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Global Food Losses and Food Waste. Extent, Causes and Prevention

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... Picture 1. Expected increase growth (US Census Bureau, 2016) of land animals (FAO, 2011) According to the UN (2022), the world population could peak at nearly 11 billion (or higher (Consensus for Action, 2013) around the year 2100. Expected growth has been the consequence of the increase in surviving rate to reproductive age, significant changes in fertility rates, growing urbanization and migrations worldwide. ...
... Food spoilage is a major concern of the entire world population, with developing parts of the world particularly affected. At the same time, the research results indicate that there is a global lack of information about this problem, especially in the part of quantifying food loss in relation to the etiology of the cause, as well as the extent of economic damage that accompanies such loss (FAO, 2011). In parallel with these unfamiliarities, there are no adequate assumptions about the potential costs that could be spent on activities aimed at reducing or preventing food loss due to food spoilage. ...
... Research has shown that in developing countries, due to the lack of modern processing and preservation technologies, as well as adequate storage methods, much more food is lost during the production/processing phase and immediately afterwards. In contrast, in industrialized countries one-third of food spoilage and write-offs occur at the retail or consumer level (FAO, 2011). The highest percentage of food loss was found in root vegetables (40-50%), fruits and vegetables (35%), fish and seafood (30%), cereals (20%), meat, oilseeds and dairy products (20%) (FAO, 2019). ...
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THE ECOLOGICAL MOVEMENT OF THE CITY OF NOVI SAD AN IMPORTANT DECISION OF ITS PROGRAMME COUNCIL Since 1995, the Ecological Movement of the City of Novi Sad organizes "Eco�Conference® on Environmental Protection of Urban and Suburban Areas", with international participation. Seven biennial conferences have been held so far (in 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013 and 2015). Their programs included the following environmental topics: Session 1: Environmental spheres: a) air, b) water, c) soil, d) biosphere Session 2: Technical and technological aspects of environmental protection Session 3: Sociological, health, cultural, educational and recreational aspects of environmental protection Session 4: Economic aspects of environmental protection Session 5: Legal aspects of environmental protection Session 6: Ecological system projecting (informatics and computer applications in the field of integrated protection) Session 7: Sustainable development of urban and suburban settlements-ecological aspects. Conference participants have commended the scientific and organizational levels of the conferences. Conference evaluations have indicated that some aspects are missing in the conference program. In addition, since a team of conference organizers was completed, each even year between the conferences started to be viewed as an unnecessary lag in activity. Eco-Conference® on Safe Food With the above deliberations in mind, a decision was made that the Ecological Movement of the City of Novi Sad should embark on another project – the organization of Eco-Conferences® on Safe Food. These Conferences were planned to take place in each even year. Preparations for the first Eco-Conferences® on safe food started after the successful completion of the Eco-Conference® '99. So far four Eco-Conferences® have been held (in 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014.) focusing this general theme. Theme of the Eco-Conference® By organizing the Eco-Conference® on Safe Food, the organizer wishes to cover all factors that affect the quality of human living. Exchange of opinions and practical experiences should help in identifying and resolving the various problems associated with the production of safe food. Since 2007 Eco-Conference gained patronship from UNESCO and became purely scientific Conference. Objectives of the Eco-Conference® – To acquaint participants with current problems in the production of safe food. – To make realistic assessments of the causes of ecological imbalance in the conventional agricultural production and the impact of various pollution sources on the current agricultural production. – Based on an exchange of opinions and available research data, to make long term strategic programs of developing an industrialized, controlled, integral, alternative and sustainable agriculture capable of supplying sufficient quantities of quality food, free of negative side effects on human health and the environment. Basic Topics of the Eco-Conference® Basic topics should cover all relevant aspects of the production of safe food. When defining the basic topics, the intention was itemize the segments of the production of safe food as well as the related factors that may affect or that already have already been identified as detrimental for food safety and quality. The topics include ecological factors of safe food production, correct choice of seed (genetic) material, status and preparation of soil as the basic substrate for the production of food and feed, use of fertilizers and pesticides in integrated plant protection, use of biologicals, food processing technology, economic aspects, marketing and packaging of safe food. To paraphrase, the envisaged topics cover the production of safe food on the whole, individual aspects of the production and their mutual relations, and impact on food quality and safety. Sessions of the Eco-Conference® 1. Climate and production of safe food. 2. Soil and water as the basis of agricultural production. 3. Genetics, genetic resources, breeding and genetic engineering in the function of producing safe food. 4. Fertilizers and fertilization practice in the function of producing safe food. 5. Integrated pest management and use of biologicals. 6. Agricultural production in view of sustainable development 7. Production of field and vegetable crops. 8. Production of fruits and grapes. 9. Lifestock husbandry form the aspect of safe food production. 10. Processing of agricultural products in the framework of safe food production. 11. Economic aspects and marketing as segments of the production of safe food. 12. Food storage, transportation and packaging. 13. Nutritional food value and quality nutrition. 14. Legal aspects of protecting brand names of safe food. 15. Ecological models and software in production of safe food. Attempts will be made to make the above conference program permanent. In this way will the conference become recognizable in form, topics and quality, which should help it find its place among similar conferences on organized elsewhere in the world. By alternately organizing conferences on environmental protection of urban and suburban areas in odd years and conferences on safe food in even years, the Ecological Movement of the City of Novi Sad is completing its contribution to a higher quality of living of the population. Already in the 19th century, Novi Sad was a regional center of social progress and broad-mindedness. Today, owing first of all to its being a university center, Novi Sad is in the vanguard of ecological thought in this part of Europe. It is our duty to work on the furtherance of the ecological programs of action and, by doing so, to make our contribution to the protection of the natural environment and spiritual heritage with the ultimate goal of helping the population attain e higher level of consciousness and a higher quality of living.
... The ever increasing demand for food coupled with higher environmental standards is reshaping agricultural activities toward ecologically sustainable and efficient systems [1]. While the existing literature has mainly focused on increasing food production, the magnitude of waste and by-products are too large to be ignored [2,3]. Agricultural production and agroindustrial processing generate high amounts of food by-products and waste, which have been reported to be higher than the final product in terms of nutritional or functional properties [4]. ...
... The negative environmental, social, and economic problems caused by food by-products and waste remain a worldwide cause for concern [1]. According to FAO, [3], about one-third of all edible food (1.3 billion metric tonnes, MMT) is lost across the food chain each year. Most of these byproducts and wastes are dumped in municipal landfills where degradation by microbes and leachate production pose a variety of environmental issues. ...
... In Cameroon for example, foods such as maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa), cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), fruits like oranges, lemons and pineapple, and vegetables such as amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) are widely cultivated for subsistence [17,18]. Numerous reports [19,20,3,21] have underlined the significance of food by-products and waste and the need to reduce them to improve food security and sustainability of food systems. ...
