Article

Compensatory Control and the Appeal of a Structured World

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Abstract

People are motivated to perceive themselves as having control over their lives. Consequently, they respond to events and cognitions that reduce control with compensatory strategies for restoring perceived control to baseline levels. Prior theory and research have documented 3 such strategies: bolstering personal agency, affiliating with external systems perceived to be acting on the self's behalf, and affirming clear contingencies between actions and outcomes within the context of reduced control (here termed specific structure). We propose a 4th strategy: affirming nonspecific structure, or seeking out and preferring simple, clear, and consistent interpretations of the social and physical environments. Formulating this claim suggests that people will respond to reduced control by affirming structured interpretations that are unrelated to the control-reducing condition, and even those that entail otherwise adverse outcomes (e.g., pessimistic health prospects). Section 1 lays the conceptual foundation for our review, situating the proposed phenomenon in the literatures on control motivation and threat-compensation mechanisms. Section 2 reviews studies that have demonstrated that trait and state variations in perceived control predict a wide range of epistemic structuring tendencies, including pattern recognition and causal reasoning. We posit that these tendencies reflect a common desire for a structured understanding of one's environment. Accordingly, a new meta-analysis spanning the reviewed studies (k = 55) revealed that control reduction predicts nonspecific structure affirmation with a moderate effect size (r = .25). Section 3 reviews research on individual differences and situational moderators of this effect. The discussion addresses the interplay of compensatory control strategies and practical implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

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... Perceived control is defined as a "person's belief that he or she is capable of obtaining desired outcomes, avoiding undesired outcomes, and achieving goals" (Beck et al., 2020;Langer, 1975). Perception of control is construed by a belief that the world is nonrandom and orderly (Landau et al., 2015). In contrast, loss of control is associated with an increased sense of randomness characterized as a sense of disorder (Anderson et al., 2019;Cutright, 2012). ...
... In contrast, loss of control is associated with an increased sense of randomness characterized as a sense of disorder (Anderson et al., 2019;Cutright, 2012). When people experience loss of control, they recognize a lack of order in their environment, leading to an elevated sense of randomness or uncertainty (Landau et al., 2015). A consequence of being in a state of uncertainty is to engage in uncertainty mitigation behavior (Faraji-Rad & Pham, 2017), such as stronger religious conviction (McGregor et al., 2008), supporting capital punishment (McGregor et al., 2001), and increased structure-seeking (Cutright, 2012). ...
... This study was designed as a two-factor between-subjects experiment with perceived control (low vs. high) and subscription option Extant research in perceived control have found that following loss of control individuals endeavor to reinstate control through higher personal agency (Beck et al., 2020;Cutright, 2012;Mandel et al.,2017). Personal agency is defined as beliefs that one holds the necessary resources to produce particular outcomes or achieve certain goals (Landau et al., 2015). For example, following loss of control individuals tend to assert personal agency by exhibiting higher preference for high effort products (Cutright & Samper, 2014), and brand leaders (Beck et al., 2020). ...
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Subscription commerce is an integral part of today's consumption space. Researchers have identified different factors that influence subscription intent and different mechanisms that are used to evaluate subscription options. In this research, we investigate the effect of loss of perceived control on subscription intent and explore a new underlying mechanism used for the evaluation of subscription options. Across six studies in the field and laboratory, we show that when consumers lose their level of perceived control, they are likely to exhibit higher subscription intent for monthly subscription options than yearly subscription options, and we explain the mechanism through risk aversion. Particularly, we find that individuals experiencing loss of control are more likely to evaluate subscription options based on associated risk, and subsequently choose the option that appears less risky. Our findings contribute to the literature by identifying a novel risk‐based mechanism driving subscription choice and by finding a new consumer‐related antecedent of subscription choice in perceived control.
... It refers to the psychological need to perceive one's existence and surroundings as clear, orderly, and predictable and not ambiguous or random [5], and could be the common inner psychological basis of many people's external manifestations. For example, the need for structure is concretely embodied in our desire for clarity from the obscure events, hope to find rules for our daily work, or our need to experience order in the products we purchase [6]. Researchers have found that the need for structure can predict conspiracy beliefs about important social events [7], preference for work [8], and people's understanding of news [9]. ...
... Research has shown that the lower an individual's perceived control, the higher their need for structure [22]. Compensatory control theory provides an explanation for this effect: According to the theory [6,11], feeling a sense of control is a basic human need and provides an important guarantee for people to feel that the world and their objective environment is safe and orderly. However, people are often faced with situations that are beyond their control. ...
... However, considering the threat posed by the pandemic, we speculated that the relationship between the three variables will differ. Compensatory control theory demonstrates a lower sense of control leads individuals to seek structure, while also proposing some potential moderating variables that could remove the negative correlation between perceived control and the need for structure [6]. For example, individuals with lower perceived control indicated an increased preference for products that provide structure, but for individuals with a strong belief in God this effect was not significant [30]. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic is profoundly affecting the minds and behaviors of people worldwide. This study investigated the differences in the need for structure among people from different social classes and the psychological mechanisms underlying this need, as well as the moderating effect of the threat posed by the pandemic. Using data collected from non-student adults in China, we found that the lower an individual’s social class, the lower their need for structure, and this effect was based on the mediating role of perceived control. However, the mediating effect was moderated by pandemic threat, and the above relationship existed only when this threat was low. When the level of pandemic threat was higher, neither the effect of social class nor of perceived control on the need for structure were significant. Specifically, in higher-threat situations, the need for structure among individuals from higher social classes and who had a higher sense of control increased significantly, meaning the mediating effect was no longer significant. This finding showed that under the threat of a pandemic, individuals who have a lower need for structure will still pursue and prefer structure and order. The theoretical and practical implications of the research are also discussed.
... Personal control is the extent to which individuals believe they can influence outcomes in their environment (Landau, Kay, and Whitson 2015;Skinner 1996), with some arguing that control is the "the central motivation guiding human behavior" (Thompson 2020, 203). But why would donors feel more control over donations of time than money? ...
... Third, because donations are often driven by self-serving motives (Small and Cryder 2016), they can be used as a compensatory strategy to gain control when consumers lack it. Compensatory control theory states that when consumers' control is threatened, they will seek out actions in their environment that will compensate for this deficit (Landau et al. 2015). We predict that because time donations offer relatively more control than money donations, consumers will prefer to donate time (vs. ...
... Next, participants were asked to imagine what it would feel like to actually donate their money (or volunteer their time) and responded to the measures of control over the donation. We developed these measures based on prior that conceptualized control in terms of an individual's involvement in and ability to influence desired outcomes (Beck et al. 2020;Landau et al. 2015). These three items ("I would have control over the way my time [money] would be used"; "I would have the ability to shape how my time [money] would be utilized"; "I would be involved in how my time [money] would be used") were measured on a 7-point scale (1 ¼ strongly disagree; 7 ¼strongly agree) and combined into an index of control over the donation (a ¼ 0.92). ...
Article
Solicitation of time and money donations are central to the success of nonprofit organizations like charities and political groups. Although nonprofits tend to prefer money, experimental and field data demonstrate that donors prefer to donate time, even when doing so does less good for the cause. However, despite the importance of this asymmetry, little is known about its psychological underpinnings. In the current investigation, we identify a previously unexplored difference between time and money, which we argue can explain the preference to donate time over money. Specifically, we propose that potential donors feel more personal control over their time (vs. money) donations, leading to greater interest in donating and donation amount. We test this framework across seven studies using incentive-compatible and hypothetical behaviors, utilizing both mediation and moderation approaches. Our results show that when donors’ sense of control is threatened, donations of time might be used as a compensatory strategy, and that simple linguistic interventions can increase perceived control and donations for money, which we find to typically lag behind time. We conclude by discussing implications of these results for marketing theory and practice.
... These studies have suggested a relationship between personal control and bribery. Inspired by control compensatory theory (CCT; Gasiorowska & Zaleskiewicz, 2021;Landau et al., 2015), the present research aimed to fill these theoretical gaps by examining the negative effect of personal control on bribery intention and exploring the mediating role of reciprocity beliefs on this effect. ...
... CCT posits that personal control is part of a greater and more basic motivation to perceive the world as a structured, orderly, and predictable system (Kay et al., 2008(Kay et al., , 2009). According to CCT, low personal control motivates individuals to endorse any measures by which they can guard against unsettling uncertainty and regain the perception that the world is nonrandom and predictable, even if such measures may be destructive (Landau et al., 2015). That is, individuals with low personal control tend to believe that external sources of control specifically provide order to their environment (Kay et al. 2010a, b). ...
... Our findings first empirically support the psychological benefits of bribery in guarding against threats to psychological personal control, but not necessarily because of environmental uncertainty, as previous researchers have argued . We argue that this is because individuals with low personal control tend to endorse predictable interpretations of the world (Landau et al., 2015). Bribery is a form of resource transfer that involves a reciprocal exchange between the briber and the bribee. ...
Article
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The present research examined the effect of personal control on bribery intention and the mediating role of reciprocity beliefs in this relationship. In Study 1, we used questionnaires to investigate the correlational relationships among personal control, reciprocity beliefs, and bribery intention, and the results provided primary evidence for the mediated model. In Study 2, using a measurement-of-mediation design, we manipulated personal control to explore its effects on reciprocity beliefs and bribery intention. In Study 3, by adopting a moderation-of-process design, we examined whether increased levels of reciprocity beliefs weakened the relationship between personal control and bribery intention. Overall, these three studies showed that a decreased level of personal control resulted in stronger reciprocity beliefs, in turn promoting bribery intention. The results indicated that enhancing the sense of personal control and weakening reciprocal beliefs might be potential approaches to decrease bribery.
... Knowledge is a vital aspect of cognition that is oftentimes intertwined with the concept of personal control (Antonovsky, 1996;Friston, 2010;Schulz, 1976;White, 1959), such as when a lack of knowledge engenders a sense of uncontrollability or vice versa (Kellstedt et al., 2008;Landau et al., 2015;Milfont, 2012;Shepherd & Kay, 2012). For instance, a need to regain control can motivate individuals to obtain information (Landau et al., 2015). ...
... Knowledge is a vital aspect of cognition that is oftentimes intertwined with the concept of personal control (Antonovsky, 1996;Friston, 2010;Schulz, 1976;White, 1959), such as when a lack of knowledge engenders a sense of uncontrollability or vice versa (Kellstedt et al., 2008;Landau et al., 2015;Milfont, 2012;Shepherd & Kay, 2012). For instance, a need to regain control can motivate individuals to obtain information (Landau et al., 2015). The partial interdependence of these two variables raises the need to disentangle their genuine effects in moderating the trust-risk association. ...
... The moderating effects of control and knowledge perceptions could be intertwined to the extent in which, for example, a desire for control motivates individuals to obtain knowledge to regain a sense of personal control (Landau et al., 2015). The present study therefore aimed to compare and disentangle the moderating effects of knowledge and control perceptions on the association of trust with perceived risk. ...
