a sample of 1,034 adult respondents. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was then used to test a theoretical model for consumers' intention to adopt VGS. Findings-The study found that the attitudes of consumers towards virtual shopping, convenience motivation, perceived ease of use (PEOU), perceived risk and consumer learning are all factors that impact consumers' intention to adopt virtual food shopping. The research also identified four segments of consumers in the Canadian market based on their attitudes and intention to adopt VGS. These results allow grocers to target the consumer groups favourable to VGS and provide insights on the factors that can be manipulated via marketing strategies to reach these consumers. Practical implications-Retailers are provided with insights on consumers behaviour that will allow them to target specific segments with shopping modalities. Originality/value-This research investigated VGS, focussing on consumer learning as a socio-cultural influence as well as the consumer's technological readiness as an intention to adopt to this modality of shopping for food. These constructs have not been investigated by previous studies on food grocery shopping.
... Traditional economic theory indicates that consumers perceive price as an indicator of sacrifice, construed as present costs involved in acquiring a product (Agarwal & Teas, 2001). Higher price represents a monetary measure of what must be given to obtain the deal, that is, the amount of monetary sacrifice involved in purchasing a product Erickson & Johansson, 1985;Grewal et al., 1998;Kelley, 1958;Lichtenstein et al., 1993;Marian, Chrysochou, Krystallis, & Thøgersen, 2014;Schmidt and Spreng, 1996;Teas & Agarwal, 2000;Wood & Scheer, 1996;Zeithaml, 1988). Perceived sacrifice, thus, refers to the feeling towards giving up something, that is, money (Dodds, 1995). ...
Article
Past researchers extended the conceptualized model of perceived value to include the effects of multiple extrinsic cues used as indicators of quality. The need for replication as well as extending the research findings has, however, been expressed unequivocally by the researchers as it remains to be seen if the existing relationships would hold for consumers hailing from emerging nations. The present study extends the theoretical and empirical evidences regarding the structural relationships of consumers’ perceptions of marketing cues, namely, price and brand name, with the perceptions of quality, risk, sacrifice and value in the Indian context. Using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) based analysis of questionnaire-based responses of young Indian consumers, the study reports that high price is associated with the presence of better product features, assuming that a good quality product always comes with a high price attached and there is a possible shifting from looking to lower price-product options to alternatives which boast of a favourable brand name indicated by a higher price level. The study holds implications for marketers in regard to brand name positioning as well as planning communication and retail strategies.
... Convenience Past work has readily acknowledged customers' interest in conserving time and effort (Gross and Sheth 1989;Kelley 1958;Nickols and Fox 1983). This phenomenon has encouraged the development of convenience goods and services, increased advertisers' promotion of the time-oriented benefits of their products, and motivated customers to use convenience as a basis for making purchase decisions (Gross and Sheth 1989). ...
Article
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Service firms are encouraged by historic evidence that loyal customers are less price sensitive. Yet, some research has challenged the assertion while others have demonstrated considerable heterogeneity within loyal segments. Aiming to reconcile this debate, we investigate the relationship between customers’ behavioral loyalty and the importance they place on price relative to two managerially relevant service attributes: rewards and convenience. We also assess the moderating role of attitudinal loyalty resulting from superior service experience. Results from a longitudinal survey and transaction data from an airline carrier show that as customers’ behavioral loyalty increases, they place more importance on price and less importance on rewards and convenience, revealing that behavioral loyalty causes a shift in emphasis toward price. As a result, behaviorally loyal customers spend less and revenue decreases. However, by improving attitudinal loyalty, firms achieve the desired outcome of reducing price sensitivity and increasing revenue. Specifically, after experiencing better service, behaviorally loyal customers focus less on price and instead shift their focus toward rewards and convenience, and this results in revenue gains for the firm. Overall, attitudinal loyalty from better service experience acts as a key mitigator of the positive link between behavioral loyalty and price sensitivity.
... Many researchers including Douglas (1976), Strober and Weinberg (1980), Schaninger and Allen (1981), and Reilly (1982) facilitated this transition by hypothesising that consumers with greater time constraints are more likely to use convenience products and services to save time (Yale & Venkatesh, 1986). As a result of this evolution of meaning, the more complete definitions of convenience now contain one common element -the reduction of non-monetary costs associated with a product (Kelley, 1958;Kotler & Zaltman, 1971;Etgar, 1978;Wolfinbarger & Gilly, 2001;Rohm & Swaminathan, 2004). ...
Article
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The organised retail shops of Tanzania are facing intense competition. With the opening of new shops and coming in of international brands due to free market economy, this competition is bound to increase. Hence, it is very difficult for retailers to maintain an advantageous position only by offering good products, reasonable prices and effective promotions; they have to offer convenience shopping to be able to reap profits. This could stimulate consumers' shopping behaviour and enhance consumer perceived value and repeat visits in retail shops. This article analyses factors influencing consumers' convenience shopping of industrial products, in Kinondoni District. Data was collected from 300 respondents in retail shops, and analysed descriptively. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis was used to test the hypotheses. It was found that location, salesperson, products layout and customer services are important factors that influence consumers' convenience shopping of industrial products. The study suggests that for the retail shops to be competitive in the market, they should consider these factors. This study provides empirical evidence on factors influencing consumers' convenience shopping of industrial products in developing economies.
... It was Becker (1965) and Michael and Becker (1973) who expanded the classical behaviour model of economic choice to include time as a constraint to the household's "full income", something that may explain why the more modern construct of convenience in mature markets stresses time management (Yale & Venkatesh, 1986). In the late 1950s convenience was considered an important element when planning shopping centres (Kelley, 1958). e aim was to build shopping centres in a way that provided the customer with a convenient and time-saving shopping atmosphere, including stores placed in a logical order, comfortable lanes between the stores and wide aisles between the shelves. ...