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Agricultural production, agro-industrial food processing, distribution and consumption generate high Amounts of varied food by-products and waste which place a heavy burden on the environment and cause losses to the food industry. The most common disposal methods of food wastes are the use of landfills and incineration, which lead to several environmental, social, and economic issues. However, many of these by-products and wastes have been reported to be Review Article Ngwasiri et al.; AJB2T, 8(3): 32-61, 2022; Article no.AJB2T.87188 33 higher than the final product in terms of nutritional or functional properties, making them potential raw materials for application in the agro-food industry. Together with the recent sustainable development goals of food security, environmental protection, and energy efficiency, these are the key reasons why food waste valorization is necessary. Valorization of food waste within the bio-economy approach offers an economical and environmental opportunity that can serve as a solution to the issues faced with the conventional disposal methods. Traditionally, in Africa, especially in Cameroon, food by-products and waste have been valorized into a range of products for application in food and food preparation, including food additives and spices, food emulsifiers and stabilizers, food salts and nutraceuticals. Traditional Waste valorization methods could achieve sustainable development in technologically underdeveloped countries by going beyond improving agro-food waste management to the production of useful biochemicals, food ingredients and food products, which can be referred to as value added products from waste. In addition, the processing and conversion of these agro-food by-products and waste generated in the poor regions of the world for the production and formulation of novel foods and biochemicals will directly benefit the local communities by reducing environmental pollution and increasing income in the food industry. This review aims at providing insight into current trends in food waste valorization using traditional methods in an African country such as Cameroon. This paper presents the variety and type of food waste within the food chain that can be valorized into various products using traditional methods. Furthermore, a series of examples of key food waste valorization schemes and value added products as case studies to demonstrate the advancement in traditional bioconversions are described, bringing out the opportunities and challenges for the Cameroon bioeconomy.
... However, increasing food production should go hand in hand with reduction of food losses and waste [3]. There is substantial food loss along the supply chain in Africa, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) [4], as a result of inefficient supply chains and storage infrastructures within the agricultural sector [5,6]. Moreover, SSA has the highest prevalence of undernourishment in the world. ...
... Large food losses are a threat to food and nutrition security, resources (land, water, energy and inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides and capital), climate and the incomes and livelihoods of millions of people, particularly in SSA [6,9,10]. The lack of knowledge of postharvest handling, the low level of technology, climate change, and poor investment in food value chains are amongst the drivers of postharvest food loss [6,11]. ...
... Large food losses are a threat to food and nutrition security, resources (land, water, energy and inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides and capital), climate and the incomes and livelihoods of millions of people, particularly in SSA [6,9,10]. The lack of knowledge of postharvest handling, the low level of technology, climate change, and poor investment in food value chains are amongst the drivers of postharvest food loss [6,11]. Although food losses happen at every stage of the supply chain, in the SSA region, more than 38% of food losses occur at production, postharvest handling and processing levels [6,12]. ...
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Fruits and vegetables, known for their large nutrient potential, are more susceptible to high postharvest loss than other crops. Factors such as perishability, poor post-production handling and storage and processing infrastructures, increase the magnitude of food losses. The postharvest loss of fruits and vegetables in Sub-Saharan Africa ranges from 30% to 50%. One key strategy to overcome such losses is through cold chain integration in value chains. However, most developing countries currently lack the basic infrastructure and management skills needed to support the development of integrated cold chains, particularly in rural areas, where up to 60% of overall food losses occur on the farm and in ‘first-mile’ distribution. Storage of highly perishable produce in a controlled environment with respect to temperature and relative humidity leads to quality and quantity preservation. This contributes to increases in food and nutrition security, household incomes and environmental protection. This review addresses the need for adopting and strengthening measures for the precooling and cold storage of fruits and vegetables to improve their value chains. A range of precooling and cold storage methods, their suitability, energy demands and the constraints on storage and distribution are discussed and recommendations are made on how to improve their accessibility for small-scale farmers in rural communities.
... Nutritional requirements for individuals to be free from hunger have been associated with a minimum daily energy (calorie) intake ( Carr, Davis, et al., 2019;FAO, 2014). These thresholds were adopted in this study as the base dietary consumption pathways (x)-meaning that we assume people consume at least 1,829 or 2,327 kcal per day depending on the dietary scenario. ...
... With the projected rise in Africa's population from 1.37 billion people in 2021 to 3.5 billion people in 2075, changes in diets toward higher animal product consumption will strain the supply chain-augmenting the importance of reducing food losses and waste which increases crops available for direct or indirect human dietary consumption from current croplands (United Nations, 2019). Before the development of the FAO Food Loss and UN Food Waste Indices, the 2011 FAO report by the Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, was the only study that estimated food lost and wasted throughout all stages of the food supply chain and across all food production sectors and has been widely cited by subsequent studies (FAO, 2011;FAO, 2019aFAO, , 2019bFAO, , 2019cGustavsson et al., 2013;Kummu et al., 2012). Contrary to popular belief, the UN Food Waste Index found that household per capita food waste generation is similar across country income groups, indicating the importance of addressing food waste in all countries (it was previously thought that food waste primarily occurred in developed nations while food loss was predominant in developing nations) (UNEP, 2021b). ...
... There are four main pillars of food security-availability, access, utilization, and stability (FAO, 2008). They are all essential in ensuring food security of a population. ...
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Africa is a major hotspot of food insecurity with climate change and population growth as major drivers. Irrigation expansion can sustainably increase agricultural productivity and adapt crops to climate change. We use agro‐hydrological, climate, and socio‐economic models to quantify crop production with irrigation expansion and perform food security analyses for different adaptation scenarios for African countries under baseline and 3°C warmer climate conditions. We find that under a 3°C warmer climate the total food production in Africa can only feed 1.35 billion people, when the continent's population is expected to reach 3.5 billion, leaving a food deficit equivalent to 2.15 billion people. Increasing agricultural productivity with irrigation alone will not be enough to achieve food self‐sufficiency. Therefore, future food demand will likely be met by other means such as cropland expansion or greater reliance on imports which would further expose African populations to uncertainty from the volatility in global food prices.
... Interestingly, reports from different countries around the world indicate that the generation of SWL has similar values in both industrialized and undeveloped countries, despite having different etiologies. In the latter, more than 40% of food losses occur in the post-harvest and processing stages, while in developed countries, the greatest losses occur at the retail and consumer level, with more food per capita being wasted in high-income countries [16]. ...
... Specifically, agricultural residues from fruits and vegetables are the result of mechanical damage and/or spillages during harvesting and separation of post-harvest products to meet the quality standards of markets/consumers. According to FAO [16], about 42% of the fruits and vegetables produced worldwide are lost or wasted even before reaching the consumer, with a large sum being disposed in landfills or rivers, representing a threat to the environment due to their high biodegradability, leachate, and methane emissions [57]. These residues have a huge potential to be used for the recovery of value-added constituents, since they are a rich source of nutrients (minerals, phenolic compounds, sugars, proteins, fibers, and others) available for the production of new bio-based products [58][59][60]. ...
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Ensuring a sustainable supply of food for the world’s fast growing population is a major challenge in today’s economy, as modern lifestyle and increasing consumer concern with maintaining a balanced and nutritious diet is an important challenge for the agricultural sector worldwide. This market niche for healthier products, especially fruits and vegetables, has increased their production, consequently resulting in increased amounts of agri-food surplus, waste, and loss (SWL) generated during crop production, transportation, storage, and processing. Although many of these materials are not utilized, negatively affecting the environmental, economic, and social segments, they are a rich source of valuable compounds that could be used for different purposes, thus preventing the losses of natural resources and boosting a circular economy. This review aimed to give insights on the efficient management of agri-food SWL, considering conventional and emerging recovery and reuse techniques. Particularly, we explored and summarized the chemical composition of three worldwide cultivated and consumed vegetables (carrots, broccoli and lettuce) and evaluate the potential of their residues as a sustainable alternative for extracting value-added ingredients for the development of new biodynamic products.
... The forecasted increase in waste volume from 2.01 billion tons per year currently to 3.40 billion tons per year by 2050 is expected to increase world expenses from USD 205 billion to USD 375 billion per year [1]. A surprising fact showed that around 1.3 billion tons of the world's entire food production is wasted each year [2]. In Malaysia, food wastes account for 32% of total waste, followed by paper and plastics, which account for 21% and 14% of waste, respectively [3]. ...
... Food waste has become a world concern because it has had an impact on the environment as larger amounts of food are generated to meet the demand from an increasing and more affluent population [5]. Due to the increasing food waste, humans face serious environmental challenges such as global warming, increasing world population, overrun of solid waste materials and environmental pollution [2]. Food waste also contributes to the development of greenhouse gases in landfills. ...