Preprint
Individuals oftentimes lack personal control over risks and depend on powerful others to manage a risk for them. This lack of control could lead individuals to derive risk evaluations from beliefs about the trustworthiness of powerful others, which might explain the vital effect of trust on risk perception. Three studies (total N = 1,961) provide evidence for the proposed moderation of the trust-risk association by personal control in diverse contexts (i.e., COVID-19, meat consumption, and climate change). In line with the assertion that risk evaluations can be derived from beliefs about others being willing and able to avert a risk, Study 2 and 3 show that beliefs in the benevolence of powerful others but no other trustees or trust attributions drive the effects of trust on risk perceptions depending on personal control. The findings remained significant when partialling out the effects of potential confounding variables, such as perceived knowledge, the affect heuristic, responsibility diffusion, and political orientation. Unlike previous research, perceived knowledge did not moderate the association of trust with risk perceptions. Moreover, the data indicate that trust in powerful others managing a risk can partially backfire in people who lack personal control by indirectly thwarting behavioral risk responses and policy support for managing the risk. The present findings highlight that trust attributions can serve as information for evaluating risks that are beyond an individual's sense of control.
... A key aspect of problematic situations is a lack of control over one's outcomes. A large body of research shows that a lack of control is aversive and motivates consumers to regain control (Janoff-Bulman, 1992; for a review see Landau, Kay, & Whitson, 2015). Consistent with this general observation, past research showed that consumers who lack personal control avoid novel products (Faraji-Rad, Melumad, & Johar, 2017) and favor the familiar products of leading brands (Beck, Rahinel, & Bleier, 2020). ...
... Finally, a lack of control can also give rise to compensatory beliefs, such as endorsements of a controlling God or benevolent government (Kay, Whitson, Gaucher, & Galinsky, 2009), which can attenuate the adversity of low control (for a review, see Landau et al., 2015). Consumers' use of products and brands as part of a compensatory strategy has been of particular interest to consumer researchers, who observed, for example, that low personal influence can increase consumers' preference for products associated with personal empowerment (Cutright & Samper, 2014) or brands associated with agency (Beck et al., 2020). ...
... Consumers' use of products and brands as part of a compensatory strategy has been of particular interest to consumer researchers, who observed, for example, that low personal influence can increase consumers' preference for products associated with personal empowerment (Cutright & Samper, 2014) or brands associated with agency (Beck et al., 2020). Reliance on compensatory strategies is particularly likely when other strategies are unavailable or very costly (Landau et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Novel products present unknown opportunities as well as unknown risks. Past research suggested that lowpsychological control highlights risks and reduces the adoption of novel products. Consistent with a situatedcognition perspective, we show that this depends on the specifics of low control. Across five studies, noveltyseeking was lower after consumers thought about instances of low (vs. high) personal influence, but higher after consumers thought about instances of low (vs. high) predictability of the world. Thinking about a lack of personal influence increased the perceived importance of personal capability and in turn impaired the exploration of novel options, whereas thinking about an unpredictable world increased the perceived importance of preparedness for an unknown future and in turn the exploration of novel options. Throughout, perceiving low personal influence benefited familiar products, whereas seeing the world as unpredictable benefited novel products. This highlights that understanding consumers’ responses to a lack of control requires joint consideration of the specifics of threat and task, consistent with situated cognition principles.
... Moreover, some people have an inherent relatively low sense of control. According to compensatory control theory, lower perceived control evokes one's need for structure, which means they demand certainty, order, and predictability [28]. ...
... Moreover, the results of this study indicate that, due to relative uncertainty regarding GM food, people with a lower sense of control are more likely to perceive it as high risk (compared with traditional food); thus, they are less willing to accept GM food products. The psychological mechanism of this effect entails individuals with a lower sense of control having a greater need for an ordered, structured, and certain external world to compensate for that limited sense of control [28,29]. Consequently, they become more anxious and have fewer positive attitudes toward things that do not offer certainty. ...
... First, the research samples were college students. Previous studies have found that the effect of perceived control is consistent in both undergraduate and non-undergraduate adult samples [28,47,54]. Therefore, this study carried college students as samples to reveal the relationship between individuals' sense of control and attitudes toward GM food. ...
Article
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Based on compensatory control theory, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of perceived control on people's acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods by using both correlational and experimental methods. Compensatory control theory proposes that the lower an individual's perceived control, the higher their need for structure, order, and certainty. Therefore, based on beliefs about GM foods that make some people less certain that those foods are as safe as traditional foods, we hypothesized that individuals with lower levels of perceived control are more inclined to reject GM foods. The analysis of questionnaire responses in Study 1 revealed that individuals' sense of control negatively predicted their risk perception of GM foods, while the need for structure played a mediating role. In Study 2, using a between-subject design, we manipulated participants' perceived control (higher vs. lower) and subsequently measured their risk perception and purchasing preferences for GM foods. The results in Study 2 show that under lower control conditions, individuals recognize higher risks related to GM foods, which, in turn, decreases their willingness to purchase GM foods. These results not only suggest that perceived control is a potential influential personal factor of the acceptance of GM foods but also extend the scope of the application of compensatory control theory.
... To address this gap, we draw on compensatory control theory (Kay et al., 2008;Landau et al., 2015) to investigate a novel antecedent of tight cultures: individuals' perceptions of personal control. Specifically, we seek to uncover the bidirectional relationship between the psyche and culture in the domain of personal control and cultural tightness. ...
... complex), clear (discernable; not hidden or obscure, vague or ambiguous), and consistent (stable as opposed to erratic; marked by a coherent relation of parts vs. disordered)" (Landau et al., 2015, p. 694) might be appealing when people lack control. A lack of personal control increases people's preference for various forms of nonspecific epistemic structure, including social hierarchy (Friesen et al., 2014), and leads them to perceive connections between unrelated events for other examples, see Landau et al., 2015, for a review). Thus, consistent with compensatory control theory, we predict that those with lower personal control would desire greater structure. ...
... bzeq9. Landau et al. (2015) estimated that the average effect of the recall control manipulation that we sought to employ in this study on structure was r = .23 or d = .47. ...
Article
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According to the theory of mutual constitution of culture and psyche, just as culture shapes people, individuals' psychological states can influence culture. We build on compensatory control theory, which suggests that low personal control can lead people to prefer societal systems that impose order, to examine the mutual constitution of personal control and cultural tightness. Specifically, we tested whether individuals' lack of personal control increases their preference for tighter cultures as a means of restoring order and predictability, and whether tighter cultures in turn reduce people's feelings of personal control. Seven studies (five preregistered) with participants from the United States, Singapore, and China examine this cycle of mutual constitution. Specifically, documenting the correlational link between person and culture, we found that Americans lower on personal control preferred to live in tighter states (Study 1). Chinese employees lower on personal control also desired more structure and preferred a tighter organizational culture (Study 2). Employing an experimental causal chain design, Studies 3-5 provided causal evidence for our claim that lack of control increases desire for tighter cultures via the need for structure. Finally, tracing the link back from culture to person, Studies 6a and 6b found that whereas tighter cultures decreased perceptions of individual personal control, they increased people's sense of collective control. Overall, the findings document the process of mutual constitution of culture and psyche: lack of personal control leads people to seek more structured, tighter cultures, and that tighter cultures, in turn, decrease people's sense of personal control but increase their sense of collective control. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... For instance, people may support groups they do not identify with as an effort of vicarious control when they expect these out-groups to act on behalf of their personal or their in-group's goals (i.e., to serve as tools) or when they try to influence these out-groups to do so (Rothbaum et al., 1982). In a different vein, compensatory-control theory (Landau et al., 2015) assumes that people support social agents external to the self (e.g., out-groups) as a means to restore personal certainty after experiencing a loss of personal control. In contrast to these approaches, group-based control theory assumes that people gain a sense of control through identifying with an agentic group that is a representative of their self on a social level. ...
... In a study including orthogonal manipulations of self-concept uncertainty and personal lack of control, both threats independently increased in-group bias in the evaluation of East and West Germans (Fritsche et al., 2013), an indication that uncertainty reduction and control motivation are independent social-identity motives. According to compensatorycontrol theory (Landau et al., 2015), threatened personal control elicits worries that the world is an unorderly, chaotic (i.e., uncertain) place and that people thus support existing (social) systems and powerful others outside the self whom they expect to provide some order and structure. Research on this model found, for instance, that salient low personal control, compared with salient high personal control, increased people's support for their country's government and economic system and their approval of hierarchies in their own work organization (for a summary, see Stollberg, Fritsche, Barth, & Jugert, 2017). ...
Article
How do people maintain a sense of control when they realize the noncontingencies in their personal life and their strong interdependence with other people? Why do individuals continue to act on overwhelming collective problems, such as climate change, that are clearly beyond their personal control? Group-based control theory proposes that it is social identification with agentic groups and engagement in collective action that serve to maintain and restore people’s sense of control, especially when their personal control is threatened. As a consequence, group-based control may enable people to act adaptively and stay healthy even when personal control seems futile. These claims are supported by evidence showing increased in-group identification and group-based action intentions following reminders of low personal control. Furthermore, these responses of identifying with agentic in-groups increase people’s perceived control and well-being. This article succinctly presents group-based control theory and relevant empirical findings. It also elaborates on how group-based control relates to other social-identity motives and how it may explain social phenomena.
... Therefore, leaps can seem illogical; people can leap to dubious alternatives that are only intuitively or indirectly associated with need fulfillment. For example, a person who lacks real-world control may seek psychological control through belief in a higher power (Landau et al., 2015); a person unable to achieve significance through normative channels be receptive to extremism (Kruglanski et al., this volume). ...
... People show similar responses to control loss -often compensating for a lack of realworld control by seeking psychological control (Landau et al., 2015). Control deprivation increases the perception of patterns in random noise (Whitson & Galinski, 2008). ...
Book
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The shifts-jumps-leaps (SJL) perspective of means substitution, accepted for publication in an edited book by Arie Kruglanski and others on goal systems theory research.
... These studies have made use of compensatory control theories according to which people, when they do not feel that they are in control over various domains of their lives (e.g. Bäckman and Dixon 1992), try to restore control by implementing different strategies, among which the belief in technological progress may have a role in filling the void emerging from this perception of the lack of control over life (Landau et al. 2015;Stavrova et al. 2016). Within the innovation literature, this side of the issue has mainly been neglected; only Bhuiyan and Szulga (2017) have provided empirical evidence on the positive effect of technological and scientific attitudes on life satisfaction. ...
... Having a sense of control is recognised as generating a positive effect on well-being (Stavrova et al. 2016); moreover, empirical evidence has shown that the feelings of freedom of choice and control over the life are associated with happiness and life satisfaction (Creed and Bartrum 2008;Gerstorf et al. 2014;Verme 2009), while lack of control generates anxiety and may have a negative effect on health (Spector 2002). If immediate personal control is lacking, individuals try to use secondary or compensatory sources to restore it (Landau et al. 2015;Stavrova et al. 2016). Among possible compensatory sources the important role played by beliefs in technological and scientific progress has been highlighted in several works (Rutjens et al. 2010(Rutjens et al. , 2013Farias et al. 2013;Meijers and Rutjens 2014;Gottlieb et al. 2018). ...
