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In this paper we had proposed methodology for development of heat treatment process for hardening of metal. Hardness of metal is achieved by applying heat treatment, in majority of small scale industry this process is done by manual way which consumes lots of energy, poor safety and uneven hardness of metal. The proposed system is providing solution of existing process. Motion control is key component in this system which is achieved by precisely controlling the movement of an object which is based on speed, distance, load, inertia. In the proposed system LabVIEW was used as a SCADA of PLC. In this work the metal rod was placed on platform which is having XY direction sliders. This Slider having controlled movement in millimeter scale in the X and Y directions which was controlled by Stepper motor in X axis and Servo motor in Y axis. These two motors communicate with PLC through AC, DC drives. We had provided the features in computer screen with the use of LabVIEW for controlling parameter of motor. The platform motion travelling direction(X, Y) and rate of travelling is entered by user in LabVIEW front panel, this data is received in PLC through KEPServerEX5. PLC was used for controlling purpose for slider and its move the slider in XY axes. The performance was the proposed system was tested by applying heating of various commercial rods and hardness was the rod was measured after heat treatment.
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Volume III, Issue V, May 2014 IJLTEMAS ISSN 2278 - 2540
www.ijltemas.in Page 102
Automation of Heat Treatment Process using PLC
and LabVIEW
Dipika Kothari
Department of Instrumentation &
Control Engineering,
Dharmsinh Desai University,
Gujarat, INDIA
kothari.dipika45@gmail.com
Manish Thakker*
Department of Instrumentation &
Control Engineering and Shah
Schulman Center for Surface Science
and Nanotechnology,
Dharmsinh Desai University,
Gujarat, INDIA
manish.ddit@gmail.com
Vijay Revar
Electro Power Engineering,
Rajkot, INDIA
revarvijay@gmail.com
Abstract - In this paper we had proposed methodology
for development of heat treatment process for hardening
of metal. Hardness of metal is achieved by applying heat
treatment, in majority of small scale industry this
process is done by manual way which consumes lots of
energy, poor safety and uneven hardness of metal. The
proposed system is providing solution of existing
process. Motion control is key component in this system
which is achieved by precisely controlling the movement
of an object which is based on speed, distance, load,
inertia. In the proposed system LabVIEW was used as a
SCADA of PLC. In this work the metal rod was placed
on platform which is having XY direction sliders. This
Slider having controlled movement in millimeter scale in
the X and Y directions which was controlled by Stepper
motor in X axis and Servo motor in Y axis. These two
motors communicate with PLC through AC, DC drives.
We had provided the features in computer screen with
the use of LabVIEW for controlling parameter of motor.
The platform motion travelling direction(X, Y) and rate
of travelling is entered by user in LabVIEW front panel,
this data is received in PLC through KEPServerEX5.
PLC was used for controlling purpose for slider and its
move the slider in XY axes. The performance was the
proposed system was tested by applying heating of
various commercial rods and hardness was the rod was
measured after heat treatment.
Keywords Heat treatment, Hardness of metal, PLC,
Motion Control, Metal EN31, LabVIEW
I. INTRODUCTION
utomation of heat treatment process has large
application in industry. Major of these process done in
manual mode in industries. This is large energy
consumption and poor in safety aspect. The main purpose of
this automation for heat treatment process is to optimize the
system and to find the hardness of metal in a less time. In
conventional heat treatment method different method is use
which is shown in Fig.1
Fig 1: Method in small industry, Manual and fully automated Heat
treatment process
Small scale Industry: The person has to monitor heating
chamber continuously, maintain the temperature and time
duration of heat applied in metal to the entire heat treatment
process and also adjust the metal in heating chamber with
the help of person.
Manual method: All things are same as small scale
industry but here, the main difference is metal adjust on the
slider and slider is move with the help of person. Safety is
better than method of small industry.
Automated method: This system is fully automated and it
will require one time person to start the process with use of
PLC and LabVIEW.
Heat Treatment is the controlled heating and
cooling of metals to change their physical and mechanical
properties without changing the product shape. Heat
treatment is sometimes done unknowingly due to
manufacturing processes that either heat or cool the metal
such as welding or forming. Heat Treatment is much related
with increasing the strength of material, but it can also be
used to change certain manufacturability objectives such as
improve machining, improve formability, restore ductility
after a cold working operation. Heat treatment operation can
be defined as heating a metal or alloy to various
temperatures, holding these for different time durations and
cooling at various rates which is in the brine, water and oil
[1].