... These stage-specific efforts could effectively reduce the total FLW. However, prioritizing these efforts relies on the understanding of environmental footprints of FLW of each food category (FAO, 2011). For example, wasting one metric ton of soybeans would waste 2,000 m 3 of water, whereas this number increases by 6.5fold for beef wasting Hoekstra, 2011, 2012). ...
... The FLW of vegetables increased by ~50% from 1970 to 2000 and Food loss refers to the decrease of edible food mass, which occur at former stages of food supply chain (i.e., production, post-harvest, and processing stages). Food waste takes place at retail and consumption stages and generally relates to behavior issues (FAO, 2011;Liu et al., 2013;Parfitt et al., 2010). Data sources are the 2017 report of Natural Resources Defense Council. ...
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The United States (U.S.) aims to reduce half of food loss and waste (FLW) by 2030. To achieve this goal, the public, academic, and political attentions on FLW have been increasing, and a series of actions have been implemented. However, the actions lack consideration on the categorical priority of FLW mitigation in relation to environmental footprints. In this article, we compare the FLW of three main plant food categories (i.e., grains, vegetables, and fruits) and their water and carbon footprints during 1970–2017. The vegetable FLW doubled during the period, reaching 3.39 × 10¹⁰ kg in 2017, which was 5- and 2-fold higher than the FLW of grains and fruits, respectively. The FLW of vegetables, grains, and fruits contributed 29%, 47%, and 24% to the total blue water wasted through FLW. The total carbon dioxide emissions generated by plant FLW were contributed by vegetables with 50%, grains with 31%, and fruits with 19%. Canonical correspondence analysis indicates that vegetable FLW had a higher positive correlation with urbanization, household incomes, gross domestic product, and high-income population than grain FLW, whereas fruit FLW was not influenced by these socioeconomic factors. Therefore, we suggest that the FLW mitigation should be prioritized on vegetables. Specific strategies include local food sourcing, shortening food miles, building food belts, and developing controlled-environment agriculture. Our data-based comparisons provide valuable insights into food policy improvement for achieving the 2030 reduction goal of the U.S., but the insights could be improved by considering the influences of foods imported from other nations.
... Food security is a global issue, particularly in developing countries; nonetheless, and according to Ref [1], approximately 1.3 billion of the 6 billion metric tons of food produced annually is wasted mainly between agricultural production and consumption, which highlights the inefficiencies of the entire food chain system [2]. Hence, reducing food loss and waste has gained precedence in the efforts to mitigate global hunger and resource waste, which has been incorporated in the United Nations sustainable development goals (SDG) under SDG 12, with the call to "reduce per capita global food waste at retail and consumer levels and reduce food loss along production and supply chains, including post-harvest loss by 2030" [3]. ...
... The samples were dried at 105 • C for 24 h, cooled in a digital humidity controller (RH = 50%) for 30 min, and then weighed (final weight). The moisture content measurements were determined in triplicate and calculated according to Equation (2). ...
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Potatoes are a source of starch, which is an eco-friendly alternative to petrochemicals in plastic production. Increasing potato production also creates agricultural waste that could be converted to potato peel starch (PPS) and developed as films. A response surface method approach was employed to optimize the bioconversion of PPS (2, 4, and 6% w/v) and compared with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-based films. The microstructure analysis of PPSF showed increased thickness, decreased swelling power, water solubility, and vapor permeability, which were linked to increased molecular interactions as a function of PPS increments. However, low-starch PPSF exhibited high transparency, good mechanical properties, and thermal stability (high melting temperature), pliability, and accelerated seawater and soil biodegradation (~90%: 20 and 50 days, respectively). All films exhibited thermal stability at >100 °C and retained similar amorphous characteristics, evidenced by their flexibility, which confirmed the potential use for PPS in packaging perishable and cooled foods.
... KEYWORDS food loss, food waste, sustainable food system, environment, food security, waste management, Balkans Introduction Food loss and waste (FLW) refers to a decrease in food mass at all stages of the food chain (1). It occurs along the whole food chain from harvest to consumption; food loss occurs upstream of the food chain (e.g., production, transport, processing), while food waste takes place downstream of the chain (e.g., retail/distribution and consumption) (1)(2)(3). Food wastage is influenced by several behavioral, personal, product, and societal factors (4). FLW generates far-reaching environmental, economic and social impacts (1,3,5), is an ethical scandal (6), and represents a serious threat to food and nutrition security worldwide (1,3,7). ...
... Therefore, food waste management hierarchies present different options for managing waste to reduce its environmental footprints and impacts on food security; they prioritize prevention and redistribution with respect to its use as animal feed, for compost and/or energy production, or its landfill disposal (1,8). The extent of FLW varies not only among countries but also from one commodity to another; food loss is high in the developing world, while food waste is predominant in developed countries (1)(2)(3). ...
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Food losses and waste (FLW) is considered a critical issue in the ongoing debate on the sustainability of agri-food systems. However, the scholarly literature on FLW is still geographically-biased, with more attention devoted to developed countries, even in Europe. In this context, this article analyses the state of research on FLW in the Western Balkan region (viz. Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia). A search performed in October 2021 on the Web of Science database returned 34 documents, and 21 eligible ones were included in the systematic review. The topical analysis of the literature addressed causes of FLW, stages of the food supply chain, extent and magnitude of FLW, FLW and food security, economic and environmental impacts of FLW, and food waste (FW) management strategies. A central finding was the scarcity of data on FW in the Western Balkans. Moreover, the literature focused on FW at the consumer level, while food loss at other stages of the food chain was generally overlooked. There is a lack of comprehensive analyses of the economic and environmental impacts of FLW as well as its implications in terms of food and nutrition security. The quantification of FLW is generally inaccurate and based on estimates and self-reported data. The literature focuses on FW reuse and recycling (e.g., energy, compost) while other management strategies (e.g., reduction/prevention, redistribution) are rarely addressed. However, the results indicated that consumers in the Western Balkans pay attention to the FW issue, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, which is an encouraging sign that can be exploited in awareness-raising campaigns and education activities. Meanwhile, research on FLW in the Western Balkans is highly needed to fill the identified knowledge gap and provide evidence to policies dealing with the transition to sustainable food systems in the region.
... Food waste occurs downstream of the chain (e.g. retail/distribution, food service and household consumption) (FAO, 2011(FAO, , 2019UNEP, 2021) and is defined as food suitable for human consumption that is discarded, whether or not after it has passed its expiration date or has been left to rot (FAO, 2013a). Food waste has been identified as one of the most significant sustainability issues to tackle globally due to its detrimental economic, social and environmental impacts (FAO, 2013b;HLPE, 2014). ...
... In general and as highlighted by Secondi et al. (2015), the most industrialised nations with the highest per capita income generated the most significant food waste. In low-income countries, food is mainly lost in the early and intermediate stages of the food supply chain; considerably less food is wasted at the consumer/household level (FAO, 2011). Further, the findings indicate that cereals, bakery items, milk, and dairy products were the most wasted food groups. ...
Article
An increasing corpus of data demonstrated the disruptive impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on food consumption habits, particularly food waste, but the Balkan area is often overlooked. Accordingly, this study investigates the immediate effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on consumer knowledge and reported behaviours linked to food waste in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The research was based on an online survey with 2425 participants using the Google forms platform from 10 April to 10 May 2020. This period coincided with the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Consumers’ behaviours regarding where and how often they buy food, their attitude towards food labels, food provision and particularly the amounts and values of food waste and how they handle it were investigated. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics methods, and the significance of the association between variables was determined using nonparametric and multivariate statistical tests. The study’s findings revealed that (i) Bosnia has a low rate of household food waste and a favourable attitude towards food waste prevention, (ii) the majority of the respondents are familiar with the most common expiry labels, notably ‘use by’ and ‘best before’ and (iii) consumers adjusted their buying and consumption patterns due to the pandemic. The findings of this research are essential for developing evidence-based policy in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the post-pandemic recovery period since they are unique to that country. Indeed, the crisis’ lessons and insights may be used to help move towards more sustainable consumption habits.