Article
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The aim of the paper is to investigate the role of technological infrastructures in the relationship between subjective well-being (SWB) and the use of technological goods on the one hand, and between SWB and technological attitudes on the other. We use the sixth wave of the World Value Survey, which allows us to have comparable data for 60 countries over the period 2010–2014. We show that the use of internet as a means of collecting information is associated with different levels of SWB depending on the efficiency of the technological infrastructure. Moreover, we find a positive, though not always statistically significant, association between scientific and technological attitudes and SWB and show that this relation is stronger in areas with less efficient technological structures. The focus on the linkage between technological infrastructure and SWB paves the way for policy interventions aimed at promoting a coherent development of technological access, use and beliefs.
... However, empirical research on individual differences in the aesthetic experience of atonal music is still sparse, and to gain insight into the aesthetic psychology and practical applications of such music, more research is needed to anticipate who is more inclined to enjoy it. Atonal music is perceived to be structureless and disordered [10], and many previous studies show that perceived personal control affects individuals' needs and preferences for structure and order [11]. Therefore, it seems a feasible perspective from which to explore why people like or dislike atonal music. ...
... Generally, the ability to withstand uncertainty and eliminate the constraints of structure and order seems to be the key factor in forming an individual's preference for atonal music. Previous studies find that perceived personal control is an important predictor of this need for structure [11,22]. ...
Article
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Research on the aesthetic experience of music has largely focused on tonal music, while relatively less is known about individuals’ differences in the aesthetic experience of atonal music. According to the compensatory control theory, we hypothesized that perceived personal control significantly and positively predicted individuals’ tendency to prefer atonal music, while the need for structure played a mediating role. The present research investigated who tends to prefer atonal music, and why. A sample of college students listened to atonal music and completed questionnaires on perceived personal control, the need for structure, and their aesthetic judgment of the music. Our analysis showed that individuals with higher perceived personal control exhibited a stronger tendency to prefer atonal music, compared with those who had lower perceived control; moreover, the need for structure played a mediating role between perceived control and aesthetic experience of atonal music. These results revealed which audience was suitable for atonal music and extended the explanatory scope of the compensatory control theory. The theoretical and practical implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.
... Is local system support different from national system support when people are threatened by the COVID-19 pandemic? Kay et al. (2008) proposed a compensatory control mechanism to explain the system justification tendency; that is, people would have recourse to external systems of control to restore perceived control to a baseline, when personal control is low (Kay et al., 2009b(Kay et al., , 2010Landau et al., 2015). Previous studies have found that the circumstances in which individuals experience uncertainty and powerlessness, such as the pandemic, increase individuals' tendency to defend and support the external system of a higher power, especially the government (Landau et al., 2015). ...
... Kay et al. (2008) proposed a compensatory control mechanism to explain the system justification tendency; that is, people would have recourse to external systems of control to restore perceived control to a baseline, when personal control is low (Kay et al., 2009b(Kay et al., , 2010Landau et al., 2015). Previous studies have found that the circumstances in which individuals experience uncertainty and powerlessness, such as the pandemic, increase individuals' tendency to defend and support the external system of a higher power, especially the government (Landau et al., 2015). Thus, support for the national system, which is more powerful for pandemic control, could be better at providing compensatory control. ...
Article
Individuals increase their support for social systems in response to the threat, panic, and uncertainty that characterized the COVID‐19 pandemic. This could be because a powerful social system can compensate for a lack of control at the individual level. However, the levels of public support for national versus local systems could be different in China. Two studies investigate whether people support the national more strongly than the local system during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Study 1 analyzed data of 3593 participants from China; the results showed that participants reported higher levels of support for the national system than the local. In Study 2, we further tested a possible moderator for it. With a sample of 275 participants, we found that the difference between public support for national and local systems in China was based on the perceived higher response efficacy with the national government. Implications for research on system justification and governmental pandemic responses were discussed.
... P-values were calculated differently depending on how the authors of each meta-analysis presented their results, what effect size they reported, and the designs of the studies they included. In three cases (Fox et al., 2011;Landau et al., 2015;Sedlmeier et al., 2012), the authors reported effect sizes as Pearson r coefficients, even though the research area was in large part experimental. In these cases, the Pearson coefficients were entered into the p-value generator along with the sample size to acquire p-values at this link: https://www.socscistatistics.com/pvalues/pearsondistribution.aspx. ...
Article
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The purpose of the current work was to examine the evidentiary value of the studies that have been included in published meta-analyses as a way of investigating the evidentiary value of the meta-analyses themselves. The studies included in 25 meta-analyses published in the last 10 years in Psychological Bulletin that investigated experimental mean differences were z-curved. Z-curve is a meta-analytic technique that allows one to estimate the predicted replicability, average power, publication bias, and false discovery rate of a population of studies. The results of the z-curves estimated a substantial file drawer in three-quarters of the meta-analyses; and in one-third of the meta-analyses, up to half of the studies are not expected to replicate and up to one-fifth of the studies included could be false positives. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed, and caution in interpreting published meta-analyses is recommended.
... According to the existential motive (e.g., need of control), lacking control reinforces compensatory mechanisms that structure the environment and attribute agencies to restore control (Landau et al., 2015), e.g., after natural disasters or other societal crises ( van Prooijen & Douglas, 2017). Previous studies have demonstrated that conspiracist ideation (Abalakina-Paap et al., 1999) and religiosity (Coursey et al., 2013) are associated with higher external loci of control and that both concepts can be defensive strategies for compensatory control (Federico et al., 2018;Kay et al., 2010;Shepherd et al., 2011), depending on personal responsibilities that the religious persuasion promotes (Wood & Douglas, 2018). ...
Preprint
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Religious and conspiracy beliefs share the feature of assuming powerful forces that determine the fate of the world. Correspondingly, they have been theorized to address similar psychological needs and be based on similar cognitions, but there exist little authoritative answers about their relationship. We delineate two theory-driven possibilities. If conspiracy theories and religions serve as surrogates for each other by fulfilling similar needs, the two beliefs should be negatively correlated. If conspiracy and religious beliefs stem from the same values and cognitions, this would speak for a positive correlation that might be diminished—for example—by controlling for shared political ideologies. We approached the question with a meta-analysis (N = 10,242), partial correlations from large Christian-dominated datasets from Germany, Poland, and the USA (N = 12,612), and a preregistered US-study (N = 500). The results indicate that the correlations between religiosity and conspiracy theory endorsement were positive and political orientation shared large parts of this covariance. Correlations of religiosity with the more need-related conspiracy mentality differed between countries. We conclude that similarities in the explanatory style and ideologies seem to be central for the relation between intrinsic religiosity and endorsing conspiracy theories, but psychological needs only play a minor role.
... This can have two consequences. First, under environmental threat and unpredictability people form more cohesive groups [34][35][36][37][38] and increase their cooperative contribution to group survival and prosperity [39][40][41]. Second, and partly because of increased group cohesion and interdependency, group members distance themselves from other groups [36,37,42,43]. ...
Article
Peaceful coexistence and trade among human groups can be fragile and intergroup relations frequently transition to violent exchange and conflict. Here we specify how exogenous changes in groups' environment and ensuing carrying-capacity stress can increase individual participation in intergroup conflict, and out-group aggression in particular. In two intergroup contest experiments, individuals could contribute private resources to out-group aggression (versus in-group defense). Environmental unpredictability, induced by making non-invested resources subject to risk of destruction (versus not), created psychological stress and increased participation in and coordination of out-group attacks. Archival analyses of interstate conflicts showed, likewise, that sovereign states engage in revisionist warfare more when their pre-conflict economic and climatic environment were more volatile and unpredictable. Given that participation in conflict is wasteful, environmental unpredictability not only made groups more often victorious but also less wealthy. Macro-level changes in the natural and economic environment can be a root cause of out-group aggression and turn benign intergroup relations violent. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Intergroup conflict across taxa’.
... According to the existential motive (e.g., need of control), lacking control reinforces compensatory mechanisms that structure the environment and attribute agencies to restore control (Landau et al., 2015), for example, after natural disasters or other societal crises (van Prooijen & Douglas, 2017). Previous studies have demonstrated that conspiracist ideation (Abalakina-Paap et al., 1999) and religiosity (Coursey et al., 2013) are associated with higher external loci of control and that both concepts can be defensive strategies for compensatory control (Federico et al., 2018;Kay et al., 2010;Shepherd et al., 2011), depending on personal responsibilities that the religious persuasion promotes (Wood & Douglas, 2018). ...
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Religious and conspiracy beliefs share the feature of assuming powerful forces that determine the fate of the world. Correspondingly, they have been theorized to address similar psychological needs and to be based on similar cognitions, but there exist little authoritative answers about their relationship. We delineate two theory‐driven possibilities. If conspiracy theories and religions serve as surrogates for each other by fulfilling similar needs, the two beliefs should be negatively correlated. If conspiracy and religious beliefs stem from the same values and cognitions, this would speak for a positive correlation that might be diminished—for example—by controlling for shared political ideologies. We approached the question with a meta‐analysis (N = 10,242), partial correlations from large Christian‐dominated datasets from Germany, Poland, and the United States (N = 12,612), and a preregistered U.S. study (N = 500). The results indicate that the correlations between religiosity and conspiracy theory endorsement were positive, and political orientation shared large parts of this covariance. Correlations of religiosity with the more need‐related conspiracy mentality differed between countries. We conclude that similarities in the explanatory style and ideologies seem to be central for the relation between intrinsic religiosity and endorsing conspiracy theories, but psychological needs only play a minor role.
... Improving one's sense of control can reduce people's negative emotions such as anxiety, stress and depression (O'Connor and Shimizu, 2002;Kim and Fusco, 2015;Brandão et al., 2020). According to compensatory control theory, when an individual's sense of control is being threatened, he or she is motivated to restore control and devote themselves to improving their control through various actions (Kay et al., 2009;Landau et al., 2015). Therefore, we propose that negative emotions are often accompanied by a lack of control, which arouses an individual's need for control and corresponding action to restore it. ...
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Ritualistic consumption refers to integrating ritual elements into the process of product design and usage. By conducting three studies, we find that ritualistic consumption can offer new and interesting experiences and help consumers gain a sense of control. Both positive and negative emotions can promote ritualistic consumption tendencies. However, their underlying psychological mechanisms are different. Specifically, positive emotion can arouse consumers’ desire for interesting experience and thus promotes their preference for ritualistic consumption, while negative emotion can arouse consumers’ need for control and thus promote their preference for ritualistic consumption. Our research results offer a theoretical contribution and practical inspiration for emotional marketing.
... Compensatory control theory suggests that individuals are motivated to perceive themselves as having control over their lives, and experiences that frustrate or oppose this may lead some to compensate by seeking an epistemic structure to order their environments (Landau et al., 2015). For some the belief in a conspiracy theory that suggests powerful actors are coordinating in secret to hide the harmful side-effects of vaccinations may be desirable to a belief that may be the result of an overestimation or confirmation bias of vaccination dangers and harms (Meppelink et al., 2019). ...