Different types of Heat treatment Processes:
A
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Heat treatment processes consist of normalizing, hardening,
tempering, annealing, quenching etc. which is described
below.
Hardening:
The hardening process consist of heating the metal to a
temperature of 30-50°c above the upper critical point for
hypo eutectoid steels and by the same temperature above the
lower critical temperature for hyper-eutectoid steels
[2]. It is
applied this temperature for some time and then quenched.
The use of hardening is to increase the hardness of the metal
and to make suitable cutting tools.
Quenching:
Quenching consists of cooling the heated work piece
quickly by immersing it in a liquid solution of oil or water
or molten salt. This process is done in environmental
condition or surrounding it with gas or air.
Tempering:
In this process, the steel is heated to lower critical
temperature (350-400 °C) keeping it there, about one hour
and then cooled slowly at prescribed rate. Tempering
consists of reheating the quenched steel one or more times
to a lower temperature, 150 to 650 °C., and cooling it again
to develop the desired levels of ductility and toughness.
This process reduces hardness, strength and wears
resistance marginally. When temperature is increase
hardness will reduce
[2].
Normalizing:
The process of normalizing consist of heating the metal
above austenitic phase 1100°c and then quenched in suitable
cooling medium like air. The purpose of normalizing is to
refine grain structure, improve machinability and improve
tensile strength, to remove strain and to remove dislocation
2.
Normalizing is less expensive than annealing. The process
is similar to annealing and is carried out to avoid excessive
softness in the material.
Annealing:
In annealing process cooling rate is very slow around 10°C
per hour. This Process is carried out in a controlled
atmosphere of inert gas to avoid oxidation which is used to
reach ductility in work hardened steels. Annealing is
performed to reduce hardness, remove residual stresses,
improve toughness, restore ductility, and to alter various
mechanical, electrical or magnetic properties of material
through refinement of grains.
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Our aim is to do automation of manual motion control
device for Heat treatment process. The Manual motion
control device XY position slider which is shown in Fig.2.
We have use following materials Switched mode power
supply, Programmable Logic controller, Servo motor, Servo
driver, Stepper motor, Stepper driver, Slider, Thermocouple,
Heating Coil, Metal, and LabVIEW.
Fig 2: Snapshot of XY position slider
SMPS: Switched mode power supply to converts the
available unregulated ac or dc input voltage to a regulated
dc output voltage. If SMPS with input supply drawn from
the ac mains, the input voltage is first rectified and filtered
using a capacitor at the rectifier output.
Programmable Logic Controller: PLC is an electronic
device
3
which reads the status of the external input devices
and execute by the microprocessor logic, sequential, timing,
counting and arithmetic operations according the status of
the input signals as well as the pre-written program stored in
the PLC. The generated output signals are sent to output
devices as the switch of a relay, electromagnetic valve,
motor drive and control of a machine or operation of a
procedure for the purpose of machine automation or
processing procedure. The DVP-12SA series has 12-points
in which 8 input points, 4 output points and PLC main
processing unit along with multiple instructions.
Servo motor: Mirle product MA series AC Servo motor is
used which have brushless commutation. Servo motor has
400w Rated output, 3000rpm Rated rotational speed and
1.27 Nm Rated torque, 60mm frame size, 2.9A Rated
current, 1.3 Kg weight.
Servo Driver: The function of servo drive is to receive
command signal from control system and provide sufficient
current after amplification to servomotor. This current
is proportional to command signal. The command signal
represents a desired velocity, but can also represent a
desired torque or position. Servo drive has 8.5A Maximum
Peak current, 2.8 maximum Rated current and Power source
is applied Ac 180V~240V Single phase.
Stepper motor: Stepper motor is electromagnetic
incremental device that convert electric pulse to shaft
motion (rotation). This motor rotates a specific number of
degrees as a respond to each input electric pulse. Stepper
motor has Step angle 1.8°, Max. Radial force 220N,
Max.Axial force 60N, Rated Voltage 3.15V, Rated Current
4.2A. Stepper motors have many industrial applications
such as: Printers, Disk Drives, Machine Tools, Robotics,
and Tape Drives
4
.
Stepper Driver: The M542 is an economical micro
stepping driver based on patented technology of Leadshine.