Article
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Abstract. Non-store retailing is dominated by the Internet and is a potential strategy for manufacturers, brand owners, and retailers entering emerging markets. Consumers in developed markets shop online for a variety of retail goods, and motives for choosing e-commerce are o!en referred to as convenience reason. Convenience is essential for understanding why consumers prefer one channel to another. By revisiting the concept of convenience as a signi"cant variable in e-commerce and exploring its complexity and the multiple meanings of the concept with regard to emerging markets, the paper considers a business opportunity in terms of new ways of rea
... Temporal constraint has been represented by convenience in the literature for decades (Garretson and Mauser, 1963). Early consumer research specified ten categories comprising the domain of convenience, eight of which described the product itself (Kelley, 1958), leading to research focused on convenience products (Holton, 1958). Only two convenience categories are associated with product/service acquisition, reducing the research on shoppers. ...
... Prior studies on convenience either concentrated on the conceptual development or defined and differentiated convenience and convenience-centered consumers in relation to physical product consumption and service consumption (Kelley, 1958;Anderson, 1971;Anderson, 1972;Berry, Seiders & Grewal, 2002;Farquhar & Rowley, 2009). Kelly (1958) conceptualized convenience as the blend of spatial, temporal, social, and esthetic dimensions. ...
Article
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The concept of service convenience has received substantial attention in services marketing literature. Nevertheless, little is known about the relationship between service convenience and service loyalty when consumer characteristics act as moderators. This study aims to investigate these associations in the context of superstores operating in Bangladesh. The study findings suggest significant relationship between service convenience and service loyalty in the presence of age, gender, and education level of consumers. Decision and post-benefit convenience have been found to be significant across all categories of consumer characteristics whereas transaction convenience has been insignificant for all categories of consumer characteristics. A number of future research directions have been proposed which include the reproduction of the study model in other service settings both for business-to-consumer and business-to-business services. Furthermore, researches can be extended to investigate the underlying causes of the insignificant predictive ability for the transaction convenience related to retail services.
... Ofta säger de att det är en fördel att i lugn och ro göra sitt inköp och att slippa köer och trängsel i butiken. , Kelley, 1958 ). I vissa köpsituationer prioriterar respondenterna ansträngningsbesparingar . ...
Thesis
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The starting point of this dissertation is the increasing number of Swedish consumers who use the Internet for shopping. Convenience is said to be an important ground for this choice. However, there are few studies that attempt to understand the true meaning of convenience. This study sets out to understand what convenience entails for Internet shoppers, what characterizes a convenient Internet shopper, what charterizes a convenient online product or service, and finally how different meanings of convenience can be explained in different shopping situations. The purpose of this study is to deepen the understanding of consumers’ convenience grounds when shopping online. Qualitative data was collected from 24 respondents, 12 female and 12 male, living in the Swedish cities of Örnsköldsvik, Stockholm, Göteborg and Borås. Data collection was mainly conducted by means of group interviews and additional personal interviews, questionnaries and shopping experiment observations. The study has its theoretical outlook based in convenience literature, and convenience motives when choosing a particular store, however, adjusted to better fit the phenomenon of online shopping. This theoretical approach emphasizes different dimensions of convenience and gives special insight into remote shopping consumers. Results show that convenience is an important ground for Internet shopping. Convenience in this context, can be seen from a psychological and/or behavioural perspective. However, grounds for convenience entail efficiency and rationality reasons for all of the respondents included in the study. These results indicate that convenience is best understood by using a resource efficiency approach. When using this approach the study shows the importance among the respondents to save time and energy, both from a psychological as well as a physiological perspective. Another useful explanation in order to understand the meaning of convenience is to use consumers’ descriptions of themselves as planned or impulsive. In most cases the respondents describe themselves as planned consumers, which in turn indicate that the use of a resource efficency perspective is valuable. It is a great variety of products and services described as convenient, however the study pinpoints two exceptions: home electronic devices and tickets. The study shows that one reason for the differences in consumers’ convenience perceptions is how time is perceived. Another reason is how customer perceives psychological or physiological energy. A third reason is how they perceive security and safety. Another important result is that convenience differs between women and men in the study. The female consumer gives priority to saving time and saving physical energy. The male consumer gives priority to timing. The study’s results can help online businesses to identify how their customers perceive convenience to better design communication, virtual store, information, payment and deliviery according to their wants and needs. Another practical implication drawn from the findings is to use direct delivery when possible and offer home delivery
... Avoidance of unpleasantness is a category of convenience in that it allows the consumer to forego an activity that he/she previously had to perform but did not enjoy. Eugene, J. Kelley (1958) observed that, convenience costs influence consumer patronage. Convenience costs are incurred through the expenditure of time, physical and nervous energy, and money required to overcome the fiction of space and time and to obtain possession of goods and services. ...
Article
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This paper aims to examine the Indian consumers' perception of Wal-Mart and look into the factors that affect their perception. It identifies five factors that affect the Indian consumer perception of Wal-Mart, namely, Price, Product, Service Quality, Convenience and Social and Cultural Affinity. The results suggest that Product and Service Quality does not affect the consumer perception of Wal-Mart while other variables, like Price, Convenience and Social and Cultural Affinity influence consumer perception of Wal-Mart. These results carry important strategic market findings for Wal-Mart.