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Rationale: Vaccinations are an important part of a public health strategy against preventable diseases, and uptake is influenced by factors including hesitancy. The belief of vaccine related misinformation including anti-vaccination conspiracy theories has been found to be associated with increased vaccine hesitancy. Objective: While research suggests that these conspiracy theory beliefs may arise to satisfy unmet needs such as restoring loss of personal control, somewhat ironically these anti-vaccination conspiracy theories may frustrate these needs. This study examined the causal relationships between vaccination hesitancy, vaccination conspiracy theories, and vaccination related powerlessness. Methods: Using a stationary random intercepts cross lagged panel model, we investigated the temporal ordering of vaccination hesitancy, powerlessness, and vaccination conspiracy theory beliefs in a sample of Australian adults (N = 500) in a longitudinal study with 5-timepoints over 4-months between June and October 2021. Results: Results from a random intercept cross-lagged model, that separates between-person stability from within-person change, suggested that increased belief in vaccination conspiracy theories was associated with future increases in vaccination hesitancy and powerlessness (but not vice versa). Findings also showed that increases in vaccination hesitancy and conspiracy theory beliefs predicted respective increases from a person's trait-level mean at subsequent timepoints. Conclusions: Vaccination conspiracy theories appear to increase vaccination powerlessness and hesitancy, rather than satisfying an unmet need for personal control.
... When contemplating one's own death awareness, people defensively look for ways to alleviate their death anxiety, sometimes in unrelated domains. In line with other paradigms of psychological threat (e.g., Landau et al., 2015;van den Bos, 2009), we argue that one way people respond to mortality salience is by either seeking out or by developing compensatory confi dence when such opportunities are available. For example, people often cope with mortality-related inductions by validating (i.e., affi rming confi dence in) their cultural worldviews (for a review, see Burke et al., 2010;2013;Greenberg et al., 2008;see also, Schindler et al., 2021, for a discussion). ...
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Background: The present study analyzes how attitudes can polarize after reminders of death in the context of persuasion, and proposes that a meta-cognitive process (i.e., self-validation) can serve as a compensatory coping mechanism to deal with mortality salience. Method: Participants were first asked to read either a strong or a weak resume of a job applicant. Next, they listed their initial thoughts about that applicant. Then, they were asked to think about of their own death (i.e., mortality salience condition) versus being asked to think about of being cold (i.e., control condition). Finally, participants reported the confidence in their thoughts, as well as their attitudes towards the applicant. Results: Participants who were assigned to the mortality salience (vs. control) condition showed greater impact of their previously generated thoughts on their subsequent attitudes. Additionally, as hypothesized, this effect of attitude polarization was mediated by changes in thought confidence. Conclusions: Attitudes unrelated to mortality can be polarized by reminders of death and this effect can operate through a meta-cognitive process of thought validation. Implications for persuasion, self-validation, and beyond are discussed.
... People have a fundamental need to control their surroundings; thus, they aspire to a world composed of predictable events (Landau et al. 2015). Structured social systems (from traditions and belief systems to social, economic, and political institutions) that arrange human interactions might be satisfying this need by giving people a sense of order (Jost & Hunyady, 2005). ...
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In the patriarchal system, men’s higher status in the gender hierarchy is maintained by various practices and beliefs promoting women’s subordination. Previous studies have shown that men especially engage in threat-compensation strategies when their manhood status is threatened either at personal or societal level. Sexual harassment is another form of gender discrimination that reproduces male domination and often prone to be neglected. This thesis aims to investigate men’s perceptions of sexual harassment under a threat to their advantaged position. For that aim, I conducted an online experiment with a community sample, including 227 participants. Participants were randomly assigned either to the control condition or to the gender hierarchy threat condition. Participants in the gender hierarchy threat condition read an ostensible news article summarizing that women’s power is on the rise both at home and in business, while those in the control condition read an irrelevant article. I expected that men who were exposed to gender hierarchy threat would tend to downplay the ambiguous sexual harassment cases, while the effect of the manipulation would be even greater for participants who had stronger gender identification and were more threatened by the subordination to women. The results have shown that men’s perceptions of sexual harassment were not affected by the threat, controlling for participants’ age, religiosity, political orientation, hostile and benevolent sexism levels. However, participants’ explanations on their sexual harassment judgments provided a rich information. I discussed the study findings and future research directions in light of the literature.
... En particulier, si le modèle intègre bien la TDC et partage une base similaire, il s'appuie finalement peu sur les études du champ. C'est peut-être la raison pour laquelle, si le GPMTD a généré de nombreuses discussions dans les champs de la consistance cognitive (e.g., Landau, Kay, & Whitson, 2015 ;Pyszczynski, Solomon, & Greenberg, 2015 ;Randles et al., 2015 ;Xu & McGregor, 2018), seuls quelques chercheurs dans le champ de la TDC mentionnent son existence (Harmon-Jones, Harmon-Jones, & Levy, 2015 ;McGregor, Newby-Clark, & Zanna, 2019 ;Vaidis & Bran, 2019). Notons cependant que les premiers travaux empiriques s'appuyant sur le GPMDT commencent à émerger et permettront peut-être de pallier cette limite empirique (e.g., Poppelaars, Bakker, & van Engelen, 2020 ;Reiss, Klackl, & Jonas, 2020). ...
Article
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Les modèles basés sur la consistance cognitive ont connu plusieurs développements récents qui replacent la théorie de la dissonance cognitive au cœur de nombreux débats. Si une partie des discussions revient sur les axiomes de la théorie de la dissonance cognitive, de nouveaux modèles suggèrent son intégration dans des ensembles plus larges. Afin de donner un regard complet sur ces nouvelles perspectives de recherche, nous développons quatre modèles particulièrement importants et issus de la dernière décennie : le Meaning Maintenance Model, le General Process Model of Threat and Defense, l’Expectancy-Value Model et le modèle des conflits psycho-logiques. Ces nouveaux modèles mobilisent tous la théorie de la dissonance cognitive pour l’intégrer, la réinterpréter ou la compléter. Par conséquent, ces perspectives sont susceptibles d’orienter son développement futur. Dans une première partie, nous présentons ces modèles en nous centrant sur leurs apports et limites pour la dissonance. Dans la seconde partie, nous discutons des questions de recherches, antérieures ou issues de cette nouvelle vague, qui restent à examiner.
... The aversive reaction is then the result of both the perceived threat to one's motivations and goals and to a decreasing ability to make meaningful sense of a changing and volatile social environment. People experiencing uncertainty and the aversive feelings that attend it will engage in actions to reduce it by initiating processes of compensatory control in an effort to imbue the world with order and predictability (33,34). ...
Article
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Global communities are currently confronted with a number of complex problems and threats, the reality of which is amplified by the media. These environmental and socio-political stressors have been accompanied by the spread of problematic psychological and behavioural tendencies, such as the growing polarisation of opinions and values, online radicalisation and extremism, deepening xenophobia and nationalism, the proliferation of irrational beliefs and conspiracy theories, and resistance to rational public policy measures. Here we argue that although they fall outside the scope of psychopathology, they nevertheless currently constitute a major challenge for psychiatry as a research domain and a clinical practise. To substantiate this claim, we outline the mechanisms by which media-transmitted stressors impact mental well-being and possibly psychopathology. The common denominator of these global problems and the media's construction of reality is the increase in uncertainty, unpredictability, and uncontrollability, which prompts defensive responding and, in predisposed individuals, functions as a potent source of chronic stress. These contribute to cognitive inflexibility, a strong predisposing factor for the development of rigid beliefs and attitudes, which to varying degrees underlie the adverse psychological and behavioural tendencies mentioned above. We suggest that the tightening of beliefs and ideas that is the result of cognitive rigidity may correspond to the clinical characteristics of induced delusional disorder. This can be seen as a (ultimately maladaptive) defensive strategy for coping with a high degree of uncertainty and unpredictability. We conclude by briefly outlining the possible ways in which psychiatry can face this challenge.
... High risk and realization of the threat direct people to adhere to the measures taken by governments during the process of the fight with pandemics (7,8). In other words, when people feel that they have lost their control on their own lives, they tend to adapt to the macro measures to satisfy their needs (9). In the pandemic period when personal control is insufficient, people's perceptions of trust in resources such as government and health authorities, which are expected to provide macro control, are important in terms of adapting to measures in the fight against the pandemic (10). ...
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Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of trust in politicians and perceptions of macro control on positive and negative attitudes towards vaccines during the Covid-19 pandemic process. Method: This is a cross-sectional field study. 1198 Turkish citizens at the age of 18 and over filled out an online questionnaire between May 6 and June 6, 2021. The questionnaire form consists of the scales of Trust in Politicians, Perception of Pandemic Macro Control, Attitudes towards Vaccines in addition to the demographic variables. In the analysis of the data, frequency, reliability, correlation, and regression analyzes were performed using the SPSS V.26 program, respectively. Results: Trust in politicians during the pandemic process has a statistically significant and positive effect on the perception of pandemic macro control. While trust in politicians and perception of pandemic macro control have a statistically significant and positive effect on positive attitude towards vaccines, they have a negative effect on a negative attitude towards vaccines. Conclusion: It was concluded that the trust in politicians and the perception of the adequacy of macro control measures taken by governments play an important role in people's adopting a positive attitude towards the developed vaccines to fight against the Covid-19, which has turned into a global pandemic.
... Hence, individuals are strongly motivated to feel they have control of their own choices and are empowered (Wathieu et al., 2002) and to avoid the belief that they lack control (Landau et al., 2015). Such motivation is observed, because perceiving the world as uncertain is more psychologically stressful (Roth & Cohen, 1986;Sapolsky, 1994). ...
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Prior research has established a link between lacking control over one's life, the resulting stress, and the maladaptive outcome of eating disorders. However, such research has left unexamined the exact link among perceptions of control, stress, and unhealthy food choices. This study aims to fill this gap by identifying the exact sequence linking these variables and explaining why stress induced by low control leads to engagement in vice food consumption. Based on self‐licensing theory, we predict that a perceived lack of control indirectly prompts people to engage in vice food and beverage consumption, because a lack of control leads to higher personal stress and, consequently, a need to escape through self‐indulgence. Across one survey‐based study in France and two experiments (in the United States and the United Kingdom), we find consistent support for our hypothesis. The results support the prediction that a perceived lack of control increases the consumption of unhealthy foods and beverages. Specifically, when consumers feel a lack of control over their life, they experience stress, seek an escape from this stress, and end up self‐indulging through the consumption of vice food and beverages. For public policy‐makers and brand managers, the results suggest that having people perceive more control over their life is of particular importance to staying healthy.
... According to CCT (Landau et al., 2015), individuals experiencing self-discrepancies can try several strategies to regain a sense of personal control. This line of reasoning suggests that self-discrepancies trigger the needs to engage in various forms of compensatory behaviors. ...