... The ironic truth is that even though there is enough food being produced globally for everyone, one person in nine suffers chronic hunger (FAO, 2018). This aspect highlights that a significant amount, more specifically, one-third of food produced globally, is wasted (FAO, 2011b). With a potential cascading effect of economic losses across the food value chain, and increasing prices for consumers, these losses impede food accessibility to vulnerable groups, thereby affecting their food security (FAO, 2017). ...
... Starting with the uncertainty dimension, PHLs are characterized by a lack of consistent and clear knowledge regarding their occurrence, magnitude, causes, location (spatially and along the value chain), and their extent, leading to sub-optimal solutions and policy faults (Affognon et al., 2015). This aspect is particularly apparent in SSA (FAO, 2011b;Parfitt et al., 2010;Prusky, 2011). The multi-level cause and effect relationships explained in Section 1.2 emphasize the uncertainty of identifying a single cause and effect path for PHLs. ...
Thesis
Food loss occurring along the supply chain poses a major challenge in sustaining global food security. While agricultural production has improved significantly over the recent years, the facilities to manage this production have not kept up. This insufficiency results in post-harvest losses that occur after the harvesting of agricultural products. Post-harvest losses are prevalent issues in developing countries, thwarting the efficiency of agricultural food supply chains. Transportation has a substantial role in these losses since it is a vital link in the post-harvest chain. Particularly in developing regions, where road transport is the typical linkage, there is a decisive necessity to ensure the quality of transport facilitation. Ensuring quality in this sense means that the condition of roads has to be monitored, maintained, and rehabilitated. However, due to the lack of sufficient resources, these activities are not undertaken regularly. This aspect has resulted in the prevalence of poor-quality road that induces in-transit damages to perishable agricultural products such as tomatoes. This study argues that spatial road quality information is a valuable tool in addressing these challenges. More importantly, enabling the convenient accessibility of this information is vital for resource strained regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa. Towards this goal, this research investigated the potential of mapping road pavement quality from freely accessible optical satellite imagery using machine learning methods. Accordingly, shallow and deep learning models were developed to extract road quality information from Sentinel-2 satellite imagery using reference data collected for a corridor running from Accra (Ghana) to Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) with crowdsensing technology. The results were encouraging in realizing the use of such a data source for convenient access to road pavement quality information. The deep learning model, i.e., U-Net, reported an F1-score of 37.93% and an IoU of 32.40%, outperforming the shallow ML alternative in the form of random forest. The inherent data imbalance prevents comparison with conventional segmentation task performance. The results, however, were comparable to analogous road extraction projects that utilized Sentinel-2 images. The study also contrasted the use of Sentinel-2 imagery to that of Planet imagery data to assess the relative potential of Sentinel-2 imagery in the task. The results showed that Sentinel-2 images were more suitable than the Planet ones in the pixel-wise classification of road pavement quality (RPQ). Furthermore, a three-class RPQ classification model was presented to resolve the ambiguity surrounding severity classes. With an F1-score of 53.65% and an IoU of 46.03%, this model performed substantially better. Alternative to this approach, a flexible modeling paradigm based on probabilistic threshold moving was also explored. Aided with heuristics of precision-recall tradeoff and the probabilistic nature of ML model predictions, the study showed that predictions of the models could be molded to suit the utility desired.
... Worldwide food waste volumes are circa 1.3 billion tons per year, which corresponds to approximately one-third of the food produced worldwide, and these estimates do not even include unavoidable biowaste from parts of food products that are inedible to humans (e.g. peels, bones, and shells) [3]. One way to deal with food waste and other biowaste, whilst obtaining high-quality nutrients, is through bioconversion using insects to convert waste into insect biomass. ...
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Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae can convert biowaste and by-products into body mass high in protein (~40% dry matter, DM) and lipid (~30% DM). However, the type of rearing substrate also affects the larval body composition and thus its nutritional value. Hitherto, it remains unclear how and to what extent the larval body composition can be altered by the substrate. This study was therefore performed to examine the possibilities of modifying larval body composition using different rearing substrates. To investigate this, 5-days old larvae were reared for seven days on different locally available waste and by-products: brewer’s spent grain, mitigation mussels (Mytilus edulis), rapeseed cake, and shrimp waste meal (Pandalus borealis). Larval composition and performance were compared to larvae reared on a commercial chicken feed as well as a mixed feed (mixture of chicken feed and by-products, with a similar macronutrient composition to chicken feed). Larval body weight was recorded daily to determine growth over time whereas larvae and substrates were sampled at the start and end of the trial and analysed for their nutritional composition. The type of rearing substrate affected both larval body composition and growth performance. There was a clear relation between the nutritional composition of the substrate and larvae for certain fatty acids. Larvae reared on marine-based waste substrates contained a higher share of omega-3 fatty acids than larvae reared on the other substrates, indicating an accumulation of omega-3 fatty acids from the substrate. There was a strong positive linear correlation between the ash content in the substrate and larvae whereas larval lipid, protein, amino acid, and chitin content seemed more affected by larval development. Overall, this study showed that the rearing substrate affects larval composition and development, and that larval composition of certain nutrients can be tailored depending on further food and feed applications.
... In 2011, food loss and waste were estimated at 1.3 billion tonnes of food waste per year, with about one third of all edible food intended for human consumption being lost or wasted throughout the food chain (FAO, 2011). A more recent study indicates this might actually have been an underestimation as consumer food wastewhich includes both waste at household and food service level -was estimated to be almost twice as high in 2019 (UNEP, 2021). ...
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Waste-tracking devices are powerful tools to optimise kitchen processes and reduce food waste in food services. The present study investigates how using such tools affect the sustainability of a business in terms of environmental, economic and social benefits. By tracking leftovers from self-service breakfast buffets, the hotels in our case study were able to reduce leftovers by approx. 1,800 kg/year per kitchen, corresponding to a nutritional value of approx. 3.6 gigacalories/year. The kitchens further achieved net annual environmental impact savings of 6.8 tonnes CO2 equivalents and 841 PEF mPt per kitchen. In the absence of equipment costs, each kitchen obtained net annual economic savings of 8,317 EUR, meaning they could spend up until about 8,000 EUR/year on waste-tracking equipment and still be profitable. Thus, our business case provides important insights into how food services can become more sustainable and resource efficient through food waste reduction.
... Öğrencilerin genellikle israf ve gıda artığı oluşturmamaya ve artıklarını değerlendirmeye yönelik davrandıkları bulunmuştur. Bir gıda israf edildiği zaman, sera gazı emisyonuna etkisinden dolayı gıda üretimi ve tüketiminden kaynaklanan çevresel etkileri daha da artmaktadır (FAO, 2011). Öğrencilerin bu konudaki dikkatlerinin yüksek olması gıdaların çevresel etkisinin azalmasına katkı sağlayabilir. ...