... Clearly, automation of marketing and consumer processes primarily enables value creation through convenience, which is typically a function of customers' perceived investments of time and effort (Kelley, 1958). In this sense, convenience encompasses everything that promotes a state of physical or mental ease (adds comfort) or that simplifies fulfilment of customers' functional needs or instrumental goals (saves work) (Rintamäki, Kanto, Kuusela, & Spence, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Consumers have traditionally made purchase decisions at the store shelf, giving institutional brick-and-mortar retailers great power to learn about and influence behaviors and preferences. With the rise of e-commerce, mobile shopping, and most recently smart technologies, new competitors threaten this long-standing supremacy. Adopting a value-creation perspective, we analyze how digitization started the erosion of institutional retailing as the primary interface to the customer. We develop a framework that identifies five new sources of value creation and propose how these advance and transform competition for this interface. Depending on the importance of the new sources of value creation (in different purchase situations), stationary retailing may prevail as an important interaction point in a multichannel decision journey. However, increasing diffusion of branded-product platforms including connected devices and online retail platforms is shifting this authority to new players. For the parties involved in this multilayered competition, acknowledging the changes and actively managing their position in the evolving eco-systems is crucial.
... Since time and physical, psychological, and financial resources are scarce and constrain choices, feasibility is often represented as a cost or an "anticipated punishment" one has to incur to obtain desirable rewards and avoid undesirable consequences (Anderson and Shugan 1991;Becker 1965;Bettman et al. 1990;Muraven and Baumeister 2000;Shugan 1980). Though self-reports often emphasize positive aspects of feasibility by using terms such as "convenience," this simply implies that the costs and resources required to perform the behavior are perceived to be relatively low (Anderson and Shugan 1991;Anderson 1972;Berry et al. 2002;Kelley 1958;Seiders et al. 2000). ...
... This equilibrium affects the consumers' shopping decision. Second, in order to determine shopping patronage, convenience cost is very important (Kelley, 1958). Oliver, Rust, and Varki (1997) stated that in case of retail shopping, the shopping convenience could be a utilitarian motivation and characteristically linked to accomplishing efficiency. ...
Article
The objective of this study is to understand to what extent hedonic and utilitarian consumer profiles are affected by situational factors and how in turn they impact shopping centre patronage. A six step multiple regression analysis corresponding to six different shopping centres has been applied to two clusters of consumers. The data are based on consumers’ hedonic/utilitarian customer profile. First, results show that in general the impact on shopping centre patronage is largely affected by proximity, convenience and accessibility variables, which are more relevant among the utilitarian profile consumers. On the other hand, in the hedonic profile segment, affect, that is, the experience of feeling or emotion is the relevant variable explaining patronage. Second, the predictive contribution of these variables on patronage varied according to the shopping centres’ positioning. With the findings of the present study, retail managers can formulate marketing strategies, which will attract retail consumers towards their shopping centre and also help them to enhance the significant factors that influence retail store consumer’s purchase decision. Also, this investigation contributes to the diagnosis of how consistent is the retailers’ in their positioning strategy in targeting the market segments. The present research integrates both situational factors and hedonic as well as utilitarian consumer profiles along with the role of situational dynamics to explain shopping centres’ patronage.
... In a 2018 New York Times article, convenience is considered to be a product of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when the possibility of leisure outside the aristocratic class first evolved. 1 There is a large body of work in the fields of sociology and neoclassical economics that supports this notion in regarding convenience as a post-industrial phenomenon that resulted from the creation of a middle-class consumer culture in Anglo-American society (Kelley, 1958;Carnevale, 1991;Crowley, 2001;J affrelot and van der Veer, 2008;Shove, 2012). However, anthropological and ancient literary/archaeological evidence challenges this claim, for it shows that the concept of convenience, as we know it, was also relevant to premodem and non-Western social psyches and ancient market systems. ...
Article
The main goal of this study is to make ancient economic data accessible to students and scholars of business and economics. It also demonstrates the capacity of classical and neoclassical economics for making theoretical contributions to economic history and anthropology. Primary data are drawn from Iraq and Iran between the sixth century BCE and the seventh century CE, with comparisons taken from the Mediterranean. Convenience is a useful concept for locating a middle class or an “intermediate economic group” in ancient societies. Symbolically, convenience may be understood through the notion of “item of convenience,” which is necessary for creating an intermediate economic group. Convenience is also associated with comfort, which is only available to the elite and those intermediate economic groups who have access to limited surplus and are engaged in production, distribution, exchange, and consumption. Ancient price laws, which were intended to protect buyers and sellers, testify to institutional intervention among a group of people who were freely engaged in competitive market conduct and desired a more convenient access to fair market prices.
... As Table 2 shows, service convenience is related to customers' time and effort perceptions when buying or using a service and can influence customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions (Berry, Seiders, and Grewal 2002;Seiders et al. 2007). Building on prior research (e.g., Kelley 1958), Berry, Seiders, and Grewal (2002) propose that service convenience is a multidimensional construct consisting of decision, access, transaction, benefit, and postbenefit conveniences, which reflect customers' perceived time and effort expenditure in making purchase decisions (e.g., deciding ...
Article
Recent research suggests that inseparability is not a universal distinguishing characteristic of services and that the consumption of many services is or can be separated from their production. This research defines service separation as customers’ absence from service production, which denotes the spatial separation between service production and consumption. In a series of qualitative and quantitative studies across different services, the authors examine customer reactions to service separation. The results indicate that service separation increases customers’ perceptions of not only access convenience and benefit convenience but also performance risk and psychological risk. Furthermore, these effects differ across services. Specifically, relative to experience services, for credence services, the effects of separation on service convenience are mitigated, and the effects on perceived risk are magnified. Subsequently, the convenience and risk perceptions induced by service separation can influence customers’ purchase decisions and postexperience evaluations. Customers prefer separation for experience services and when they have an established relationship with the service provider. Finally, the authors discuss the theoretical contributions and managerial implications and offer directions for further research.
... Consumers value convenience in experiences, i.e., everything that facilitates need gratification or leads to a state of mental and physical ease (Kelley 1958;Rintamäki et al. 2006). This includes the ease of searching, accessing and consuming content. ...