Article
This study examines the negative consequences of perceived isolation and its influence on intentions to travel and visit hospitality businesses. Drawing on compensatory control theory, we explore the multi-faceted effects of perceived isolation (e.g., functional, emotional, and social loss) on subsequent within-domain (e.g., functional loss–functional compensation) and cross-domain (e.g., functional loss–social/emotional compensation) compensatory needs, which eventually drive intentions to seek experiential consumptions. We conduct this research via a two-phase design, each of which involves a national consumer panel of U.S. adults (Phase 1 = 840; Phase 2 = 1087) who have participated in “shelter-in-place”/ “stay-at-home” ordinances during the national lockdown. Across two phases, we find that perceived isolation leads to compensatory needs and intentions for travel and hospitality consumption. Our study also reveals the dynamics between two-phase models regarding the within and cross-domain compensation pathways and the effect on experiential consumption intentions.
... It might be perceived as not actually regaining control, but it serves exactly this purpose: It helps individuals to gain a sense of control, for example, by inhibiting unfulfillable expectations, by perceiving illusory control through the ascription of "chance" to others, or by achieving vicarious control by attributing control to powerful others they identify with, such as powerful leaders. Thus, secondary control can be achieved via specific attributions of control to powerful others and also by affirming nonspecific structure (Landau et al., 2015;Whitson & Galinsky, 2008). ...
Article
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This work examines the influence of personal control and anxiety on stereotyping and prejudice. In two experiments, personal control was manipulated in an autobiographical experience task. In Experiment 1, participants then completed measures of implicit and explicit gender stereotypes. In Experiment 2, implicit and explicit racial prejudice was assessed. Anxiety was tested as a possible mediator of the relationship between personal control and stereotyping and prejudice, respectively. Low personal control was associated with greater gender stereotyping and racial prejudice in explicit measures. Anxiety mediated the relationship between personal control and stereotyping but not between personal control and prejudice. Also, ingroup identification was found to moderate some of the relations between personal control, anxiety and stereotyping and prejudice. The results provide support for stereotyping and prejudice as compensatory control mechanisms, but evidence is mixed regarding the role of anxiety in mediating the processes.
... Much of the initial wave of CCT research sought to demonstrate this by connecting personal control motivations to specific types of religious and political beliefs. It also focused on delineating the moderators and mediators of CCT effects, teasing it apart from related theories and examining the presumed mechanisms (for reviews of most of this first wave of work, see (Kay et al., 2009;Landau et al., 2015). The dependent measures in these studies centered on "big" issues (e.g., belief in god), but their direct connection to issues of social justice-inequality, prejudice, stereotyping, morality and ethics-was opaque at best. ...
... Epistemic need referred to people's motivation to maintain certainty, consistency, and accuracy in their understanding of the world (10,11). The term "existential need" is used to describe people's need to feel safe, secure, and in control of their environment (12) while social need referred to people's drive to uphold a favorable and positive social image of themselves and the community to which they belong (13). ...
Preprint
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Introduction The non-endemic multicountry outbreak of monkeypox (MPX) has emphasized the issue of conspiracy theories that go viral in times of societal crisis. Now, it is the turn of MPX to join COVID19 in the conspiracy theory realm. Social media outlets were flooded by a scourge of misinformation as soon as MPX cases began to appear with an evident cross-pollination between diverse conspiracy theories. Given the adverse consequences of conspiracy beliefs, this study aimed to assess the extent of endorsement of MPX conspiracy beliefs among the Lebanese population and to identify its associated factors. Methods Using a convenience sampling technique, a web-based cross-sectional was conducted among Lebanese adults. Data was collected using an Arabic self-reported questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify the factors associated with the MPX conspiracy beliefs scale. Results Conspiracy beliefs regarding emerging viruses including MPX were detected among 59.1% of Lebanese adults. Participants endorsed particularly the conspiracy theories linking the virus to a deliberate attempt to reduce the size of the global population (59.6%), gain political control (56.6%) or pharmaceutical companies' financial gain (39.3%), in addition to the manmade origin of MPX (47.5%). Remarkably, the majority of surveyed adults exhibited a negative attitude toward the government's preparedness for a potential MPX outbreak. However, a positive attitude was revealed toward the effectiveness of precautionary measures (69.6%). Female participants and those having a good health status were less likely to exhibit a higher level of conspiracy beliefs. On the contrary, divorced or widowed adults, those having a low economic situation, poor knowledge level, and negative attitude either toward the government or precautionary measures were more prone to disclose a higher level of conspiracy beliefs. Notably, participants relying on social media to get information about MPX were also more likely to have a higher level of conspiracy beliefs compared to their counterparts. Conclusion The widespread extent of conspiracy beliefs endorsement regarding MPX among the Lebanese population urged the policymakers to find ways to reduce people’s reliance on these theories. Future studies exploring the harmful impacts of conspiracy beliefs on health behaviors are recommended.
... Economic anxiety is nothing but a state of insecurity that incites individuals and business owners to stay away from it by creating a safe environment to protect themselves from threatening future events [61][62][63][64][65][66]. ...
... ‫ٖلُا‬ ‫عوخُت‬ ‫٢ىة‬ ‫ؤًت‬ " ‫الخٗضصًت‬ ‫بحن‬ ‫له‬ ‫عئٍتها‬ ‫في‬ ‫وجخٗضص‬ ‫لئلله،‬ ‫جىنُٟها‬ ‫في‬ ‫جدىىٕ‬ ‫ألاصًان‬ ‫ؤن‬ ‫بط‬ ‫ؤلاًمان،‬ ‫لظل٪‬ ‫جبدشه‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ؤمغ‬ ‫وهى‬ ‫والخىخُضًت،‬ ‫الىع٢ت.‬ ‫هظه‬ 3 - ‫هٟترى‬ ‫ولظل٪‬ - ‫الخ٣ل‬ ‫هظا‬ ‫في‬ ‫ألا٧اصًمي‬ ‫الخىٓحر‬ ‫بلى‬ ً ‫اؾدىاصا‬ - ‫وظىص‬ ‫همؿُت‬ ‫بًيُت‬ ‫هفظُت‬ ‫ليُت‬ ‫ناإلاُت‬ ‫بهغٝ‬ ، ً ‫ٖمىما‬ (Landau et. al., 2015) . (Rothbaum, et. al., 1982) .‫ًغي‬ ً ‫ا‬ ‫مؿخ٣غ‬ ً ‫ٖلمُا‬ ً ‫ؤًا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ض‬ ّ ‫ول‬ ‫البدثي‬‫الخٗىٍطخي‬ Figure 1. Mean endorsement of God as controller or creator as a function of personal control . Figure-2 ) (Kay & Sullivan, 2013) . Fig. 2. Mean belief in a controlling God as a function of self-reported anxiety and condition (LPC: low p ...
Article
Across eight studies, we investigated why so many people across different cultures and religious traditions ground morality and God, and why beliefs in God as a supreme moral authority increase in response to perceived injustices in the world. We found consistent correlational evidence that the dispositional need for structure in everyday life is positively related to belief in God as a moral authority (Studies 1, 2, 3a, 3b, and 6), especially among those individuals who are more certain that God is infallible (Studies 3a and 3b). While divine morality was consistently related to the need for structure, beliefs about other possible moral authorities (parents, the U.S. Constitution) were not (Study 2). Using experimental manipulations (Studies 4a, 4b, and 5), we found that grounding morality in God can serve a compensatory function in the face of perceived injustice, such that believing that God is a moral authority increases upon exposure to injustice. This particular supernatural belief may restore impressions of structure and order in the world (Study 5). We discuss the implications of our findings for psychological theories of structure-seeking, how people cope with injustice, and religious and moral beliefs more broadly.
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Under uncertainty, leaders who possess dark triad personality traits seem able to attain leadership positions. We draw on uncertainty-identity theory and dark triad research to explore the effect of self-uncertainty on leadership motivation. Uncertainty-identity theory predicts that people can reduce self-uncertainty by identifying with groups and following their leaders, which suggests that self-uncertainty reduces people's own leadership motivation. However, individuals high in dark triad traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) have such a powerful drive for dominance over others that their leadership motivation may be unaffected by self-uncertainty. To test these predictions, we conducted four studies (Ns = 2,641, 421, 513, and 400). We found that self-uncertainty reduced leadership motivation for individuals low in the dark triad. In contrast, those high in the dark triad had an elevated leadership motivation that remained unaltered when they were self-uncertain. These effects were mediated by participants' negative affect. We discuss the implications of these findings.
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Zusammenfassung. Zahlreiche Studien weisen darauf hin, dass Menschen ein Grundbedürfnis nach Kontrolle haben. Die Theorie der kognizierten Kontrolle definiert ein Kontrollerleben als die Möglichkeit oder Wahrnehmung, Phänomene erklären, vorhersagen und / oder beeinflussen zu können. Aus Sicht der Autor_innen kann diese Theorie einen aufschlussreichen Beitrag zur Analyse des Aufstiegs der nationalsozialistischen Bewegung in Deutschland und der Akklamation weiter Teile der Bevölkerung leisten. Das Ende des Ersten Weltkriegs und die Jahre der Weimarer Republik waren geprägt von gravierenden Krisenerscheinungen, die vor dem Hintergrund der gesellschaftlich verbreiteten Wahrnehmungs- und Einstellungsmuster bei weiten Teilen der damaligen deutschen Bevölkerung das Erleben eines Kontrollverlustes auslösten. Gleichzeitig verliehen Hitler und die nationalsozialistische Bewegung diesem Erleben Ausdruck, dramatisierten es, griffen mit einfachen „Erklärungen“ und „Lösungen“ damals verbreitete Vorurteile und Sehnsüchte auf und stellten die kognizierte Kontrolle in der Wahrnehmung weiter Bevölkerungskreise nach ihrer „Machtergreifung“ durch ihre Aktivitäten und Propaganda wieder her. Auf Grundlage der Theorie der kognizierten Kontrolle werden die Etablierung der nationalsozialistischen Diktatur, ihre Akzeptanz und Unterstützung durch weite Teile der deutschen Bevölkerung in einem systematischen Rahmen analysiert. Zudem bietet die Theorie in Bezug auf gegenwärtige Entwicklungen hin zu antiliberalen Gesellschaften und Regimen einen aufschlussreichen Analyserahmen und Anhaltspunkte für die Prävention solcher Entwicklungen.
