This chapter offers an understanding of some key brain and psychological processes involved in trauma, in suffering and healing, and in potentially transformative contemplative practices – especially those for cultivating mindfulness, love, kindness and compassion. This understanding is structured by a framework that draws on knowledge from many scientific, clinical and contemplative traditions, and necessarily goes beyond scientific data to provide an integrative vision. The framework highlights and clarifies how the brain circuitries of seeking, satisfaction and embodiment can be harnessed to cultivate healing, freedom and happiness. (A “circuitry” is a collection of brain areas that work together to perform certain tasks.) As explained below with references to neuroscience research, like the brain circuitry of fear, the circuitries of seeking, satisfaction and embodiment are among the best established brain circuitries in neuroscience. In addition, the framework presented here is consistent with well-established ways of understanding and treating trauma, as well as with the emerging contemplative approaches featured in this book.