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Traditional linear television has been a long-standing success story. However, the digital revolution is rapidly transforming the TV industry, in terms of production, distribution, and consumption. New market opportunities are attracting competitors from outside the industry, and incumbent TV companies must evolve in order to stay competitive and survive in a new digital world. Taking an institutional perspective, the authors develop a conceptual framework that identifies four strategic diversification options which TV firms can pursue to transform their traditional business synergistically: (1) remain a linear-only TV company; (2) combine the linear offering with advertising-based video-on-demand services; (3) combine the linear offering with subscription-based video-on-demand services, or (4) combine the linear offering with both kinds of video-on-demand services. Building on resource-based theory, the authors examine which sets of market-oriented and internal strategic resources are necessary for each strategic option. Specifically, they highlight the value propositions that linear TV can still offer in the digital age, and how TV companies can create unique advantages by leveraging synergies between linear and video-on-demand services. The authors provide guidelines for TV companies to manage the organizational transition and propose an agenda for future academic research.
... Thought of convenience for clients is long-standing, especially in the retailing and client direct artistic works (Anderson, 1972 andKelley, 1958). According to Ali, (2020) banks receiving appropriate information about their customers gain operational productivity and supportability objectives as regards green production network. ...
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Mobile banking brings about a progressive change in the field of banking sectors in Bangladesh. To create a sustainable banking environment, technological implementation is important. As a part of this, many organizations, as well as modern banks, propelled mobile banking systems in Bangladesh. The customers' attitudes towards mobile banking are fascinating in Bangladesh. So, it is important for mobile banking authority to know what factors influence customers' positive attitude towards mobile banking usage and whether they are facing problems in using mobile banking. To evaluate the customers' attitude toward mobile banking usage in Bangladesh is the main objective of this study. People who use mobile banking have been considered for the study. Respondents were reached out based on their online activities. Around 400 questionnaires have been sent to respondents, but only 200 were returned with responses. A quantitative research design was used for this study. As regards statistical analysis tools, descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and regression analysis have been adopted for analyzing the research study. The results revealed that usage benefits, shopping benefits, and psychological factors influence customers' positive attitude toward mobile banking usage in Bangladesh. Besides, some problems with mobile banking usage are identified by the respondents.
... This is supported by (Albari & Safitri, 2018 Ease of shopping is a consideration for every consumer. (Kelley, 1958)states that every consumer wants convenience and pleasure when shopping. Convenience such as a complete product, lighting, clean, the location of a regular product becomes some consideration of consumers in shopping. ...
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Purchasing by consumers is the ultimate goal to be achieved by every company. Various strategies are pursued so that consumers buy products or use services offered by the company. The decision to buy vegetables in six traditional markets (Simpang Limun, Bakti, Crooked Lips, Garuda Mandala, Sukaramai, and Education) was made in this study involving 180 respondents. They are consumers who shop at six traditional markets. Six variables are involved to analyze purchasing decisions, namely price, location, trust, comfort, product quality, service quality. The questionnaire was distributed as a tool to collect research data and then analyzed by the method of multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that six variables (price, location, trust, comfort, product quality, service quality) influenced the decision to buy vegetables in a traditional market in Medan, Indonesia. This shows that the six variables studied must always be evaluated by traders because they have a significant influence on vegetable purchasing decisions in traditional markets. The traders are expected to make the results of this research as an improvement or even improve the current situation so that the level of vegetable sales increases in some traditional markets in Medan.
... "Convenience" designated consumers' effort and time used when purchasing a product, rather than a product's attribute or characteristic. Concentrating on the energy, time, and opportunity that consumers waste when buying goods and services, researchers started to perceive convenience as a feature that minimize a product's nonmonetary price [28,29]. A previous study confirmed the effectiveness of service convenience on consumer behavior influencing e-word of mouth further. ...
Chapter
In today’s digitalization, consumers are highly aware of their surroundings, which make it difficult to convince them. Advertisements are not viewed as truthful; therefore, consumers seek a reliable and a trust worthy source, where other consumers are considered an unfailing source of trust. Therefore, e-word of mouth is one of the most dominant behaviors, in specific on social media platforms due to the increase in technology. E-Word of Mouth on Social Media plays an essential role during COVID-19 Outbreak; its role becomes significant for communication during the quarantine period in epidemic outbreak. Thus, this research studies the key drivers that affect e-word of mouth in social media during COVID 19. The research objective includes the analysis of quantitative data that was collected by distributing an online survey on the key drivers affecting e-word of mouth on social media during COVID 19. With previous literature support, a model was developed that included three variables that aimed to examine the impact of convenience, information quality, and social interaction on e-word of mouth. In this study, it was found that convenience and information quality have a high correlation with e-word of mouth on social media during COVID 19. The key findings of this study have both practical and academic implications.
... Second, as consumers consider outcomes/inputs based on their decision calculus (Betzing et al., 2018), they become "convenience shoppers" (De Kerviler et al., 2016;Kelley, 1958). For retailers, retaining customers may become more difficult as retail technological advances can disrupt loyalty and impact a retailer's perceptions, and as a consequence, lead consumers to seek even more convenience (Mitchell & Papavassiliou, 1997;Yadav & Pavlou, 2020;Yale & Venkatesh, 1986). ...
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In a retail setting, two field studies and one controlled online experiment show that compared to self‐service checkouts, artificial intelligence (AI)‐enabled checkouts temporarily activate perceived shopping convenience. This leads to more favourable attitudes and higher purchase intent, but only for consumers who have higher levels of self‐efficacy (Studies 1 and 2). Furthermore, we find that this positive effect of AI‐enabled checkouts conditional on consumers' self‐efficacy, is diminished for consumers who show a low level of callousness (Study 3). This study introduces a novel variable to consumer literature, callousness, a subconstruct of psychopathy and features the unexplored tripartite “AI–physical–human” ecosystem, which adds a significant layer to the incipient AI literature and serves as a theoretical framework for continued inquiries.