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Background: As a natural and continual process, the initial learning stages encompass mastering and recalling basic facts. The process proves effective with the integration of new information with pre-existing knowledge characterised as schema to facilitate memory encoding. Additionally, emotions also have the ability to modulate human cognition in terms of learning and memory. The recent advent of gamification in e-learning, which has garnered much scholarly and industrial interest, necessitates a thorough examination between video-based learning and its subsequent implications on schema, emotions, and gamification. Objectives: The current multidisciplinary research triangulated cognitive psychology, affective science, and education technology with artificial intelligence for evaluating digital learning pedagogy based on memory retrieval accuracy, response time, and emotional valence. Design: This three-way (2 x 2 x 2) mixed factorial experiment design with repeated measures entailed 64 healthy young adult volunteers (n = 64) with 32 in the schema congruent group and 32 in the schema incongruent group. Additionally, 27 (42%) of the volunteers were males, while 37 (58%) were females with an age range between 20 and 39 years old (mean age 27.78 years, SD = 4.77 years). Results: The findings demonstrate that the schema congruent group attained a statistically significant and higher retrieval accuracy (p
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Past research suggests that social, psychological and biological processes underlying common health problems are highly interrelated and may be comonents of a larger biopsychosocial process. This process may be influenced by marital status. The current study investigated a biopsychosocial process involving social, psychological and physcial health problems over the second half of the life course, comparing women who were mothers with different marital histories (e.g., consistently married, married to divorced) and investigated the association between this biopsychosocial process and marital stress for consistantly maried women over the middle years. The current study used structural equation modeling to assess this biopsychosocial process longitudinally using prospective data over 25 years from a sample of 416 women. The results showed that compared to being married, divorcing in early midlife contributed to an adverse biopsychosocial process for women, including physical pain, physical limitations, and depressive symptoms over their mid-later years, regardless of later recoupling. For consistently married mothers, both marital stress and financial stress uniquely influenced biological and psychological problems throughout their mid-later years, and these health problems also selected mothers into further escalating financial and marital stress. Elucidating differential short- and long-term health influences of competing marital and financial stressors for divorced and married mothers provides valuable information for targeted economic and relationship intervention efforts and policy formation. Such interventions can reduce family stressors and develop resiliency factors, thereby preventing the escalation of biopsychosocial processes in middle-aged mothers.
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Medical diagnoses offer a structure by which psychological uncertainty can be attenuated, allowing patients to diminish imposing psychological threats and focus on health prognosis. Yet when no diagnosis can be made, patients may experience diagnostic uncertainty - their perceptions that the medical field is unable to provide an accurate explanation of the cause of their health problems. The present paper examines the psychological threat that diagnostic uncertainty imposes on the individual's need for control and understanding, and the resulting consequences experienced by patients, parents of pediatric patients, and physicians when the lack of diagnosis makes their worlds seem random. Using compensatory control theory (CCT) (Kay et al., 2008) as a framework, we propose a taxonomy of behaviors that people may adopt in order to regain control in the face of diagnostic uncertainty and to reaffirm that the world is not random and chaotic. To manage diagnostic uncertainty, these individuals may bolster their personal agency, affiliate with external systems that they see as acting in their interest, affirm clear connections between behaviors and outcomes, and affirm nonspecific epistemic structure. Diagnostic uncertainty is approached from the perspectives of patients, parents of pediatric patients, and physicians, demonstrating how each group responds in order to maintain a sense that the world has structure and is not random. Discussion centers on moderators, limitations, and implications for clinical practice.
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We review recent research on the well-established relationship between sense of control and conspiracy perceptions, identifying challenges and promising new directions. First, we examine recent efforts to distinguish sense of control from adjacent but confounding psychological constructs (including uncertainty, threat, and powerlessness). Second, we discuss the limitations of experimentally manipulating sense of control and the trend toward natural experiments. Finally, we consider boundary conditions that moderate the relationship and clarify the types of conspiracy perceptions that sense of control predicts. By integrating past findings to more precisely define sense of control and its effects on cognition, we hope to identify productive avenues for future research.
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Violence against healthcare professionals is a serious but understudied global problem and one that lacks evidence‐based solutions. The current research offers a novel explanation and intervention for addressing this issue: We propose that low feelings of control among patients and their family members play an important role in shaping doctor‐patient relationships. To regain a sense of control, we suggest that patients attribute responsibility to doctors for their suffering, which may in turn lead to aggressive behavioural intentions against one's doctors. We conducted three studies to understand whether individuals with low perceived control blame doctors more, and whether threats to their sense of control cause participants to attribute more responsibility to doctors. Study 1 found that feelings of lack of control were an important predictor of attributing responsibility for negative illness‐related incidents to doctors in a manner consistent with blame. Study 2 specified that the chaotic and unpredictable nature of illness, and not just its negative valence, is what drives attributions of increased responsibility to doctors. Study 3, which utilized a field setting in hospitals, found that an experimental intervention to increase feelings of control decreased frustration against (Study 3a/3b) and intention to harm doctors (Study 3b). These findings suggest that increasing feelings of control among patients can improve patient‐doctor relationships. We also discuss the role of control and scapegoating during the COVID‐19 pandemic.
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A hometown is the place to which an individual has an affective bond resulting from either being born there or living there for lived for a long time. This article investigates people's intention to support the revival of tourism in their hometowns post-COVID-19. The research hypothesises that individuals are affected by the threat to ontological security, freedom of movement, and freedom of information, and this synthetic threat will affect their intention to support their hometown. Based on compensatory control theory and psychological reactance theory, the study investigates how the need to belong, combined with psychological reactance, reveals the underlying mechanisms of perceived threat on intention to support one's hometown. The survey responses from 658 residents in China were analysed using a structural equation model. The results showed that the perceived threat has a positive effect on intention to support one's hometown and need to belong mediates that relationship. Instead, despite perceived threat to their freedom, residents did not report psychological reactance when faced with hometown appeals. These results could help destinations to revive in the post-pandemic era; destination management organisations, especially in China, should be able to appeal to residents for promotional support without expecting psychological reactance.
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Drawing on uncertainty theory, this study examines how to boost travel intention by analyzing the impacts of uncertainty on the effectiveness of destination marketing messages. Three studies (including four scenario-based experiments and five pretests) were employed to examine these impacts. Study 1 demonstrated that travel outcome uncertainty impacts travel intentions and revealed controllability and mood state as parallel and serial mediators. Study 2 showed that a combination of low (vs. high) uncertainty and gain (vs. loss) framing leads to higher travel intentions. The results further show that in the temporal distance condition, the effect of message framing is attenuated. Study 3 revealed that a combination of low (vs. high) uncertainty and hedonic (vs. utilitarian) attributes increased travel intentions. The research also provides practical implications for global tourism marketers to lower the uncertainty barrier.
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Conspiracy theories have accrued around recent world events, and many of them have been endorsed by leaders seeking to garner support. Drawing from compensatory control theory, we argue a reduced sense of control will increase support for leaders who use conspiratorial rhetoric. Moreover, we posit that the congruence between one's political identity and a leader's conspiratorial rhetoric is an important consideration with regard to when this effect will emerge. Studies 1a and 1b established causality by directly manipulating sense of control and finding greater support for conspiratorial leaders in the lacking vs. having control condition. Studies 2 and 3 examined the effects of real-world events that are posited to reduce a sense of control, along with the moderating effect of political identity. Study 2 showed, in two waves collected before and during COVID-19 lockdowns, that the lockdowns reduced a sense of control. Congruently, individuals supported leaders espousing a COVID-19 conspiracy theory more during the lockdowns than before. In addition, for leaders espousing conspiratorial rhetoric related to paid protests, Republicans exhibited greater support during than before the lockdown; however, the lockdown did not affect Democrats' support. Study 3 showed, in two waves collected before and after the 2020 U.S. Presidential election, that Biden supporters felt greater control after the election and decreased their support for conspiratorial leaders. Trump supporters' sense of control did not change, and concurrently they did not change their support for conspiratorial leaders. Implications are discussed for leadership during times of crisis and beyond.
Article
Individuals seek and value choice freedom, firms provide consumers ever‐increasing opportunities to exercise it, citizens worry about protecting their right to choose freely, and scholars across different disciplines study the topic around the globe. We adopt a consumer psychology perspective to systematize the vast literature on choice freedom, and we present a framework to examine the relationship between choice freedom and personal and societal well‐being. We begin by proposing choice freedom as an antecedent of autonomy and personal control and by clarifying the meaning of these interrelated constructs. We then use autonomy and personal control as separate processes to explain benefits and limits of choice freedom for well‐being, and we review interventions that mitigate the limits. Finally, we discuss future research questions related to autonomy and personal control. Whereas extant literature focuses on the presence of freedom and on the relationship between choice freedom and the individual, we reflect on the extent to which consumers actually have freedom of choice and on the role of others in the provision and exercise of choice freedom.
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When deciding between options that do or do not lead to future choices, humans often choose to choose. We studied choice seeking by asking subjects to decide between a choice opportunity or performing a computer-selected action. Subjects preferred choice when these options were equally rewarded, even deterministically, and were willing to trade extrinsic rewards for the opportunity to choose. We explained individual variability in choice seeking using reinforcement learning models incorporating risk sensitivity and overvaluation of rewards obtained through choice. Degrading perceived controllability diminished choice preference, although willingness to repeat selection of choice opportunities remained unchanged. In choices following these repeats, subjects were sensitive to rewards following freely chosen actions, but ignored environmental information in a manner consistent with a desire to maintain personal control. Choice seeking appears to reflect the intrinsic need for personal control, which competes with extrinsic reward properties and external information to motivate behavior. Author summary Human decisions can often be explained by the balancing of potential rewards and punishments. However, some research suggests that humans also prefer opportunities to choose, even when these have no impact on future rewards or punishments. Thus, opportunities to choose may be intrinsically motivating, although this has never been experimentally tested against alternative explanations such as cognitive dissonance or exploration. We conducted behavioral experiments and used computational modelling to provide compelling evidence that choice opportunities are indeed intrinsically rewarding. Moreover, we found that human choice preference varied according to individual risk attitudes, and expressed a need for personal control that competes with maximizing reward intake.
Article
The current study suggests an effective compensatory control strategy using partitioning experiential consumption that can be implemented into consumers’ daily activities. Across four experiments, we examined the effects of partitioned (vs. aggregated) message formats and financial anxiety on sense of control, subjective well-being, and ad attitudes. Specifically, our findings indicated that consumers with higher (vs. lower) levels of financial anxiety respond more favorably toward partitioned (vs. aggregated) experiential messages. Our results provide timely contributions for researchers and practitioners who are interested in understanding and implementing advertising and marketing strategies in the digital landscape with improving consumers’ well-being in mind.
Article
Although personal control is a fundamental human need, research has not yet systematically examined how it functions in consumer and marketplace settings. This article reviews and integrates the existing research on the topic to provide a greater understanding of how personal control and consumer behavior shape and inform one another. We first integrate multiple streams of research to discuss the conceptualization and antecedents of personal control. We then propose an organizing framework that identifies two ways in which feelings of low control shape consumer behavior: through motivating consumers to look for a sense of order and structure in their consumption environments and through motivating consumers to use consumption activities to reestablish feelings of control. We close by highlighting several future research directions for advancing the current understanding of how personal control and marketing relate.
Article
Consumers often base their judgments on a no-pain, no-gain principle—that is, one must pay a cost in order to achieve a beneficial outcome. For example, they infer the quality of a product from its price and judge a bad-tasting medicine to be more effective than a tasty one. Although the use of this principle to infer the value of a product or service has been observed in several domains, the processes that underlie its use have not been fully explored. We find that when people feel out of control, they tend to use the principle because it exemplifies a causal relationship between actions and outcomes and endorsing it reaffirms their belief that they have control over the outcomes of their behavior. Our findings have implications for how marketers might position products and services to attract consumers who perceive themselves as having different levels of control.