It is suitable for driving 2-phase and 4-phase hybrid
stepping motors. By using the advanced bipolar constant-
current chopping technique, it can output more speed and
torque from the same motor compared with traditional
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drivers, such as L/R drivers. Stepper driver has maximum
4.2A output current, maximum 50VDC supply voltage,
Pulse input frequency maximum 300 KHz.
SLIDER: Slider is made by iron material and its weight is
approx. 9 Kg and its load capacity is 0.7 Nm. The total size
of slider is 18×17 cm and its height is 12.5cm
Thermocouple: A thermocouple is a device used
extensively for measuring temperature. Here we used K
type thermocouple and its sensor range is 100 to 1100°C.
EN31: The En31rod of size 16mm diameter has been used
as work piece material for the present experiment because
EN31 is a high quality alloy steel giving good ductility and
shock resisting properties combined with resistance to wear.
Hardness of EN31 is 5HRC. This steel is basically known as
bearing steel and used for bearing production in industrial
sector. Chemical composition of EN31
7
is shown in Table I.
Table I. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF EN31
Carbon
1.30%
Silicon
0.30%
Manganese
0.50%
Phosphorous
0.040 max%
Sulpher
0.050 max%
Chromium
1.40%
LabVIEW: Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering
Workbench is a graphically-based programming language
developed by National Instruments. Its graphical nature
makes it ideal for test and measurement (T&M),
automation, instrument control, data acquisition, and data
analysis applications. LabVIEW software can communicate
with any PLC in a variety of ways and easily communicate
with any hardware
[5].
KEPServerEX5: OPC server is designed for PLC and
LabVIEW communication in which NI OPC server,
KEPServerEX5, etc are used. We had use KEPServerEX5
for PLC and LabVIEW communication. OPC Servers are
available for virtually all PLCs and programmable
automation controllers (PACs). OPC is a standard interface
to communicate between numerous data sources, including
devices on a factory floor, laboratory equipment, test system
fixtures, and databases
[6]. KepserverEX5 software based
server is designed for accurate communications, quick setup
and unmatched interoperability between client applications,
industrial devices and systems. Basic Server Components of
KEPServerEX5 are following: Channel, Device, Tag, Tag
Group, Alias Map, and Event Log. A channel represents a
communication medium from the PC to one or more
external devices. Devices represent the PLCs or other
hardware with which the server communicates. A tag
represents addresses within the PLC device with which the
server communicates. The Event Log displays the date,
time, and source of an error, warning, information, or
security event.
III. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF AUTOMATION OF
HEAT TREATMENT SYSTEM
The basic block diagram of Automation of Heat
treatment system is shown in Fig.3. The main object is to
construct a system which would be able to travel object
horizontally in two axes. For the fulfill this objective the
mechanical movement as a main part, automatic control
could control the motor quickly and accurately to make sure
the moving parts or subsystem complete the corresponding
movement in accordance with the operating parameter and
the expected track.
The system will be build around SMPS, Delta
PLC12SA2 unit, AC Servo Driver, AC Servo motor,
Stepper Driver, Stepper Motor, One slider are use for
automation part and Thermocouple, Temperature controller,
Metal use for heat treatment process and Personal computer
is use for software purpose. Heat treatment application is
used in industry to change the properties of material for ex.
hardness.
Fig 3: Block diagram of Automation of Heat treatment system
The simplest solution for movement in XY plane is to
use two independent motors. This setup is mainly based on
PLC and LabVIEW; it aims to control the motion of object
in two dimensions. The PLC is connected to servo motor
driver and stepper motor driver to drive servo motor and
stepper motor respectively and control the movement of
mechanical slider. The PLC interfaced with Personal
computer through RS 232. PC is loaded with WPLSoft2.30
and LabVIEW for serial communication to PLC system.
The heating coil is adjusted near the slider and
thermocouple is adjusted in the coil.
The system preliminary design the XY axes of
motion control and heat treatment of metal. PLC can control
the motor position, interpolation drive, acceleration and
decelerations by outputting frequency pulse to control the
movement of servo motor and stepper motor speed and the
pulse frequency rate control acceleration. After receiving
signal from PLC, stepper Motor driver and servo motor
driver will send motor signal and control signal to stepper
motor and servo motor respectively. The servo motor moves
slider in X- axis and the rotation of steeper motor moves
slider in Y axis. The system is closed loop control, so it can
feedback the slider locations. This setup is operating in two
modes auto mode and manual mode. In auto mode process
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select one mode Constant mode or Oscillation mode. In
constant mode metal heated continuously one place
constantly and in oscillation mode metal will move
continuously with the help of slider.