Article
How to feed a growing population in a resource-limited world is a major challenge. The current food system is responsible for both increasing human-induced greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change. For these reasons, sustainable nutrition is getting more and more attention. This study was planned to evaluate the behaviors and knowledge levels of undergraduate students about sustainable nutrition and to examine their relationships on food preferences. In this cross-sectional study, 355 students (268 females, 87 males) aged between 18 and 35 years who continued their undergraduate education between May 2021 and December 2021 were participated. An online questionnaire method was used to obtain the general information of students, the food choice questionnaire, behavior and knowledge levels about sustainable nutrition. It was determined that 49.3 % of the students have heard the term sustainable nutrition before. Sustainable nutrition behavior and knowledge mean scores were 66.1 ± 13.2, and 82.6 ± 8.6, respectively. It was found that as the sustainable nutrition knowledge score increased, the sustainable nutrition behavior score increased. It has been determined that the most important sustainable nutrition behavior of the students is to get as much food as they can consume on their plates. It was found that the students generally behaved towards not creating exxessive use of food source and food waste, and evaluating their leftovers. Sustainable nutrition behavior score was found to be significantly higher in women than in men (p = 0.001), but there was no significant difference between reading department and income levels (p = 0.110). Although the sustainable nutrition knowledge score was higher in women, it was not statistically significant (p = 0.135), and there was no statistically significant difference between departments and income status (p > 0.05).It was found that the sustainable nutrition behavioral score was effective on the sub-dimensions of health, mood, natural content, weight control and ethical concern in food choices, and nutrition knowledge score was effective on the sub-dimensions of convenience, price, and weight control. It has been determined that students' sustainable nutrition behavior and knowledge levels affect their food choices. Studies on sustainable nutrition are needed in larger and diverse populations (athletes, vegetarians, vegans).
... Para ello se han re-escalado las variables (como el uso de insumos) para que el resultado a nivel de producto sea consistente con el valor agregado. También se ha incluido una estimación de las pérdidas y el desperdicio en la cadena agroalimentaria, usando porcentajes por tipo de producto a nivel europeo 51 . En este trabajo, además, se ha estudiado de forma separada la producción ecológica y convencional, usando estadísticas de superficie por comunidad autónoma y tipo de cultivo de 2016 62 , y datos del manejo ecológico estimados a partir de entrevistas 63,64 , incluyendo rendimientos relativos respecto al convencional, y prácticas de manejo como el uso de insumos relativo, cubiertas vegetales o quema de biomasa. ...
... Avoidance and reduction of food waste should be prioritised to reduce the associated environmental, economic and social burdens [2][3][4]. Food retailers have an important role to play in efforts to implement reduction measures for food waste due to their central position in the food system [5,6], since they can influence both upstream suppliers and downstream consumers [7,8]. Studies have quantified food waste and suggested reduction measures in the entire food supply chain [9][10][11], mapped and recommended improved routines for recording retail food waste [10], and mapped and suggested preventive measures on a general retail level [11]. ...
Article
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Identifying causes of food waste at grocery retail level is crucial for the development of effective measures to reduce waste. Frontline employees manage food waste in their day-to-day operations; however, there is a paucity of research that draws attention to their knowledge of and approach to causes and measures to reduce food waste. In this empirical study, a mixed methods approach is adopted, using multiple interviews and participatory observations with employees, and primary quantitative data on fruit and vegetable waste for one year from the supermarkets. The results illuminate the fact that the role of employees is central for reducing food waste, and from their perspective, the causes and measures can be divided into four different main themes covering policy, practice, people and product. The analysis involves 73 different fruit and vegetables categories, and the fruit and vegetables waste at the three supermarkets is 60 tonnes. The results also reveal different causes for different fruit and vegetables categories, implying that generic descriptions of causes are not enough to use as bases for planning reduction measures. The paper provides a base for planning and implementing reduction measures for the grocery retail sector, which contribute to a sustainable food supply chain.
... According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO 2011), approximately 1.6 billion tonnes of food for human consumption are wasted every year and more than 80% of these wastes correspond to the edible part of food. The European Union generates around 88 million tonnes of food wastes per year and this amount is expected to increase by more than 40% in the coming years (Esparza et al. 2020). ...
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Due to processing activity, fruits and vegetables generate notable amounts of wastes at the processing, retail, and consumption level. Following the European goals for reducing food wastes and achieving a circular economy of resources, these biowastes should be valorized. In this work, hydrothermal hydrolysis at different conditions (temperatures, times, waste/water ratio, pH values) were tested to treat for first time; biowastes composed of mixed overripe fruits or vegetables to maximize the extraction of fermentable sugars that can be used as substrates in bioprocesses. Experimental data were fitted by a model based on irreversible first-order reactions, and kinetic constants were obtained. When hydrolysis of fruit wastes was carried out at 135 °C and pH 5 during 40 min, more than 40 g of reducing sugars per 100 g of waste (dry weight) could be obtained (represents an extraction of 97% of total carbohydrates). Concentrations of inhibitor compounds (HMF, furfural, acetic acid) in the hydrolysates were very low and, as example, a fermentation to obtain bioethanol was successfully carried out with an efficiency above 95%. Additionally, the production by hydrothermal treatment of bioactive compounds was investigated and the best results obtained were 92% DPPH inhibition and 12 mg GAE/g (dry weight) for antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds, respectively. These values are similar or even higher than those reported in literature using specific parts of fruits and vegetables.
... Food waste (FW) has long been an overlooked factor in climate change. Global food loss and waste generate 4.4 Gt CO 2 -eq annually, or about 8% of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including land-use change (Crippa et al., 2018;EC, JRC/PBL, 2012;FAO, 2014FAO, , 2013FAO, , 2011. In Germany, the national food supply is responsible for 20% of the country's annual GHG emissions (Crippa et al., 2021), with studies reporting that the average person throws away between 55 kg and 82 kg (Kranert et al., 2012) of food every year. ...
Article
Research has demonstrated the relevance of addressing food waste (FW) in private households in mitigating climate change. There is, however, little research on the potential of educational interventions in school settings to reduce this household FW. This paper explores the potential of education to positively shape 9th to 11th graders' behavioral determinants regarding FW reduction, and offers insights into the potential to develop FW reduction strategies. The FW-related educational intervention (“Food Waste Lab”) engaged the participants (n = 81) in the development and application of FW reduction strategies at home. There was a significant reduction in FW reported over time. However, this reduction cannot necessarily be attributed to the reduction strategies, but may be a result of decreasing engagement in FW measurement activities. The main contribution of the intervention was increased awareness among participants of FW as a driver of climate change. Participation in the Food Waste Lab increased the likelihood of participants using taste as a judgment criterion of edibility, and eating up leftovers. No significant changes could be identified with regard to food literacy and Theory of Planned Behavior constructs. Unexpectedly, the perceived feasibility of the FW reduction goals decreased over time. This study provides recommendations to correct this shortcoming. Notably, highlighting the ease of reducing FW at home is key to increasing the perceived feasibility of this goal and motivating participants to engage in FW reduction. Focusing on a specific behavior related to the use of leftovers is relevant when designing an intervention targeted to adolescents. Nevertheless, the study's limitations indicate that the future intervention design should consider reactance and fatigue as important constraints in educational interventions involving FW measures. Finally, this study calls for more robust experimental designs to evaluate the impact of various FW reduction interventions.
... Examples are superfluous. One-third of the entire food produced in the world is wasted (FAO, 2011) with a global loss of 750 billion dollars annually (FAO, 2016). Around 90% of the electronic and electric equipment wastes (mobile phones, computers, headphones, etc.) are dumped in landfills (Savage, 2006), summing up to 53.6 million tons worldwide in 2019 (Forti, 2020). ...