Article
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Although the individualism–collectivism dimension is usually examined in a U.S. versus Asian context, there is variation within the United States. The authors created an eight-item index ranking states in terms of collectivist versus individualist tendencies. As predicted, collectivist tendencies were strongest in the Deep South, and individualist tendencies were strongest in the Mountain West and Great Plains. In Part 2, convergent validity for the index was obtained by showing that state collectivism scores predicted variation in individual attitudes, as measured by a national survey. In Part 3, the index was used to explore the relationship between individualism–collectivism and a variety of demographic, economic, cultural, and health-related variables. The index may be used to complement traditional measures of collectivism and individualism and may be of use to scholars seeking a construct to account for unique U.S. regional variation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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Because 1 function of categorization is to provide structure and control to social interactions and because individuals differ in the extent to which they desire control and structure, individual differences in personal need for structure (PNS) should moderate the extent to which people categorize. Spontaneous trait inferences (STIs) were used to assess the use of traits in categorization. High-PNS Ss were more likely to form STIs and more likely to recall names of target actors in the stimulus sentences. This research provides evidence for the organization of behavioral information in person nodes in circumstances where processing goals did not explicitly request such organization. It also provides a link between the examination of chronic sources of motivation and social categorization, perhaps the most fundamental social-cognitive variable.
Chapter
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The social psychological literature on threat and defense is fragmented. Groups of researchers have focused on distinct threats, such as mortality, uncertainty, uncontrollability, or meaninglessness, and have developed separate theoretical frameworks for explaining the observed reactions. In the current chapter, we attempt to integrate old and new research, proposing both a taxonomy of variation and a common motivational process underlying people’s reactions to threats. Following various kinds of threats, people often turn to abstract conceptions of reality—they invest more extremely in belief systems and worldviews, social identities, goals, and ideals. We suggest that there are common motivational processes that underlie the similar reactions to all of these diverse kinds of threats. We propose that (1) all of the threats present people with discrepancies that immediately activate basic neural processes related to anxiety. (2) Some categories of defenses are more proximal and symptom-focused, and result directly from anxious arousal and heightened attentional vigilance associated with anxious states. (3) Other kinds of defenses operate more distally and mute anxiety by activating approach-oriented states. (4) Depending on the salient dispositional and situational affordances, these distal, approach-oriented reactions vary in the extent to which they (a) resolve the original discrepancy or are merely palliative; (b) are concrete or abstract; (c) are personal or social. We present results from social neuroscience and standard social psychological experiments that converge on a general process model of threat and defense.
Article
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This article examines the influence of environmental orderliness on consumers' self-regulation. It is proposed that a disorganized environment threatens the individual's sense of personal control. Because experiencing this control threat depletes resources, individuals exposed to a disorganized (vs. organized) environment are more likely to exhibit self-regulatory failure in subsequent tasks. The results from four studies provide support for this hypothesis. Further, they offer evidence of the underlying process by demonstrating that a perceived threat to control mediates the effect of environmental orderliness on self-regulation, and that providing individuals with an opportunity to recoup their resources mitigates this effect. This research has crucial practical implications concerning public health and consumer well-being.
Article
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Social psychologists commonly demonstrate the following effect: threaten people's beliefs or goals, and they will engage in a typical array of compensation behaviors. Often, these behaviors involve the affirmation of alternative beliefs or goals, which may or may not be relevant to the commitments that were threatened. Just as often, an aversive state is assumed to follow from the experience of the threat, which is understood to motivate the compensation efforts. Despite the analogous qualities of these effects, there are many different theories within the "threat-compensation" literature purporting to explain some or all of the analogous phenomena. In this introduction to the special issue ("Threat-Compensation in Social Psychology: Is There a Core Motivation"), I will outline the rationale for potentially understanding these effects as following from a common psychological mechanism. I will also introduce the contributors to the special issue, who represent several prominent "threat-compensation" perspectives.
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Why are people motivated to support social systems that claim to distribute resources based on hard work and effort, even when those systems seem unfair? Recent research on compensatory control shows that lowered perceptions of personal control motivate a greater endorsement of external systems (e.g., God, government) that compensate for a lack of personal control. The present studies demonstrate that U.S. citizens' faith in a popular economic ideology, namely the belief that hard work guarantees success (i.e., meritocracy), similarly increases under conditions of decreased personal control. We found that a threat to personal control increased participants' endorsement of meritocracy (Studies 1 and 2). Additionally, lowered perceptions of control led to increased feelings of anxiety regarding the future, but the subsequent endorsement of (Study 2) or exposure to (Study 3) meritocracy attenuated this effect. While the compensatory use of meritocracy may be a phenomenon unique to the United States of America, these studies provide important insight into the appeal and persistence of ideologies in general.
Article
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Several prominent theories spanning clinical, social and developmental psychology suggest that people are motivated to see the world as a sensible orderly place. These theories presuppose that randomness is aversive because it is associated with unpredictability. If this is the case, thinking that the world is random should lead to increased anxiety and heightened monitoring of one’s actions and their consequences. Here, we conduct experimental tests of both of these ideas. Participants read one of three passages: (i) comprehensible order, (ii) incomprehensible order and (iii) randomness. In Study 1, we examined the effects of these passages on self-reported anxiety. In Study 2, we examined the effects of the same manipulation on the error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related brain potential associated with performance monitoring. We found that messages about randomness increased self-reported anxiety and ERN amplitude relative to comprehensible order, whereas incomprehensible order had intermediate effects. These results lend support to the theoretically important idea that randomness is unsettling because it implies that the world is unpredictable.
Article
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We propose the Selfish Goal model, which holds that a person's behavior is driven by psychological processes called goals that guide his or her behavior, at times in contradictory directions. Goals can operate both consciously and unconsciously, and when activated they can trigger downstream effects on a person's information processing and behavioral possibilities that promote only the attainment of goal end-states (and not necessarily the overall interests of the individual). Hence, goals influence a person as if the goals themselves were selfish and interested only in their own completion. We argue that there is an evolutionary basis to believe that conscious goals evolved from unconscious and selfish forms of pursuit. This theoretical framework predicts the existence of unconscious goal processes capable of guiding behavior in the absence of conscious awareness and control (the automaticity principle ), the ability of the most motivating or active goal to constrain a person's information processing and behavior toward successful completion of that goal (the reconfiguration principle ), structural similarities between conscious and unconscious goal pursuit (the similarity principle ), and goal influences that produce apparent inconsistencies or counterintuitive behaviors in a person's behavior extended over time (the inconsistency principle ). Thus, we argue that a person's behaviors are indirectly selected at the goal level but expressed (and comprehended) at the individual level.
Chapter
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The social psychological literature on threat and defense is fragmented. Groups of researchers have focused on distinct threats, such as mortality, uncertainty, uncontrollability, or meaninglessness, and have developed separate theoretical frameworks for explaining the observed reactions. In the current chapter, we attempt to integrate old and new research, proposing both a taxonomy of variation and a common motivational process underlying people’s reactions to threats. Following various kinds of threats, people often turn to abstract conceptions of reality—they invest more extremely in belief systems and worldviews, social identities, goals, and ideals. We suggest that there are common motivational processes that underlie the similar reactions to all of these diverse kinds of threats. We propose that (1) all of the threats present people with discrepancies that immediately activate basic neural processes related to anxiety. (2) Some categories of defenses are more proximal and symptom-focused, and result directly from anxious arousal and heightened attentional vigilance associated with anxious states. (3) Other kinds of defenses operate more distally and mute anxiety by activating approach-oriented states. (4) Depending on the salient dispositional and situational affordances, these distal, approach-oriented reactions vary in the extent to which they (a) resolve the original discrepancy or are merely palliative; (b) are concrete or abstract; (c) are personal or social. We present results from social neuroscience and standard social psychological experiments that converge on a general process model of threat and defense.
Article
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Growing evidence indicates that religious belief helps individuals to cope with stress and anxiety. But is this effect specific to supernatural beliefs, or is it a more general function of belief - including belief in science? We developed a measure of belief in science and conducted two experiments in which we manipulated stress and existential anxiety. In Experiment 1, we assessed rowers about to compete (high-stress condition) and rowers at a training session (low-stress condition). As predicted, rowers in the high-stress group reported greater belief in science. In Experiment 2, participants primed with mortality (vs. participants in a control condition) reported greater belief in science. In both experiments, belief in science was negatively correlated with religiosity. Thus, some secular individuals may use science as a form of "faith" that helps them to deal with stressful and anxiety-provoking situations.
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Lacking control causes illusory pattern perception, but does culture influence the patterns people perceive? Different cultural contexts invite distinct types of control, with people from Western cultures emphasizing primary control methods (i.e., personal agency) and people from East Asian cultures emphasizing secondary control methods (i.e., adjustment to surroundings). Four experiments suggest that cultural differences in primary versus secondary control orientation shape the patterns people perceive within horoscopes. When lacking (vs. possessing) control, Westerners are relatively more likely to rely on horoscopes that help them understand themselves, whereas East Asians are relatively more likely to rely on horoscopes that help them understand others. The authors isolate underlying mechanisms, demonstrating that, following loss of control, people high on primary control rely on self-focused horoscopes and people high on secondary control rely on horoscopes about friends. Thus, cultural differences in primary versus secondary control create unique signatures in pattern perception.
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This article offers objectification theory as a framework for understanding the experiential consequences of being female in a culture that sexually objectifies the female body. Objectification theory posits that girls and women are typically acculturated to internalize an observer's perspective as a primary view of their physical selves. This perspective on self can lead to habitual body monitoring, which, in turn, can increase women's opportunities for shame and anxiety, reduce opportunities for peak motivational states, and diminish awareness of internal bodily states. Accumulations of such experiences may help account for an array of mental health risks that disproportionately affect women: unipolar depression, sexual dysfunction, and eating disorders. Objectification theory also illuminates why changes in these mental health risks appear to occur in step with life-course changes in the female body.
Article
Journals tend to publish only statistically significant evidence, creating a scientific record that markedly overstates the size of effects. We provide a new tool that corrects for this bias without requiring access to nonsignificant results. It capitalizes on the fact that the distribution of significant p values, p-curve, is a function of the true underlying effect. Researchers armed only with sample sizes and test results of the published findings can correct for publication bias. We validate the technique with simulations and by reanalyzing data from the Many-Labs Replication project. We demonstrate that p-curve can arrive at conclusions opposite that of existing tools by reanalyzing the meta-analysis of the “choice overload” literature.