In auto mode Servo motor receive signal from
Servo driver so slider will firstly move in X axis forward
direction then Stepper motor will start and move the slider
in Y axis forward direction in a few cm which is set by
number of pulses. At this position motor stop some seconds
and heat is applied in metal with use of heating coil. After
some time, time is set by operator; stepper motor will move
in reverse direction after that the servomotor back to the
home position. We can interrupt the system by stop switch
at any instant of time. In manual mode the sequence of X Y
axes is does not matter we can first drive any motor to move
slider. There is one more advantage of manual mode that we
can drive both motor simultaneously.
VI is creating in LabVIEW to read data from PLC
and write data in PLC. Speed of the both motor and
travelling of axes controlled by LabVIEW. Data will send
through KepserverEX5 in PLC and PLC send pulses to
motor driver. After that driver send the pulses into motor
and motor will start some speed and travel few mm. The
value of XY axes travelling and speed adjust in LabVIEW.
Flow chart of working system is shown in Fig. 4
Fig 4: Flow chart of working system
Here, we use DVP12SA2 PLC which adopts 24V DC power
supply from DR-75-24 Switch mode power supply. The
Input terminals X0 X5 of PLC are connected with Push
button switch. The AC TECH digital servo driver provide
high-precision and versatile functions for driving servo
motor. The servo driver adopts 230V AC. The Output port
of PLC Y0, Y2, UP connector is interfaced with Servo
driver through CN1 connector. The Y0 terminal given a
pulse to servo driver and Y2 provide direction to servo
driver to drive a motor in either forward or reverse
direction. The U, V, W, FG terminal of servo driver is
connected with Servo motor. Servo driver is interfaced with
encoder through CN2 connector. Due to inbuilt encoder in
servo motor it can use as a feedback device. The system is
closed loop control, so it can feedback the object location
speed and other information immediately.
The stepper driver operates at 24V DC from
SMPS. The M542 micro stepping driver’s connector P1 is
interfaced with PLC through terminal Y1 and Y3. The Y1
terminal given a pulse to stepper driver and Y3 provide
direction to servo driver to drive a motor in either forward
or reverse direction. Temperature controller, Thermocouple
and Heating coil operates at 230V AC supply. EN31 metal
is adjusted on the Slider. Slider move some distance then
metal reach in inner portion of the coil. After that the metal
heated up to 300°c for 2.30 hour with using heating coil. At
that time temperature is continuously measured by
thermocouple. Thermocouple is adjusted inside the heating
coil which is measure temperature continuously and display
in temperature control meter. The purpose of heat treatment
process is to change hardness of metal. The Hardware
connection of experimental setup is shown in Fig.5
Fig 5: Hardware connection of experimental setup
[1] Personal Computer [2] SMPS
[3] PLC [4] Servo Motor
[5] Servo Drive [6] Stepper Motor
[7] Stepper Drive [8] Metal
[9] Coil [10] Temperature Controller
[11] Thermocouple [12] Slider
A. Hardening process of tool steel:
The most important heat treatments are Hardening,
Tempering, Normalizing and Annealing which is used to
change the mechanical properties of engineering materials
specially steels and change the microstructure. Hardening is
the most common heat treatment applied to tool steels.
Hardening materials methods are used to change the
properties of the material, hardening the material pass
through two steps,
The material is heated up to degrees above the critical
point then the temperature is kept at that high to change
the formation of the material.
The second step is to cool the material to low
temperatures by using coolants like water, oil, air or
chemicals
This experiment was performed to harden the cast iron.
The process involves putting the hot cast iron directly in to a
liquid medium. The heat treated specimens hardness was
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measured by means of Rockwell hardness tester. First the
metal was inserted in the machine; the load is adjusted
to150kg which is defined in Rockwell hardness C scale
tester. The minor load was first applied to seat of the
specimen. At this instant the major load applied and the
depth of notch is automatically recorded on a dial gage in
terms of arbitrary hardness numbers. The dial contains 100
divisions. The dial is reversed so that a high hardness,
which results in small penetration, results in a high hardness
number. The hardness value thus obtained which is seen in
middle portion and small scale dial.
B. Interfacing of PLC & LabVIEW with
KEPServerEx5:
Following steps are implemented to achieve desired
objective:
1. Open the KepserverEX5 configuration. Next we create
new file and creating new Channel.