... 750), and a key driver of retail purchases and loyalty (e.g. Kelley, 1958;Eastlick and Feinberg, 1999). Building on H1, we expect solutions to increase shopping convenience for consumers (as previously shown in Study 1). ...
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Purpose Retailers are continuously seeking to improve upon the in-store shopping experience for their customers. The present research aims to examine consumers’ responses to one such initiative – the shopper solution – that, despite its growing marketplace prominence, remains largely unexamined in academic literature. Design/methodology/approach Two studies employed a 2(shopper solution: present vs. absent) between-subjects design. MANOVA and regression analyses were used to test hypothesized relationships. Findings Findings across two studies reveal that the presence (vs absence) of solutions positively influenced shoppers’ perceptions of shopping convenience, as well as their purchase intentions. These favorable effects also extended to the provider in higher word-of-mouth and loyalty intentions. Shopping convenience was identified as the mechanism underlying the impact of solutions, while “smart shopper” self-perceptions were shown to moderate these mediating effects. Practical implications Shopper solutions represent a low-cost, in-store marketing tactic that enhances shopping convenience. They are easy to implement, result in little to no overhead costs and can benefit both shoppers and retailers. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research represents the first academic examination of the impact of shopper solutions. The authors identify key mediating and moderating influences of the effects of solutions.
... is not new (Kelley, 1958). It is well-established in the literature and research has gone as far as suggesting global consumer segmentation by convenience orientation (Luqmani et.al., 1994). ...
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Purpose This paper aims to document how AI has changed the way consumers make decisions and propose how that change impacts services marketing, service research and service management. Design/methodology/approach A review of the literature, documentation of sales and customer service experiences support the evolution of bot-driven consumer decision-making, proposing the bot-driven service platform as a key component of the service experience. Findings Today the focus is on convenience, the less time and effort, the better. The authors propose that AI has taken convenience to a new level for consumers. By using bots as their service of choice, consumers outsource their decisions to algorithms, hence give little attention to traditional consumer decision-making models and brand emphasis. At the moment, this is especially true for low involvement types of decisions, but high involvement decisions are on the cusp of delegating to AI. Therefore, management needs to change how they view consumers’ decision-making-processes and how services are being managed. Research limitations/implications In an AI-convenience driven service economy, the emphasis needs to be on search ranking or warehouse stock, rather than the traditional drivers of brand values such as service quality. Customer experience management will shift from interaction with products and services toward interactions with new service platforms such as AI, bots. Hence, service marketing, as the authors know it might be in decline and be replaced by an efficient complex attribute computer decision-making model. Originality/value The change in consumer behavior leads to a change in the service marketing approach needed in the world of AI. The bot, the new service platform is now in charge of search and choice for many purchase situations.
... In sum, and with a caveat that the preceding section was only a cursory review of some of the more important and voluminous research on convenience in consumer research, it is noteworthy that despite the acknowledgment from Kelley (1958) and Cox (1959) about the complexity and multidimensionality of convenience and subsequent work in this arena, most studies still come back to convenience largely being shaped by time and effort/energy savings or considerations. Almost every work reviewed here begins with the caveat that convenience as a construct is not well theorized, but only two of the articles reviewed came up with a general definition of convenience, while still focusing on consumers, as expected for marketing audiences (Brown and McEnally 1992, 49;Farquhar and Rowley 2009, 434). ...
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This article serves to introduce the Special Issue of Economic Anthropology dedicated to “Convenience as a Driver, Mediator, and Moderator of Social Economies.” The twelve articles in this issue are based on papers presented at the fortieth annual meeting of the Society for Economic Anthropology at the University of Notre Dame from April 30 to May 1, 2020. In this introductory article, I briefly introduce, conceptualize, and generally define “convenience” as a heuristic and part of doxa and as a powerful force driving social economies, freshly revealed in the fractures left by the global COVID‐19 pandemic. I then discuss the etymology of the term convenience and review previous research on the topic of convenience within marketing, technology, business, and the medical sectors, which reveal it to be a fluid, multidimensional concept centered on key concepts such as efficiency, efficacy, ease, comfort, and/or advantage, but also culturally circumscribed. The articles in this issue speak to the complexities of “convenience” with ethnographic cases from the Americas, Europe, Africa, and Asia. Being one of the cornerstones of consumption driving contemporary global economies, “convenience” as a driver of economies has significant and even positive impacts for issues such as poverty alleviation. It also has, in this hyperscale global economic landscape, negative implications for human societies in its impacts on health and the environment. As such, I argue that convenience is a crucial topic for future anthropological concern.
... Convenience is observed in the literature as the foremost important determinant of consumer purchase decisions because it provides an indication about the monetary cost and expenditure of time and energy needed to acquire a particular item or service. Convenience can be described in different ways, such as time, location, quantity, availability of choices, payment method and packaging, or a combination of these elements (Kelley, 1958). Seiders and Grewal (2002) added that an individual's perception of the convenience of getting a product or service influences his overall assessment of the service provider. ...