... Urban food waste: a resource for circular economy between cities and agriculture Jean-Daniel Cesaro, Guillaume Duteurtre, Stéphane Guilbert, Nadine Zakhia-Rozis Until recently, urban food waste was considered a minor issue within the global food system� As cities grow, especially in Asia and Africa, this concern is receiving more attention from policymakers and scientists in terms of food system efficiency and food security (Guilbert et al�, 2016)� Estimates predict that by 2050, half of all food waste, i�e�, that which comes from both retail and consumers, will be generated by urban systems (Parfitt et al�, 2010)� In particular, the mass of urban food waste is directly correlated to the urban population and constitutes 20% to 80% of municipal solid waste throughout the world (Adhikari et al�, 2009)� In response, major investments have been made in the last 20 years to boost treatment of food waste either on site or in landfills� However, to deal with the rapid growth of cities, the management of food waste requires additional technical and organizational innovations, in particular due to the environmental and sanitary risks related to those by-products (Westerman and Bicudo, 2005)� According to the FAO, 'food loss and waste refer to the decrease in mass (quantitative) or nutritional value (qualitative) of food -edible parts -throughout the supply chain that was intended for human consumption� Food loss is the decrease in the quantity or quality of food resulting from decisions and actions by food suppliers in the chain (producers, processors)� Food waste refers to the decrease in the quantity or quality of food resulting from decisions and actions by retailers, food service providers and consumers�' (FAO, 2011) This chapter focuses on urban food waste and the value of this organic waste for a formal or informal circular economy� Food waste management can be addressed through three main levers: 1) more efficient agrifood value chain distribution, 2) human day-to-day consumption practices, and 3) the new circular economy� There is obviously a paradox in promoting the recovery and recycling of 'waste'� However, since a large part of this waste is essentially due to consumption patterns, this major component of food systems must be tackled� From a circular economy perspective, and given the need to make better use of organic biomass, urban waste must be viewed as a resource, especially for urban and periurban agriculture (Westerman and Bicudo, 2005)� Is it better to deal with the problem at its source by reducing waste from distribution and consumption, or should the transformation of waste recovery and recycling systems be initiated, through the circular economy, at the urban system level? Should solutions be designed globally, or adapted to each local context? ...
Chapter
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According to the FAO, ‘food loss and waste refer to the decrease in mass (quantitative) or nutritional value (qualitative) of food – edible parts – throughout the supply chain that was intended for human consumption. Food loss is the decrease in the quantity or quality of food resulting from decisions and actions by food suppliers in the chain (producers, processors). Food waste refers to the decrease in the quantity or quality of food resulting from decisions and actions by retailers, food service providers and consumers.’ (FAO, 2011) This chapter focuses on urban food waste and the value of this organic waste for a formal or informal circular economy.
... Modern agriculture practices have led to a significant increase in production, but still, many people do not have enough to eat. Every year, one-third of the produced food is wasted in the food supply chain (FAO, 2011). In 2018, it was estimated that approximately 820 million people do not have sufficient food to eat and over 2 billion people lack access to safe and nutritious food (WHO, 2019). ...
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The instantaneous detection of food quality is of paramount importance as it can help in taking different decisions in real time. These include the decision on consumption, inventory management, maintaining the storage conditions and even to repurpose the food if it cannot be used for the desired application. In this review, different portable food diagnostic devices and methods are studied and compared as consumers are interested in knowing the food's quality before consumption. The quality of food in real‐time will help in avoiding many problems such as the consumption of unsafe food and taking prompt decisions to avoid wastage in the food supply chain. Portable food diagnostic devices provide advantages such as easy to use, compact, handheld, connectivity with smartphone for rapid diagnosis, as well as these devices have the potential to eliminate traditional method problems such as the requirement of a trained user, bulky equipment, and lengthy diagnosis procedure. In this study, different types of portable food diagnostic devices and methods are compared in terms of their working principle, features, applications, and limitations. These devices are classified in three main categories, as composition analysis, safety, and security based on application. Further these devices are subclassified in single/multiple composition analysis devices, toxic, allergen detecting devices, and methods. Portable food diagnostic devices and methods provide a rapid and on‐site diagnosis. However, the success of these devices depends upon their accuracy, simplicity, and cost‐effectiveness. Practical Applications The study provides comparative analysis of different portable food diagnostic devices, which help in selecting an appropriate device in terms of its accuracy, size and cost suitable under different supply chain scenarios. This will ultimately help in decision making required for minimizing the food losses. These devices will benefit farmers, suppliers, retailers, and operators in food processing industries. The individual users can also use these devices to manage the food quality. The study also provides the limitations of exiting devices and the need of new research for developing more compact devices measuring multiple constituents in the food in a precise and cost‐effective manner.
... Globally, it is estimated that approximately one-third of the food produced does not reach consumers, i.e. 1.3 billion tons of food goes to waste each year (FAO, 2011). In the food chain, food waste and food loss generate negative externalities. ...
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All through the entire supply chain, the agri-food sector has been negatively affected by significant shortages of resources, food loss, and waste. Managing the supply chain and pursuing sustainable lifestyles can be made easier through the assessment of food loss and waste. This study examines seven staple crops in the Hungarian food supply chain. The following food items were selected for analysis: wheat, maize (corn), rice, sorghum, barley, rye, and oats. Secondary data were compiled from the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) between 2009 and 2017. A PAST program was used to analyse the data, generate descriptive statistics, and pairwise comparisons with the Mann-Whitney tests were used to measure all seven crops’ performance. Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to classify similarities between variables and, through the comparison of the amount of crop loss and waste, data in a two-dimensional space is depicted. This study provides two key findings. First, food loss and waste (FL&W) translate into resource shortages and unsustainable practices. Second, surplus food donation by corporations and conscious consumption at the consumer level is a solution to FL&W reduction. Furthermore, the use of five sustainable consumption guidelines is strongly suggested at the consumer level. To stabilize food security and sustainability, food producers, distributors, stakeholders, and policy planners must work together to improve food systems.
... We study on Chinese households, since increasing food waste has become a widespread concern in China. The average quantity of food waste at home reaches16 kg capita −1 year −1 , which is higher than that in south and southeast Asia and Africa (6-11 kg capita −1 year −1 ), but lower than that in Europe and the United States (95-115 kg capita −1 year −1 ) (FAO, 2011;Song et al., 2015). Considering the large population in China, any increase in food waste can have marked consequences; thus, it is urgent to figure out the effective policies to reduce household food waste. ...
... A field experiment was conducted during kharif season 2012 and 2013 at Crop Research Centre of SardarVallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut (U.P.), the area lie at a latitude of 29 o 40' North and longitude of 77 o 42' East with an elevation of 237 metres above mean sea level. Mean weekly maximum temperature varied from 34.9 0 C in 30 th week (July, 23-29) to 31.6 0 C in 36 th week (September, [3][4][5][6][7][8][9], and the mean weekly minimum temperature ranged from 21.1 0 C in 43 rd week (October, 22-28) to 38.0 0 C in 29 th week (July, [16][17][18][19][20][21][22] [9][10][11][12][13][14][15] to 32.5 % in 29 th week (July, [15][16][17][18][19][20][21] in the consecutive kharif season. The total of 648 mm rainfall was received during 2012 and 778 mm during 2013.The treatments comprised five irrigation methods in a first factor viz.,fertigation with drip system, drip irrigation with usual recommended fertilizer management, fertigation with sprinkler system, sprinkler irrigation with usual fertilizer management and farmer's practice usually flood irrigation and fertilizer management (150 N, 32.75 P, 62.5 K kg/ha) and two residue management optionsin a second factorascombine harvesting of wheat/ residue retention and farmer's practice-manual wheat harvesting/ residue removal replicated thrice in a split plot design. ...