2. After that define device driver, baud rate, data bits,
parity, stop bit, flow control and duty cycle.
3. In next step create device and configure all parameter
e.g. device id name, request time out, Modbus setting,
etc
4. Then we add new OPC tags which are essentially the
input/output variables under this group. For the access
path we need to specify the same name as the OPC
Topic which was specified in server. We give the
addressing of the input/output variables as per the
address of the PLC and the data type of the variable,
client access type and scan rate which is same as what
we define in LabVIEW VI. Fig.6 & 7 shown block
diagram for data monitoring and controlling in
LabVIEW and GUI of Read and Write command.
Fig 6: Block diagram in LabVIEW
Fig 7: GUI of read and write command
IV. RESULTS & DISCUSSION
To check the performance of the system metal rod EN31
was selected. The dimension of the rod is 16mm diameter.
The metal was tested with various speeds and hardness of
the metal was tested after and before heat treatment process.
The various modes (Constant Mode, Oscillation mode)
parameters can be set using these method to control X and
Y axis position for placing the metal at precise location
using different step size and speed of both motors. The
value of XY axis travelling distance and speed set in the
computer front panel, these data is transferred in PLC
through KEPServerEX5. For the various modes Servomotor
Pulse frequency, Servo motor pulse number, Stepper motor
Pulse frequency, Stepper motor pulse number set in PLC
through LabVIEW it is described in Table II. The data
acquired into LabVIEW software and temperature displayed
in temperature controller. After doing several experiments
of this heat treatment processes, test is performed verify that
the system is working smoothly. Figure 8 shows the chart of
Measurement sample in different mode Vs Measured
hardness value.
Table II. VARIOUS MODE CONFIGURATION OF PLC
Mode
Servo Motor
Stepper Motor
Pulse O/P
Frequency
Pulse
O/P
Number
Pulse
O/P
Number
Constant
16360
32720
4170
Oscillation
(Low
Speed)
32720
490800
4170
Oscillation
(High
Speed)
49080
49080
3336
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Fig 8: Measurement sample in different mode Vs Measured
Hardness value
LabVIEW is one of the well-known software packages
used in process control applications. The experimental
results at each step are shown in figure 9 & 10 for Ladder
Diagram Indicating Pulse and Frequency of both motor and
GUI in run mode after acquiring data from PLC.
Fig 9: Ladder Diagram Indicating Pulse and Frequency
Fig 10: GUI in run mode after acquiring data from PLC
CONCLUSION
Automation of heat treatment process for metal hardening
using PLC and its communication with LabVIEW was
presented. The develop system is user friendly, quite safe,
easy to operate and enhance safety features. Motion control
Parameters of the systems were monitored real time with the
help of GUI developed in LabVIEW. Motor controlling of
AC & DC drive was achieved with the PLC. To improve the
hardness of metal three modes was implemented in PLC
program. For EN71 metal oscillating mode gives highest
hardness improvement from 5 to 12 units. Similar motion
control approach can also useful in small process of
automation, cutting tool, turning machine application, heat
treatment process.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author wishes to acknowledge Department of
Instrumentation & Control engineering, Dharmsinh Desai
University, India for research facility. We also acknowledge
the technical support from the electro power engineering,
Rajkot, India for their technical guidance and
Instrumentation facility during experimental work.
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0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Measured Hardness value
Measurement Sample in different mode
Before Heat
treatment
process
hardness
After Heat
treatment
process
hardness
... Dipika Kothari, et. al [7] proposed a methodology for processing of metal hardening by using Lab view as SCADA of PLC. The work was more focused towards the physical requirements and way of working with the associated sub-systems. ...
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  • P E S K Bandarupalli Pavan Kumar
  • M V D Sharan
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Mada Yaswanth Manikanta, Bandarupalli Pavan Kumar, P.E.S.K.Sharan, M.V.D.Prasad, "Optimum Zigbee based Wireless Control of Industrial Automation Processes" International Journal of Emerging Science and Engineering (IJESE) ISSN: 2319-6378, Volume-1, Issue-6, April 2013
Hardfacing by welding to increase wear resistance properties of EN31 by MR 3LH electrode
  • Om Gautam Kocher
  • Sachit Parkash
  • Vardhan
Gautam kocher, Om Parkash, Sachit Vardhan, Hardfacing by welding to increase wear resistance properties of EN31 by MR 3LH electrode, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 2, February 2012, pp.102