Article
Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes. (21/2 p ref)
Article
Studied personality as a conditioner of the effects of stressful life events on illness onset. Two groups of middle- and upper-level 40-49 yr old executives had comparably high degrees of stressful life events in the previous 3 yrs, as measured by the Schedule of Recent Events. One group of 86 Ss suffered high stress without falling ill, whereas the other group of 75 Ss reported becoming sick after their encounter with stressful life events. Illness was measured by the Seriousness of Illness Survey (A. R. Wyler et al 1970). Discriminant function analysis, run on half of the Ss in each group and cross-validated on the remaining cases, supported the prediction that high stress/low illness executives show, by comparison with high stress/high illness executives, more hardiness, that is, have a stronger commitment to self, an attitude of vigorousness toward the environment, a sense of meaningfulness, and an internal locus of control. (43 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
This state-of-the-art book examines the effect of social relationships on physical health. It surveys and assesses the research that shows not only that supportive relationships protect us from a multitude of mental health problems but also that the absence of supportive relationships increases the risk of dying from various diseases. Bert N. Uchino discusses the links between social support and mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and HIV/AIDS. He investigates whether social support is more effective for some individuals and within certain cultures. After evaluating existing conceptual models linking social support to health outcomes, he offers his own broader perspective on the issue. And he suggests the implications for intervention and for future research in this area.
Chapter
An action‐based model of dissonance is presented. This model accepts the original theory's proposal that a sufficient cognitive inconsistency causes the negative affective state of dissonance. It extends the original theory by proposing why cognitive inconsistency prompts dissonance and dissonance reduction. After reviewing past theoretical and empirical developments on cognitive dissonance theory, we describe the action‐based model and present results from behavioral and physiological experiments that have tested predictions derived from this model. In particular, this evidence converges with recent neuroscience evidence in suggesting that the anterior cingulate cortex and left prefrontal cortical region are involved in conflict detection and resolution, respectively. We end by reviewing research on individual differences in dissonance arousal and reduction, and present a new measure designed to assess these individual differences.
Chapter
This chapter reviews recent theory and empirical evidence demonstrating the effects of the system justification motive on consequential social and psychological phenomena, as well as the conditions under which these effects are likely to be most pronounced. A review is presented of the theory and evidence demonstrating three conditions that increase the activation of the system justification motive: system threat, perceived system inevitability, and perceptions of personal and system control. A description is made of how, in these conditions, the system justification motive manifests itself in processes of explicit system defense, interpersonal and intergroup perception, and resistance to social change. Throughout, the emphasis is on the contextual nature of these effects, as well as their consequences for the maintenance of social inequality.
Article
Individual differences in the desire for simple structure may influence how people understand, experience, and interact with their worlds. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that the Personal Need for Structure (PNS) scale (M. Thompson, M. Naccarato, & K. Parker, 1989,1992) possesses sufficient reliability and convergent and discriminant validity In Studies 3-5, Ss high in PNS were especially likely to organize social and nonsocial information in less complex ways, stereotype others, and complete their research requirements on time. These data suggest that people differ in their chronic desire for simple structure and that this difference can have important social-cognitive and behavioral implications. A consideration of chronic information-processing motives may facilitate the theoretical integration of social cognition, affect, motivation, and personality
Article
A theoretical framework is outlined in which the key construct is the need for(nonspecific) cognitive closure. The need for closure is a desire for definite knowledge on some issue. It represents a dimension of stable individual differences as well as a situationally evocable state. The need for closure has widely ramifying consequences for social-cognitive phenomena at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and group levels of analysis. Those consequences derive from 2 general tendencies, those of urgency and permanence. The urgency tendency represents an individual's inclination to attain closure as soon as possible, and the permanence tendency represents an individual's inclination to maintain it for as long as possible. Empirical evidence for present theory attests to diverse need for closure effects on fundamental social psychological phenomena, including impression formation, stereotyping, attribution, persuasion, group decision making, and language use in intergroup contexts.
Article
1. The Belief in a Just World.- 2. The First Experiment: The Effect of Fortuitous Reward.- 3. The Second Experiment: Observers' Reactions to the "Innocent Victim".- 4. The Third Experiment: The Martyred and Innocent Victims.- 5. Three Experiments That Assess the Effects of Sex and Educational Background of Observers, Experimenter and Observer Influence on One Another, and the Reactions of "Informed" and Nonimplicated Observers.- 6. Reactions to the Belief in a Just World Theory and Findings: The "Nay-Sayers".- 7. Condemning the Victimized.- 8. The Assignment of Blame.- 9. The Response to Victimization: Extreme Tests of the Belief in a Just World.- 10. Who Believes in a Just World: Dimension or Style.- 11. Deserving versus Justice.- References.
Article
Conspiracy thinking is defined as a pattern of explanatory reasoning about events and situations of personal, social, and historical significance in which a "conspiracy" is the dominant or operative actor. While conspiracy thinking exists to some extent probably in every society, the authors note the special prevalence of this type of thinking in the Arab-Iranian-Muslim Middle East, and offer a psychoanalytically based approach to conspiracy thinking based on theories of the paranoid process. The authors also attempt to identify aspects of Arab-Iranian-Muslim culture that may predispose individuals from that culture to conspiracy thinking, especially child-rearing practices, attitudes toward sexuality, and the role of secrecy.
Article
We propose that people may gain certain "offensive" and "defensive" advantages for their cherished belief systems (e.g., religious and political views) by including aspects of unfalsifiability in those belief systems, such that some aspects of the beliefs cannot be tested empirically and conclusively refuted. This may seem peculiar, irrational, or at least undesirable to many people because it is assumed that the primary purpose of a belief is to know objective truth. However, past research suggests that accuracy is only one psychological motivation among many, and falsifiability or testability may be less important when the purpose of a belief serves other psychological motives (e.g., to maintain one's worldviews, serve an identity). In Experiments 1 and 2 we demonstrate the "offensive" function of unfalsifiability: that it allows religious adherents to hold their beliefs with more conviction and political partisans to polarize and criticize their opponents more extremely. Next we demonstrate unfalsifiability's "defensive" function: When facts threaten their worldviews, religious participants frame specific reasons for their beliefs in more unfalsifiable terms (Experiment 3) and political partisans construe political issues as more unfalsifiable ("moral opinion") instead of falsifiable ("a matter of facts"; Experiment 4). We conclude by discussing how in a world where beliefs and ideas are becoming more easily testable by data, unfalsifiability might be an attractive aspect to include in one's belief systems, and how unfalsifiability may contribute to polarization, intractability, and the marginalization of science in public discourse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
New brand extensions can push a brand outside its typical boundaries. In this artietingcle, the authors argue that people's acceptance of such extensions depends on their feelings of control. Across several studies, the authors demonstrate that when feelings of personal control are low, consumers and managers seek greater structure in brands and thus reject brand extensions that do not seem to fit well with the parent brand. The authors also identify important boundary conditions that illustrate when consumers are most likely to punish a brand for poor-fitting brand extensions and how the effect can be mitigated.
Book
A classic in the field, this third edition will continue to be the book of choice for advanced undergraduate and graduate-level courses in theories of human development in departments of psychology and human development. This volume has been substantially revised with an eye toward supporting applied developmental science and the developmental systems perspectives. Since the publication of the second edition, developmental systems theories have taken center stage in contemporary developmental science and have provided compelling alternatives to reductionist theoretical accounts having either a nature or nurture emphasis. As a consequence, a developmental systems orientation frames the presentation in this edition. This new edition has been expanded substantially in comparison to the second edition. Special features include: A separate chapter focuses on the historical roots of concepts and theories of human development, on philosophical models of development, and on developmental contextualism. Two new chapters surrounding the discussion of developmental contextualism--one on developmental systems theories wherein several exemplars of such models are discussed and a corresponding chapter wherein key instances of such theories--life span, life course, bioecological, and action theoretical ones--are presented. A new chapter on cognition and development is included, contrasting systems' approaches to cognitive development with neo-nativist perspectives. A more differentiated treatment of nature-oriented theories of development is provided. There are separate chapters on behavior genetics, the controversy surrounding the study of the heritability of intelligence, work on the instinctual theory of Konrad Lorenz, and a new chapter on sociobiology. A new chapter concentrates on applied developmental science.
Article
Claims that attributions and their related behaviors may reflect a type of perceived control that is generally overlooked. People attempt to gain control by bringing the environment into line with their wishes (primary control) and by bringing themselves into line with environmental forces (secondary control). Four manifestations of secondary control are considered: (a) Attributions to severely limited ability can serve to enhance predictive control and protect against disappointment; (b) attributions to chance can reflect illusory control, since people often construe chance as a personal characteristic akin to an ability ("luck"); (c) attributions to powerful others permit vicarious control when the individual identifies with these others; and (d) the preceding attributions may foster interpretive control, in which the individual seeks to understand and derive meaning from otherwise uncontrollable events in order to accept them. (5½ p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
We conducted 2 experiments in which we tested whether situation valence moderates the psychological consequences of lacking control. Participants who lacked control in negative circumstances were more likely to perceive illusory patterns. However, participants who lacked control in positive circumstances saw many fewer images compared to those in the full-control condition. Our results indicated that situation valence is an effective moderator of the psychological consequences of lacking control.
Article
This article outlines and reviews evidence for a model of compensatory control designed to account for the motivated belief in personal and external sources of control. In doing so, we attempt to shed light on the content and strength of ideologies, including extreme libertarian, nationalist, socialist, and religious fundamentalist ideologies. We suggest that although these ideologies differ in their content they commonly function to provide people with a sense of control over otherwise random events. We propose that extreme ideologies of personal control (e.g., libertarianism) and external control (e.g., socialism, religious fundamentalism) are equifinal means of meeting a universal need to believe that things, in general, are under control—that is, that events do not unfold randomly or haphazardly. We use this model to explain how the adoption and strength of ideologies of personal and external control may vary across temporal and sociocultural contexts.
Article
What happens when people experience a reduced sense of personal control? Among the various strategies to defend against a perception of randomness, people may show an increased acceptance of external sources of control. Indeed, in one of the most classic studies in social psychology, Stanley Milgram referred to an “agentic shift”—the tendency to relinquish personal control to an external agent—to explain his dramatic obedience effects. We propose that his account is a specific manifestation of a more general phenomenon: the tendency for increased susceptibility to various forms of external social influence when perceived personal control is reduced. In a series of (lab and field) studies using a variety of perceived control manipulations, we demonstrate that a reduction in the sense of personal control increases people's vulnerability to the bystander effect, promotes obedience to authority and fosters compliance with behavioral requests. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Ideological differences in nationalism and patriotism are well-known and frequently exploited, but the question of why conservatives exhibit stronger national attachment than liberals has been inadequately addressed. Drawing on theories of system justification and political ideology as motivated social cognition, we proposed that increased patriotism is one means of satisfying the system justification goal. Thus, we hypothesized that temporarily activating system justification motivation should raise national attachment among liberals to the level of conservatives. Three experiments conducted in New York, Arkansas, and Wisconsin support this hypothesis. In the first two experiments, liberals exhibited weaker national attachment than conservatives in the absence of system justification activation, consistent with prior research. However, exposure to system criticism (Experiment 1) and system-level injustice (Experiment 2) caused liberals to strengthen their national attachment, eliminating the ideological gap. Using a system dependence manipulation in Experiment 3, this pattern was conceptually replicated with respect to patriotic but not nationalistic attachment, as hypothesized. Thus, chronic and temporary variability in system justification motivation helps to explain when liberals and conservatives do (and do not) differ in terms of national attachment and why.