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Purpose This paper aims to test the main factors that affect cash waqf collection among the employees of Islamic banking institutions (IBIs) in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach The data was gathered using a survey method from 218 employees of IBIs in Malaysia. The obtained data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software and smart partial least squares-structural equation modeling to verify the hypothesis and reach conclusions. Findings The results revealed that word of mouth and trust have significant positive impacts on cash waqf collection. The outcomes also confirmed that convenience and accessibility to cash waqf play significant roles in affecting cash waqf collection. Originality/value Based on the researchers’ knowledge, there are only a few studies which focused on measuring the driver of cash waqf collection from the employees’ perspective, particularly in the Malaysian context. This study specifically applies the theory of reasoned action to determine employees’ attitudes toward cash waqf fund collections in IBIs in Malaysia. Having an understanding of the factors that influence employees to contribute to cash waqf would better equip IBIs in managing their cash waqf contributions and in designing their marketing and branding strategies for promoting their institutions.
... Convenience comes in many forms for consumers, some subtle and some at top of mind (Kelley, 1958). In his book Thinking, Fast and Slow, Daniel Kahneman (2011) outlines how humans revert to quick conclusions without processing available information to make judgements or decisions. ...
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The purpose of this paper is to propose an updated view of consumer choice based on AI and inherent convenience addiction to smart speakers. Following the MacInnis framework for developing conceptual contributions of summarization, integration, and delineation, we review the current consumer decision-making literature and theory to demonstrate consumers' increasing tendency to outsource decisions to AI. Today's customers value convenience: the less time and effort they spend on a purchase, the better they perceive the transaction. AI is taking convenience to higher levels for consumers as they outsource their decisions to bots and inherent algorithms. This is particularly accurate for low-involvement everyday purchases. Our study's contribution is fourfold. First, we introduce a new model of AI-influenced decision-making (AIDM) processes. Second, our conceptual model suggests that managers need to change their interpretation of their customers' decision-making-processes in the new, AI-influenced marketplace. The shift in consumers' behavior toward reliance on home voice bots for purchase has significant implications for the retail sector. Third, our model differentiates between high and low involvement AI-influenced decision-making processes. Fourth, our study highlights how branding as we know it is challenged in an AI-dominated environment.
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This study focuses on how and why consumers vary, know and consider different kind of alternatives of fish in their diet. Consideration set size of fish is considered to be affected by consumer attitude, convenience orientation, knowledge, variety seeking tendency and price consciousness in Sri-Lankan context. Thus, it was to investigate how these variables affect the formation of consideration set size. The questionnaire survey was carried out in Galle district in Sri-Lanka with 250 respondents. The confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling in Amos 16.0 were used as statistical analysis tool. It was found that significant positive relationship between consideration set size and fish consumption frequency. Further, this study has found significant positive relation-ships between knowledge and consideration set size, between variety seeking tendency, variety seeking related to food and between convenience orientation and consideration set size. Further, price consciousness related to food has a negative significant impact on consideration set size. Food marketers should advocate that consumers consider many kind of fish species to increase their consumption of fish. Set size increases through the consumer knowledge variable. Thus, manufacturer can educate the consumers with new spices and meals to increase their consideration set size as a marketing strategy. Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension 15(3): 2012: page 19-28 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/tare.v15i3.5252
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Retailers are increasingly using round prices, a trend at odds with the marketing belief in the superiority of just-below prices. However, conclusive empirical evidence on the effectiveness of different price endings is still missing. Addressing this void, this paper presents four field-experimental studies with a broad array of samples revealing the central role of convenience in the context of price endings. Findings indicate that consumers perceive round prices as more convenient because their high cognitive accessibility saves time and effort during transactions, which is corroborated using a reaction time measure. Accordingly, round prices increase sales in purchase situations characterized by a high importance of convenience. Further, consumers’ convenience consciousness explains preferences for different price endings. This research thus contributes to the behavioral pricing literature by challenging traditional marketing beliefs and providing convincing evidence of the superiority of round prices in a complex world where many customers attach great importance to convenience.
Article
The study reports the results of two experiments designed to test the role of perceived quality, perceived sacrifice, and perceived risks on consumers’ perceptions of product value. The results of the experiments involving 530 undergraduate students support the hypothesized model that suggests that perceived quality and perceived sacrifice mediate the relationships between extrinsic cues-such as price, brand, store name, and country-of-origin-and perceived performance risk and financial risk. In addition, the results indicate that perceived performance risk and financial risk mediate the relationships that perceived quality and perceived sacrifice have with perceived value. Since the findings of this research suggest both performance risk and financial risk can be reduced (thus increasing perceived value) if perceived quality is high, firms have an incentive to increase consumers’ quality perceptions by means of brand name, store, country-of-origin and price.
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The ever-increasing amount of individual-level customer data generated by loyalty programs opens new perspectives for customer relationship management (CRM). Yet, recent analyses have shown that a huge fraction of CRM projects fail to deliver the good at the bottom line. One of the main reasons for this dilemma is that these data require advanced analytical processing to fully leverage their potential ("analytical CRM"). Research and practice are still in its early stages with respect to analytical CRM. Markus Wübben focuses on analytical CRM for developing and maintaining buyer-seller relationships in non-contractual settings, i.e. settings, in which buyer-seller relationships are not governed by a contract that predetermines the monetary value and/or length of the relationship. This is a common scenario for many businesses such as retailers, hotels, and airlines. Using empirical analyses on the basis of sound theoretical foundations, the author shows how customer relationships can be broadened, meaning how customer's cross-buying behavior can be stimulated and how customer's relationship length and depth, i.e. customer's activity and purchase-levels, can be predicted. Finally, he derives implications for research and practice. © Gabler | GWV Fachverlage GmbH, Wiesbaden 2008. All rights reserved.
Article
Success of the growing online retail industry arises from the phenomenon that consumers are willing to pay a premium for the convenience of online shopping. Thus, the purpose of this study is to assess the premium and begin to identify which factors affect it. Using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) in combination with the Spike Model, this paper finds that the premium, indicated by median willingness to pay (WTP), is 2.957 for an online product priced at 50:RMB. This suggests that online sellers may increase product prices by approximately 2.957 RMB, or 5.9 percent, especially for those goods, which can be purchased with a greater convenience online as opposed to offline. In examining the following two factors: online shopping frequency and gender, this paper finds that the first significantly affects the WTP, while the second has no significant impact.