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A 2 year field trial was conducted during kharif 2012 and 2013 to investigate fertigation and residue management on performance of direct seeded rice and soil biological health. To this effect ten treatments consisting irrigation techniques as a main plot (5) and residue management as a sub plot (2) were tested in a split plot design with three replication The soil of experimental field was alkaline in reaction, with 0.33 percent organic carbon, 180 kg ha-1 available nitrogen and 47 kg ha-1 available phosphorous and 346 kg ha-1 potassium. Hybrid rice variety Arize 6129 was sown as a test crop. Remarkable effect was noted where drip fertigation performed better by recording significantly higher plant height, tiller density, biomass production at 30 and 60 DAS and yield attributing characters than the combination of sprinkler system during both the years. Drip fertigation system did not differ significantly from flood RDF in these parameters. Grain, biological yield, N, P and K uptake by grain and straw was significantly higher with drip fertigation. MBC and MBN differ significantly and higher value was recorded with drip fertigation. Finally maximum grain and straw yield of rice statistically on par to flood RDF and significantly higher than the remaining combinations was found with drip fertigation. Drip fertigation yielded 24.9 to 28.09, 19.0 to 23.0, 10.7 to 14.0 and 3.2 to 7.00 percent higher than sprinkler RDF, sprinkler fertigation, drip RDF and flood RDF. A significant interaction effect of fertigation and residue management on grain yield of rice was found.Furthermore, growth parameters, yield attributing characters, grain and straw yield, grain and straw nutrient uptake, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), increased significantly with residue incorporation. Thus, the study reveal that drip irrigation coupled with fertilizer application could be option of precise nutrient and water management of direct seeded rice since it yielded more with higher benefit cost ratio.
... Reducing postharvest losses of fruits and vegetables: While food losses in the U.S. and other high-income countries tend to occur at the retail and consumer levels, in low-income countries, most losses occur before food gets to the consumers. Postharvest losses in vegetable value chains in low-income countries are estimated to be 30-50% of the farm production volume (38), reducing producer income and compromising food security. ...
Chapter
Food waste and by-products are generated in all stages of food supply chain and it is estimated that third of all produced food is wasted. The goal is to minimise avoidable waste, to recover resources in sustainable way and to recycle them back into the food chain. A bibliometric mapping is used to analyse state of the art in non-thermal processing of food waste and by-products. Maximizing product yield, lowering energy consumption, economical, and environmental aspects are essential criteria for designing a new sustainable biorefinery process on food wastes and by-products. Many compounds important for food industry could be recovered or produced by non-thermal processing and bioprocessing: organic acids, antioxidants, aromas, sugars, fibres, proteins etc. These are the emerging technologies to increase the conversion efficiency, to decrease generation of toxic compounds, and to reduce microbial load of substrates. The selected cases of cascade and integrated processes were discussed, with examples focused on substrates, roles of non-thermal processing and bioprocessing in lactic acid production.
Chapter
Controlled-atmosphere storage (CAS) is one of the most important breakthroughs in post-harvest technology, as the composition of the gas in the storage has an impact on the shelf life of the stored product. The Control atmosphere storage is used to prevent harvested fruits and vegetables from perishing during storage, transport, and distribution. This article presents a brief overview of the current CAS technology and also reviews at how new post-harvest methods are being utilised and indicates areas where more research is needed. The article identifies Dynamic Controlled Atmosphere (DCA) storage and Synthetic Plant Growth Regulator (SPGR) integration as two most promising field in the domain of CAS. The article moves on with the overview, advantages, and limitations of said technologies. DCA is shown to prevent various physiological disorder as well as maintain physio-chemical properties such as firmness of the product. The high chances of low O2 and CO2 injuries continue to be concerning and warrant further research. As for the integration of SPGR, the biggest hurdle is the market perception of chemical-based preservation method which is proven beneficial, but in today's organic centric market its use is not widely accepted. Improvement in the currently used SPGR, 1-methylcyclopropene as well as development of alternatives such as silver thiosulfate can improve market perception.
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Fish and seafood are highly prized commodities. However, their high perishability limits their commercialization and leads to waste due to their short shelf life. Nonthermal processing may inhibit microbial spoilage and enzymatic reactions and consequently extend shelf life, without affecting the nutritional value and functional properties of food. Technologies such as high pressure, osmotic dehydration, pulsed electric fields and cold plasma, have been introduced as alternative or complementary to the conventional post-harvest fish and seafood processing methods.The current practice for convenient fish and seafood products generates large quantities of side streams and waste, including, heads, viscera and fillet cut offs, which may account up to 70% of the production. Nonthermal processing enables the efficient and sustainable recovery of valuable and bioactive ingredients and fractions and the development of novel applications in food production, in health promoting foods, feeds, nutraceuticals product design and in energy production. Shelf life extension by nonthermal processing and improved utilization of side streams will increase the availability of sustainable, high quality fish and seafood and establish more diverse ways to process and market fish based products. This can be the basis for zero waste strategy in fish production, enhancing circular economy in fisheries and aquaculture sectors.KeywordsHigh pressurePulsed electric fieldsOsmotic dehydrationCold plasmaSupercritical fluid extractionFishSeafood
Chapter
This chapter aims to provide an overview on the current status considering the sustainability of food systems. Even though the pre-harvest phase contributes more substantially to the major environmental indicators like greenhouse gas emissions, all subsequent steps carry the load to maintain the quality in its full diversity and to avoid any further losses. In this regard, several aspects are considered, such as the impact of processing and the whole food value chain, and the current practice of addressing sustainability in the food industry. Moreover, further tools to assess the environmental status of food production are presented, as well as relevant legislation and used certificates and labels. A particular focus is on the usage of different forms of Life Cycle Assessment tools, since they provide insights in the three dimensions of sustainability of food systems, namely environmental, economic, and social. Finally, possible measures on how to improve the sustainability of food systems via new food science, technological and organizational innovations are highlighted. The major conclusion is that the spectrum of current tools, labels, legislative measures, and evidence-based interventions in the food manufacturing require thorough reflections and a framework for drawing coherent policy options.
Article
This study focused on Japan and analyzed the impacts of food wastage reduction (FWR) driven by information technology (IT) on energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Our analysis based on an input-output (I-O) table for 2011 shows that if 50% of the food wastage in Sectors F (fruit and vegetable cultivation), I (food industries), and M (households) is reduced, production in many related sectors (such as crop cultivation, animal husbandry and fisheries, fertilizer and agrochemical production, waste treatment, and household consumption) will decrease. However, computer and electronic information, communication equipment manufacturing, and information services sectors exhibit increased production. As a result, energy consumption and GHG emissions in Japan will fall by 0.04–0.08 EJ/yr (0.2–0.4% of the primary energy supply in Japan in 2011) and 5.6–7.8 million tons of CO2-eq/yr (0.4–0.6% of GHG emissions), respectively. Furthermore, the results suggest that FWRs in Sector M (based on software applications for food wastage monitoring) and FWRs in Sector I (based on IT applications, such as advanced demand predictions using weather forecasts and point-of-sale data and meal reservations) will lead to GHG emission reductions in Japan at reduced costs compared to FWRs in Sectors F (from online sales of substandard fruits and vegetables). Therefore, these improvements can lead to significant GHG emission reductions in Japan.