Chapter
Was die Gewinnung von Warentypen auf synthetischem Wege anlangt, so beschränken wir uns auf die Darstellung relativ allgemeiner Typen durch Kombination nur zweier Merkmale (Träger des Bedarfs und Nutzungsdauer der Ware) mit jeweils zwei Ausprägungen mit einem Ausblick auf weitere Möglichkeiten der Differenzierung.
Chapter
Neben Einkaufszentren existieren weitere Angebotsagglomerationen des Einzelhandels, die hinsichtlich ihrer Angebotsstruktur ähnlich durch die Konsumenten wahrgenommen werden. Dies ist primär dadurch erklärbar, daß sie alle dem Phänomen des Multi-Purpose-Shopping in besonderer Weise Rechnung tragen. Dieses Verhalten, welches heute ca. 30–50% aller Einkäufe ausmacht51, ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Konsument mehrere Güter und Dienstleistungen im Rahmen eines zeitlich zusammenhängenden Einkaufsprozesses erwirbt bzw. nutzt.
Conference Paper
The password the almost universal authentication solution yet is buckling under the strain. It demonstrates insufficiency and weakness due to poor choice, reuse and ease of transfer. Graphical passwords, biometrics, and hardware tokens have been suggested as alternatives. Industry has, unfortunately, not embraced these alternatives. One possible explanation is the complexity of the choice process. To support authentication decision-markers we suggest a framework called ACCESS (Authentication ChoiCE Support System) which captures requirements, consults a knowledge base of existing authentication mechanisms and their properties, and suggests those mechanisms that match the specified requirements.
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Für Unternehmen, die sich mit der Etablierung von Key Account Management auf die Bedürfnisse ihrer Schlüsselkunden fokussieren, ist die Gestaltung der Beziehung zu diesen Schlüsselkunden von Bedeutung. Insbesondere die Gestaltung von effektiven und effizienten Face-to-Face Interaktionen erscheint in diesem Zusammenhang und vor dem Hintergrund eines stetig steigenden Zeitdrucks in der Gesellschaft und in wirtschaftlichen Prozessen zunehmend wichtig. Daher war das zentrale Anliegen der Studie die Analyse der Gestaltung der Face-to-Face Interaktion zwischen Key Account Managern und ihren Kunden, wobei der Fokus auf der aktuellen Ausgestaltung lag. Des Weiteren wurde auch nach der optimalen Gestaltung der zur Verfügung stehenden Zeit in der Key Account Manager-Kunden-Beziehung gefragt sowie der Frage nachgegangen, ob und welche kulturellen Einflüsse auf die Gestaltung der Face-to-Face Interaktion vorliegen. Dafür wurde ein qualitatives Forschungsdesign gewählt und Mitarbeiter im Key Account Management in vier Ländern – China, Deutschland, Frankreich und USA – nach ihrer Zeitnutzung befragt sowie eine schriftliche Zeitverteilungsmessung durchgeführt. Als wesentliche Ergebnisse konnten u.a. der Einfluss der Kontaktpersonen im Kundenunternehmen und der Einfluss der Kundenunternehmenskultur auf verschiedene Dimensionen der Gestaltung der Face-to-Face Interaktion sowie die Wichtigkeit von beziehungsbildenden Aktivitäten im Kontakt mit dem Kunden identifiziert werden. Mit der Ableitung eines durch die Ergebnisse angepassten Rahmenmodells für die Gestaltung von Face-to-Face Interaktionen leistet die vorliegende Arbeit einen Beitrag für die Forschung und Praxis. Die zum Abschluss aufgezeigten Forschungsdesiderate verweisen mit Blick auf zukünftige Studien u.a. auf alternative methodische Vorgehensweisen wie eine quantitative Erhebung oder auf Stichproben in anderen Industrien, um über die vorliegenden Ergebnisse hinaus weitere Erkenntnisse bezüglich des Forschungsgegenstands aus anderen Perspektiven zu generieren.
Chapter
The current research examines differences between recreational and economic shoppers with respect to the relative sizes of their brand repertoires. Recreational shoppers are found to have larger brand repertoires for a variety of low priced personal care products. Implications for marketing strategy and theory are discussed.
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People commonly use the Internet to search for health information and tend to use the information they find without regard to source or credibility. Although regulation plays some role in minimizing false claims made by manufacturers of self‐help products, effective communication with health professionals likely offers greater protection to the patient or consumer accessing self‐help materials. In order to best serve patients (or healthcare consumers), providers should educate them about their healthcare needs, inquire about self‐help product use, understand appropriate use, discuss the risks and benefits of use, monitor the patients' condition during use, and document these conversations. Although some people fear that patient use of brain‐themed self‐help will undermine the doctor–patient relationship, it is more likely to open another avenue of communication if providers are knowledgeable about self‐help products. Given the rise in importance of the Internet as a source of information for people, opting out of these discussions is realistically not an option.
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Advertising appearing in Ladies' Home Journal reveals an increased emphasis on time-oriented concerns and product benefits. The study findings are consistent with claims that industrialization and urbanization are accompanied by time pressures and greater concern with time.
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This study departs from the traditional approach to service customer satisfaction by introducing the concept of service convenience which emphasizes the engagement of customers in the process of buying and using the service. The analysis of data surveyed from 265 airline passengers shows that all five components of service convenience have positive impacts on customer satisfaction.
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LỜI NÓI ĐẦU Kinh tế thế giới tăng trưởng nhanh chóng trong những thập kỷ gần đây, trong đó sự đóng góp của dịch vụ vào GDP, của từng quốc gia nói riêng và của cả thế giới nói chung, ngày càng tăng nhanh. Trong xu hướng toàn cầu hóa, nhiều lãnh vực dịch vụ không còn bó hẹp trong phạm vi quốc gia mà mở rộng qua nhiều nước khác nhau. Không chỉ vậy, các dịch vụ còn phát triển theo cả chiều rộng (nhiều loại hình dịch vụ mới), mà cả chiều sâu (chuỗi sản phẩm dịch vụ được khai thác theo hướng ứng dụng công nghệ mới), trong khi chất lượng dịch vụ được đánh giá ra sao, vốn gây khó khăn không ít, cho cả người tiêu dùng lẫn nhà cung cấp dịch vụ. Do vậy, việc nghiên cứu chất lượng dịch vụ trở nên cần thiết, cả ở cấp độ quốc gia lẫn cấp độ doanh nghiệp. Kinh doanh dịch vụ hiện là một ngành học được giảng dạy trong hầu hết các trường có liên quan đến quản trị kinh doanh nói chung; đồng thời cũng là mối quan tâm của hầu hết các nhà kinh doanh, trong bất cứ lãnh vực, ngành nghề nào hay quy mô doanh nghiệp ra sao; và cũng là nguồn đề tài cho rất nhiều sinh viên, học viên sau đại học của các trường đại học, viện nghiên cứu. Từ đó, những ý kiến tham vấn về cải thiện chất lượng dịch vụ- nhìn từ phí khách hàng- sẽ giúp các doanh nghiệp hoạch định chiến lược kinh doanh phù hợp với từng giai đoạn phát triển, tiến tới việc thỏa mãn khách hang về cung ứng chất lượng dịch vụ ngày càng tốt hơn, giúp doanh nghiệp đạt thành công trong kinh doanh. Trong bối cảnh đó, sách chuyên khảo “Đo lường chất lượng dịch vụ tại Việt Nam” được biên soạn nhằm đáp ứng nhu cầu học tập, thực hiện đề tài nghiên cứu, trước hết của học viên, sinh viên các ngành quản trị kinh doanh nói chung, cũng như đáp ứng nhu cầu tham khảo của độc giả, giới doanh nhân, và của những người đang làm việc liên quan đến các hoạt động kinh doanh dịch vụ. Sách chuyên khảo “Đo lường chất lượng dịch vụ tại Việt Nam” được biên soạn trên cơ sở phát triển xa hơn những kiến thức đã được nghiên cứu tại môn học Quản trị Kinh doanh Dịch vụ, Marketing Dịch vụ, Quản trị chất lượng, bao gồm 2 phần chính, 10 chương, Phần I giới thiệu khái quát về Dịch vụ, Đo lường chất lượng dịch vụ và các vấn đề lý thuyết có liên quan, Phần II giới thiệu một số dịch vụ đã được nghiên cứu tại Việt Nam, trong đó có điều chỉnh các thang đo trong khi nghiên cứu cho phù hợp với điều kiện thực tế tại Việt Nam.  Phần I (Chương 1, 2): Tổng quan dịch vụ và đo lường chất lượng dịch vụ  Phần IV (Chương 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9): Đo lường chất lượng một số dịch vụ tại Việt Nam Sách chuyên khảo “Đo lường chất lượng dịch vụ tại Việt Nam” là sản phẩm từ quá trình làm việc nghiêm túc của tác giả, kết hợp với sự kế thừa, tiếp thu, tham khảo nhiều tài liệu khác nhau, trong nước, ngoài nước; cùng với kinh nghiệm giảng dạy nhiều năm, nhiều chương trình khác nhau ở nhiều trường, cũng như thực hiện các đề tài nghiên cứu cũng như thực tiễn có liên quan, đồng thời tham khảo kinh nghiệm thực tế của nhiều doanh nhân thành đạt. Chúng tôi xin trân trọng cảm ơn những tác giả đi trước, nhất là các tác giả có tên trong danh mục tài liệu tham khảo cuối sách. Bên cạnh đó, chúng tôi xin gởi lời cảm ơn chân thành đến Hội đồng Khoa học và Đào tạo trường Đại học Tài chính – Marketing đã tạo điều kiện, hỗ trợ chúng tôi hoàn thành sách chuyên khảo. Chúng tôi xin cảm ơn gia đình, bạn bè, sinh viên, học viên, nghiên cứu sinh, doanh nghiệp đã nhiệt tình ủng hộ chúng tôi thực hiện sách chuyên khảo. Vì nguồn lực và thời gian có hạn, sách chuyên khảo không thể tránh khỏi những khiếm khuyết nhất định. Chúng tôi luôn quan tâm lắng nghe, và biết ơn những đóng góp từ toàn thể người đọc gần xa. PGS. TS. Hà Nam Khánh Giao
This paper provides a test of a conceptual framework based in sociology that models how consumer patronage of a retailer is impacted by retailer community embeddedness. Through a mail survey (n=130) of the residents of a small, western US town, patronage was explored as a function of the three embeddedness constructs, socializing actions (the retailer's customization of offerings), reciprocity (the norm for support of local businesses), and social compliance (feeling pressured by others to shop at the local store), being mediated through two constructs, utilitarian value (the perceived value derived from the specific product offerings) and congregation (the consumer's ability to see friends). The model is estimated using a series of multiple regression equations in a path analysis that finds support for the mediated model. Not only does the sociological framework demonstrate that consumer perceptions of retailer utilitarian value appear to be malleable—being shaped by sociological factors related to community embeddedness—but that significant retailer value, in the minds of consumers, derives from the retailer being a place for congregation and community interaction.
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