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ÖNSÖZ “Ben herkesin kendi çalışmasında yapması gerekeni yaptım: Öncellerimin başarılarını minnettarlıkla karşılamak, onların yanlışlarını ürkmeden doğrulatmak, kendisine gerçek olarak görüneni gelecek kuşağa ve sonrakilere emanet etmek”. (El-Bîrûnî, öl. 1048) İnsanın doğa ile mücadelesinde şartları kendi lehine değiştirdiği ve bir tür Neolitik Devrim’in yaşandığını düşündüğümüz, milattan önce 11.000 yıllarında tarımsal üretime geçildiğini görmekteyiz. Bu anlamda 13.000 yıl öncesine ışık tutan Göbekli Tepe kazılarını tarım için uygun bir başlangıç noktası olarak düşünebiliriz. İnsanlık tarihinin en önemli değişimi yiyecek üretimi veya ekim ve hayvancılıktan oluşan tarımın başlamasıydı. Tarımın başlamasının en doğrudan sonucu insan nüfusunda bir patlama yaratmasıydı. Bununla birlikte üretimin buğday, kurutulmuş et ve peynir gibi yiyecek fazlalığıyla insanoğlu, tarımsal faaliyetlerin de temelini atmıştır. Tabiattan yararlanma becerisi geliştikçe artı değer üretme kapasitesi yükselen insan, kendi içinde farklı uzmanları yetiştirebileceği fırsatlar yakalamış oldu. Tarımsal üretimdeki artı değer, yiyecek depolamaya imkân sağladı. Bu andan itibaren, üretime katılmayan farklı uzmanlar sınıfı yiyecek üretmek için zaman harcamaya gerek duymadan beslenebileceklerdi. Böylelikle tarım teknoloji, yazı ve imparatorluklar için bir önkoşul olmaya başladı. S t r a t e j i k S e k t ö r : T A R I M | 2 İnsanlığın ilerleme kaydettiği her alanda stratejik başlangıç olan tarım, ticaret ve ticaret yollarının önemini arttırarak örgütlenmedeki şehir, devlet ve imparatorluklar sıralamasının hızla gelişmesinde temel belirleyiciler arasında yer aldı. Tarım hem üretici hem tüketiciler üzerinde önemli ekonomik etkiye sahip stratejik bir sektördür. Küresel ölçekte insan yaratıcılığının yönü neredeyse bin yıllar boyunca tarımın geliştirilmesi için teknolojik gelişme esaslı olarak katkıda bulunmuştur. Tarım geçmişte olduğu gibi bugünde stratejik konumunu devam ettirmeye ve insan yaratıcılığının ilerlemesinde tetikleyici bir rol oynamıştır. Bu kitapta geçmişten günümüze kadar gelen tarımsal bilgi birikiminin geliştirilmesine, bilginin uygulamaya konulmasına ve belki de biraz da hatırlanmasına katkı sağlamak amacıyla tarımın farklı konularına değinilmiştir. Bu anlamda tarım sahasında bilgi üretmeye gayret eden tüm meslektaşlarıma faydalı olmasını umuyorum. Dr.
Article
Shades are adjusted in sweet pepper cultivation, based on solar exposure levels. Pyranometers and photosensitive films have recently been introduced to smart agriculture. However, there are no means of observing biological responses to solar exposure. In this study, we hypothesized that solar exposure levels affect the visible autofluorescence of sweet pepper under 365 nm illumination. To test this hypothesis, we cultivated sweet pepper plants under two exposure conditions, low (half of the normal) and high (the normal). Fluorescence photography (365 nm illumination) revealed that dark-fluorescent peppers only arise when cultivated under high-exposure conditions (0.7-fold decline at emission of 390 nm for high-exposure conditions). Microscopic and spectroscopic observations showed that blue autofluorescence was accompanied by an accumulation of UVB pigments (1.2-factor increase in the absorbance at 300 nm) and epidermal development (1.3-fold thicker cell wall). This study suggests that the autofluorescence of sweet pepper can possibly be used to understand the response of crop to solar radiation at a fruit level in horticulture.
Chapter
The book was inadvertently published with an incorrect name information for one of the Chapter author as Body Mori, instead it should be “Boyd A. Mori” in the front matter and Chapter 20.
Article
Augmentation of alternative energy supply in the global energy mix and amplifying the energy efficiency of thermal systems are emphasized in the Sustainable Development Goals-Envision 2030 of the United Nations. The use of locally accessible renewable energy in lieu of fossil fuels and reducing the energy loss is inevitable to bring down the higher energy cost (5–12.5 EJ/year) and carbon footprint associated with drying processes (4 % of global food-system emission). Fluidized bed drying (FBD) is considered one of the most appealing technologies for producing uniformly dried materials in a faster way. Conventional FBD undergoes difficulties in the fluidity of Geldart group-C and D particles and consumes higher energy (than its capital investment over the course of its lifespan) for supplying hot air at a higher mass flow rate. In most practical instances, only up to 55–60 % of the heat supplied to the dryer is utilized for moisture evaporation, and the remaining 40–45 % is lost by means of exhaust and lower energy utilization efficiency (<50 %). Considering the above aspects, the objective of the current review is focused on assessing the improvement potential of FBD performance by a critical consideration of energy and exergy analyses, heat and mass transfer, and hydrodynamic behavior. This review also provides a useful insight into the state-of-the-art technological progress of FBD as regards the prospective role of renewable energy sources embedded with energy storage, recirculation and dehumidification, additional features in FBD columns, process hybridization, intermittency, pretreatment of food products to make the FBD a reliable and sustainable drying technology. It can be envisaged that by selecting a product-specific relevant technology with optimum process parameters, as much as 10–30 % of the total energy intake in drying could be conserved.
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New global trends connect municipal solid waste management to climate change mitigation and resource depletion policies. In this context, decentralized composting stands out as a tool that has the potential to, at the same time, divert about 50% of waste from landfills and treat it in an environmentally adequate manner, return nutrients to the soil, removed at the beginning of the production cycle, and promote environmental awareness. However, decentralized composting rates remain low in many countries, especially low- and middle-income countries. This review critically evaluates the information that has already been published about decentralized composting and considers the progress of current research on the topic. The systematic literature search yielded 199 publications, of which 114 were analyzed for meeting the proposed criteria. The contents were grouped into categories, such as methods and techniques, difficulties of implementation, impacts, comparison with other treatments and between scales, compost quality and destination, types of programs, socio-educational dimension, and case studies. This review highlights the main points of the different areas of knowledge involved, achieving an integrated and critical view, connected with the new trends in municipal solid waste management.
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This work focuses on the area of food waste from the subjective perspective of the consumers themselves. The key source of data is a questionnaire survey with a sample selection of 3,429 respondents from the Czech Republic, Poland, and Slovakia, which are countries with historical and cultural ties. This survey was orchestrated in 2019 and it aimed to uncover the consumers' stances on this area. For every country involved, the results proved that the most common reason for food waste is that the food spoils when stored. One's stance on food waste is influenced by identifiers such as age, education, economic activity, and perceived income. A significant difference between the surveyed countries can be seen in the fact that Poles have over a 10× greater chance of wasting the smallest amount of food. Descriptive statistics, contingency analysis, and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. It is evident that subsequent research is necessary in this area, ideally with a united methodology for every country in the European Union.
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The disposal of large amounts of food waste has caused serious environmental pollution and financial losses globally. Compared to alternative disposal methods (landfills, incineration, and anaerobic digestion), composting by black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) is a promising alternative for food waste management. Despite extensive research into larval biomass, another valuable by-product generated from BSFL composting is BSFL frass. However, limited information is available for its potential application. The applications of BSFL frass can be intensified by understanding its physicochemical characteristics, benefits, and challenges of BSFL frass derived from food waste. BSFL frass is harvested after 9–23 days of the experiment, depending on the substrate used in the composting process. The generated BSFL frass could exceed 33% of the original weight of the substrate. The physicochemical characteristics of BSFL frass are as follows: the temperature after harvest is 24 °C to 27 °C, pH is 5.6–8.0, moisture content is 30 to 72%, C/N ratio is 8:1 to 27:1, high nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) content, and low heavy metal content. This paper reviews the characteristics, benefits, and application of BSFL frass. It will also investigate the challenges of using food waste substrates to produce BSFL frass, as well as the best way to pre-treat the food waste substrate and post-treat the BSFL frass.
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